Portuguese North America - The Unlikely Colony

All that's needed now is some maps to further illustrate the many changes both military and diplomatic that have taken place thus far.
 
The expulsion of the French in North America had shown that Terra Nova, like Brazil to the south had become largely self-sufficient, at least in terms of raising an army. Both settler colonies had gained enough momentum whereby the settlers could raise militias and armies large enough to fight off invading armies. Despite this, there remained a garrison of professional terços from not only Metropolitan Portugal, but whose numbers included Castilians and Neopolitans. They were based at the Fortaleza de São João Baptista, the largest fort in Porto-Real, and numbered fewer than 1,000 in 1640. After the accession to the throne of Portugal of King Philip IV in 1621, the separation of the crowns of Spain and Portugal that had existed since 1580 slowly began to fade. Under the auspices of the Count of Olivares, the incorporation of Portugal and its empire into a greater Spanish Empire became a reality, particularly after the 1630s. The effects on Terra Nova were immediate, as taxation increased, particularly as the defensive needs of Spain and its empire increased. Though there were victories against the English, French and Dutch in North America, the Portuguese of Terra Nova grew tired of being unable to export their goods safely, and tended to blame the woeful state of the export trade on the Spanish.

To pay for the wars, new taxes were raised, making it so that the colony where taxes had been few was sending 200,000 cruzados to Lisbon by 1637. New monopolies were created, forcing merchants to pay for the import of salt, spices and other woolen goods. In 1638 a property registration tax of 25% was decreed, the effect of which made many move further inland, away from the auspices of the Crown Authorities. The merchants increasingly blamed the troubles caused England, France and the Dutch Republic on Madrid. These wars led not only pirate attacks, but also to decreasing revenues from trade. By the 1630s, ships from Porto Real no longer sailed to the Caribbean for fears of being attacked by English or Dutch pirates. Additionally, the news of the conquest of Northeastern Brazil reached the elite of Terra Nova, who began fearing for their own safety.These fear of conquest though real, was unlikely as Terra Nova lacked the riches of Brazil or the Indies. Also, with its large settler population, coastal attacks on settlements which involved plundering proved to be more effective.

After the Dutch capture of Northeastern Brazil in 1630, emigration to that colony fell, as sailing to that colony became increasingly dangerous for Portuguese ships. As a result, the emigration from Portugal for a while at least was directed to North America. From the Azores and Portugal some 14,000 settlers arrived during the decade between 1635 and 1645, with over one-third being from mainland Portugal. The majority of the latter came from the port regions of Viana, Aveiro and Lisbon, accompanying the fishing ships, and eventually leading to a separate dialect being spoken in the southern half of Terra Nova. These immigrants were often among the poorest vagrants, and captains were given a bounty to safely transport them to the New World, in effect clearing the port cities of not only the indigent, but also often of women of ill repute. Others were orphans, many as young as 11 of 12, sent to fend for themselves in the frontier lands of Terra Nova. Most of these new settlers were sent to the former New France, particularly Nova Lisboa, but around 400 were sent to the Rio Freixo (Connecticut River).

The settlement on the Rio Freixo was undertaken at the former site of the Dutch Fort of Good Hope, and though it initially came under Indian attacks, forcing a Portuguese militia to establish a permanent garrison to protect the area, it eventually prospered. By 1650 the Portuguese had begun planting tobacco along the river valley, some of which was considered of fine quality. Though the quantities produced were small, tobacco leaves soon became accepted as a form of currency in the valley. Also, the shipment of tobacco down the Rio Freixo would lead to the establishment of a fort at Moita (Old Saybrook) in 1641. Elsewhere small fishing villages were established along the coast of Cabo dos Bacalhaus (Cape Cod), further solidifying Portuguese control over the area. However, the major focus of the Portuguese authorities during this period was the establishment of Nova Lisboa, a place they were convinced was vital to the survival of the colony, particularly as the Rio Santo António (Hudson River) and its affluents were increasingly explored and mapped.

During December 1640, the events taking place in Lisbon would change the colony of Terra Nova's destiny completely. Unhappy with the effects of Union of Crowns and now being forced to not only send troops to put down a revolt in Catalonia, but also pay for it, the Portuguese nobility revolted. They rallied around Dom João, the Duke of Bragança, overthrowing the Spanish Viceroy and proclaiming the Duke King of Portugal on December 7, 1640. These events would only be known about in Terra Nova around May of 1641, once the first ships began reaching the colony. It was early in the month when a single caravel arrived from Angra in the Azores to notify the Captain, Dom João Alves de Carvalho of the events in Lisbon. The Captain wanted to be certain, and summoned the elite of the city of Porto Real to his palace where they agreed to declare allegiance to the King João VI. A few days later when a fishing ship from Portugal confirmed the news, the governor ordered the Spanish and Neopolitans from the Fortaleza to surrender their arms. Outnumbered, the few hundred soldiers complied and sent away on a ship to Spain. The bishop of Porto Real had a Te Deum mass in the cathedral and soon of a new king spread throughout the colony. It was the beginning of a new era, and the estimated 200,000 Portuguese settlers in Terra Nova.

