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Persian Conquests

480BC: The Battle of Thermopylae ends with the retreat of the Persian army.

The Battle of Salamis is a victory for the Persians when the Greek Alliance falls apart prior to the battle. The Spartan general Eurybiades returns with his contingent to fortify the Peloponnese – the remaining navies of the various city-states attempt to escape the Persian navy by night but are discovered. The ensuing battle, though costly to both sides, ends in a Persian victory.

Though the Alliance all but ceased (and Athens sacked in 479) several cities would continue to fight on until 470BC (chief among these were Sparta, Corinth, and Delphi). Although most of Thessaly, Boeotia, and Attica fall under Persian control by 470 the exhausted armies of Persia are fought to a standstill.

470BC-359BC: The Greek culture of administrative elegance filters into an already well organized and managed Persian Empire – helping to forestall the underlying corruption from too greatly weakening the Empire. This “Golden Age” did however lull the Persian Kings into allowing their client kingdoms and provinces into an every growing self-autonomy.

359BC: Philip II takes control of Macedon when he becomes regent for his nephew Amyntas – later this year Philip proclaims himself King.

Philip’s son Alexander is born.

358BC-340BC: Through a series of campaigns Philip II is able to gain control over most of the Persian administered Greek lands.

340BC: Philip II sets Byzantium under siege – his first overt action against the core of the Persian Empire. Darius III dispatches a small contingent of soldiers and ambassadors calling for Philip’s immediate withdraw and for him to disband his army.

338BC: Philip II establishes the League of Corinth, effectively bringing all of Greece under his control.

337BC-335BC: Philip II battles the Persians for control of Byzantium. Several major naval battles will be fought at this time culminating in the Battle of Corinth where 1200 Persian ships were fought to a draw by 800 League ships.

336BC: An attempt is made on Philip II life. A servant and companion by the name of Pausanias is captured – under torture he implicates Olympias (Philip’s wife – who he never fully liked or trusted). Olympia claims to have been acting in the name of her son but Alexander admits to no knowledge of the assassination attempt. Alexander however is able to convince Philip to banish Olympia instead of beheading her.

335BC: Darius III offers Philip a cease fire. With the Battle for Byzantium drawing more and more soldiers from both sides and the destruction of both armadas at Corinth Philip accepts the cease fire.

334BC: The Treaty of Pella is signed. Philip is granted legitimate rule over the Greek lands under his control – in return for this the Kingdom of Macedonia will be a client state of the Persian Empire. Darius III also demands that Philip offer up his sons as hostages – Philip never fully trusted Alexander after the attempted assassination so begrudgingly accepts this in return for control over several Aegean islands.

Darius III was eager for a peace treaty. During the Macedonian Revolt an underlying danger had become increasingly clear – the satraps needed to be reigned in. This was especially evident in Egypt.

Darius had heard and personally experienced Alexander’s gift as a general – Alexander had successfully defeated several attempts made by Darius and his generals to land and army in Greece and had gone so far as to lead his own invasion of Anatolia in the weeks prior to the cease fire. In Alexander, Darius had both a hostage and a potential commander.

332BC-330BC: Darius III enlists Alexander in putting down several rebellions (Alexander though technically in command of the small army is watched over by several loyal generals).

330BC: Emboldened by Philip’s success, and the apparent preoccupation of Darius with putting out fires all across the Persian Empire, Egypt openly revolts under the leadership of Bagoas (the same man who had been instrumental in bringing Darius to the throne).

Philip II begins campaigning against the Illyrians.

330BC-328BC: Alexander Triumphs over Bagoas. Alexander places one of his generals as the military commander of Egypt, Ptolemy (a life long friend, body guard, and accomplished general in his own right, who had traveled with Alexander when he became a “hostage”). Though not fully supported by Darius’ ministers and advisers he does legitimately appoint Ptolemy as satrap of Egypt (to appease his advisors and quiet his own misgiving Darius does send nearly a hundred of his own administrators to help Ptolemy).

327BC: Aware of the estrangement between Alexander and Philip and hoping to further gain Alexander as an ally Darius offers the worthwhile commander his daughter Statira’s hand in marriage.

325BC: Philip II campaign in Illyrica faces stiff resistance against the migrating Celtic tribes. Darius III sends Alexander to aide his father in conquering the lands along the upper Danube.

324BC: Philip II dies while fighting the Scordisci (his throat was cut in an apparent night raid – no other soldiers were reported to have been injured).

323BC: Alexander returns to Pella to accept the throne of the Kingdom of Macedonia. Right away he realizes that the succession would not be an easy matter. Amyntas IV, the infant nephew of Philip II who had been in hiding for many years, returns to lay claim as the rightful heir.

322BC-319BC: Macedonian Civil War. Amyntas had spent many years traveling in secret throughout the Kingdom gaining support from other members of the defunct Corinth League who theoretically were equal to Pella. Alexander however had the backing of Darius III and the Persian Empire.

321BC: Darius III dies. His son Darius IV claims the Persian Empire. Resentful of the praise his father had lauded on Alexander Darius IV at first restricts the use of Persian warriors and than completely withholds his support in what he states was an internal affair and the need to shift soldiers to the eastern border. Alexander was left with an army of about 7000 with which to fight.

319BC: Though Amyntas IV had the superior numbers Alexander’s abilities as a general far out shinned the erstwhile heir. Although the civil war was brought to and end at the Battle of Philippi Alexander would spend the next year putting down the remnants of Amyntas’ coalition.

318BC: Alexander’s son Philip is born.

317BC: Alexander’s daughter Olympia is born.

316BC: With Macedonia well in hand once more Alexander is able to turn his attention on some unfinished business. For the insult of withholding soldiers promised by Darius III Alexander and Statira begin to plot the overthrow of her brother.

315BC: Alexander marches into Byzantium – taking it almost without a fight - and begins his conquest of the Persian Empire (315BC-307BC).

314BC: Darius IV is defeated at the Battle of Issus. Ptolemy Soter of Egypt pledges his support for Alexander (an event that will have repercussions for the two long time friends in years to come).

312BC: Darius IV is defeated again at Nineveh.

311BC: The Battle of Susa – indecisive.

310BC: The siege of Persepolis (which lasts until 308BC).

308BC: Darius IV is captured and imprisoned.

307BC: Alexander defeats the last of Darius IV supporters. Later this year his is proclaimed the new Emperor of the Persian Empire.


The Persian Empire comes through the civil war between Alexander and Darius IV with a new found sense of order. With the purging of the old and growing corruption Alexander is in a position to place loyal generals and administrators in empty satraps. He continues on with the tradition of the Empire to be open and accepting of the various cultures and religions under the Persian banner (though the growing influence of Zoroastrianism will factor heavily into the patchwork of faiths). Though currently at peace the Empire is surrounded by storm clouds that threaten the stability so recently gained.


307BC-290BC: Alexander I begins a massive public works project building roads to primarily improve troop movement but also to facilitate greater trade.

306BC-301BC: War breaks out between Persia and the Mauryan Empire when Chandragupta tries to annexes Bactria.

301BC: After 6 years of warfare with little gained on either side Chandragupta offers peace to Alexander. Bactria is returned to Persia and Alexander offers his daughter Olympia in marriage to Chandragupta’s son Bindusara.

299BC-291BC: Alexander renews his father’s campaign against the Illyrians.

298BC: Bindusara succeeds his father as the Mauryan Emperor (298BC-273). His reign will extend the rule of the Mauryan throughout the whole of the peninsula.

295BC: Syracuse successfully defends itself against a Carthaginian armada.

291BC: On his return trip from successfully subjugating the Illyrians Alexander contracts and illness and becomes bedridden. He dies 3 days later of a high fever. Alexander’s reign saw the infusion of Greek philosophy (particularly that of Aristotle which Alexander favored) and language into the Persian Empire.

Alexander’s son Philip (the 1st of Persia and the 4th of Macedonia), who had been acting as a garrison commander in Persepolis, assumes the throne when news reaches him of his father’s death (291BC-248BC). Philip I lacked his father’s ability to command an army however he had a great deal of skill as an administer and politician. He will continue to expand the Empire but through strength of threat – increasing the flow of tribute into the coffers from even Phoenician and Free Greek colonies. He begins by exerting greater political control over the everyday events in Egypt, which under his father had been given a great deal of autonomy, and sends envoys south into the Nubian Kingdoms.

290BC: Ptolemy Soter dies, as agreed upon prior to his death Ptolemy’s eldest son (Ptolemy II Philiadelphus – 290BC-285BC) was granted the position of satrap by Philip I.

Olympia dies of malaria – though some say it was the heartbreak from the news of her father’s death. With her passing so does the treaty between the Persian and Mauryan Empires end, though border skirmishes will be shared it isn’t until the end of the century and into the next that more aggressive actions take place.

288BC: Heliocentric theory proposed by Aristarchus, but rejected by leading Aristotlean theorists.

287BC-285BC: In response to Philip I heavy hand, Ptolemy II rises Egypt in revolt against the Persian Empire.

285BC: The Persian armies are successful in putting down the Egyptian Revolt. Philip I grants several Nubian chiefs their own kingdoms for their help in putting down the revolt (extending Persian influence down the length of the Red Sea). The deciding factor in the rebellion was the ability of Philip I to talk Ptolemy II brother Ambrose into assassinating Ptolemy II. Ambrose is appointed satrap after the collapse of the rebellion and takes the name Ptolemy III.

280BC-269BC: The Persian Empire suffers a series of Celt invasion. Though they ransack many towns and villages as far as Byzantium and Athens their migrating waves are eventually repelled.

275BC: Manius Curius Dentatus successfully expands Roman dominance into Cisalpine Gaul after defeating a coalition of Boii and Norii tribes.

