Photos of the Kaiserreich

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Great Synagogue of Warsaw photographed in 2010

The synagogue damaged badly during Battle of Warsaw (August 18, 1942 - February 20, 1943). The building was reconstucted in 1952. It is one of centers of massive Polish Jewish population. Jews are seen important part on Polish identitet nowadays altouigh there is some antisemtism existing.
It see it's sad how an Great Religious Symbol that'll have indoor for a Quarter Centuries got destroyed by some Nazi idiot's
 
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Russian T-34-75 tanks being produced for the French Commune, 1942.
While every one of the International Alliance did their part in The Second Great War, the French Commune and the Union of Britain definitely did so under the most pressure. Fighting on the defensive from August of 1939 until their defeat in June of 1944, they fought with tenacity and bravery. While they produced advanced technology throughout the war, especially in the fields of RADAR and aircraft technology, their armored fighting vehicles lagged behind. The Russian Soviet Republic, on the other hand, was proficient and advanced in their manufacture of tanks. From their entry into the war in January of 1941, they supplied approximately 600 T-34-75 units to the French per month. Testing was carried out in 1940 under observance from a delegation of the International Alliance, in interest of trading technology and industrial equipment for the expertise and great number of T-34 tanks. The French even funded a factory and tooling for cannons and shells of the 75mm diameter and the Russians commenced work immediately, with promise to start shipping at the beginning of the war. The large merchant fleet of the Russian Soviet Republic was built well for such a task, and the T-34 was delivered to the front.

It immediately proved to be a boon to the Internationale as Germany was overwhelmed by the much improved armored force facing them. Pre-war and early-war French tanks were decent, but almost universally very slow and unreliable. The T-34 was exceptionally fast and had a very powerful gun, good armor, and it was easy to perform maintenance on when it did break down. The Russians, starting in 1943, added a stabilization and electric turret drive to the T-34, and it further improved the combat effectiveness of the vehicle. French T-34s were considered to be the most advanced tank in the world until the Panzer V-G Panther, which was a tank specifically designed to defeat T-34 series vehicles with much of the same technology and design techniques. It too was an advanced and powerful tank, which was capable of destroying both French and Russian tanks until late in the war.

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M-2 tanks in Breslau, February 1946

The Panzer-V/G was the most powerful tank in the world from August of 1943 until the Battle of Piotrków. On June 21st, 1945, the 4th Guards Armored Division met the 18th Panzer Corps 8 km Northeast of Piotrków in the town of Proszenie, and the ensuing tank battle lasted fifteen hours. The end result, the 195 Tanks of the 4th Guards, mostly the M-2 "Heavy Tank" and the T-43 Medium Tank, evaporated the 212 Tanks of the 18th Panzer corps with a loss ratio of 7-1 in the Russian's favor. The M-2 was capable of laying waste to even the most advanced German vehicles with the 122mm A-21 cannon and heavy armor over 200mm thick at the turret and 150mm thick on the hull. At only fifty-four tons, the M-2 was fast in a straight line and maneuverable, with a large engine and a small size compared to German tanks. It had downsides, especially with anti-infantry armament and HEAT shell protection, but field upgrades were common in dealing with this problem.
 
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Some ruins of Warsaw after Battle of Warsaw in 1942/1943 between German-Polish army and Russian army.

Battle of Warsaw was one of most decisive battles of Second Weltkrieg. By August 1942 Russain army reached banks of Vistula and armies 8 and 9 begun circling Warsaw which commited hard resistance. Other armies managed to tie German troops so they couldn't immediately go help Poles. Poles anyway managed enforce Russians to hard city battle where Russians had fight about every street. On December Germans managed to come help Poles and they both begun encircle Russians and slowly destroyed Russians armies. After bitter battles Russians had surrend on February.

Battle of Warsaw is largest battle what war history has ever seen. Russians sent aobut 1 000 000 men and Germans and Poles had around same number of men. At battle was killed about 750 000 Russians and other volunteers and about 600 000 German and Polish soldiers. Battle too killed around 15 000 civilians and ruined notable parts of Warsaw. About 200 000 Russians were taken as PoWs. Commander of Russians general Mikhail Tukhachevsky commited suicide.

Battle had too much of military signifance. It damaged greatly battle morale of Russians and boosted German and Polish battle morale. It too helped Germans capture Danzig and East Purssia back. Germans too managed to send more troops to Western Front to liberate Rheinland. War anyway yet continued two years before fall of Russia.