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Early after the Portuguese rebellion in 1640, the government of King João IV sought legitimacy and alliances for his kingdom. Among the most eager to acquiesce to his demands were the United Provinces. In 1641, a truce was signed between his government ending the hostilities between the two countries, and providing for Dutch aid to Portugal. One of the provisions was that only Dutch ships would be the only foreign ships allowed to trade with the Portuguese colonies. The terms of the truce were severely criticised in Lisbon, but whilst the country was at war with Spain, they were the Dutch were the only ones to offer assistance. Also, the Portuguese sought a permanent treaty to end the hostilities between the two countries. In the long run however, the truce, which would prove advantageous to the Portuguese, so they could rebuild their empire in the Atlantic. Part of the terms of the truce was the maintenance of respective conquests, meaning the Dutch would maintain their hold on Brazil, Angola the Gold Coast and Sao Tome, while the Portuguese would maintain their hold on New Netherland. With the arrival of the truce, the already indebted WIC cutback its defences, particularly in Brazil, allowing Portuguese settlers in New Holland to rebel against the Dutch and culminating in a retreat between 1647 and 1649.


As a result, relations with the United Provinces deteriorated and in 1646, particularly as the Dutch were interested in making peace with Spain, and making no attempt to negotiate a peace between Portugal and Spain. The result was the Peace of Munster between Spain and the United Provinces in 1648. This brought a sense of urgency for the Portuguese as they thought that a peace with the Dutch must be negotiated quickly. For that reason, King Joao IV's government was unwilling to overtly support the rebels in Brazil.


Negotiations for a final peace began in 1647. The Portuguese were willing to send 3 million cruzados to repurchase Pernambuco, whereas the Dutch requested 8 million cruzados to compensate the WIC. Meanwhile the population of Portuguese Brazil numbered some 200,000 and like the settlers in Terra Nova began to act to take their own offensive actions against the Dutch. This included raising funds in Southern Brazil to assemble a fleet of ships, dispatching it to expel the Dutch from Sao Tome and Angola in 1649. The negotiations dragged on for three years allowing the Portuguese forces in the South Atlantic to expel the Dutch from El Mina in 1651 and finally from their last outpost in Brazil, Recife in 1654. In 1651, the truce ended and the state of war in the colonies resumed. In 1659 a peace was agreed upon at the insistence of Louis XIV of France, whereby Portugal lost Ceylon and had to indemnify the WIC with 2 million guilders over a period of 16 years.

Meanwhile, the Portuguese made overtures to the French for an alliance against Spain. France had been at war with Spain since 1635, and in August 1641, and as the principal adversary of Spain, was an obvious choice. The French were eager to support the Portuguese rebels, and also, planning a joint assault on Cadiz that would destroy the remnants of Spain’s fleet in August 1641. However, nothing came of the assault as Dutch ships were supposed to join and only arrived in September. When the Dutch warships did arrive in Lisbon, the plans had been discovered by the Spaniards, and the ships were too few in number to attack the large Spanish fleet. Though the Dutch ships remained in Lisbon until January 1642, they soon abandoned Portugal.

To bring a more formidable alliance, the Portuguese negotiators sought a dynastic match between with France. In 1647 negotiations for a marriage between D. Teodósio, Prince of Brazil and the Duchess of Montpensier were negotiated. The couple was married by proxy, and the Duchess arrived in Lisbon in August 1651. Though the match was seen as a major coup for King João IV, it would be short-lived. The duchess brought a dowry to the Portugal of 800,000 livres, including a large personal fortune. Unfortunately, the heir to the Portuguese throne died in 1653, leaving a daughter who would only live to the age of 4.


Talk of a formal Franco-Portuguese alliance went further in 1653 when the Portuguese began discussions to marry Louis XIV to Infanta Catarina. The Marquis of Niza was sent to Paris to begin negotiations, offering a dowry of 2 million cruzados. Cardinal Mazarin was very much in favour of the match, particularly with such the king enjoying such a handsome dowry. In the meantime, the French helped the Portuguese raise mercenaries in Ireland with the assistance of Queen Luisa's confessor, Father Daniel O'Daly. In addition, they helped negotiate the release from prison of Dom Duarte of Bragança, younger brother of King João IV. O'Daly himself arrived in France in November 1655, where he raised the dowry, offering the French Tangier or Mazagan, and 600,000 cruzados directly to Mazarin. The marriage was finally negotiated in 1658, with Louis XIV marrying the Portuguese Princess, and a formal treaty of alliance being negotiated between the two countries. In addition, the Portuguese ceded their last holdings in North Africa to France.

