Photos from Featherston's Confederacy/ TL-191

By the way, who is the actual person in the photo?

A Photo of Cassius Madison, the man who killed Jake Featherston and a lead speaker for the NAAACP, photographed in the 1970's for Life Magazine.

After the end of the War and the hubbub surrounding his shooting of the ex-president of the now-defunct CSA had died down, Cassius Madison took some time to sort out his future. His award of both $100,000 in cash (tax free) and citizenship of the USA ensured, alongside his fame, that he would not be destitute for some time, and the acquaintance of many prominent US politicians such as Flora Blackford and the new President Thomas Dewey would be useful assets in whatever path he chose.

Madison, perhaps out of a sense of optimism, first attempted to track down where his family had ended up after they'd been seized in a Freedom Party round up in Augusta, but once he learned via captured records, courtesy of assistance from retired General Abner Dowling in accessing them, that they had been shipped to Camp Determination, he accepted that his parents and sister were gone, and there really wasn't a point to looking backwards.

So instead, he decided to go forwards. Courtesy of his father, secretly Anne Colleton's former butler and a well-educated man (even by the standards of whites in the south, never mind blacks) Cassius was able to both read and write, and put himself to work getting an education. At the same time, he began reaching out via his connections to Congresswoman Blackford, to find other prominent blacks in the USA as well as gathering the accounts of Population Reduction survivors, ostensibly to help "keep the story straight" as he put it, to ensure Freedomite romanticizers would not be able to downplay or deny what had been done in their name.

More Importantly, to him at least, he also wanted to begin building the kind of organization that would allow Blacks to "Make a bigger stink" about the crimes not just of Featherston and the CSA, but the general anti-black attitudes as a whole, as he was under no illusions that few people in the USA had really cared about the plight of the blacks in the CSA until after they'd seen the photos from the captured Camp Determination and, even now, he knew, most whites in the occupied CSA, if they cared at all, were if anything PROUD of what had been done.
He sought to change that.

"I'm a big name because I killed Jake Featherston. Can't rightly think of no better way to piss on his grave than use that fame to raise black folks up."
-Cassius Madison, 1951 interview on the formation of the NAAACP

Madison's intellect, which he attributed to his late father, allowed him to excel in academic studies, earning him a scholarship to Yale University by 1948. Between his award for Featherston's killing and speaking fees he'd accrued giving speeches across the USA, he had a nice nest egg to sustain himself and more than enough money to pay off his schooling and put his other project to work. He also saw to it that the black Guerillas, such as his leader Gracchus, were able to obtain US citizenship with little to no hassle, several of whom ended up serving as bodyguards for him: more than a few Freedom Party die-hards wanted Cassiuns' head for killing Featherston.
Upon his graduation from his first 4-year education at Yale, Madison announced that, with the support of Government officials such as Flora Blackford and prominent black leaders in the USA, he was forming an organization: the North American Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAAACP. The Goals and Ambitions of this group would be as such: the elimination of racial discrimination in American society, the end of racial segregation in all professional and social fields, the uplifting and provision of education and advancement opportunities for all people of color, ad the insurance that no organization like the Freedom Party ever take root in the United States or her territories. He made clear he wasn't just thinking of Blacks: Native Americans, Latinos and Asians had also gotten a "raw deal" in the USA, and deserved as much of a chance to succeed.
"The founders of this nation said "All Men are Created Equal, and are endowed with inalienable rights." Well, I say it's about time the country started living up to that Promise. Are we gonna see George Washington as the founder of our country and its ideals? or are we gonna see him as just another rich Virginia slave owner?"
 
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Nice to see you got a place for Perón in TL-191. Given that, does that mean the Argentine government of Hipólito Yrigoyen is still overthrown in 1930 and replaced with a fascist (or in this case, actionist) dictatorship led by the Nacionalistas that began the Infamous Decade as it was IOTL?
The Snake Lives: Claims of Featherston's Survival
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A copy of a book titled Featherston is Alive, which was published by a Hungarian emigrant to Argentina named Ladislas Szabo in 1948.

