Q: How did people react to Napoleon becoming Emperor?

In 1804, Napoleon famously crowned himself Emperor of the French, ending the French Republic, and the start of the French Empire.

However, I have a question...

How did people, from Royal to Peasant, from outside and inside of France, from Europe to the Americas, react to Napoleon crowning himself emperor?

I only know some reactions to Napoleon crowning himself Emperor:

1. Most Royals detested Napoleon as an upstart. Most hilarious to me, is when Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, crowned himself Austrian Emperor, just to one up Napoleon.
2. Simon Bolivar looked up to Napoleon as a role model, when he visited France, but soon became disillusioned when Napoleon became emperor, even with Bolivar witnessing Napoleon crowning himself King of Italy.
3. Ludwig van Beethoven looked up to Napoleon, but was disillusioned when he crowned himself Emperor.

So how did other people react to Napoleon becoming Emperor? From the United States, to staunch French Republicans, to Royals of Europe, how did all of them react to Napoleon's crowning?
 
In 1804, Napoleon famously crowned himself Emperor of the French, ending the French Republic, and the start of the French Empire.

However, I have a question...

How did people, from Royal to Peasant, from outside and inside of France, from Europe to the Americas, react to Napoleon crowning himself emperor?

I only know some reactions to Napoleon crowning himself Emperor:

1. Most Royals detested Napoleon as an upstart. Most hilarious to me, is when Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, crowned himself Austrian Emperor, just to one up Napoleon.
2. Simon Bolivar looked up to Napoleon as a role model, when he visited France, but soon became disillusioned when Napoleon became emperor, even with Bolivar witnessing Napoleon crowning himself King of Italy.
3. Ludwig van Beethoven looked up to Napoleon, but was disillusioned when he crowned himself Emperor.

So how did other people react to Napoleon becoming Emperor? From the United States, to staunch French Republicans, to Royals of Europe, how did all of them react to Napoleon's crowning?
In France he “greased the wheels” well enough for everybody who mattered to swallow it (while happily digesting the benefits they got). Alexander hated him as the 1st Consul and kept hating him as an emperor so no change there.
 
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1. Most Royals detested Napoleon as an upstart. Most hilarious to me, is when Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, crowned himself Austrian Emperor, just to one up Napoleon.
That isn't why Francis II crowned himself Austrian Emperor. He did so because he, correctly, thought that there was a very real possibility that the HRE would be forcibly dissolved in the near future (it was), and by declaring himself Emperor of Austria he'd keep his title as Kaiser.
 
2. Simon Bolivar looked up to Napoleon as a role model, when he visited France, but soon became disillusioned when Napoleon became emperor, even with Bolivar witnessing Napoleon crowning himself King of Italy.
Well it's not that clear cut, Bolivar did at the beginning dislike him becoming a monarch but he still admired Napoleon in an incredibly large way and was one of his biggest inspirations, and both of them kept a correspondence until Napoleon's death, from which the most famous result is a sword and a set of pistols that Napoleon sent Bolivar.

In the Spanish colonial society Napoleon's rise to power had a very split view of him, for the more liberal member it was an incredibly disappointing development but for many more conservative elements it was seen favourably.

I can't remember the name of the newspaper but a newspaper in Santa Marta (modern day Colombia) even hoped that a marriage between a Bourbon and Napoleon was a thing that might happen as a sort of restoration of the Bourbons to France.
 
Many among the enlightened class became disillusioned with him after the totally not rigged 99% vote in favor of making him emperor.
 
I have a related question: what if Napoleon didn't go for the emperor crown and "satisfied" himself with being First Consul for life.

He wouldn't be the "equal" of other European monarchs, but does he have to care? He's still besting them on the fields of battle.

On the other hand, I see some valid advantages:
- without being emperor, no need to start a dynasty so Josephine stays on and she was valued by him as an advisor. No alliance with Austria via marriage but that proved to not being really worth a lot.
- no need to put his relatives on various thrones so sister republics might survive and proved useful provided the local ruling class is made aware that they need France to stay in power.
- He might get involved with the Spanish Bourbons but he won't install Joseph there. Maybe an early Spanish Republic or he stays out of this mess altogether.
- for propaganda purposes, this also might help in external lands with people looking at France as a way to get out of the monarchy. Not playing the dynastic game will continue to put the other monarchies off balance.