Early on, an alliance with England was sought, and King Joao IV began sending emissaries to England in February 1641, hoping to renew the centuries old alliance between the two kingdoms. Arriving in March of 1642, they were politely received by King Charles I, but the English wanted the same trading privileges accorded to them that had been granted to the Dutch. The internal turmoil in England would make an alliance difficult as Portugal supported the Royalist cause. Relations between Portugal and its traditional ally England were almost non-existent during the Commonwealth, and in November 1649, Princes Rupert and Maurice arrived in Lisbon where they were received by the King. As a result in 1650, English pirates began seizing Portuguese ships bound for Brazil. Though the Portuguese sought a treaty with the Commonwealth, even granting English ships to call at all of Portugal's colonies, and granting English merchants privileges, no formal treaty was agreed upon. With the restoration of the Stuarts, better relations were enjoyed between the two kingdoms, and the Portuguese had hoped a formal treaty of alliance would be possible. In the interim, the Spanish Ambassador had offered Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain as a spouse for King Charles II along with a generous dowry of £200,000, more than the double the amount the Portuguese had offered to France. The marriage was agreed upon, however as Spain was bankrupt, this went unpaid. As a result, Anglo-Portuguese relations would return to normalcy in 1659, with England and France mediating between Portugal and Spain.

With Spain the state of war continued, with skirmishes between the Portuguese and Spanish garrisons of Elvas and Badajoz throughout 1641. Fortunately for the Portuguese, the Spanish army was fighting rebels in Catalonia, along with fighting the French and Dutch. The state of the war remained indecisive throughout 1641-1644 with the Portuguese on the defensive. The commitment of Spanish troops elsewhere did relieve the pressure on Portugal, allowing the Portuguese to drive back the Spanish troops out of Northern Portugal in May 1644. The war caused a protracted financial strain on Portugal however, as mercenaries were needed to conduct the war, with the Cortes of 1645 raising 2,150,000 cruzados towards war expenditures. Diplomatically, King Philip IV had sought to isolate Portugal diplomatically, ordering the imprisonment of King Joao IV's brother who had been in the service of Emperor Ferdinand III. However, with the marriage of Louis XIV and Princess Catherine and the formal alliance between the two kingdoms, Spain agreed to a Peace Treaty with France in 1659. In the treaty, France included a provision whereby Spain recognised the Kingdom of Portugal. Portugal for it part recognised the Spanish possession of Ceuta.

With the Papacy the Portuguese were also rebuffed, as the papacy was largely allied to both the Habsburgs. In 1644 King João IV attempted to send the Bishop of Lamego to Rome to establish diplomatic relations and was attacked, only being able to escape narrowly. As time wore on more bishoprics were vacant, including Porto Real. By 1649 there was only one bishop left in Portugal and two in Asia. It would not be until 1670 that relations were fully resorted.

Infanta Catarina (1638-1706), Queen-Consort of France after 1659. Her marriage to King Louis XIV brought ushered the end of the restoration war. The queen failed to bear Louis XIV of France any children.

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After 1640, the rulers of Portugal and its empire sought desperately to not only solidify their political legitimacy in the eyes of Europe, but also to rebuild the kingdom's finances. These had been depleted by the wars against Spain's allies for the past 60 years. The marriage of Princess Catherine to the King of France was also expensive, as the Cortes was forced to impose new taxes, to cover the cost of the dowry. Despite the large cost, it was seen as a necessary step in aligning Portugal with France against Spain. However, it did free Portugal from maintaining its forts North Africa, shifting that burden to France, and forcing the Spaniards hand into recognising Portugal's independence.

To rebuild Portugal's finances, much of the administrative reforms implemented by the Habsburgs remained in place. The only major difference was the establishment of the Conselho Ultramarino or Overseas Council in 1642 as a replacement of the Conselho da Índia. The Council was given the task of administering not only the finances of the Portuguese territories in Africa South of Berberia, Brazil and the East Indies, but also of implementing policies to make the colonies profitable. Not all of the overseas lands were to be government by the council however, as the Azores, Madeira and Terra Nova, and North Africa were administratively and financially governed as part of Metropolitan Portugal. The Conselho da Fazenda (Treasury) therefore assumed fiscal control over Terra Nova. Additionally, it was covered by treaties including one with England in 1662 whereby English ships could trade directly with the Atlantic Islands and Terra Nova.

The result of these policies, was that the Portuguese Crown began to see Terra Nova as an extension of Portugal itself, producing little of economic benefit, other than fish and wheat, and therefore hoping to establish a system of taxation to gain revenue for the crown. By the second-half of the 17th century, however there were some dissenting voices in Terreiro do Paço whom began to see the value in Terra Nova. For instance, the large number of settlers created an important market for Portuguese and colonial goods. They began importing large quantities of Brazilian sugar and tobacco along with Portuguese wine and texiles from India. In return selling grain and codfish, and in addition to that timber for Portugal's ship-building industry. The production of grain had largely alleviated the need to import Baltic grain from the Dutch or English. Additionally, the population of the colony grew rapidly, so that by 1660 there were nearly 400,000 Portuguese living in Terra Nova, providing the Portuguese crown with an additional half-milion cruzados of revenue annually. The territory also provided a large number of sailors, as many were experienced in fishing on the rough North Atlantic Waters, making the Terra Novenses crews sought after by merchants.