In the world after the Second Great War, not everyone was convinced that Featherston wasn't shot dead by Cassius Madison on July 7th, 1944. There are conspiracy theorists that believe that Featherston had survived the Second Great War, in which the first major allegation was made by a Hungarian-Argentine named Ladislas Szabo who had published a book titled Featherston is Alive, which it claims that Featherston managed to escape the crumbling CSA aboard a submarine and made his way to Argentina, where he claimed that he is under the protection of Argentine Dictator Juan Peron. The book would be published in Argentina and in other parts of Latin America in 1948, just four years after Featherston's Death. There is a partial element of truth in the claim as a substantial amount of Freedomite War Criminals had in fact fled to Argentina, Brazil, and other South American Countries, in which a good number of them would find themselves in favorable positions by the various dictators of South America.

A photograph of Argentine Dictator Juan Peron, in which it was well known that Peron and his regime had invited a good amount of fugitive Confederate War Criminals and former High Ranking Freedomites who were wanted by the US Government. Even many would be put to work within the Argentine Regime as after all, Argentina had been an ally of the Confederacy and unlike the CSA, wasn't really defeated during the war.

A photograph of the CSS Swordfish as it was taken by a South African Air Force Avro Anson near Cape Town, in which the sub had surfaced there just months after the end of the Second Great War. Numerous other subs would also turn up in the Southern Atlantic along the coasts of Argentina, Brazil, and South Africa, in which they had carried escaped Freedomite War Criminals to these places to escape prosecution by the US Government who had wanted them for crimes against humanity. Many of the Featherston Survival Theories all claimed that Featherston along with Lulu had made their escape aboard one of these submarines.

Another popular variation of the Featherston Survival Theories was made by a Greek Diplomat to South Africa who had claimed that he had met Featherston while at a house party in Pretoria in 1961. The diplomat who went under the pseudonym of Iason Kalamatos would publish a book titled Featherston: The Story of His Survival which was published in 1964 originally in Greek, but would later be translated into other languages such as English, German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese. In this book, Kalamtos would claim that Featherston came to South Africa via the Veracruz-Cape Town Rat Line that was established by Howard Hughes in 1945 following a time of laying low in Mexico. After arriving in South Africa, Featherston would reside in Cape Town, providing assistance to other fellow Freedomites who had also just entered South Africa. In 1947, the President of South Africa, General Jan Smuts would make Featherston a senior advisor for his Government, in which Kalamtos claimed Featherston would continue on with this role under the rule of Presidents D.F. Malan, J.G. Strijdom, and C.R. Swart before his ultimate retirement in 1960. In later works on his theory, Kalamatos would also claim that Featherston was living in a ranch in the Drakensberg Mountains under the protection of the Apartheid Regime as well Lulu managing to coming with him to South Africa and eventually having a daughter named Cindy. Kalamatos in a 1985 interview would claim that he had received word from a retired CIA official that Featherston had passed away in February of 1969 at his Drakensberg Home. When the Apartheid Regime finally fell in the early 2000s, a some researchers would go to South Africa to investigate these claims made by Kalamatos and others like him. Their searches however would turn up nothing, in which these researchers would conclude that the Conspiracy Theory about Featherston's Survival was nothing but baseless claims.

A photo of President D.F. Malan of South Africa with his cabinet, circa 1949. The man on the far left of the first row has been claimed by many Conspiracy Theorists to be Jake Featherston, which these people claimed was serving as a senior advisor to Malan.

These theories would also have a great number of critics to them, Cassius Madison who was the man who killed Featherston would respond to these theories in 1976.
"I have a piece of advice to any sane person, do not pay these losers who claim that Featherston survived the war any attention."

In more recent times, professional historians such as Catherine Clinton and Guy Walters would criticize these theories, in which Clinton in particular would go on to say "These fantasies of Featherston not dying in July of 1944 are of the same place of nonsense where the Moon Landing Hoax theories are at. No serious historians would ever take such claims seriously." Furthermore, the various conspiracy theories on Featherston's Survival have been dismissed by historians such as Richard Overy. However, some people to this day still believe in these Conspiracy Theories, in a survey taken by the Cassius Madison Institute in 2015, researchers found that about 6.3% of Americans and Texans believe that Jake Featherston did not die at the hands of Cassius Madison on July 7th, 1944. The researchers also discovered that the believers of this theory was higher amongst Neo-Freedomites with about 42% of believers. Down the decades, many books on the subject have been made on the subject as well as television productions such the infamous History Channel series called Hunting Featherston as well as a drama series called Butternut Snake: The Escape of Jake Featherston which was based on the book of the same name.​
 

Pangur

Donor
I am getting more intrigued by the idea of an apartheid South Africa post war when you add in the deductions. I am not sure that they would be invaded however they would not be that popular and not much in the way of international trade
 
I am getting more intrigued by the idea of an apartheid South Africa post war when you add in the deductions. I am not sure that they would be invaded however they would not be that popular and not much in the way of international trade
I tend to adopt a minority position that Apartheid South Africa never occurs due to its similarity to Freedomite Laws, but I've warmed up to the idea of Freedomites escaping there at the very least.
 