273BC: Asoka assumes the throne of the Mauryan Empire. Much of his reign is spent promoting Buddhism and building temples (he converts to Buddhism in the same year of his coronation).

271BC: Hiero of Syracuse forms the Syracusian League (a collaboration of Free Greek City-States along the western Med.) to offset Carthage and Roman expansion. Unknown at the time but the Syracusian League was obtaining a large amount of support from the Persian Empire.

265BC: Concul Manius Valerius Messalla secures an alliance with Carthage, the combined forces issue a joint Carthage/Roman declaration of war against the Syracusian League (265BC-250BC).

The difficult terrain of Sicily creates a quagmire for the Cartaginan and Roman soldiers fighting for Syracuse. Land battles along lower Gaul and Iberia fair much better for Carthage and Rome. Sea battles would remain indecisive throughout the war.

260BC-255BC: Pergamon Rebellion. The autocratic rule of the Alexandrians flies in the face of a popular concept of the Greek teachings, the idea of Plato’s Republic. Eumenes I, satrap of Pergamon, rises in rebellion in an attempt to establish his own republic.

259BC-252BC: Egypt rises in revolt. Ptolemy III had helped fund Eumenes’ rebellion with the goal of increasing his own chances of breaking from the Persian Empire.

255BC: Pergamon is brought back into the Persian fold, Eumenes I is killed.

252BC: Persian soldiers storm Memphis killing Ptolemy III. Philip I appoints Antiochus (an Egyptian general who had remained loyal to Persia) as the new satrap. Philip’s first task for his new satrap was to put him to the task of hunting down and capturing the rest of the Ptolemy line (most were brought to Persepolis in chains).

250BC-230BC: The First Punic War. With the collapse of the Syracusian League after the fall of Syracuse in 251BC led to greater and greater tension between Carthage and Rome. Roman soldiers had finally taken the city however much of Sicily was under Carthage control, efforts at negotiating a joint administration of the island led to open hostilities and eventually a declaration of war.

248BC: Philip I dies in his sleep in Persepolis. His son Leander I (248BC-231BC) assumes the throne. He shared far more in common with his grandfather and openly begins aggressive maneuvers to rein in regions that had gained some independence. He even goes so far as to reinstate tribute from Phoenician and Free Greek colonies (the flow of tribute had waned since Philip I initial threatening overtures at the start of his reign).

246BC: Leander I begins to subjugate rebels to the north and east.

239BC-231BC: Leander I begins to war with the Free Greek City-States along the Black Sea.

232BC: Asoka dies. Although he expanded his empire and was a great promoter of Buddhism and builder of temples his reign was seen by many of the elite within the military and high born as a period of weakness that undermined their authority on the world stage. For the next 50 years a succession of weak rulers who will uphold the Buddhist faith but at nearly the expense of all the territory gained during the first 80 years of the dynasty.

231BC: Leander I, leading an invasion force, dies when his ship is sunk in a squall off the coast of Crete. His son Phlegethon becomes the new Emperor of Persia (231BC-210BC). He was a major supporter of Zoroastrianism and builds many fire temples throughout the Empire. This also marks a period of great rebellion in the Empire, which leads to the eventual loss of Bactria, Egypt, and Illyrica.

230BC: Rome and Carthage sign a peace treaty. Carthage will hold onto much of their holdings in Iberia. Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia do fall under the command of the Republic.

Hasdrubal rises to be the ruler of Carthage in the wake of the war with Rome.

221BC: The State of Qin defeats the warring factions and unites the region under one house.

219BC-217BC: Queen Tessa of the Illyrians sends envoys to Rome requesting aide in freeing them from Persian control. Satrap Antiochus sends envoys to Carthage requesting aide in freeing them from Persian control.

217BC-205BC: Attempting to break the growing Persian hold on the Med., free Egypt and the Illyrians from Persian rule, punish Persia for extracting tribute from Phoenician colonies, and aiding Syracuse during the war, Carthage and Rome declare war on Persia.

Phlegethon would prove to be an inept military commander, though the Persian armies were able to win many victories, Phlegethon gave up many opportunities to follow up retreating armies or conduct counter-attacks (opting instead for a defensive war in most cases).

215BC: Rome gains several footholds along of the Illyrican coast. Persian armies are forced from Egypt – garrisoned cities are left to their own.

Bowing to pressure from his military commanders the Mauryan Emperor Salisuka (who had just ascended to the throne) allows for the annexing of territory along the Persian border – which they saw as paramount to insuring the safety of the empire.

212BC: Persian forces are forced from most of Illyrica though the mountainous terrain allows for several pockets of resistance. Phlegethon son Alexander II in command of 800 ships defeats the Roman supplies and relief force meant for their victories in Illyrica.

210BC: Alexander II defeats a combined Egyptian/Carthage army, turning their flank, and, disobeying his father’s orders not to risk perusing the enemy, completely routs them when the enemy makes camp during the night. His march into Egypt is halted however at news of his father’s death. He garrisons his army along the delta – which leads to the founding of one of the most prosperous cities in Egypt, Alexandria – and heads back to the capital to claim the throne (210BC-180BC).

Bactria is annexed by the Muaryan Empire – this was done slowly over the previous 5 years, with Alexander II fending off much more aggressive invasions from the west there was little that could be done to stop the Muaryan military commanders who had gained increasingly more power under the waning dynasty.

206BC: The Han Empire is established.

205BC: Despite Alexander’s ability to command and the victories he was able to compile his armies and the people of Persia were growing tired of war. He is able to negotiate a peace. Egypt is granted their independence, Rome would hold onto their gains in Illyrica (much to the woe of the Illyrians – though most of the region was granted independence and became a Roman client kingdom), Carthage would lay claim to some territory along the African coast and the islands of Crete and Cyprus. Though what probably hurt Alexander II pride the most was the loss of the city he founded at the mouth of the delta in Egypt.


202BC-180BC: Perhaps sensing weakness in the region Parthians invade the eastern edges of the Persian Empire though the brunt of the attacks fall on territory now held by the Mauryan Empire (the near inability to match the onslaught only further erodes the power of the ruling dynasty and facilitates their rapidly approaching demise).

200BC-180BC: Rome and Carthage continue to expand into lower Gaul and Iberia which are both quickly populated by new colonies and conquests.

190BC-180BC: The Syrian Rebellion. If the Parthians were prompted by their perception of weakness Satrap Antiochus of Syria was prompted by what he knew to be weakness. With an army raised out of his holdings in Damascus Antiochus is able to fortify his territory and launch attacks – he eventually is even able to carve out his own kingdom reaching from Tarsus (taken in 189BC) to Jerusalem (taken in 186BC). With Alexander II forces split between defending the eastern frontier from Parthain invaders and holding down other would-be usurpers this major rebellion is able to smolder for several years before eventually being put down.

185BC: The kingdom of Noricum expands to control several alpine passes and iron deposits. Their territory is recognized by the Roman Senate and seen as a great threat to the stability of the Republic (Noricum was formed by the Nori and Boii in the early part of the 3rd century during the Roman expansion into Cisalpine Gaul). News of this thorn in Rome’s side reaches Alexander II via the trade winds down the Adriatic. He seizes upon the opportunity and at once begins fostering closer relations with the Celtic kingdom.

180BC-168BC: The Second Punic War. Expansion eventually leads to war between these two powers. The war would remain largely indecisive between 180 and 172 as both sides tried to involve each others enemies and the war bogged down in Iberia and Sicily (Hano III bribed several Celtic tribes to join his forces which lead to a successful campaign in 176 that brought Carthage to the Italian peninsula however the coalition was defeated in 174 and all of Carthage’s gains were lost when Rome was able to secure an alliance with the Numidians which eventually resulted in putting Carthage under siege – after 6 months this siege was lifted in the face of a combined Carthage/Egyptian army). In the spring of 172 the Roman Senate would give Lucius Scipio command of an army of 8000 for an attack on the Balearics. This victory leads to the Battle of Saguntum, another victory for Scipio but his attack on Carthago Nova would fail and coupled with the Roman victory at Syracuse and the navel draw of the Battle of Malta would be the high water mark for the Roman advance. In 170 the Carthage counter-attack would push the Romans from Saguntum and defeat them again at Numantia. Scipio will hold the line at the Pyrenees where he will order the building of several forts.

180BC: Alexander II dies at the Battle of Damascus, ending the Syrian Rebellion. His eldest son Amyntas, a devout Zoroastrian, takes on the throne (180BC-148BC).

The Maurya dynasty comes to and end when Brhadrata is assassinated by general Pusyamitra Sunga. This act brings down the Empire as the fragmented land falls under the rule of several dynasties (by far the strongest of these was the Sunga Dynasty which would control a vast area along the Ganges River). There is a backlash against Buddhism at this time and a resurgence of Hinduism. Buddhism would find some acceptance in Persia but the search for divinity within oneself was seen by many within the growing Zoroastrian population as nothing more than laziness and a turning against the senses that went against he leading Aristotelian theorists. Buddhism would be more successful as it spread to the east and southeast.

179BC-174BC: The First Illyrican War. Amyntas had been waiting for the right moment to launch an attack to reclaim Illyrica; with help from Noricum that moment had come at least. Although Rome would heed the calls for help and send aide to the buffer kingdom most of their attention was focused on their war with Carthage.

174BC-169BC: The Danube War. The Dacian tribes, which had finally been united by Oroles at the end of the 3rd century, now expand under Rhemaxos. This brings a sudden call for a cease-fire with the Illyricans and Rome as Amyntas is forced to defend the Danube (the war would be hard fought but the Treaty of Mezek signed in 169BC establishes the Danube as the shared border – although skirmishes would be fought open warfare will not be declared for almost a hundred years).