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Kaiserwehr marching through Paris on March 1944 after fall of the city. Rest of French commune would fall only in two months.

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Canadian Soldiers in Southern England during Operation Sealion made by Germans, Canadians, Btiyidh rcilrd and Australasians.

The operation begun in July 20, 1944 and marked end of Uniuon of Britain. It was most massive single military operation in history. It was participated by millions of men around the world and it was seen bit risky and Germans others hard make much of jobs to finish RAF (Red Air Forces) and bomb lot of becoming landing bases so enemy can't defend them. But it was still masve success. Union of Britain and Mosley's regime would see its end on September.
 
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Deng Xiaoping was President of the Republic of China from 1969 to 1984 when he retired. China was reunified by the Beijing Government in 1948 with strong support from Russia but faced internal turmoil as the nation struggled to rebuild from the "century of humiliation." The country was hampered by weak corruption and a lack of willingness to modernize, but with the reforms of Deng, who not only liberalized the country economically but established a safety net and welfare for the poverty-stricken masses of China. Towards the latter years of his life, he also issued mass amnesty for the KMT and it's soldiers, owing to his past as a former member himself, and improved relations between China and America while also distancing himself from Russia and the Stillerkrieg. His final political act as President was the dissolution of the ruling Héxié xiéhuì and the setting up of free elections.
 
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Flag of Kingdom of France

After fall of Commune of Fance in 1944 there was pretty unclear what future of France would be. Republic of France claimed whole France but Gerrmans and French couldn't agree over several issues and so Germans established to Northern France monarchy under Orléans claimant. Republic of France occupied Southern France. These French states had such bad relations that they couldn't even recognise each others. Northern France developed soon as stable democratic state. Southern France joined to the kingdom in 1973 after the Fourth Republic was in chaos after disastrous colonial wars in Northern and Western Africa. Germany was quiet relucant accept such thing since it was worried about strong Germany but eventually accepted that.

Nowadays Kingdom of France is quiet prosperous great power altough clearly behind of Germany.

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King Jean IV of France since 2019

The king has usually remained very apolitical what is expected from monarch. He has anyway reported to be pretty conservative over several issues and has kept close relationships with Portuguese and Spanish royal families.
 
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Tatsunosuke Takasaki Commissioner of the Economic Planning Committee and later Japanese ambassador to china in 1962
Start out as deputy governor for the Mantetsu affiliated Manchurian Industrial Development Company. During the Full of the fengtian Government he struggled to evacuate children and the elderly, but on August 12, he collapsed due to extreme fatigue and sunstroke , and his eyes fell. Woke up on August 17, after the the collapse of Yang Yuting abortive republic of Manchuria* At that time, Manchurian government officials and Kwantung Army executives were captured, leaving only ordinary people.. As the chairman of the Japanese Association, Takami began negotiations with the KMT for the return of many Japanese who remained unable to return to Japan. in 1955 he represented the Japanese government the Asia-Africa Conference (Bandung Conference) as well as being Commissioner of the Economic Planning Committee . He attended as a member and deepened his friendship with Nehru and Zhou Enlai . in 1960 and 1962, he stood in the negotiations as a representative of the government. In 1962, he traveled to Beijing as the head of the Economic Mission to China, met with Liao Chengzhi , the chairman of the Asia-Africa Solidarity Committee, and signed the Memorandum of Understanding on Japan-China Comprehensive Trade That led to the the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and China .


*Yang Yuting's republic of Manchuria better known as Yang Yuting's Changchun Government ironically led to the collapse of fengtian it's being a affective coup d'état against
Zhang Zuolin who was enraged by the declaration to such a extent that Zhang surrendered Shenyang to NRA under general Du Yuming
 
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Jōji Matsumoto
he was the author of the 2 post defeat constitutional amendments often called "Matsumoto amendments"
He served a legal scholar for the constitutional reform Association later the Constitutional Rule Assistance Association

deputy commander in chief shall be responsible for national defense and has the power to make regulations and shall make appointments to civil and military posts if The emperor unwilling or unable to exercise his Authority as supreme command of the Army and the Navy and Air force

The Prime Minister is also the deputy commander in chief of the armed forces

if the emperor unable to or willing to exercise executive function the cabinet will do so instead

The Cabinet, in the exercise of executive power, shall be collectively responsible to the Diet.