I've thought of this now but in addition to the FPG ranks, you could also use (Higher) FPG and Police Leader for the hierarchical/regional positions for FPG leaders and for their area of jurisdiction.
Aye, I was going with Senior Group Leader for the one above Group Leader because thr rough translation from Overst is both Colonel and Senior.

So the upper ranks would be, in order (in my head canon lol)

Brigade Leader - Brigadier General (which fun fact means the commander of thr Army of West Texas was actually outrank by Jefferson Pinkard after he was promoted to Group Leader)
Group Leader - Major General
Senior Group Leader - Lieutenant General
Supreme/National Freedom Leader - General

I didn't add in a five star because I'm Timeline 191, thr Americans and Confederate never made a five star rank, likely because they weren't worried about outranking their European allies that weren't in the American theater
 
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A photograph of the Japanese Battleship Nagato while she was sailing to Kure to be transformed into a Museum Ship, circa 1953. Following the end of the Second Great War, the Nagato would be reduced to the role of school ship in 1947, in which she would fill that role until 1953 when the Japanese Naval High Command decided she was purely obsolete and she would be made into a museum ship/ceremonial flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Ever since 1953 up till the present day, the Nagato alongside the aircraft carrier Kaga and later the Yamato (which was added to the Kure Naval Museum in 2002) would prove to be one of the more popular tourist attractions within the Japanese Home Islands.
 

Pangur

Donor
I think the subject of the Confederate Military Secret Rearmament Plans before Featherston becoming President should be talked about here.
I dont there was that much in the books about which allows for imagination to go wild. My immediate thought would be South American nations for the more overt activities n I think there was a reference agricultural machinery being used some how as a disguise .
 
I dont there was that much in the books about which allows for imagination to go wild. My immediate thought would be South American nations for the more overt activities n I think there was a reference agricultural machinery being used some how as a disguise .
As I recall in terms of rearmament.

Confederate mercenaries were deployed (Army, Navy and even likely CFC) not only to the stupidly long running Mexican Civil War but also the dozens of south American conflicts that were still ongoing after the Great War formally ended. I imagine the clandestine Confederate General had some of their limited officer corps deployed as advisors and observers.

It was confirmed during the Mexican Civil War that the Loyalists had a full manufacturing centre and production line producing Barrels that Morrell knew were likely Confederate designed and even more likely Confederate crewed.

The Confederate Citrus Company was a very clear example of them skirting the rules with the early versions of the Hound Dog Fighters essentially flying under under ownership just lacking the machine guns. It's likely other clandestine companies found excuses to produce the heavier aircraft (Razorbacks and Alligators) possibly disguising them as freight/transport aircraft and even passenger liners.

Just after Featherston came to power he mentioned signing the farming equipment bill which let them build dozens of factories originally for combines and harvesters, but it was explicted stated that it could give the Confederates practice building "large tracked vehicles" and someone else mentioned it wouldn't take much effort or time to swapping them over to producing "other tracked" vehicles ie. Barrels

I'm sure there are other examples and we can likely think of many
 
PD_USS_Alaska_(CB1-1936).png

I haven't modified it yet but maybe something like this for a CSN dutchland alternative 6 x14inch guns 10 inch armored belt. Top speed 32 knots maybe call it the Alabama class in reference to the original CSSAlabama
 
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I haven't modified it yet but maybe something like this for a CSN dutchland alternative 6 x14inch guns 10 inch armored belt. Top speed 32 knots maybe call it the Alabama class in reference to the original CSSAlabama
I would think CSN naval designs would have more French and British influence. I also think the CSA would follow the USA convention and exclusively name Battleships after the States.
 
I would think CSN naval designs would have more French and British influence. I also think the CSA would follow the USA convention and exclusively name Battleships after the States.
They most likely would but much like the Dutchland class naming the after historical commerce raiders could be a political move. And yeah they might resemble RN or MN shops more than OTL American ships. I was merely showing a concept drawing
 
Brief History of Africa in TL-191, 1862-1945
*I finally completed this! Pretty much everything here is my head-canon, since not even the books make any mention on what's going on in Africa.