However, it was Brazil which would remain the jewel in the crown, with the heir to the Portuguese throne assuming the title of "Prince of Brazil" in 1646. The reconquest of Brazil was expected to be a financial boon to Portugal as the sugar revenue from Brazil had been important for the crown. Instead, the expulsion of the Dutch led to the fleeing of Jews and New Christians from the colony. Many of these settled in the Caribbean, taking with them their know how of sugar production, and as a result, by the 1650s, the English and French West Indies began to outproduce Brazil in sugar. The declining world prices, were temporarily alleviated by tobacco as during the 1660s, but tobacco from Brazil soon began to be out-priced by Chesapeake tobacco from Virginia. As a result, Brazilian tobacco was marketed in West Africa along the Slave Coast of Guinea where it was traded for slaves. The slave trade had been one of the most lucrative activities in the Portuguese Empire, but here too, the Portuguese now faced stiff competition, particularly from the Dutch who despite having been expelled from the Portuguese possessions established their own trading posts and forts. The Spanish Asiento, which had granted a monopoly to Portuguese slave traders, had also been lost, to the Dutch, and as a result, the Portuguese slave trade too went into a state of slow decline, one which would only rebound at the end of the century.

The result of the decline of the sugar industry in Brazil would have one important effect, on the expansion of Portugal's empire however. The Portuguese settlers there began moving further south and inland, particularly as ranching was becoming more lucrative. As a result of this southward movement, the Portuguese began claiming the watershed of the Rio de la Plata as the southern boundary of their colony. Additionally, they began pressing inland as far as the Paraguay River, with frontiersmen attacking Jesuit Indian villages, leading to a protracted period of conflict inland. In 1680, the Portuguese established Colónia do Sacramento directly across from Buenos Aires. Though briefly occupied by the Spanish in 1680, it soon flourished as an entrepot of contraband trade with the silver mining regions of Peru. The Portuguese were able to obtain much needed silver and in return acted as middlemen for English, Dutch and French goods, drawing the ire of Spanish authorities.

In the East, the Estado da Índia too was a shadow of its former self, but throughout the remainder of the 17th century, the Portuguese were unable to regain their monopoly. The Portuguese controlled little of the spice trade with Europe, and relied on the Indies as a source of textiles, precious stones and other goods. Goa remained the capital of the Estado, but after a series of blockades by the Dutch, the port city began to enter a period of protracted decline. The final peace with the Dutch in 1659, had allowed the Portuguese to consolidate what remained of the Empire in the East, however. Unlike on the subcontinent, East Africa and Arabia soon became one area where the Portuguese were able to reestablish lucrative trade. The export of slaves to Arabia and ivory to India along with the import of textiles from India, allowed Portuguese traders to prosper during the second-half of the 17th century. East Africa also attracted Portuguese Indians to the region along the Zambezi, with a string of trading posts inland along the river being established. An attempt to settle 900 peasants from Portugal in the region, floundered, and as a result, the Portuguese Indians would remain the primary agents of Portuguese sovereignty in the region for the next two centuries.

In India itself, the economic centre of power shifted from Goa to the Províncias do Norte of Bombaim, Bassein, Salsette, and Damão. The ship-building in the region, particularly in Bombaim allowed the Estado da Índia to function as a semi-autonomous trading state, and though no longer controlling a shipping monopoly, it was able to fund its own army and navy, mostly through trade within the Indian Ocean. Despite having lost many important fortresses, the Estado controlled key ports, such as Macau, allowing the Portuguese an unparalleled access to the Chinese market. It was from there that a large part of tea, silks and porcelain from China were reexported around the globe. It would be Portuguese Infanta Catarina, later Queen of France who would introduce tea to Versailles. Additionally, the Portuguese imported silver and gold bullion along with sandalwood and tobacco to the Chinese market. Furthest East, the Portuguese remained in possession of a string of forts in the Indies, with the largest being Macasar (Makassar) on the island of Celebes. After the fall of Malaca to the Dutch, Macasar became the commercial hub for the trade in cloves, sandalwood, silks and other goods from the East. As a result, by 1640 there were some 500 Portuguese living in Macassar. To the south, the islands of the Sundas remained nominally Portuguese with a large number of Christians, many of whom were mestizos, controlling much of the sandalwood trade with Macau.
 
