What the two Nordfeldt submarines in 1886? Zaharof ripped the Ottomans off a few tens of thousand pounds for completely useless ships there...Funny you should say that about Submarines. First submarine to fire a torpedo while submerged was Ottoman. There were only 2 of them and they were horribly ill maintained which was problematic.
So Ottoman Empire was ahead but fell behind. (Istanbul subway system is similar I suppose)