Map of the African continent, by John Thomas, 1813

Before the First Great War
By the end of the War of Secession in North America, the African continent was mostly unexplored by European settlers. The only permanent settlements that existed were trading posts along the coast. During the late 19th Century at the Berlin Conference, the European nations of the British Empire, France, the German Empire, Portugal, Spain, Italy and Belgium decided to “scramble for Africa”, in other words, to create colonial territories out of nearly every part of the African continent. There were only two nations that were free of European control: Liberia and the Ethiopian Empire.

Liberia and Ethiopia

Map of Liberia, ca. 1860's

The United States established official diplomatic relations with Liberia on February 5th, 1862, the same year they would lose against the Confederate States in their own war for independence. Originally founded by the American Colonization Society as a permanent settlement for freed slaves in the United States, the free Black population would eventually declare their own independence and establish their own nation. The Americo-Liberians, the descendants of the Free Black Americans, would make up the upper-class of Liberia, often at the expense of the native population in the region, who were viewed to be inferior. Liberia had always tried to maintain a strong connection with its “parent” nation, even if one side was less enthusiastic than the other. Nevertheless, the politicians in Philadelphia saw the importance of keeping a friendship with Liberia as an extra set of eyes against the British and French surrounding it. Throughout the rest of the late 1800’s, the United States would often interfere in the affairs of Liberia, usually at the request of the latter. A U.S. president before Roosevelt was once quoted as saying, “It will be remembered that the interest of the United States in the Republic of Liberia springs from the historical fact of the foundation of the Republic by the colonization of American citizens of the African race. In an early treaty with Liberia there is a provision under which the United States may be called upon for advice or assistance. Pursuant to this provision and in the spirit of the moral relationship of the United States to Liberia, that Republic last year asked this Government to lend assistance in the solution of certain of their national problems, and hence the Commission was sent across the ocean on two cruisers.”


Map of Ethiopia (Abyssinia), Pre-First Great War

When the First Great War began on July 28, 1914, Liberia had economic connections with the United States and German Empire. In solidarity with their economic partners that same year, Liberia declared war on the British and French colonies located in Africa and kicked out British investors. The Liberians mostly fought a defensive war against British Sierra Leone and French West Africa. Ethiopia was in a more interesting strategic position for the Central Powers. It was believed that if Ethiopia was on their side, they could control access to the Suez Canal, preventing the British from being able to send supplies from their Asian colonies. Germany tried to convince the Ethiopians to join but three general events prevented Ethiopia from joining the war in favor the Central Powers: 1) The United States reasoned with the German government that the Ethiopians could try to take over Italian Eritrea, compelling neutral Italy to go into the hands of the Entente Powers. 2) The Arab Revolt brought some doubt to the Ethiopians at the time if the Ottomans could successfully douse it while fighting against the British and French. 3) The Ethiopian elites mistrusted their uncrowned emperor, Lij Iyasu, whom they believed was going to convert to Islam. An Entente-backed coup against Iyasu would put an Entente-friendly ruler, Zewditu, on the Ethiopian throne on September 27, 1916.

Interbellum Years
The victorious Central Powers brought some radical changes to Africa. The Belgian Congo, French Equatorial Africa, Portuguese West Africa, Portuguese East Africa were incorporated into Germany’s colonial territory. The reason as to why Portuguese territory was taken was due to Portugal’s declaration of war against Germany in 1916. Initially wanting more land from France and Britain, German officials knew that the conquered regions would be difficult to control, although that same reason was used to try and leave Portuguese territory alone. In the end, the region under German control was called Mittelafrika.

Altversion of africa after fgw.jpg


Although there was speculation that Italy would eventually invade Ethiopia due to border disputes, this never occurred and Ethiopia would enjoy relative stability throughout the 1920’ and 1930’s. Liberia opened up is economy with its abundant natural resource, rubber, toward a Union company called Firestone. Liberia would suffer economic instability and would declare bankruptcy during the 1930’s, compelling the United States to be in charge of its economy.

Second Great War

With Europe, North America, and Asia going to was in 1941, their respective colonies also became involved. In Africa, British, French, and German Africans fought each other in the name of their respective nations. The African theater of SGW was very similar to that of its predecessor during FGW. The major difference was that Liberia and Ethiopia were both neutral in the previous war. During the middle and final years of the war, the war became a personal affair for nearly every single African in every colonial territory on both sides of the global conflict.