During the 17th century, the success of the Dutch challenging Portuguese and Spanish hegemony, led several other European powers to attempt to establish overseas trading posts or settlements, with varying degrees of success. Already becoming a major power in Europe, the Swedish Crown began interested in overseas trade, and in 1637 allowed a joint-stock company to be formed, consisting of German, Swedish and Dutch shareholders. In 1637, the first expedition undertaken by Sweden left Gothenburg and sailed to America. The expedition was led by Peter Minuit, former governor of New Netherland. Having been humiliated in the Netherlands for his loss of New Netherland, he offered his services to the Swedes. The Swedes for their part sought to build a trading entrepot in North America from which fur could be exported, and with the experience of their Dutch captain and sailors, they could build upon their extensive knowledge of the region. When the two ships landed in May 1638, they established their first settlement, calling it Fort Christina, on the South River (Delaware) with just twenty-three European soldiers. The the colony remained small, and its initial purpose was for trade, particularly in beaver pelts. Unlike some of the earlier Europeans, the Swedes had the benefit of establishing cordial relations with the indigenous inhabitants of the region from the onset, particularly the Lenape and Minquas (Delaware).

The tiny Swedish presence in the region would remain unknown by the Portuguese until around 1640. When the governor asked Lisbon for instruction, he received orders to allow the Swedes to remain unmolested. The hope of gaining Sweden as an ally against Spain, trumped any commercial rivalry in North America. Additionally, Portuguese claims did not extend so far southwards, and even the conquest of New France was more of an unintended consequence of war. Though the Portuguese ignored the Swedish trading post, the Dutch soon protested the Swedish presence as they had claimed the South River was the exclusive domain of the WIC as it still possessed the small trading factory of Fort Nassau. Though largely abandoned, it remained as the sole Dutch territory on the continent. The WIC soon sent small reinforcements, however with the war in Brazil being more pressing, they were not significant enough to dislodge the Swedes. Despite their animosity, in 1642 the Dutch and Swedes would cooperate to arm the Minquas to evict the English from the region.

The New Sweden Company failed to turn a profit, and in 1642, the New Sweden came under direct control of the Swedish Crown. As a result, an ambitious governor was appointed, named Johan Printz. Arriving in 1643, he hand grandiose plans for New Sweden. Firstly, he sought to fortify the South River, establishing several forts and recruiting settlers from Sweden and Finland to the region. Economically, the colony was self-sufficient in food, but produced little tobacco, and the settlers were now buying Virginian tobacco from the English to sell in Europe. However, it was hoped that they could soon begin cultivating the plant which was becoming so popular in Europe. Secondly, he sought to colonise the territory by recruiting settlers from Sweden and Finland to come to settled the lands along the South River.

In response to the Swedish expansion, in 1648, the WIC sent two ships to establish a fort with a permanent garrison on the South River, but their efforts are thwarted by a storm off of Puerto Rico when the ships carrying supplies and soldiers ran aground and were captured by the Spaniards. Finally, in 1651, the WIC would establish Fort Casimir as a permanent fortification on the South River. The heavy handed governance of Printz leads some Swedes to move to Fort Casimir, strengthening the small Dutch settlement. As a result, by 1654, New Sweden's population numbers fewer than 100. That year however, a contingent 300 soldiers and settlers arrived. The force was significant enough to make Printz launch a campaign to capture Fort Casimir from the Dutch and remove their presence from the South River in 1655. Also in 1655, another 100 settlers arrived, most of these being from Finland, further bolstering the population of New Sweden to some 650.

The success of New Sweden, however, was to be short-lived. In 1656, the WIC sent a fleet of seven ships with 317 soldiers to take over the region from the Swedes. Consisting of professional sailors, they outgunned the Swedish forts, forcing a quick capitulation. Printz surrendered the poorly defended Swedish colony to the Dutch on 10 May 1655, at Fort Christina, which was soon to be renamed New Hope. Granting the Swedes religious and linguistic autonomy, the WIC hopes that it can replicate the early success of New Netherland, with the principal objective of the new governor being to gain Indian allies as not only trading partners, but to ally against the Portuguese. In 1657, an additional fortress is built, named New Amsterdam. However news of the Swedish capitulation will soon reach Porto Real.

Originally allied with the Swedes, the WIC sought to establish trading relations with the Minqua and soon began to sell firearms to them, something that would catch the attention of the Portuguese. Between 1642-1655, they had successfully been used to keep the English and their Indian allies whom had established Maryland further south from gaining a foothold on the South River. The arming of the Minqua against the Iroquois, whom were now allies to the north created a great deal of instability in the region, with the Minquas extending their domains further north, and threatening the Portuguese fur trade. These events would lead the Portuguese Captain of Nova Lisboa to send a punitive expedition against the Dutch in June 1658. Composed of mostly Iroquois along with mestiços and a few hundred bosqueiros as the traders in the former New France were now know (men of the forest), they harassed the Dutch and Swedish settlements, with some settlers fleeing southwards into English Maryland. Additionally, in May 1659, a fleet carrying 600 men from Nova Lisboa arrived outside of New Amsterdam. After a brief battle, the Dutch governor capitulated, surrendering the fort New Amsterdam to the Portuguese Captain. The remaining Protestant settlers were sent on unarmed ships to the Europe, with some choosing to go to the Dutch West Indies instead.