172BC: Bactria established as its own kingdom, founded by Demetrius (Greek by blood who had been a general in the Mauyran army).

170BC-140BC: Steppe tribes launch a series of invasion into Han territory. At this same time Parthians under the leadership of Mithradates I renew their invasion of the west, striking deep into Bactria and even the Persian Empire (swift mounted archers were deadly even against hardened Persian chariot units). Caught between Parthia and Dacia Amyntas fears Egypt might take advantage of the weakened border so steps are taken to draw Seti III attention elsewhere.

167BC: Seti III of Egypt seeks aide from Carthage to help fight Nubians and Numidians. This leads to Carthage’s first war with the Numidians (166-158). Egypt had faced near constant war with the Nubian kingdoms, over the last few years even more so. Contact with the Persians had helped secure and create several kingdoms along the eastern African coast however since the Persian war with Rome and Carthage at the end of the 3rd century support and trade had been limited and Persian traders and ambassadors were never shy about pointing to Egypt as the reason for the lack of involvement.

160BC: Amyntas begins to speak out against the prominence of Pagan idols within the Empire. He starts a 10 year campaign against the pagan religions outlawing not their practice but the displaying of icons.

155BC: Crete and Cyrus ask for aide from Carthage to help stop the ongoing problems with Persian pirates.

153BC-149BC: The Carthaginian War. Outraged at the Persian involvement with the Nubian wars, Numidian War, and the unwillingness to curb the pirate activity in the Eastern Mederteranian Hiram II declares war on Persia. Sea battles would be more or less matched the shorter Persian supply lines would ultimately be the deciding factor (allowing for the conquest of Cyprus and Lower Egypt before a truce is called – Cyprus will remain in Persian hands however all of Lower Egypt is passed back to Seti III except for Alexandria).

150BC-140BC: Rome suffers rebellions in southern Gaul.

150BC: Parchment appears for the first time (developed in Pergamum).

148BC: Amyntas iconoclast proved only to decrease his popularity, cause several riots, and drive the idol worship underground. He dies of a heart attack as one of the most hated rulers of Persia. Amyntas had no children and although it was never made clear there is no backlash against Balasi (Amyntas’ brother) when he takes the throne (148BC-128BC). The Alexandrian reputation is not helped by Balasi as he was stricken with bad joints from childhood – he was often tripping or falling as a knee or ankle buckled from underneath him. This made him a bad warrior and his attempts to please everyone made him a bad administrator.

Balasi shared his brother’s conviction but not his methods. After seeking the advice of his most learned members of his court it was decided that the fault didn’t lie in the people but in the fact that Zoroastrianism was as of yet so fractured and undefined. Balasi answer to this is to revitalize the waning influence of the Magi to try and help solidify the Zoroastrians (the Magi had been in decline since their attempt at political control was defeated by Darius I). To prevent their past ambitions restrictions are placed on the Magi – namely they are not allowed to own anything, all food, shelter, and money would be provided by their local temple. They were also forbidden from holding any other public office other than Magi.

147BC-145BC: The Second Illyrican War. Balasi, in an attempt to prove his worth as a military leader, marches into Illyrica but ambushes and skirmishes in the hills and mountain passes hold off any major conquest long enough for Rome to send support. Little is gained after Rome entered the war, several bloody and indecisive battles are fought but eventually it is decided that a cease-fire should be called (in 145, just prior to the cease-fire, Rome bribed Noricum to stay neutral, heading off the Persian ambassador sent to gain their help).

147BC-125BC: Hipparchus, a Greek scientist, begins to publish his works. During his lifetime he will publish his observations on subjects like Astrology, Geography, and Mathematics.

145BC-130BC: Refugees from the Hun invasion of central Asia and Han territory begin appearing in Bactria. Demetrius II is unable to stop the migrating hordes from entering his land for the years of exhausting warfare (which began under his father) with the Parthians had blunted his military might.

145BC: The Roman Senate decides to formally annex Illyricum and make it a province (significantly increasing their military presence in the region).

142BC-139BC: Rome suffers a major rebellion in Sicily.

140BC: Bactria falls to Mithridates I.

138BC: Mithridates I dies before completely securing his territory. Dynastic squabbling occurs leaving the area open to invasion by a new threat. Soon Scythian tribes, first the Saka, then the Kushan, arrive in the already war torn region.

133BC: Balasi seeks an alliance with the Kushans to help secure the eastern front and win back Bactria.

Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, an important tribune of the Roman Senate, is assassinated by a Senatorial mob for his attempts at social reforms.

130BC-122BC: The Parthian War. The Alexandrian line had been very skilled at manipulating friends and enemies; they’ve kept Rome on her toes by pitting them against Celtic tribes, rebellions, and Carthage, and they’ve kept Carthage off balance by pitting them against Numidians and Rome. In keeping with this family ability Balasi (in his one and only redeeming act during his reign) is able to secure peaceful relations with the Kushan leaders (giving him a free hand with which to wage war on the Parthians).

128BC: Balasi dies before being able to realize any fruits of his labors. His only son Dorian, the opposite of his father – he was a charming warrior of note who had already proven himself in battle, is readily crowned by a choirs of ministers and for the first time, Magi (128BC-122BC).

Emperor Han Wudi takes the fight to the steppe tribes with the first campaign into the frontier (129-117BC).

122BC: Dorian dies while fighting in Bactria. This sudden and tragic death paralyzes the Persian army as the gallant fighter had no known children. An exhaustive search commences with all speed to find an heir before the Empire falls into chaos. Before any significant lead can be followed Dorian’s cousin Leander, a childhood friend and current satrap of Macedonia, announces his claim to the throne (though several other relatives of lesser importance within the Empire also step up the body of ministers decides to appoint Leander as he was first to lay claim and in charge of the very strategic territory of Macedonia). Leander becomes the second of that name to rule and is crowned before the end of the year (122BC-97BC).

Leander II, whose two top words in his vocabulary are luxury and decadence, is uninterested in continuing a war that has already claimed two Emperors, as well as being way off on the eastern edge of the Empire, so he signs a treaty with Parthia. Persia would keep the lands they have already conquered and would allow the existence of a Parthian state, though only as a client kingdom (with ministers appointed by Leander II).

120BC-110BC: Carthage faces stiff rebellion in Iberia.

120BC: A tax collector from Persepolis by the name of Arses Asha issues a report to his superiors noting the alarming number of slaves operating in the city. This report eventually makes its way to LeanderII who does little to deal with this potential problem other than to order a commission to take account of all the slaves in the Empire so as to better tax their owners.

With the backing of the Senate Consul Lucius Opimius forms his own army to battle the supporters of Gaius Gracchus (a tribune, and brother of the late Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, who continued his family’s push to institute radical reforms in the Roman Republic). In the end Gracchus and upwards of 3000 followers are executed.

Cimbri, Teutones migrate into Gaul (for the next 20 years they will rampage through Gaul with occasional thrusts into Italy and Greece).

118BC-112BC: The Third Illyrican War. King Bowden of Noricum sends word to LeanderII requesting aide in their fight against the Germanic migration. Whereas he as uninterested in waging war in Bactria which was so far from his home in Macedonia LeanderII is interested in finally laying claim to Illyrica. He uses this as an excuse to accomplish something his predecessors had not. Promising support to King Bowden LeanderII sends an army into Nori and Boii lands through Illyrica. Rome would respond to this invasion, however, two factors would prevent a repeat of the past; 1) the Germanic invasion would call for more resources than what could be spared (especially after LeanderII successfully convinces – with the help of a bribe – a Germanic army that Rome was ripe for the taking) and 2) Persia had learned from the long wars with Parthia knowledge of the deadly efficiency of the mounted warrior and had replaced many of their chariot units with cavalry. 6 years of war will fork the migration into Gaul and Dacia and end with the conquest of Illyrica.

115BC: Even with the help and efficiency of his ministers, satraps, roads, and garrisons, Leander II was becoming increasingly frustrated with the effort of ruling such a large empire and so decides to give his satraps the authority to raise their own armies. Although decedent Leander II was not a foolish man; he would not allow any satrap army to be larger than his imperial forces, all army commanders would be appointed by the Emperor, and from now on all ministers and ranking administrators in the territories would be appointed by the Emperor (which even if it meant the satraps had more authority all other aide and leadership within a given region was loyal to Persepolis).

112BC-106BC: Numidian raids plague Carthage to the point where all communication is lost to the western half of the empire. This prompts Carthage to declare war on the Numidians.

105BC: Ever expanding the riches of trade Leander II encourages merchants and explorers to seek out new lands and opportunities. Through these explorations it is in this year that direct contact is made with the Han Empire (diplomatic and trade ties were soon to follow).

102BC: Roman Consuls Marius and Catulus finally defeat the Cimbri and Teutones.


100BC: King Necer III of Egypt dies. Unable to decide between his sons, Necer passes the throne to them both (Necho and Ahmose are only a year and a half apart, which does make Necho the eldest, a position he is never shy about making a point of to his younger brother).

The brothers set out on many different policies, bringing Egypt into an era of great political confusion. None of their policies were more different than their trade initiatives; Necho favored Carthage and Ahmose favored healing the ties with Persia and increasing trade in that region (the situation was exploited fully by both Carthage and Persia). Neither brother was much liked by the people of Egypt; not only were their conflicting policies troublesome but neither of them were seen as acting in the best interests of the kingdom.

97BC: Leander II of Persia dies. His time as ruler increased the wealth and size of the Empire though at the expense of imperial authority as satraps and landowners were given unprecedented autonomy. Much of his new found wealth however was shared only with Persepolis (the palace was expanded, a royal bath was constructed, and many buildings which had been in disrepair were rebuilt). His son Alexander (III) readily picks up where his father had left off (97BC-81BC).