The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister, who shall be its head, and other Ministers of State, as provided for by law.

if the emperor is unwilling or unable to exercise authority to dissolve the House of representatives The Prime Minister Will do so instead

The Prime Minister shall be designated from among the members of the Diet by a resolution of the Diet

The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State must be civilians

The Prime Minister shall appoint the Ministers of State.
However, a majority of their number must be chosen from among the members of the Diet.
The Prime Minister may remove the Ministers of State as he chooses.

The Prime Minister shall appoint the Ministers of State.
However, a majority of their number must be chosen from among the members of the Diet.
The Prime Minister may remove the Ministers of State as he chooses.

If the Diet passes a non-confidence resolution, or rejects a confidence resolution, the Cabinet shall resign en masse, unless the House of Representatives is dissolved within ten (10) days.

When there is a vacancy in the post of Prime Minister, or upon the first convocation of the Diet after a general election of members of the House of Representatives, the Cabinet shall resign en masse.

In the cases mentioned in the two preceding articles, the Cabinet shall continue its functions until the time when a new Prime Minister is appointed.

The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Diet and exercises control and supervision over various administrative branches.

The Cabinet, in addition to other general administrative functions, shall perform the following functions:
Administer the law faithfully; conduct affairs of state.
Manage foreign affairs.
Conclude treaties. However, it shall obtain prior or, depending on circumstances, subsequent approval of the Diet.
Administer the civil service, in accordance with standards established by law.
Prepare the budget, and present it to the Diet.
Enact cabinet orders in order to execute the provisions of this Constitution and of the law. However, it cannot include penal provisions in such cabinet orders unless authorized by such law.
Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights

In the cases mentioned in the two preceding articles, the Cabinet shall continue its functions until the time when a new Prime Minister is appointed.


The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Diet and exercises control and supervision over various administrative branches
.
Upon consideration of the budget, when the House of peers makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, and when no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or in the case of failure by the House of peers to take final action within thirty (30) days, the period of recess excluded, after the receipt of the budget passed by the House of Representatives, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.

Each House may conduct investigations in relation to the government, and may demand the presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records.

The Diet shall set up an impeachment court from among the members of both Houses for the purpose of trying those judges against whom removal proceedings have been instituted.
Matters relating to impeachment shall be provided by law.


Each House shall select its own president and other officials.
Each House shall establish its rules pertaining to meetings, proceedings and internal discipline, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon.


Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. This record shall be published and given general circulation, excepting such parts of proceedings of secret session as may be deemed to require secrecy.
Upon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, votes of the members on any matter shall be recorded in the minutes.
 
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Hitoshi Ashida President of the constitutional reform Association later the Constitutional Rule Assistance Association and Prime Minister from 1948 to 1959
In March 1948, the Ashida Cabinet was inaugurated. In the Ashida Cabinet, many laws that form the basis of post defeat Japan have been enacted.Complete revision of the Code of Criminal Procedure based on the new constitutional amendments, drastic reform of the police organization , National Government Organization Law and the Small and Medium Enterprise Agency, Coal Agency , Ministry of Construction , Maritime Security Agency , Fisheries Agency , Economic Planning Committee Law for establishing each administrative agency, Law of the Board of Education, Law of the Japan Academic Council , Law of Execution of Duties of Police Officers, Law of Execution of Administrative Agents, Law of Local Finance, Law of Prosecution Examination Board, Law of Minor Crimes , Law of Constitution reform And so on . the Ashida administration was middle of the road and supported these challenges, but the administration continued to struggle with a fragile government base and attacks from the opposition Social civilian Party, and could not afford to come up with its own policies.he was devoted to the protection of Emperor Showa . It is not good for the imperial family or Japan to give such an impression. "As stated in the Constitution, I tried to treat the emperor as a symbol, not as a head of state. At the time of his inauguration as prime minister, Ashida announced that he would withdraw his ministerial naisō from then on. Ashida himself rarely performed to the Emperor during his time as Foreign Minister, so Deputy Director Katsuo Suzuki said, "Your Majesty is playing with diplomatic issues. But it's okay, "said Katsuo Okazaki , then Deputy Foreign Minister . Upon hearing that, Ashida went to Miyanaka, saying that he should go if he was a "government soul."Ashida strongly advocated for civilian control of the military via the "Matsumoto amendments" which he sponsored personally
 