During peace negotiations with the Dutch that same following year, the Portuguese offered to return the territory to the Dutch, but this offer was rebuffed as the WIC was in dire financial straits. The Portuguese had also made attempts to trade territory in North America for captured forts in Asia, hoping to regain Malaca. However, the Dutch negotiators preferred to use the loss of New Netherland, which had been nothing but a financial drain as a bargaining chip. As a result, a monetary settlement of over 2 million guilder was to be paid by Portugal to the Dutch over a period of sixteen years to compensate the shareholders for the loss of New Netherland, New Holland, and West Africa. Negotiations with England were more delicate, as they claimed their territories extended much further north. However, the English hoped that the numerically strong Portuguese could subdue the Minquas. Additionally, the commercial treaty between England and Portugal in 1661 gave the English preferential trade and allowed English ships to trade directly with Terra Nova, the Azores and Madeira. The Portuguese also capped the tariffs to be imposed on English imported goods, and the access to a a market of Terra Nova and the Atlantic Islands with 600,000 inhabitants was seen as significant enough for Bristol merchants to persuade Charles II to limit earlier English territorial claims.

As a result of the treaty between England and Portugal, a formal boundary was delineated between the respective territories in North America, with Portugal now awarded the peninsula east of the Chesapeake, with the Rio dos Minqua (Susquehanna River) as the boundary. Also, negotiations between the Portuguese Captain and the proprietor of Maryland set the border between Portuguese and English territory west of the the river at the 40 parallel north, giving Maryland significant space for expansion. Maryland already had a population of 8,500, but almost all of these were located much further south, on the East bank of the Chesapeake. However, the Captain of Nova Lisboa knew that if Portugal were to hold its claim to the peninsula, it must populate it with settlers, recruiting several hundred from Porto Real between 1663 and 1670 to settle in the region. Increasingly, the southern portion of the colony would attract settlers from the north, as the economic nucleus of the colony moved south.
 
Were there Catholic Dutch in the New Netherland?

I imagine if there were, they still would have been sent on their way, the Portuguese expulsions of interlopers in Brazil during the 16th and 17th century resulted in an expulsion of foreigners, whatever their religion.
 
ENGLISH AMERICA

The first successful English colony in America, Virginia, had its origins in the 16th century, when Sir Walter Raleigh had established a settlement at Roanoke. Though the colony was abandoned by 1590, the whereabouts of the early English settlers remains a mystery. In 1606, however, King James I granted a charter to the London Company to establish a settlement on the Chesapeake Bay. The following year, the first settlement was formed at Jamestown. In 1612, the first tobacco was planted in the colony, and as a result, a new cash crop would form the basis for the English settlement.

To work the plantations, young boys and men were imported to the colony as indentured servants, but this would slowly change with the introduction of African slaves in 1619. Early on, the colony was not profitable, and as a result, Virginia's charter was revoked in 1624, and it came directly under crown control. Initially, most settlers were Anglicans, but in 1619, the first Puritans arrived under the leadership of Edward Bennett. These would settle on the south bank of James River, and by 1640 they accounted half of the 22,000 Europeans in the English America.

Further north on 30 June 1632, King Charles I whom was sympathetic to the plight of English Catholics granted a charter to Sir George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore to establish a haven for English Catholics in America. Naming the colony Maryland after Queen Henrietta Maria, Sir George died before the first ships left England. His son Cecil, would appoint his brother Leonard as the province's first governor, sending him to America along with two-hundred Catholic settlers, to establish Saint Mary's on the Potomac River. Though meant to be a haven for Catholics, the colony was to become one where religious tolerance was granted, and as a result, Puritans would begin settling in Maryland as well, establishing Providence (Annapolis) in 1649. Though, this would soon become a source of religious conflict in the colony.

After the removal of Puritan settlements by the Portuguese in Plymouth, the Puritans increasingly migrated to Virginia, eventually creating religious conflict between themselves and the Anglican settlers. Between 1630 and 1650, some 15,000 Puritans emigrated to Virginia, and as a result, they numbered 12,000 by 1650. This movement however was opposed by the Anglicans, whom controlled the colonial legislature, known the House of Burgesses. The Anglicans sought to impose religious conformity, and adherence to the Church of England within the colony, and steps were taken to suppress the Congregationalist Churches. This situation for the Puritans worsened in 1642, when a new governor arrived in Jamestown, Sir William Berkeley. He would establish laws forcing all settlers to take oaths of allegiance to the King and the Church of England. As a result of increasing repression, the Puritans rebelled, allying themselves with the Powhatan whom attacked the English settlements between 1644 and 1646. The conflict would lead to the death of one-tenth of Virginia's European population. Only in 1646 did the House of Burgesses give into Puritan demands, allowing individual parishes to decide whether or not to use the Book of Common Prayer and whether or not settlers would have to pay tithes to the Church of England.