95BC-89BC: Egypt’s dynastic troubles erupt into civil war (in no small part instigated by Carthaginian and Persian interference). From the beginning the civil war would not go in Necho’s favor. Nubian invasions would always seem to fall on territory Necho controlled; either raiding his towns and supplies or ambushing one of his armies.

91BC: Rome enters the Social War (91-89). Rome’s Latin allies rise up after years of having their rights and wishes to be named as full citizens being ignored (a major figure coming into opposition to Marius’ power and popularity at this time is Lucius Cornelius Sulla who gains much fame during the war).

90BC: After years of war and negotiation Carthage peaceably incorporates the Numidians into their empire (helping to revitalize the military, i.e. spearmen, light cavalry, etc.). Carthage can now fully back Necho in his war against his brother.

89BC: Carthage’s help comes a little too late. Necho and his forces are defeated near the Bahriya Oasis. Ahmose IV is crowed king of Egypt.

Rome successfully concludes the Social War. However, a more pressing issue is becoming painfully clear, the “self made man” is on the rise. Between now and 20BC Rome will face and ever growing problem of private armies and ambitious Consuls eager for absolute power.

89BC-75BC: Alexander III of Persia announces he will not allow this new found friendship with Egypt to falter and promises to continue his support until the Kingdom is at peace (which at the moment meant helping to round up the remnants of Necho’s forces and supporters as well as defend against a seemingly endless parade of Nubian raids – perpetuated, unbeknownst to Ahmose IV, by Persian military and administrative advisors to the Nubian kings).

87BC: The Han Empire’s period of expansion is successfully brought to a close (an estimated 4 million people are relocated into the northern and southern conquests).

85BC-83BC: Rome’s war with Noricum. Sulla is appointed by the Senate the task of defeating Queen Brenna, whose war parties disrupt Rome trade, and whose armies continue to expand threatening to chock the Republic off from Gaul.

85BC: Crop rotation is developed in the Han Empire (a practice that will slowly move west over the next two centuries).

83BC-80BC: Sulla returns from his victory over Queen Brenna only to find a less than hospitable Senate. In his absence Marius and his supporters have convinced the Republic the danger Sulla represents and have marked him persona non grata. Sulla is asked to lay down his command, he refuses and spends the next 3 years politically and militarily fighting his enemies.

81BC: Alexander III dies. His son Feodras, a less flamboyant Alexandrian than his father or his grandfather, in now charge of the Persian Empire (81BC-50BC). Feodras saw serious problems developing in the Empire, his reign will concentrate on public works projects like roads, canals, and the building of thousands of signal towers all across the Empire. He will also be preoccupied with an every growing agitated Carthage whose irritation over Persian interference in Egyptian rule has some talking about war.

80BC: Sulla is proclaimed dictator for life.

80BC-onward: Increasing Han influence all along the Korean peninsula will help facilitate the formation of 3 major kingdoms over the rest of the century; Silla, Goguryeo, and Baekje.

78BC: The Roman dictator Sulla dies.

78BC-65BC: A series of slave revolts erupt in Persia. Like a rolling brushfire, the unorganized uprising would die out or be suppressed in one region only to flare up in another. Although Leander II had given each individual satrap the right to form their own armies to handle smaller internal problems for many this was the first time they had to issue the creation of an army from their holdings. One of the main problems with the slave revolt is that it was used by nobles and satraps against rivals in other provinces (as no satrap army was allowed to leave its own borders, the roving slave marauders would often be herded towards a particular region and encouraged to cross over rather than be killed outright).

75BC-72BC: Rome’s second war with Noricum. This time the Senate appoints Lucius Lucullus to put down the Noricum insurgence.

75BC: King Burebista of Dacia begins several major campaigns to expand his control. He first makes assaults along the Danube, incorporating several outlying Boii and Nori tribes and eventually all of the Pannonian Plains. Noricum, weakened by their wars with Rome, is able to do little to stop this other than send out raids and fortify their borders hoping to defeat the on coming horde in the Alpine passes.

74BC-72BC: The Second Carthaginian War. Carthage and Persia go to war over Egypt. Neither empire was totally prepared for war and given the distance that had to be covered there were only a few major encounters, most of which were on the island of Crete, though there were a number of smaller skirmishes. Ahmose IV chooses to help his Persian friends and is killed in the first major exchange at Siwa (for the remainder of the war Egypt will be administered by Persia). Ultimately, Feodras decides that war with Carthage at this time is too risky. With Dacia on the move and the ongoing slave issue Feodras opts to negotiate a cease-fire to deal with the problems closer to home. Crete, largely in Persian hands, will be held by Persia. In return Carthage demands that Persia withdraw from Egypt. Willing to bide his time and focus and more pressing concerns Feodras agrees to a partial withdraw and the appointment of a king both Persia and Carthage could agree on. Eventually it is agreed upon that Bakari Annu Iwimnish should be named king (a wealthy merchant and influential land owner from Thebes who wasn’t very popular with the populous and favored greater ties with Carthage). He took the name Seti V upon accepting the double crown.

73BC-70BC: Slave uprising in Rome Republic.

Feodras sends envoys to Iberia in an attempt to form an alliance with the native populations currently under Carthaginian rule. He also steps up his contact with the Nubians, making sure Egypt was as unsafe as a dark alley.

72BC-50BC: King Abdosir II of Carthage enters into a protracted civil war. Similar to what was happening in Rome we see the growing unrest of military leaders with control over private armies looking for greater authority. Carthaginian armies were under the leadership of Abdosir’s family. For a number of years there has been growing tension between Abdosir’s brothers, Eshmunamash and Bodashtart, and their first cousin, Himilco. Each commanded an army (the brothers stationed in Iberia and the cousin who safeguarded the desert border) and each had made not so subtle advances vying to be Abdosir’s heir (in place of his 15 year old son). Himilco’s victory over Ahmose IV in the war with Persia as well as handily holding off two Persian raids gave him the impression that he was the best choice for Abdosir’s successor (he made his point by marching on Carthage). Not to be overlooked or miss their opportunity Eshmunamash and Bodashtart make similar advances soon after.

70BC-66BC: The Lusitani, leading a conglomeration of Iberian tribes, rise up against Carthage (the Lusitani find friends with both the Persian Empire and the Rome Republic).

70BC-68BC: The Roman Senate, seeing an opportunity to reclaim territory lost during the last Punic War sends Lucius Lucullus to help Lusitanii in their war against the Carthaginians. By 68BC Abdosir’s threats of war are taken seriously within the Senate and although secretly aide will still be given to the Lusitani it will not be granted in the abundance it had been nor did the Senate have any intention of withdrawing from the lands north of the Ebro that were annexed over the last 2 years.

70BC-68BC: Dacia invades Macedonia sparking the Second Danube War. Events that occur a few months later preclude Feodras from ending the Dacian threat with a swift counter invasion and instead he uses Noricum refugees and other Celtic tribes as mercenaries to supplement his forces.

70BC-65BC: The Slave Revolts in Persia falls under the command of a single man, Orodes. Of Parthian descent, he organized the marauding slaves into a cohesive army and began to systematically attack strategic locations. In 69BC, Orodes lulls Feodras into a trap, decimating the Emperor’s army and capturing Feodras himself. Feodras is later released for a sum of money and a large supply of food/water during the siege of Persepolis (which Orodes captured in 68 and held until 66).

70BC-60BC: The Mediterranean is plagued by pirates, many of Persian blood or berth. Trade is disrupted so much so that the Roman Senate appoints Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (or simply Pompey The Great) to deal with the problem.

70BC-20BC: Fresh waves of Germanic migrations into Gaul, Italia, Persia.

70BC: The Sunga Empire collapses into a collection of smaller kingdoms.

A Dacian army defeats an army of Noricums at Taurisci (taking the gold mines there, which seems to have been the Dacian goal).

68BC: The Second Danube War is brought to a close. Feodras rewards his Celtic mercenaries by allowing them to settle and occupy what had been Dacia (establishment of Galatia).

68BC-66BC: Julius Caesar serves as military commander in Iberia (Julius Caesar’s political ambitions have included several senatorial positions, a number of successful campaigns under Lucullus, and now military authority of Taraconenis).

67BC-61BC: The Third Noricum Roman war. Lucullus is given command to formally annex the kingdom known as Noricum (Julius Caesar joins him in 65BC). The kingdom was already largely in disarray due to the war with Dacia however the remnants of the Noricum military still existed in Gaul, which is where the majority of the battles are fought during this war.

66BC-65BC: The Third Punic War. Rome and Carthage declare war on each other over past aggressions though the immediate reason was the discovery that Rome was still helping the Lusitani (which by this time had carved out their own kingdom in northwest Iberia). Though mostly indecisive, the Balearic Islands do change hands once again back to Carthage.

65BC: Though Orodes is never captured his army is eventually defeated. More importantly than the war itself was the fact that during the Carthage/Dacia/Slave war (essentially between 80BC-60BC) Feodras held a traveling court spending as little as 3 months actually in Persepolis (cities from Damascus, to Byzantium, to Pella, to Alexandria have been used as Feodras’ roaming capital). Though the administrative hub still existed in Persepolis (not counting Orodes 2 year occupation) Feodras would rule from where ever was convenient, stating “I should not be bound by walls in order to rule this Empire efficiently.”