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Seiichi Omura the first civilian defense minister in Imperial Japan
Since the passing of the "Matsumoto amendments" the armed forces of the Empire of Japan are consolidated under the Ministry of national defense with Seiichi Omura being the inaugural minister previously he was appointed both minister of army and navy separately pre-passing of the amendments that allowed for the consolidation of both under the Defense Ministry and the creation of the Japanese Air Force.he was also a known advocate for intervention in the Americas specifically force supporting the Pacific states against East America as well to act as a counterweight against undo Canadian influence in the Pacific states. He was noted to be particularly hawkish towards Russia paradoxically he was quite neutral towards left KMT lead China he also focused on expanding relations with the ottoman empire particularly in the realm of defense cooperation
 
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Philippe Pétain, president of France in 1926 - 1946

Pétain, known as Lion of Verdun, was hero of First Weltkrieg altough at end France lost the war. After French Civil War French government, loyalist army and ten of thousands other French fled to Northern Africa where was formed government-in-exile. Government was anyway pretty paralysed and instable. In 1926 the marshal ousted government and established military junta. He anyway preserved Third Republicaltough now it became authotarian military dictatorship. One of his main principle Pétain adopted return to mainland France and restoring French colonial empire.

When Second Weltkrieg broke out in 1940, firstly Pétain's government waited but it was drawn to war when Commune of France captured Corsica in August 1940 which was under control of the Third Republic. In 1944 French national army managed to land to Southern France but it couldn't take whole country before Germans. Since Germans and French couldn't deal over several issues about future of France, the republic had only southern parts of France and its holdings in Africa.

Soon after end of the war Pétain's health begun to decline and he was too pretty senile. He resigned in 1946 and died in Marseille (de facto of France after WK2). He was buried there but in 2007 his remnants were re-buried to Paris. Nowadays Pétain has pretty controversial reputation. Left-wing and liberals see him as authotarian dictator who was for France more harmful than beneficial. Right-wing again see him as national hero who tried unite France and restore its greatness.

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Charles de Gaulle, president of France in years 1946 - 1968

De Gaulle had served in French army already during First Weltkrieg. During French Civil War he fought on side of government. Later in Algeria he supported Pétain's coup d'etat. After the coup de Gaulle developed French armny and creted new military doctrines which would help fight effectively against enemies.

During Second Weltkrieg Commune of France conquered parts of Algeria but after long battles de Gaulle managed to kick them out. Later he led conquest of Corsica and landing to Southern France.

After Pétain's resignation in 1946, de Gaulle was elected as president of France. He took lesser authotarian rule altough Republic of France was far from liberal democracy. In 1948 de Gaulle adopted new constitution which abolished Third Republic and created Fourth Republic. This transferred more power to president and made too some other reforms. De Gaulle had too plans for re-capturing of North France but he knew that it wouldn't happen easily. France was too weak and Germany protected North France. And more troubles were comning in Africa.

Through 1940's and 1950's natives of North Africa were tired to French colonial rule. These eventually broke out as several revolts and outright wars. Colonial wars ended only just in 1965. These wars left South France economically ruined and people was generally tired from its government. De Gaulle resigned from his office in 1968.

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Alain Poher, last president of France in 1968 - 1973

Poher's family fled to Algeria when he was child. Later he served on national assembly of Republic of France and served in senate. He was elected as president of South France in 1968 after resignation of Charles de Gaulle. He inherited deeply instable and economically ruined nations. People begun to move to north and South France was pracitcally collapsing state. Him hadn't other options than to begin negotiations with North France about re-unification. France finally re-united in 1973 after referendum. Poher resigned from politics and lated published memoirs.
 
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Iwao Yamazaki Home Minister from 1946-1958
during the post defeat reforms Yamazaki as Home minister establish the internal security guard under the authority of the home ministry it served as a replacement for the much-maligned Kenpeitai for internal security well it's Provosts functions were taken over by the Keimutai in the IJA and IJN and in the newly established Air Force. The internal security guard functioned as a gendarmerie in peacetime it functions under the home ministry and in wartime it functions under the defense Ministry. he was a noted anti-socialist, during his tenure the home ministry lost control of the police and it was transferred over to the newly formed national police agency. Yamazaki was associated with the politically conservative wing of CRA and the CRAA and was a leading member of the faction led by Mitsujiro Ishii. He served as chairman of the budgetary committee in 1957.Yamazaki also served as Chairman of the National Public Safety Commission.
 