During the Powhatan War, some Puritans had sought refuge in Maryland, settling on Kent Island, seeking to form their own government, independent from the control of the Calverts. Despite the province's religious tolerance, they rebelled against the Proprietary government, wishing to impose religious uniformity. This conflict would lead to the creation of Providence in 1649, and would only be resolved in 1660. In 1636, a small group of Puritans had moved further south, near the site of the Roanoke Colony establishing the colony of New Haven. This was followed by the establishment of Providence (New Bern) in 1638, by Roger Williams, a dissenter whom opposed the Puritan government. It became a haven for Baptists and dissenters establishing religious tolerance. The small colony soon attracted other dissenters, including a small number of Quakers and even Jews. Eventually both colonies were recognised and granted charters by the crown 1644. Meanwhile, in an attempt to alleviate the religious tensions in Maryland, Lord Calvert appoints a Puritan, William Stone as Governor in 1649.

Meanwhile in England, the Civil War which had begun in 1642, would lead in the overthrow of Charles I in January 1649 and establishment of the Commonwealth government in England. The news reached Virginia later that summer, however the colony refused to recognise the new government, instead remaining loyal to the monarchy in exile. Virginia along with Antigua, Barbados, Bermuda, and Maryland recognised Charles II as King, with the Virginia legislature inviting him to come to the colony as king. The Puritan colonies and parishes south of the James River recognised the Commonwealth, and banded together to form the New England Confederation, in an attempt to form a collective defence against the Virginia Government. Additionally, around one-sixth of the adult Puritan men had left English America for England to fight on behalf of the Commonwealth.

Meanwhile, Bermuda expelled Puritans from the island with some taking refuge in New England. In Barbados the royalist Governor, Lord Willoughby began trading with the United Provinces, in contravention of the Navigation Acts, passed by Parliament on 25 October 1651. These had imposed an embargo on trade with the royalist colonies, and as a result 27 Dutch ships were seized in Barbados by the Commonwealth Navy, eventually leading to a declaration of war by the United Provinces the following year. By 1652, Barbados was brought under Puritan control as were the other English Islands in the West Indies. In Maryland, Puritan mercenaries under the leadership of Richard Bennett, overthrew the proprietorship of the colony, and in March 1652, Sir Richard Berkeley was ousted as governor of Virginia, making it the last of the royalist colonies to capitulate.

Despite this, fighting in Maryland between Puritans and Catholic pro-Calvert forces would continue until 1655. Though, Calvert had hoped to keep Maryland out of the fracas by remaining neutral, a declaration of allegiance to King Charles II would lead to open conflict. In 1654, parliament revoked Calvert's charter and forbade the practise of Catholicism in Maryland. The fighting in the colony would continue until 25 March 1655, when Puritan forces were victorious, against the Catholics at the Battle of the Severn. There they captured Governor William Stone and had him executed also they moved the Provincial Assembly from St Mary's to Providence. The Puritans would remain in control of the colony until 27 April 1658, when the colony was restored to Lord Baltimore. A general amnesty was proclaimed and religious tolerance was restored. As a conciliatory gesture to the Protestants, Lord Baltimore appointed Josias Fendall, a Puritan as governor, though in 1659 he led a rebellion and imposed Commonwealth Government for the colony. This was short-lived however, with the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 Philip Calvert once again gained control over the colony.

Virginia had been the first to declare its allegiance to Charles II's new government in 1659, being rewarded for its loyalty and being henceforth called the Old Dominion. The New England colonies too followed suit, with Providence Plantation being the final colony to recognise the monarchy in March 1661. New Haven, however had sheltered regicide judges whom had fled to America and as a result was stripped of its status as an independent colony and was merged into New England. In 1662, Carolina Colony was granted to proprietors with the founding of Charleston further south. The English colonies were increasingly expanding southward.

Economically, the English colonies became dependent on the export of tobacco, and by 1660s having replaced the West Indies and Brazil as the world's leading supplier of high quality tobacco. During the first years of settlement, indentured servants were brought to work the plantations, but the high rates of mortality in the region would soon lead to African slaves being imported. By 1660, they numbered nearly 5,000, or nearly 10% of the population, by 1700, their number would have increased to 70,000 accounting, nearly 40% of the population of English North America. The cultivation of tobacco also led to exhaustion of the soils nutrients, leading to further expansion inland as new lands for cultivation were needed.