60BC-56BC: Persian Rebellion. The eastern half of the Persian Empire was under populated, and largely ignored by the Alexandrians (even Persepolis had seen little attention in recent years). They saw the west as being “Occupied” by Hellenists and even though Greek culture and language had become the establishment even in the east many in this region resented what they saw as the erasing of their ancestral ways. During the 13 year slave revolt the east was victim to most of the ravages of that period of unrest. Feodras had done little to help other than build and fix roads, he left the clean up of the eastern satraps to themselves. The final straw seems to have been the seemingly abandonment of the Persian Capital for western cities like Pella, Byzantium, and Damascus. In the Fall of 60BC, led by the satrap of Persepolis (a man by the name of Majnoon), Elam, Media, Drangiana, Bactria, and Parikania rise up against the Empire.

The seceding satraps kept their armies small and maneuverable hoping to bleed Feodras’ army to death by raids and night assaults. It was however the distance to be covered more than the battle tactics of the satraps that allowed the rebellion to go on as long as it did. Feodras devised quickly what it was the rebels were doing and through false information, fakes, and disrupting the communications between the rebel leaders he was able to on more than one occasion lure more than one enemy into a large pitched battle.

The Emperor’s one bad decision during the rebellion was to send a heavy handed warning to the Parthians (which had remained a quiet and loyal client kingdom since their defeat in the last century) not to join the other satraps. The letter was not received well and it sparked debate among the Parthian nobles that perhaps it was time to throw off the shackles they had allowed themselves to be place in.

58BC: The Roman Republic is split between the power of two men, Pompey (in control of the sea trade routes) and Caesar (commanding a vast army with the support of Iberia and the southern Gaul). The Senate spends a great deal of time pitting the two against each other while it decides the best course of action.

56BC: The conclusion of the Persian Rebellion had many citizens now forced into slavery and the confiscation of vast, formally, privately owned land. Persian soldiers were now being sent to stay in Parthia (though they didn’t join the rebellion, their disrespectful reply to Feodras’ letter and general unrest prompted a greater Persian presence in the area). Feodras popularity in the west also suffered when he had 200,000 citizens relocated to the east.

56BC-50BC: Julius Caesar begins his Gallic Wars. To finish what he started during the Third Noricum War Julius departs from Aquitania with his army with the goal of bring all of Gaul under his (Rome’s) control. Though his campaign began under the perception of defense, the migrating tribes did threaten the Roman Border, he will eventually seek Senatorial approval when he learns that Pompey was preparing to bring Caesar up on charges. Julius will meet his expectations and then some by also including lower Britannia in his conquest (though the people do end up making poor slaves the access to tin makes the land a prize worth keeping).

50BC: Emperor Feodras dies in Damascus (where he had been conducting court since 63BC). Feodras had no surviving children however he does name his nephew Theron as his heir (50BC-42BC). Theron is recalled from the East where he had been instrumental in securing the borders in the wake of the civil war. Like his uncle Theron will be an emperor on the move, ruling from several different cities. One of his first acts is to reign in the satraps, especially those east of the Euphrates who had collaborated during the civil war but had bought their freedom from Feodras. During the course of his 8 years nearly every satrap, minister, and advisor the empire over will be replaced, and although Theron concentrates authority back under the emperor he himself will actually do very little in the way of administration.

The Roman Senate asks Julius Caesar (under Pompey’s insistence) to give up his command.

Himilco comes out of the Carthaginian civil war as the crowned leader.

49BC-48BC: Theron, a warrior with little interest in the running of the Empire, looks to new battlefields to regain the Persian honor as well as to tier out some of the hot rebellious blood still left over in the armies from the civil war. His eyes fall on Egypt where he launches a campaign of conquest in the Spring of 49.

49BC-44BC: Julius Caesar refuses to relinquish his command and sends the Republic into civil war.

48BC-45BC: The Third Carthaginian War. As expected, Carthage declares war on Persia for their aggressive action against Egypt. Though able to win draw after draw Carthage is unable to follow up any victories with counter attacks as their armies, funds, and government are exhausted by the lengthy civil war. Relations heal some when Theron offers Carthage a trade deal which included a heavy emphasis on grain.

48BC-32BC: Nubian Wars, the self-made kings and appointed leaders by the Persians go to war with each other. Though a concrete empire isn’t forged the area is brought under control of a single family (Taharqa and his family) who rule through the strength of arms, pitting the lesser kings against each other, and tribute.

44BC-38BC: Persian Civil War. Though Theron had made some overtures to kindling a lasting peace with Carthage he had done little to help heal the rift between the west and the east of his own empire. It was being ruled like a conquered state rather than an equal part of one empire. As with the Rebellion the war drums would start their beat in Persepolis. The garrison commander, Sohrab Nasim Smerdis (a man who has risen through the ranks and was appointed by Feodras himself to act as garrison commander in the wake of the Rebellion), seeing an empire divided and the east bearing the lashes of the west seeks help from an equally oppressed kingdom. He finds a welcoming ear in Phraates IV, king of Parthia. With Phraates’ help Sohrab swiftly takes control of the eastern satraps and begins his march on the west.

The Battle of Susa is the first encounter with Theron’s armies. Though a victory for Sohrab it would be his last. In the coming years though he has a nearly endless supply of Parthain soldiers and mercenaries from the Indus valley he is unable to cross the Euphrates. The only saving grace for Sohrab is that the battles are so brutal and costly that even though they are victories for Theron he is unable to make many gains.

44BC: Julius Caesar defeats Pompey and is proclaimed dictator for life. He successfully avoids a plot to assassinate him this same year.

42BC: Theron dies in battle along the banks of the Euphrates. His cousin Thanos, who had served with him now through a major rebellion and a civil war, proclaims himself Emperor (42BC-33BC), overruling the rights of Theron’s two children – who he later has killed. Thanos continues the war for another 2 years, but half heartedly. In 39BC he is able to capture Persepolis but he uses the victory as a negotiating point to get Sohrab to the table. A cease-fire is called and after another year of minor skirmishes and neither really wanting to continue the bloodshed a truce is signed. The Persian Empire would be split and Parthia would be granted its freedom.

This decision is largely unpopular among the high borne and Thanos finds himself putting out dozens of small political fires for the rest of his reign.

33BC: Thanos is poisoned by his brother Rhesus (who often went by the apt nickname he gave himself, Thanatos). He came to see his brother as having been sent by Hades to destroy the Empire. Rhesus becomes the next Persian Emperor (33BC-15BC). Rhesus goes about turning his anger inwards on the people the Eastern Persian Empire, who he saw as having failed to have the strength of will to force the defeat of the east and hold the empire together. Waves of arrests are made and the Zoroastrian Magi, who had been quietly chaffing under the restrictions they must live by, find they are a target of Rhesus’ madness. Rhesus, a worshiper of Zeus, disliked the prevalence of Zoroastrian belief and the suppression of the old gods, many temples will be converted to the traditional Greek pantheon, or torn down all together, at this time.

Julius Caesar dies, during his time as dictator many duties were passed to Mark Antony and his nephew Octavian (Octavian was a cavalry officers serving in Gaul and Mark Antony was Caesar’s chief advisor and military commander of the armies in Italy). Upon his death Caesar requested that both Octavian and Mark Antony be named Consuls. The Senate refused to honor this request.

32BC: Mark Antony and Octavian force the senate to name them as Consuls.

32BC-22BC: Parthians and the Eastern Persian Empire dismantle the Kushans trade empire.

30BC-25BC: Roman Civil War. Two consecutive years as Consul proved two things to the Roman Senate, that they were right to initially oppose the appointment of Octavian and Antony as Consuls, and that these two men were interested in more than just the Consulship. The bickering between the two Consuls eventually leads to open warfare when Octavian discovers that Mark Antony was planning an assassination attempt. Though most of the war was conducted in the Transalpine region Rome would not be spared the hardship of yet another civil war. Roaming bands of supporters on both sides of the fence would repeatedly clash in the street of Rome over the next 5 years. The final battle would be fought at Milan. Though Mark Antony would prove to be the victor his army is in no shape to oppose the fresh arms and horses of the Senatorially commissioned army sent to arrest the two warring Consuls. It was a risk that paid off for the Senate, as they had no reliable commander to send with the army, nor the means to raise another one if this one were to be defeated. With Octavian slain on the battlefield, Mark Antony is brought to Rome in chains alone. Though the position of Consul isn’t abolished by 20BC its duties have been so diminished as to only include directing Senatorial debate.

15BC: Rhesus is murdered by his officers, who later place the 12 year old grandson of Thanos, Pyrrhus, on the throne (15BC-5BC). The Eastern Empire however is governed by a cabinet of military advisors, most of which were part of the assassination of Rhesus. Though much of the army, most of which were Zoroastrians (in comparison to Mithraism being the widespread faith among the military in the Eastern Empire) supported or at the very least looked the other way during the assassination the time was not yet right for a full military coup. Pyrrhus would rule in ignorance of the true nature of this father’s death as well as the fact he was being used as the means by which the Alexandrians would be brought down. Using the ruling family’s seal and pretending to be acting under Pyrrhus’ orders Xerxes (chief military advisor) had temple after temple ransacked for the wealth of its coffers.

5BC: Pyrrhus is deposed by Xerxes (he escapes murder by the swift actions of several loyal slaves who ferry him away in the dead of night – he eventually ends up hiding in Macedonia and Galatia). Xerxes (III), with the backing of the military, most of the administrative body, as well as the populous (by way of the Magi influence) proclaims himself the next Emperor (5BC-17AD), ushering in the Susanid dynasty.
 