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Philippe Pétain, president of France in 1926 - 1946

Pétain, known as Lion of Verdun, was hero of First Weltkrieg altough at end France lost the war. After French Civil War French government, loyalist army and ten of thousands other French fled to Northern Africa where was formed government-in-exile. Government was anyway pretty paralysed and instable. In 1926 the marshal ousted government and established military junta. He anyway preserved Third Republicaltough now it became authotarian military dictatorship. One of his main principle Pétain adopted return to mainland France and restoring French colonial empire.

When Second Weltkrieg broke out in 1940, firstly Pétain's government waited but it was drawn to war when Commune of France captured Corsica in August 1940 which was under control of the Third Republic. In 1944 French national army managed to land to Southern France but it couldn't take whole country before Germans. Since Germans and French couldn't deal over several issues about future of France, the republic had only southern parts of France and its holdings in Africa.

Soon after end of the war Pétain's health begun to decline and he was too pretty senile. He resigned in 1946 and died in Marseille (de facto of France after WK2). He was buried there but in 2007 his remnants were re-buried to Paris. Nowadays Pétain has pretty controversial reputation. Left-wing and liberals see him as authotarian dictator who was for France more harmful than beneficial. Right-wing again see him as national hero who tried unite France and restore its greatness.

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Charles de Gaulle, president of France in years 1946 - 1968

De Gaulle had served in French army already during First Weltkrieg. During French Civil War he fought on side of government. Later in Algeria he supported Pétain's coup d'etat. After the coup de Gaulle developed French armny and creted new military doctrines which would help fight effectively against enemies.

During Second Weltkrieg Commune of France conquered parts of Algeria but after long battles de Gaulle managed to kick them out. Later he led conquest of Corsica and landing to Southern France.

After Pétain's resignation in 1946, de Gaulle was elected as president of France. He took lesser authotarian rule altough Republic of France was far from liberal democracy. In 1948 de Gaulle adopted new constitution which abolished Third Republic and created Fourth Republic. This transferred more power to president and made too some other reforms. De Gaulle had too plans for re-capturing of North France but he knew that it wouldn't happen easily. France was too weak and Germany protected North France. And more troubles were comning in Africa.

Through 1940's and 1950's natives of North Africa were tired to French colonial rule. These eventually broke out as several revolts and outright wars. Colonial wars ended only just in 1965. These wars left South France economically ruined and people was generally tired from its government. De Gaulle resigned from his office in 1968.

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Alain Poher, last president of France in 1968 - 1973

Poher's family fled to Algeria when he was child. Later he served on national assembly of Republic of France and served in senate. He was elected as president of South France in 1968 after resignation of Charles de Gaulle. He inherited deeply instable and economically ruined nations. People begun to move to north and South France was pracitcally collapsing state. Him hadn't other options than to begin negotiations with North France about re-unification. France finally re-united in 1973 after referendum. Poher resigned from politics and lated published memoirs.
I guess you're a fan of National France
 
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Noboru Saito the first Commissioner General of the National Police Agency
Under the drastic reform of the police organization the Police Affairs Bureau of the home ministry was abolished and replaced with the the National Police Agency and prefectural police, the National Police Agency is the central coordinating agency for the prefectural police. the NPA does not have any operational units of its own except for the Imperial Guard. Instead, its role is to supervise prefectural police departments and determine general standards and policies; although in national emergencies or large-scale disasters the agency is authorized to take command of Prefectural police departments. the Imperial Guard of the National Police Agency are a separate entity from the Imperial Guard of armed forces however they both operate under joint Imperial Guard headquarters under the Ministry of the Imperial Household
 