1670_virginia_tobacco_slaves.jpg
 
Second Anglo-Dutch War 1664-1667

After the restoration of Charles II to the English throne, the new king sought to end the state of war which had existed between England and Spain since 1654. This was accomplished by his marriage to Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain. As part of the peace negotiations, England had would return Jamaica to Spain and in return, Charles would receive a dowry of £200,000 from Spain. As Spain was bankrupt, the dowry remained unpaid, and as a result, Spain formally ceded Jamaica and the Cayman Islands to England in the Treaty of Madrid, signed on 18 November 1662. Despite the lack of a dowry, the marriage proved fruitful in supplying Charles with an heir, on 1 November 1661, the Queen bore a son, named Charles Philip. He was to be followed by five more children, three would reach adulthood. However, Charles was lacking in funds and now sought war as a means of acquiring wealth and prestige.

During the Commonwealth period, Charles II had obtained a great deal of support from the United Provinces, including loans. After his restoration, Charles became jealous of Dutch commercial supremacy, and by 1664 began plotting a war with the United Provinces. The first action came when he offered letters of marque to English privateers. They soon began attacking Dutch shipping, capturing cargoes of goods from the Baltic and the East Indies. Additionally, Charles sought allies in his war and looked to the Iberian kingdoms. His emissaries, the English ambassadors in Lisbon and Madrid began to make overtures to both courts to persuade them to enter into a war against the Dutch. For Portugal, Charles promised the reconquest of possessions Portugal had lost to the Dutch, namely Ceylon and Malaca, along with the annulment of the indemnity which Portugal was still paying to the Dutch. For Spain, he tried to persuade an invasion from the Spanish Netherlands to take the border fortresses and force the opening of the Scheldt. This would revive the commercial fortunes Antwerp, allowing Spain to recoup financially. Throughout 1664, the negotiations with Portugal dragged on, though the Count of Castelo-Melhor whom was now the king's cheif minister was part of a pro-French faction at court, and as a result they refused to make a move without the French. In the meantime, the Franco-Portuguese alliance was being strengthened as negotiations for the marriage of King Afonso VI to the daughter of the Duke of Nemours were being negotiated. In Spain, King Philip III died in 1665 leaving the Dowager Queen Mariana to preside over the regency of young King Carlos II, and Spain's future in a precarious situation. As a result, Spain refused to go to wars as well, as it too needed to recover its finances, and was suspicious of English motives. As a result, the English would fight alone.

War would not be officially declared until 1665, but the English began by attacking Dutch possessions overseas, particularly in the Caribbean. The main victory for the English came in the form of booty that their acts of piracy against the Dutch was able to gain. English pirates were able to severely disrupt the VOC shipping from the East, hurting the Republic's finances. This disruption provided the Portuguese Estado da Índia with a brief revival in income during the 1660s as English and Dutch shipping from India to Europe fell. Prices of pepper in particular increased, allowing Portuguese ships to reap large profits. For the first time in a generation, the Estado's budget was not in deficit and as a result, defences in the possessions along the Malabar Coast were shored up by building new forts and recruiting native mercenaries. For the English, the war only became worse as both the Danes and French intervened on behalf of the Dutch, leading to a peace settlement in 1667. The result of the war being that England had gained control of Suriname, but returned St Eustatius to the Dutch. Additionally, England returned Martinique to France, and partitioned St Kitts. The war for Charles II was not the victory he had hoped to achieve, but the successive naval victories, such as Lowestoft demonstrated to Europe, that England's naval commanders, particularly the Duke of York and Prince Rupert were among the world's finest, and equal to the Dutch.
 
Really nice timeline!

With a good number of settlers coming from northern Portugal, including some of the earliest, might the Terra Novan dialect retain some conservative features as did the dialects of northern Portugal? Perhaps ch could remain /tʃ/ (like ch in "church"), distinguishing it from x /ʃ/ (pronounced like English sh)? Maybe it could contrast predorsodental c/ç /s/ and z /z/ with apicoalveolar s/ss /s̺/ and s /z̺/? Perhaps the predorsodentals could shift to /θ/ and /ð/ as in certain dialects of Spanish, or could somehow become /ts/ and /dz/ as they were in medieval Portuguese?

This would parallel conservative features retained in North American English dialects such as most remaining rhotic.
 
Really nice timeline!

With a good number of settlers coming from northern Portugal, including some of the earliest, might the Terra Novan dialect retain some conservative features as did the dialects of northern Portugal? Perhaps ch could remain /tʃ/ (like ch in "church"), distinguishing it from x /ʃ/ (pronounced like English sh)? Maybe it could contrast predorsodental c/ç /s/ and z /z/ with apicoalveolar s/ss /s̺/ and s /z̺/? Perhaps the predorsodentals could shift to /θ/ and /ð/ as in certain dialects of Spanish, or could somehow become /ts/ and /dz/ as they were in medieval Portuguese?

This would parallel conservative features retained in North American English dialects such as most remaining rhotic.

I have never thought too much about the dialect, but I do imagine there would be some divergence.
 
In a moment of realization that I can only describe as "holy shit I feel stupid" I sent the past 30 minutes trying to find one of your old posts about immigration (not realizing you were the poster of these) from Portugal to ask about its current population
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Dear god I feel like an idiot
 
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