Persian Conquests pt.2

5BC: Xerxes III finds he is in a precarious situation. Although unpopular with the nobles and the Magi the Alexandrian line was very popular with the general population. Even with the backing of most of the military Xerxes needed a middle ground to tread. He rejected the popular Hellenistic culture that, as far as he was concerned, had infected the traditional Persian way of life, however, he couldn’t reject the general autonomy people and regions had within the Empire (which he saw as insulting to Ahura Mazda and unstable), or Aristotelian philosophy (which he saw as gluttonous) without invoking major unrest. So he embraced that which he felt was the only thing the Alexandrians had done correct – the promotion of the Magi. The holy wise men had fallen under harsh times, and unbeknownst to them, in part due to Xerxes himself, so the new Emperor made it is first task to reverse some of that hardship.

Over the next 5 years Xerxes III will, among other things, return a portion of the Temple treasuries, lift the restriction on Magi to travel outside their districts, and allow Temples to collect their own founding which will be in addition to the yearly stipend they have always received from the Emperor.

3BC: Xerxes III announces that in order to bring clarity to the scriptures and some consistency to the interpretation he himself will stand at the head of the Avesta (the name of the Holy Book as well as the collective term for the magi order which oversees Zoroastrianism).

1AD: Buddhism begins appearing in the Han Empire, after taking root in Indonesia.

Magi preaching at the temple in Nazareth are confounded by information brought to their attention. A messenger brought them news of a young Nazarene boy with an uncanny understanding of the Avesta as well as Talmud and a keen clarity of philosophy. After investigating this matter the Magi are indeed impressed by the youth. The boy, by the name of Yeshua, is taken from his family to become an apprentice at the Temple (the family is paid a tidy sum). It is years later, nearly a hundred years after his death, that scholars realize the significance of this event and recalculate the calendar to mark this event as the start of a new era (previous to this recalculation time and dates were recorded with the Emperor and the year of his reign – “In the sixth year of Emperor Xerxes III…”).

7AD: Tired of war and ready to settle the Cimbri, as well as several other Germanic tribes, send ambassadors to Rome and Galatia.

10AD: Though kept a secret for many years Xerxes III eventually learns of the prodigy in Nazareth and orders and audience with the youth. He finds Yeshua unimpressive though he demands the novice remain in Susa so he may correct some of his less than strict interpretation of the texts.

Rome faces a revolt in Britannia - Londinium is founded during the first few months of the campaign to restore order.

Brought on by years of rampant corruption and angry landowners the Han Empire is interrupted by a massive rebellion and the instillation of the Xin Dynasty founded by Wang Mang (10AD-24AD).

12AD: Emperor Xerxes III has Yeshua publicly flogged for his lack of adherence to the written word by publicly associating with women and the poor. Xerxes public standing with the Magi diminishes and he is forced to reinstate and reverse some of his favorable edicts regarding the Order (the several magi he had given permission to offer council at court were removed and traveling restrictions were reinforced). Before the end of the year Xerxes decides to free himself of his political failings and banish Yeshua. The caravan escorting the young magi to the untamed border of Egypt’s desert vanishes – though rumors reach Susa that Yeshua was whisked away by unnamed members of the Avesta.

12AD-35AD: Angered by being ignored and insulted by the Roman Senates demands the Cimbri go to war with the Republic (later they are joined by the Marcomanni, Suebi, and the Teutoni). Though Rome is able to eventually push their border to the Rhine the war will constantly be put in peril by the Senate inability to commit to one commander for the campaign.

14AD: Rumors circulate throughout the Persian Empire about a Rabbinic Magi preaching in secret in Jerusalem. His popularity, chiefly among Jews and Zoroastrians, but also among other cults, has many making pilgrimages to hear him first hand. His Sermon at the Temple, which drew the link between all religions not just the two major faiths, spoke about how when you worship Ahura Mazda, or Zeus, or Yahweh you are really worshiping the same God just a different face, drew a crowd of 25,000.

News of this nature only proved to exasperate Emperor Xerxes dementia further (an ailment that had befallen him over the last few years). With each passing story of Yeshua the court at Susa found Xerxes shouting more and more vehemently at thin air. Several times soldiers were ordered out to capture Yeshua – this would only prove to halt the spread stories about the Rabbinic Magi for a few months after which word would again begin to circulate.

Carthage beings exploring the western coast of Africa.

17AD: Xerxes III is smothered to death by his son Balthasar (17AD-42AD) – though the official story is that the Emperor died in his sleep.

Balthasar tries desperately to regain the trust and faith of the Empire. He chooses, as his father had, to use the Magi as the bridge. Though he feared the danger of ambitious clergymen Balthasar knew that maintaining the grudge his father bore towards Yeshua would not help matters. He extended a welcoming hand to the Rabbinic Magi and reinstated the Magi seats at court.

20AD: Though Balthasar had a much calmer temperament than his father he did at least inherit his father’s paranoia. He begins issuing edicts geared at strengthening the slave industry – slaves were not be educated, a freer hand was granted and strongly encouraged in dealing with insolence, and limitations were placed on slaves traveling outside and around cities.

22AD: Balthasar places a moratorium on travel within the Empire. Those conducting local or imperial business were granted the rights to move unobstructed through the Empire most other domestic travel was hindered.

23AD: As unrest spreads throughout the Persian Empire (thus proving Balthasar’s paranoia) the Emperor begins a drastic enlargement of the military.

24AD: The Han are back in power, Liu Xuan defeat the forces of the Xin Dynasty (over the next 25 years a massive relocation plan is undertaken to A: settle the borders of the empire, B: to scatter what remained of the Xin Dynasty supporters, and C: to incorporate the recently dissolved nomadic horde known collectively as the Hun.

Carthage sends out a second expedition to explore the western coast of Africa, this time with instructions on going ashore at several possible colony sites.

25AD-30AD: All satraps of the Persian Empire are either imprisoned or relieved of duty brining all regions under direct military control (order is maintained by a steady stream of reports between generals, local administrators, and the emperor).

26AD: Yeshua, not only defying the restrictions placed on the movement of clergy but also on domestic travel in general, visits Susa to speak with the Emperor. Yeshua, with the help of the Magi at court, is able to convince Balthasar to reverse his edicts on domestic travel (which had put financial constraints on his continued attempts to increase the size of the army).

30AD: Yeshua makes his third and final trip to Susa to speak with the Emperor. This time the Rabbinic Magi speaks on behalf of his fellow Magi who have suffered greatly under Balthasar’s unfounded worries. Again, with the help of the Magi at court, Yeshua is able to get the Emperor to rescind several of the restrictions – though Balthasar does demand that Yeshua remain in Susa as his guest (a hostage by any other name).

Carthage sends out their first west African colony – Hanno established.

32AD: Pyrrhus (the deposed ruler of the Persian Empire) dies in exile. Though at the time of his death he had been in hiding in Pella, Pyrrhus had in fact traveled through most of Greece and Galatia speaking out against Xerxes and Balthasar. He passes before he can see his family reinstated as the rightful rulers of the Persian Empire – the army and support he had been able to raise would yet find a purpose.

33AD-42AD: The Alexandrian War. Alexander, the 30 year old son of the exiled Pyrrhus, tries to reclaim the Persian throne. At the command of a Celtic/Hellenist army (an army that had been largely forged by his father) Alexander begins a systematic attack on Persian garrisons and forts within Galatia, Macedonia, and Greece.

34AD: The Battle of Therma. While Alexander was putting Nicomedia under siege and had the bulk of his army making a sea crossing to Pergamum (where Alexander hoped to garner the support of the Phrygian and Lydian satraps) Balthasar launched his own attack. The Persian Emperor decided to force Alexander to fall back by invading Greece – Balthasar kept Alexander’s supporters busy to the south by staging sea raids along the Attican and Peloponnes coasts and sent a large army to Therma. Though the city would hold for 9 days they were overwhelmed and the citizens put to the sword. Though Alexander would hold his siege at Nicomedia he did issue orders for his army to return to Macedonia to fight Balthasar there (with the defeat at Therma and Alexander’s withdraw the envoys sent to Phrygia and Lydia would not be able to drum up much support – despite their general dissatisfaction with the Balthasar).

35AD: Alexander’s efforts to reinstate his family name would face further setback when there is an uprising in Galatia. The native Dacians, with the help of a few Scythian tribes also falling under Galatians influence, revolt against Galatia. The revolt will eventually force the Drunemeton (the Galatian tribal assembly) to recall many of the Celtic warriors fighting for Alexander back to Galatia.

Though the major wars are over between the Germanic tribes and the Roman Republic continuous warfare along the Rhine and within Gaul and Britannia will nearly exhaust the Republic’s resources.

35AD-41AD: After years of arguing over disputed borders, Parthia and the Eastern Persian Empire declare war on each other.

37AD: The satrap of Media, a man by the name of Darius, rebels against the Eastern Persian Empire. With the help of Parthia Media is able to expand its territorial army and even, on several occasions, fight with Parthia against EPE. Darius’ self-rule and expansion wasn’t limited to the East, his armies more than once took advantage of Balthasar’s distraction with Alexander to annex lands bordering the West.

40AD: The unrest in Galatia was merely the spear head of a larger tribal issue. Following a heavy rainy season the native Sarmatians along the Dnieper and Don rivers, responding to other Scythian and Alanni aggressions, begin attacking Persian territory along the Black Sea (a region left largely alone as Balthasar saw these as Greek fringes – though he would miss the gem and wood trade goods). The attacks would soon spill over the Caucasus Mts. and by sea into Pontus which would draw soldiers and supplies away from the war with Alexander.

42AD: Like his father before him, Alexander would die in Pella. Depressed and miserable over the failures of his war Alexander drinks himself into an early grave. Though the power shift with in the Alexandrian ranks shifts relatively peaceably to Alexander’s chief military advisor Isidrro the sudden death of and end to the Alexandrian line unsettles what remained of the Hellenist/Celtic army.

An equally devastating end would befall the Persian forces as well. Balthasar dies only a month after Alexander. The Persian Empire now falls to Balthasar’s son, Cyrus (III) – 42AD-60AD.

