Of Poets and Supermen - An Alternate 20th Century

Chapter I - The Great Expropriation of 1907
Hey, y'all. I've lurked around the site for a few years, and never really thought about posting my own TL until now, what with being confined to my house and having plenty of free time. With that in mind, I've decided to start this TL, which has been an idea that I've had for a few years now, tweaking and changing it over time, with the assistance of my good friend @Ottoman, who's my collaborator and has done a lot to assist with research for the timeline. I've spent a lot of time building this and hope y'all enjoy it as much as I've enjoyed developing it. But before we get into the real flesh and blood of the TL, here are a couple answers to questions that might arise.

What's with the cliche Latin name?
Originally, this timeline/universe/setting was a lot darker and more of a nightmarish fever dream, so we found that the name was fitting for it. Plus, there was magical bullshit that put it in ASB territory. As I've developed it, it's become much less of a dystopian TL in the interest of telling a more compelling narrative. Compared to when I originally dreamed it up as a drug-fueled fever dream, it's now closer to A World Half Full TL than an outright Crapsack World. It's still a drug-fueled fever dream, but now it's a significantly more plausible fever dream. Consider the name a holdover from its original incarnation.

How will the TL be presented?
Hopefully, I'll be able to present it through a decent mixture of the Narrative and Textbook framing devices.

Where does this fall on the Sliding Scale of Alternate History Plausibility?
Ideally, it'll be a Type II timeline, bordering on a Type III in some places. While I have plenty of time to do proper research and work on improving the timeline, there's only so much one person can do, and I have no idea how things will change in the coming months. With that in mind, any suggestions/feedback/research recommendations would be greatly appreciated!

What's the estimated time period that this TL will take place in?
Right now, my plan is to go from OTL's Interwar Period, particularly in the 1920s and 30s, all the way up to the 80s and the Cold War.

What about the POD and The Butterfly Effect?
The initial POD takes place in 1907, in the aftermath of the 1907 Tiflis Bank Robbery. It's not the only POD, just the first one diverging from OTL. As far as the Butterfly Effect goes, I'm taking a fundamentalist/moderate approach towards it. The effects of the various PODs will occur, but they'll be felt on a more regional level.

Was this inspired by any other TLs on the site?
Not particularly, although I have been reading Sorairo's The Footprint of Mussolini recently, as well as Anarcho-Occultist's Magic, Metahumans, Martians, and Mushroom Clouds.

With that out of the way, please enjoy the introduction/first post of Of Poets and Supermen! Or don't, I'm not a cop.



“This is not peace. This is an armistice for twenty years.”
- Ferdinand Foch

The Great War: The Long Shadow of 1914, David Reynolds

Of all the wars of the 20th century, none have had a greater impact than the Great War of 1914[1]. The Great War has cast a long shadow over the history of the world, from Europe to Africa, Asia to the Americas. The changes brought about as a result of the bloodiest conflict of the 20th century are still felt in the modern day. From the Red Biennium and the subsequent rise of Carnarism[2] in Italy, to the resounding death knells of European colonialism, and even the Warlord Decades[3] of China; All were affected by the chaos of the Great War. At the Treaty of Versailles, a pessimistic Ferdinand Foch was recorded to have declared that “This is not peace. This is an armistice for twenty years.” History would ultimately prove him to be right, although it is a testament to humanity that in spite of the bloody conflicts that would define the first half of the 20th century, there would never be a global conflict on the same scale as the Great War. Historians to this day still debate whether such a war could have occurred and if the world would’ve been in a better or worse place for it.


The Death of a Revolutionary Expropriator

June 30th, 1907. Tiflis, Tiflis Governorate, Caucasus Viceroyalty.

Mukhtarov, officer of the Department for Protecting the Public Security and Order[4], looked down at the corpse splayed out on the floor of the apartment; He had, along with his fellow officers, forced the now-dead man into the apartment. The man had been on their payroll for some time and had given Mukhtarov notification of a planned robbery in Erivansky Square, organized by the Bolsheviks. He’d promised more information at a later time, and seeing no reason not to believe him, Mukhtarov had let him go about his business. Evidently, he’d been lying, as there were now hundreds of thousands of rubles missing, rubles stolen by that very same gang of Bolshevik terrorists. Worse still were the casualties from the robbery, with forty confirmed deaths and at least fifty injured.

The authorities, led by Mukhtarov and his comrades, had sprung into action at once. They’d mobilized the army in order to close roads and surround Erivansky Square, in the hope that they’d secure the money and capture the bandits. Unfortunately, the witness accounts proved to be scattered and unreliable, and they left the authorities uncertain who was responsible for the robbery. It was then that they began to hear rumors of the Georgian being the architect of the Bolshevik plan. It made sense that the architect of such an audacious plan would be cunning enough to try and deceive their Department handlers; After all, what better way existed to draw attention away from themselves?