French Colonial soldiers after listening to what Featherston has done to his Black population

When news of the Population Reduction in the Confederacy reached Africa, the colonial soldiers were shocked, horrified, and outraged that Blacks were being killed merely for being black. The reaction was more visceral for British and French Africans, who realized that they could no longer fight for a nation who aligned themselves with Featherston. In one of the most memorable events of the war, millions of African soldiers joined together to fight against the Confederacy’s allies in Africa.


British, French and German African soldiers sitting together in solidarity against the Radius Powers


Imperial German soldiers offering a cigarette to an African French POW. The POW would eventually defect to the Schutztruppe

Many Africans from the British and French colonial armies defected to German outposts. Liberia, under President Edwin Barclay, and Ethiopia, under Emperor Haile Selassie, declared war against Britain and France. The mutinies of African soldiers significantly contributed to the eventual overthrow of British and French control of their respective colonies.

Famous war heroes, such as Bokassa and Amin, would earn their place in the history books by contributing to the creation of their own nation-states, with varying amounts of success.


Sergeant Major Johann-Pedell Bokassa, who fought against the French in Africa


A young
Idi Amin (far left) with his family. Amin would later become involved in guerrilla tactics against the British. He is notoriously known as "The Butcher" for his torture and massacre of White British soldiers during the Second Great War.

By the end of the war, the German Empire would hold a tight grip on the African continent. The German government offered the former defeated colonies the option of joining Germany or forming their own nations. Eventually, most would choose to form their own independent republics. Some rose and fell, while others were absorbed by other larger, newly formed African nations.


NOTES:
1) IThe quote on Liberia-U.S. relations is a real-life quote said by President Taft. In TL-191, some other unnamed U.S. president could have said it, instead.
2) I had originally only wanted to portray Germany taking French territory, but then I remembered that Portugal was involved in the war, so I added something unexpected by having Germany kick the Portuguese out of Africa, except for one small part.
3) The story about how Ethiopia was courted to join the war by the Central Powers is interesting. See link in the sources.
4) The potential war between Ethiopia and Italy is a reference to the Second Italo-Ethiopian war, which never happened in TL-191, per my head-canon. (Maybe if Italy wasn't so neutral all the time, then the story would be more different...).
5) I gave Bokassa a German-sounding name with the assumption that he renounced the culture of his French colonialists and favored the Germans.
6) Idi Amin is still a crazy human rights abuser in TL-191.

Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberia_in_World_War_I
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Liberia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americo-Liberians
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-37428682
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lij_Iyasu_of_Ethiopia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopia–United_States_relations
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Eritrea
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declarations_of_war_during_World_War_I
https://www.loc.gov/law/help/digitized-books/world-war-i-declarations/foreign.php
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_exploration_of_Africa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonisation_of_Africa
https://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.../idi-amin-legendary-ugandan-dictator-was.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_prisoners_of_war_in_World_War_II
https://russiancouncil.ru/en/analyt...frica-in-world-war-ii-the-path-to-liberation/
https://allthatsinteresting.com/african-soldiers-world-war-ii#1
https://www.tekportal.net/abyssinia/
https://www.butterpear.com/post/history-of-liberia
http://www.liberiapastandpresent.org/TribalResistance.htm
 
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Great one. Minor critique of it is that Portugal is that, like Italy ITTL, never joins the war and remains neutral--at least not mentioned in the books. Then again, Portugal's often referred to as the "forgotten ally" so it could go 50/50 ITTL for them. If it were the former, the African theater would be radically different ITTL based on where the fighting is. In my opinion, the reason Portugal never joins the war is their proximity to the United States and fears of naval raids (for an in-universe explanation, at least). Also realistically, would the Turks have gotten Egypt back as a client state or would they be independent w/o the Brits? I really liked that Entente colonial soldiers would be mutinying by the hundreds of thousands since they would not stomach/dare blindly fight for a country whose ally is a genocidal dictatorship. That will definitely be a death blow for them. Another place you overlooked is Spanish colonies in Africa as places for defection and refugees. But what about the Arabs in North Africa? Would they rebel too? Will Indian soldiers also mutiny as well? In your head-cannon, what's the fate of the Jews living in French North Africa? Also, were African soldiers used for fighting in Mainland Europe? Post-war, would Liberia gain Sierra Leone? Would Djibouti go to Ethiopia? Would British Somaliland go to Italy? What's the fate of Zanzibar after GW1?
Brief History of Africa in TL-191, 1862-1945
 
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