When he dies, is there a chance for Restauration or could the Republic continue with another First consul? Maybe democratise a little? Or is it unavoidable to have another strongman in power with or without a civil war to decide who it's going to be?
 
Eh, its not like any of the previous votes of the French Republics were any less rigged. Anyone disillusioned by that really hadn't been paying attention.
Ah, but see, those votes went the way they wanted them to, so they could not possibly have been anything but fully legitimate!
 
That isn't why Francis II crowned himself Austrian Emperor. He did so because he, correctly, thought that there was a very real possibility that the HRE would be forcibly dissolved in the near future (it was), and by declaring himself Emperor of Austria he'd keep his title as Kaiser.
Francis II dissolved the HRE to prevent Napoleon from declaring himself the Holy Roman Emperor when he would inevitably conquer the German states. Austria was the true power of the Habsburg lands anyway so he declared Austria an empire and himself emperor
 
Dessalines followed suit.
Napoleon announced becoming emperor on 18th of May, but took time preparing for coronation - crowned 2nd of December. Dessalines was declared Emperor on 22th of September but coronation was arranged quickly - held on 6th of October already.
 
Beethoven was disappointed. He had supported the ideals of the Revolution and wanted to dedicate his "Symphony No. 3" to Napoléon, but when he learned that he would crown himself emperor, responded :

"So he is no more than a common mortal! Now, too, he will tread under foot all the rights of Man, indulge only his ambition; now he will think himself superior to all men, become a tyrant!"
He then rewrote the dedication "to celebrate the memory of a great man".
 
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Beethoven was disappointed. He had supported the ideals of the Revolution and wanted to dedicate his "Symphony No. 3" to Napoléon, but when he learned that he would crown himself emperor, responded :


He then rewrote the dedication "to celebrate the memory of a great man".
And some years later he wrote a piece now called 'Wellington's Victory', to commemorate the Battle of Vittoria that caused Joseph Bonaparte to flee out of Spain.
 
And some years later he wrote a piece now called 'Wellington's Victory', to commemorate the Battle of Vittoria that caused Joseph Bonaparte to flee out of Spain.

Which was apparently pretty bad and done for cash as well as the celebration, if I recall correctly. No real point, just a titbit.
 
how did other people react to Napoleon becoming Emperor? From the United States, to staunch French Republicans, to Royals of Europe, how did all of them react to Napoleon's crowning?
That the Upstart just took a crown for himself, that was the common opinion at the time, like if enough philosophers think about, the whole french revolution was replacing an elite with a newer one.

Yet Even at the time Nappy still have some Republicans(both romans and french) trappings at the time too
 
Which was apparently pretty bad and done for cash as well as the celebration, if I recall correctly. No real point, just a titbit.
I've heard it on the radio: Not so much "bad" as "different", and a bit tricky for the orchestra to play (so that they might therefore have badmouthed it...). Alongside the more conventional bits, which include snatches of well-known tunes from the Britain and France of that era, it -- or at least the version that I heard -- incorporates gunshot sounds and the cry of a crow (or raven?) over the battlefield. Think of it as a precursor to Tchaikovsky's '1812 Overture'...
 
Most hilarious to me, is when Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, crowned himself Austrian Emperor, just to one up Napoleon.
Well, not really. As others have said, he mostly did it because after the changes in the body of the Princes - Electors, where he stripped the three archbishops of their electoral rank and was generally expected to replace them with allies, as part of his whole plan to reorganise the Reich, the Habsburgs had lost the secure majority that made the imperial crown de facto hereditary. This in turn opened later on the way for Napoleon to try to pull a trick and get the imperial crown for himself, which would place the Habsburgs beneath him (or the Prussian King, as some believed that Napoleon would confer the crown to him). Of course Napoleon didn't want the crown because it would basically risk his friendly ties with the smaller German states for something of purely symbolic value, but this is said in hindsight.

Now, iirc, I think the German princes received the news rather favourably (I guess because it signalled that the situation in France had further stabilised and perhaps because the imperial regime was believed to offer the guarantee of more long-term stability). The Habsburgs weren't very happy, for various reasons.
 
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