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General Wojciech Jaruzelski in a TV studio announcing the introduction of martial law in the Kingdom of Poland
the Kingdom of Poland experience a period of prosperity in Post Second Weltkrieg era it was primarily on large scale foreign borrowing mostly from The Reichsbank and As expenditures increased and debts accumulated, Reichsbank refrained from granting Poland loans. Due to the subsequent economic depression the government introduced ration cards for sugar, meat, processed food and dairy followed. Confectionery, cocoa, coffee, rice, tobacco and other goods not produced in Poland were so heavily rationed that they were almost permanently unavailable Due to the constant lack of tobacco, ordinary cigarettes became a form of new currency on the black market. The living standards began to sharply decline; the supply of imported goods was kept to a low minimum and the country was forced to export everything it could, including coal necessary for basic heating and power plants. Power outages were commonplace, the debt accounted to over US$23 billion, then almost half of Poland's nominal GDP. It causes a uptick in labor unrest with the formation of syndicalist trade unions become increasingly common they encouraged farmers to refrain from selling agricultural products (wheat, grain, fruit and others) to the state as a sign of protest. The actual shortage of goods on the market and in stores was caused by the fact that production was occasionally halted due to strikes. The number of exports declined by 4.2%. Mismanagement and wastefulness were abundant.The situation was gradually worsened, which only fueled anti-German and monarchist sentiment. A civil war was hanging by a thread.Poland notified Marseille Club (a group of European central banks) about its insolvency, which caught the attention of the entire world. General and Minister of Defence Wojciech Jaruzelski was chosen as the new prime Minister. Before assuming office, Jaruzelski ordered the Polish General Staff to update plans for a nationwide martial law. the Ministry of Internal Affairs planned to potentially facilitate thousands of oppositionists in state prisons and places of internment., the Ministry of National Defence and Ministry of the Internal Affairs carried out a training scenario, the purpose of which was to explore how martial law would be introduced. The ministries agreed that martial law should be preceded by appropriate propaganda calling for its support, and the decision itself should be based on a pretext that it would bring peace and stability for the society. It was also highlighted that martial law must occur before the fully mobilized the syndicalist and there allies organize a general strike that would paralyze the entire country. the Germans increased their military presence in the military bases , where the German Army stationed per Reichspakt agreement. Over 25,000 posters announcing martial law were secretly printed in Germany , transported to Poland by airplane and hidden in the large building housing the Ministry of Internal Affairs.The full extent of the actions undertaken by Jaruzelski to instigate martial law was not known by even some of the highest notables in the Polish Sejm. shortly before midnight, the Polish Council of State gathered in Warsaw's Belweder Palace and approved nationwide martial law. Simultaneously, the Military Council of National Salvation (WRON – Wrona is translated as "Crow") was founded and its members were high-ranking generals or military officers in the Polish Royal Army, who were in charge of the military junta. The generals and officers later became known to the public as evil "Crows", in relation to the Polish name of the council.At precisely 00:00 (12:00 a.m.), the Motorized Reserves of the royal police(RZOPK) began "Akcja Jodła" (English: Operation Fir) and arrested syndicalist members who were at close reach. They were then placed in previously-prepared detention facilities. In total, between 70,000 and 80,000 soldiers of the Royal Army and 30,000 functionaries of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (including , RZOPK and the militia) were deployed for action. Around 1,750 tanks, 1,900 armoured combat vehicles, 500 militarized transport units, 9,000 cars and several helicopter squadrons were in service. Twenty-five per cent of all units concentrated in the capital, Warsaw, or in surrounding localities. The Polish Radio informed about martial law being imposed at a 06:00 (6:00 a.m.) audition, and transmitted the speech made by General Jaruzelski. Telewizja Polska network and its chief news program Dziennik (English: Journal) aired the speech in a slightly modified version. The declaration was watched by millions of Polish citizens despite the early hour. Three days after restrictions were imposed, coal miners began striking against the declaration of martial law by General Jaruzelski Furthermore, coal was a precious fuel source that was used for generating electricity and heat, but also a major export material. By selling and exporting coal, the government obtained enough money to gradually pay off the outstanding debt.During the initial imposition of martial law, several dozen people were killed. Official reports during the crackdown claimed about a dozen fatalities. Even after martial law was lifted, a number of restrictions remained in place for several years that drastically reduced the civil liberties of the citizenry. It also led to severe economic consequences. The ruling military dictatorship instituted major price rises (dubbed "economic reforms"), which resulted in a fall in real wages. The resulting economic crisis led to even more rationing of most basic products and materials.
 
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flag of Inspector-General of the Three Northeastern Provinces (1929- ) de facto flag of the fengtian Government
The office of Inspector-General of the Three Northeastern Provinces was given to Zhang Zuolin in 1918. post creation of the fengtian Government of Republic of China there is needed to distinguish the office from The flag of the grand marshals it de facto became associated with the fengtian government and was using more occasions compared to the de jure five color flag
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flag of the grand marshal's office
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five colored flag
 
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