Cyrus III and Isidrro agree to a cease-fire.

44AD: Though a few skirmishes occurred the cease-fire was largely adhered to and by spring peace is declared. Though Macedonia and Greece will remain within the Persian Empire the lands are granted autonomy tantamount to a client kingdom. Isidrro is named as satrap (the only region within the Western Persian Empire with an actual appointed governor) though he is more often referred to by the title he is given later, the Archon of Pella.

45AD: Rome faces another series of native revolts in Britannia.

50AD-64AD: Meletios of Jerusalem (the first missionary) begins his travels. A merchant by trade Meletios was taken by Yeshua’s promise not to travel once settling down some place. Already a Zoroastrian, Meletios is inspired by Yeshua’s sermons and begins a traveling ministry. Over the next 14 years he will travel over the known world returning every few years with a new throng of people wanting to hear first hand what Yeshua had to say.

50AD: Pedanius Dioscorides, a native of Athens, writes De Materia Medica (the definitive work on medical applications of plants and herbs).

Cyrus III releases Yeshua from house arrest in Susa under the arrangement that the Rabbinic Magi would not travel. Yeshua returns to Jerusalem to cheering crowds.

Cyrus III was ruled a near bankrupt empire. The war with Alexander, the domestic policies of his father and grandfather, as well as the massive trade disruptions brought on by the wars to the west had brought the Easter Persian Empire into financial crisis. Cyrus first set to right this problem was to increase relations with the Carthage and the Nubia as both had access to a host of kingdoms in the interior of Africa (within a few years there is a steady and prosperous flow of trade goods such as ivory, native artifacts, animals, and foodstuffs heading north and gems, building material, weapons, foodstuff, and knowledge heading south).

Cyrus’ next step was to challenge his crafters and merchants to develop safer means of travel between the Western Persian Empire and the Far East (as to bypass the land routes controlled by Parthia and Media). This will eventually spark some revolutionary ideas in hull design and sail configuration.

Hero of Alexandria draws his plans for and builds a model of his aeolipile (before his death his collective works will include writings on optics, pneumatics, and automation).

60AD: The Great Rabbinic Magi dies. Yeshua death sparks a wave of unrest as mourners throughout the Western Empire turn their anger on the Persian leaders that had made the beloved wiseman’s life so difficult. Riots in Susa catch Cyrus III off guard, he is beaten (and several of his guards killed) but is able to make it to the palace. He dies the following morning from his injuries. Cyrus had three children, one girl (Azur) and two boys (Cyrus and Bahram). Azur was the eldest, she was already married to military man from a good family but had no children. Cyrus was next but favored the life of a scholar and Magi. The empire fell to Bahram (60AD-64AD), militarily untested and often favoring the advice of his sister and her husband.

Following the advice of his sister Bahram instantly begins a crackdown on riots, which opens up into a general oppression of both Zoroastrianism and Judaism (which under Yeshua’s preaching had almost become synonymous). Over the next three years Bahram will order the arrests and deaths of thousands of citizens.

63AD: Bahram marches into Jerusalem, sacking the city. He desecrates the Temple by smashing statues and emptying the treasury. Striking at the heart of the unrest proves not to kill the problem but in fact the exact opposite – fresh waves of rebellion sweep the empire.

64AD: With events spiraling out of control, Kaveh (Azur’s husband), Bahram’s commander of the cavalry, takes it upon himself (at the advice of his wife) to murder the emperor and take control. Bahram is murdered by his guards in the dead of night. Again acting at the advice of Azur steps up proclaiming that his newborn son Mehrdad is the rightful heir and that he and Azur would act as regents until he comes of age.

Kaveh settles the riots by making penance in Bahram’s name at the Jerusalem Temple. The following year is mostly occupied by negotiations between various Rabbi and Magi as the rebellious factions are brought back into the fold.

Great Fire in Rome, Zoroastrians blamed, Meletios of Jerusalem imprisoned (where he dies) – the Senate begins purging the city and the republic of cults outside the established pantheon. This act greatly helps to redirect the anger of the people and speeds along the negotiations between Kaveh and the Magi.

65AD: Fulfilling a wish of Yeshua the Avetes and Rabbinic Council are brought together under one roof to be known as the Sanhedrin (a thus far defunct Jewish legal council heavily influenced by the predominant Hellenistic culture).

66AD-67AD: At the insistence of the Sanhedrin but more importantly at the advice of Azur who felt it would help further unify the factions within the Persian Empire Kaveh declares war on Rome. Little is gained from the war as there were no decisive battles and Kaveh had no desire for anything other than monetary acquisitions.

67AD-72AD: Parthia goes to war with the Han Empire.

70AD: Mithraism spreads into Han Empire, and so too is Zoroastrianism introduced to the Far East.

The Sanhedrin conducts the Jerusalem Accords – the first ever major attempt to establish the main cannon of the scriptures, formally linking the Avesta and the Talmud. Though the purpose of the meeting was the cannon much of the time was spent writing up edicts to be passed along to the Emperor in an attempt to undue some of the damage done to the Zoroastrian faith under the version being thus far being practiced and promoted by the Susanid Dynasty.

75AD: The Sanhedrin becomes aware of stories coming out of Egypt and Nubia. The people in these regions seem to be latching onto a particular statement made by Yeshua, “I am the son of God,” which many scholars have interpreted as “We are all children of Mazda,” but that many Egyptians and Nubians are taking literally and are beginning to think Yeshua was in fact both human and the incarnation of Ahura Mazda (this interpretation would only prove to be the tip of the iceberg as in centuries to come many factions will continue to develop, some believing Yeshua was a god in of himself, that he was Ahura Mazda, or perhaps simply Spenta Mainyu, Etc., the majority felt that Yeshua was merely a great prophet – a view that will cause no end to conflict between the establishment and the sects).

78AD: Mehrdad’s coronation is postponed when Kaveh sends the boy to the Median border with a cavalry unit to settle raids in the area (the cavalry commander is killed by soldiers loyal to Azur during an attempt to assassinate Mehrdad – Kaveh denies any knowledge of the commander’s intentions).

79AD: Mt. Vesuvius erupts.

80AD: Mehrdad is almost killed when his fishing skiff is overturned a week before Kaveh was to turn over control of the Empire. Kaveh postpones the event while Mehrdad was fighting off an illness contracted after the fishing accident.

81AD: Kaveh dies, poisoned by Azur (though this is suspected no actual proof ever comes to light). A month later she ends the regency in favor of her son Mehrdad (81AD-121AD).

Though the influence of the Magi had been reinstated by the Alexandrians there hasn’t been an emperor approved of by or a coronation attended by Magi since Emperor Balasi in 128BC. Mehrdad’s coronation would change all of that, the crown of the empire was in fact placed upon his head by the head of the Sanhedrin.

In a speech to the amassed nobles and highborn Mehrdad said he would rule a united Persian Empire, that he wanted to heal the rifts between Persian blood and Hellenist blood, that he wanted to be known as a builder and first strengthen the empire (and though it went unsaid at the time, to punish the Parthians and what had been the Eastern Empire).

85AD: Mehrdad establishes Jerusalem as the “Holy City”, effectively making it a free city-state within the empire. Though publicly popular it only went further to strain the relationship Mehrdad had with the nobles and other highborns who were growing jealous over their lack of authority within their satraps (power was still being held by the emperor who conducted daily business through military commanders and local administrators) when places like Jerusalem and Macedonia retained so much home rule.

90AD: The city of Alexandria petitions for city-state status within the empire.

91AD: Pergamum petitions for city-state status within the empire.

93AD: Thebes and Memphis join forces and announce their independence – a month later the merchant council ruling both cities claim they represent a free Egypt.

94AD: Mehrdad, having heard enough, sends a large military force into Egypt and orders all Egyptian garrisons on alert – he sends smaller units into Pergamum and Alexandria.

95AD-101AD: The Egyptian Rebellion. Though Pergamum was convinced to drop this nonsense of free city-state status Alexandria joined Thebes and Memphis and openly rebel against the Persian Empire (their first step is to halt all grain caravans – hoping to destabilize not only the Persian Empire but their treaty with Carthage).


100AD-120AD: Parthia suffers from a series of civil wars; several families are able to form their own kingdoms.

101AD: The conclusion of the Egyptian rebellion. Mehrdad was never able to commit the number of soldiers necessary to win the rebellion (each time units were moved from their stations along the borders or from within satraps raids and unrest began to flourish). Egypt gained some support by the end of the 6 year rebellion once they reinstated the grain export to Carthage (which the merchant council had withheld in hopes of destabilizing the peace between Persia and Carthage).

102AD-107AD: The Roman Senate and the Galatian Drunemeton (unbeknownst to either) dispatch an army to silence Germanic raids spilling over their borders. In a brilliant move on behalf of the war chief Druce he was able to lead both the Roman and Galatian armies to within striking distance of each other. After the ensuing battle all out war was inevitable. Historically, this is the first war between two sovereign states where none of the battles take place within either’s borders.

103AD: Envoys from Mehrdad convince the Nubian kings to launch a series of attacks on Egypt. In truth the Kings of the southern Nile were already planning an attack and needed little encouragement from Persia (most if not all of the international finesse so eloquently used under the Alexandrian Dynasty had dried up – the only international clout Persia had was strength of arms and with most garrisons guarding against internal troubles instead of external even that leverage could only be spent so far).

115AD-120AD: Rebellion in Persia. Mehrdad finishes what his family had started nearly a hundred years earlier. In the wake of the trouble in raising and moving armies during the Egyptian Rebellion all civilian ministers and administrators are replaced by military personnel (consolidating all authority under the Emperor – though Macedonia and the Sanhedrin still maintained great influence within their own spheres). The rebellion starts in Jerusalem but quickly spreads throughout Syria, Lydia, and Phrygia but as it is largely an uprising supported by slaves and the poor little comes from their efforts.

120AD: Rome pushes her borders into Caledonia.

121AD: Mehrdad of Persia dies. Despite high promises to bringing peace to Persia and retake the East Mehrdad was actually seen as one of the most autocratic rulers of the Empire. He continued his family’s efforts to consolidate power away from the satraps which had gained so much influence under the Alexandrian Dynasty. What the Susanids failed to realize was just how Hellenized the Persian Empire had become. Probably their greatest mistake, carried out in an attempt to ease the people away from philosophies such as Aristotle and Plato, was promoting the Magi. Mehrdad had several children but it was his third son, Philip (II), which the Sanhedrin put their support behind and it was he who would take the throne next (121AD-137AD). Philip was a brash youth who was the only child of Mehrdad who enjoyed the Greek culture and so was thought to better be able to fulfill his father’s promise of bringing peace to the Empire.

121AD-125AD: The Roman Senate goes to war with the Hibernian tribes.

135AD-137AD: Rome faces rebellion in Caledonia and Hibernia (Rome is pushed out of Hibernia).

137AD-140AD: War between Persia and Rome. In the spring a fire races through Rome, it is believed to have started in the vicinity of a small Zoroastrian fire temple. Outrage is immediate against this unwelcome minority within the city. A dozen Zoroastrians are killed and several Jewish communities are expelled from the Republic. The Sanhedrin demands Persia go to war – Philip II gladly obliges them. Within the first few months however, the limited number of soldiers in Macedonia are unable to hold off costal attacks and Rome is able to gain footholds in several places in Illyrian.

Hoping that the rebellious undercurrent of Phrygia would remain quiet during this crisis Philip II orders his Anatolian garrisons across the sea into Macedonia and his Syrian army to Phrygian border. The Emperor himself would lead the attack on Italia by sea. With 1200 ships he sets sail for Tarentum. The battle would not go well and less than half of the Persian armada would make it back to Ionia – Philip II would not be one of them.

News of his father’s death would reach Darius (V) a week later. As Philip’s only son and without a consensus from the Sanhedrin, Darius assumes the throne (137AD-170AD). Much more cautious than his father, Darius V would reverse the battle plan. Instead of holding Rome at bay in Illyrian and taking the fight to Italia he would fight defensively at sea and offensively by land.

The war will eventually grind to a halt and with trouble for Rome still coming out of Briton a cease fire was settled on in 140AD.

140AD-144: Carthage and the Lusitanian go to war.

143AD: Rome Fights their way back onto Hibernia with the help of what was to become the client kingdom of Munster.

145AD: The Roman Senate, after much lobbying by Tiberius Quintus and his family, issues orders to begin construction on the Hibernian Wall (which would mark the border of Munster and the rest of Hibernia as well as a series of sea walls along the western shore of Briton).

150AD: Dynastic troubles in the Han Empire, nobles and landowners begin to rise up and rally against the Han Emperors’ preoccupation with the Far Western lands and the wars with Parthian kingdoms.

An Egyptian by the name of Anum (little else is know about him) writes The True Word of God claiming that Yeshua teachings had nothing to do with the texts of the Talmud and Avesta and in fact he was the coming of a new and great God.

155AD-170AD: Roman influence extends into upper Hibernia.

162AD: The Egyptian Merchant Council elects their first Patriarch (Patriarch of Memphis). Over the next 10 years several other cities elect their own Patriarchs.

162AD-170AD: Rome helps in the war of 4 kingdoms.

165AD: Egypt cuts short the grain supply to Carthage after Christians (first use of that term) are expelled from Cyrene by Carthaginian authorities.

165AD-180AD: Plague breaks out in the Han Empire (at its peak several thousand were reportedly dying per day).

168AD: Fresh Germanic and Scythian invasions spill over the Rhine, Danube, and the Volga.

170AD: By war and trade the epidemic in the Han Empire is brought to the West. The first cases of pustules occur within weeks of each other in towns along the Rhine and Danube and in Egyptian cities.

The royal family does not come out of this now pandemic unscathed, the elderly emperor Darius V is one of the firsts to succumb to the deadly disease. His son Nasim is accepted by the Sanhedrin as the next Persia Emperor (170AD-185AD). Nasim had little interest in running the Empire (instead favored the company of his concubines) but agreed with his father’s attempts at relinquishing authority to the local magistrates. For much of his reign, like the final years of his father’s reign, Nasim allowed the Sanhedrin and his military advisors to influence and share in the administration of the Empire.

The House of Patriarchs is founded in Egypt (as well as offering advice to the Merchant Council they also oversee religious practices).

170AD-180AD: Carthage faces invasion by a coalition of Saharan and Sub-Saharan tribes (they loses contact with their southern colonies for several years).

175AD-177AD: The Egyptian Wars. Convinced that the plague running unchecked throughout the land is a sign from God the House of Patriarchs and the Merchant Council take it upon themselves to launch a war of retribution against their neighbors. Armies are sent into Persia, Nubia, and Carthage.

The tribes of the northern steppes after decades of infighting and despite the migrations caused by the ferocious plague are briefly united by the devastation.

177AD: The Han Empire is dealt a crushing defeat by Hun tribes, many northern and western provinces are lost.

After some initial success along all three of the fronts Egypt is fighting along the inevitable happens. In Persia the Egyptian army is able to battle their way to the outskirts of Jerusalem before illness within their own ranks and the superior Persian tactics are able to force a retreat. A year long siege of Alexandria ends with the capture of that city by the Persians and a negotiated cease-fire. In Nubia the King’s armies were not as affected by the plague and were able to put up a much better defense, by the time more Egyptian soldiers were falling dead on the sick bed than on the battlefield much territory along the upper Nile had been lost. The crushing defeat would come from Carthage – in the wake of the war Egypt was once again a conquered land.

178AD: Emperor Nasim, fearing that Elam and his precious capital of Susa would founder under the mounting death toll closes the city and satrap to travel (both the satrap and capital were among the hardest hit by the plague). Though orders are eventually sent out informing the military commanders of the other satraps to do the same many initiate such a lock down long before such orders are given.

180AD: The kingdom of Munster passes to Roman authority.

180AD-183AD: Archon Cercyon of Pella in unison with the Galatian Drunemeton launch a joint attack at the Scythian tribes still harassing the border (this action is taken without prior approval from Emperor Nasim – it is more than a year before news reaches him about the war).

183AD-186AD: Macedonian Rebellion. With the plague all but burnt out and Macedonia levying their own soldiers and ignoring messengers from Susa Nasim begins his march on the rebellious satrap.

183AD-187AD: Yellow Turban Revolt in Han Empire.

184AD: While besieging Byzantium Nasim survives a failed assignation attempt. The assassins were among his own military advisors. In response to this Nasim purges his advisors and issues orders for several generals to be replaced.

185AD: Persian Emperor Nasim is assassinated (this time by Macedonian spies, though it is assumed his own military advisors, those that survived the first purging, were the ones who ordered the Emperor death).

186AD: With infighting consuming the military and noble ranks the Sanhedrin steps in and decides on Sohrab one of Nasim’s cousins and grandson of Darius V as the next Persian Emperor (186AD-187AD).

Sohrab was a junior cavalry officer with little to no following, however, he was a pious Zoroastrian and liked by most of the squabbling factions.

187AD: Persian Emperor Sohrab is assassinated. This time the action was undertaken by the Emperors military advisors, specifically Elye Shatrevar who was appointed by Nasim after the purging of the upper echelons. Elye had several commanders and the command of an army to back his claim, with the other factions still in disarray his coup was nearly bloodless.


The rebellion in the Han Empire spirals out of control when several generals within the Han military (including some ranking imperial guards) join the rebellion. Han Emperor Liu Xie flees for his holdings in the West but is murdered a year later by his chief military commander (ending the Han Empire and ushering in the first period of warlordism which leads to the 4 kingdom era).

190AD: Though the new Persian Emperor Elye Shatrevar coup was mostly bloodless, three years of settling the fires created in the wake of the new dynasty has taken its toll on the elderly statesmen and military commander. He abdicates in favor of son Avisha (190AD-194AD).

192AD-194AD: Though much of the infighting had been dealt with unrest was still running high and Avisha was forced to bring the heavy foot of the army down on several riotous cities in Phrygia and Pontus.

194AD: During the return trip to Susa Avisha and his guard (about 200 men, having left most of the army in Pontus and Phrygia) are ambushed in the hills around Tarsus. Avisha is wounded and brought to his son who was serving as the military commander for Syria (and who had spent most of his life in Damascus). Avisha eventually succumbs to his wounds and Bijan is unanimously proclaimed ruler by the military and the Sanhedrin (194AD-196AD).

Bijan was a serious and honest man with a tactful mind and good administrative skills. He was a converted worshiper of Zeus who now pledged his life to the Great God (in this case Mazda). He knew the scriptures better than some of those on the Sanhedrin and had the intuition of a military man twice his age.

196AD: Unable to balance the fractured empire Bijan comes to a momentous decision. He abdicates the Persian throne to become the new Syrian King – he recalls all loyal commanders to the defense of the new kingdom and secedes from the Persian Empire.

196AD-200AD: The Succession Wars. With no clear heir and the Empire caught between those wishing to follow in Bijan’s footsteps and those wanting to lay claim to what remained of the realm the Persian Empire begins feeding on itself.

200AD: The Succession Wars come to a close, the end of the Persian Empire.

The beginning of the 4 Kingdom Era of the former Han Empire.
 
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