With that in mind, Mukhtarov and his fellow officers had whisked the Georgian away for interrogation. What had started as a routine questioning, however, would soon escalate unexpectedly. When Mukhtarov demanded to know why the Georgian hadn’t informed them of the plot, the informant stated that he’d given them more than enough information to prevent the robbery. One thing led to another and a heated argument broke out between the two men. To the utter shock of his fellow officers, Mukhtarov pulled out his service revolver and fired a single shot in a fit of rage.[5]

In an instant, time slowed to a halt, as Mukhtarov and his fellow officers were rendered silent by what had happened. Gingerly, his fellows managed to coax Mukhtarov to hand over the revolver. Now they had a body on their hands, and had to decide how to deal with it. Ultimately, they chose to display the corpse to the world as the sole mastermind of the robbery, in order to send a clear message to any of the Georgian’s compatriots. As Mukhtarov took one last look at the Georgian’s body lying on the floor, he had a single thought in mind: Who would miss this man? Who would mourn for Ioseb Djugashvili?



Kamo: From Robber to Revolutionary, Simon Sebag Montefiore

While the Great War has cast a long shadow over the 20th century, there is another pivotal event that must be mentioned when discussing the turmoil of the decades following the Great War. When it occurred, it was dismissed as the death of yet another revolutionary terrorist in the Russian Empire. A regrettable death caused by an impassioned argument between one Officer Mukhtarov of the Okhrana and his Georgian informant, yes, but otherwise it was nothing out of the ordinary to the Tsar’s secret police. In fact, the death of Ioseb Djugashvili, otherwise known as Koba, in an Okhrana apartment in Tiflis would play a key role in the rise of another man. This man, a politically illiterate bandit who lacked fluency in the Russian language, became galvanized by the death of his closest compatriot, and was determined to live up to his legacy. Eventually, he would rise to the heights of power and leave an indelible mark on the history of the 20th Century. To the Ohkrana, he was Simon Ter-Petrosian, but to his friends and family, he was known as Kamo.

tiflis.jpg

Erivansky Square, scene of the robbery, taken in the 1870s

Kamo: A Critical Survey of Petrosianism, Boris Souvarine

In 1907, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) was split into two camps, the Mensheviks led by Julius Martov on one side, and the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin on the other. By the time of the Great Expropriation, the Fifth Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party had not yet convened[6]. One of the points of contention between the two factions of the party was the use of militant action in support of the revolution, in particular the use of “expropriations”, a euphemism for robberies committed against government or private funds in order to finance revolutionary activities. The Mensheviks opposed the continued use of violence and sought a more peaceful and gradual approach to revolution, while the much more militant Bolsheviks strongly advocated for it. When the Congress finally opened in mid-July, the delegations were abuzz with news of the Great Expropriation, and some Mensheviks noted that the Bolshevik camp seemed invigorated by their success.

Lenin was, in fact, emboldened by the success of the Great Expropriation, and he was especially impressed with Kamo, who he referred to as his “Caucasian bandit”. While saddened by the death of Djugashvili, Lenin was delighted by Kamo, who would go on to spend two months, from July to August, with Lenin and Krupskaya. Later in life, Kamo would proclaim that those two months spent in Finland with Lenin and Krupskaya were “The happiest two months of my life”, and it is here where he first charmed Krupskaya, who would go on to play a key role in his rise to power following Lenin’s death. It was this triumphant attitude that Lenin brought with him to the 5th Congress, which proved to be a rousing success for the Bolsheviks, who proposed a resolution commending the use of militant action in the support of the revolution. The resolution (which also called for the continued maintenance of party militias, something that would prove invaluable during the Civil War) was passed with sixty-five percent supporting and a measly six percent opposing[7]. The resolution was supported by the entirety of the Bolsheviks, with even some Mensheviks supporting it, impressed by the success of the Great Expropriation.

Kamo, meanwhile, would be arrested in Berlin in the autumn of that year, having been directed by Lenin to receive treatment for his eye, which had been injured in an accident only weeks before the robbery[8]. Unbeknownst to Lenin, the man who he had sent Kamo to, Dr. Yakov Zhitomirsky, was a secret agent of the Okhrana under the aliases Andre and Daudet[9]. After informing his Okhrana handlers of Kamo’s arrival, Zhitomirsky alerted the Berlin police, who arrested Kamo and found a forged Austrian passport and a case filled with 200 detonators. Evidently, he was planning yet another robbery, this time in Berlin. He would spend the following years in prison, feigning insanity and only barely escaping execution on numerous occasions, before being freed as a result of the 1917 Revolution. This time spent in prison would shape him a great deal, ultimately contributing to his transition from illiterate bandit to consummate revolutionary.


Footnotes
[1] The Great War ITTL is the only global war of its kind, with the 1930s and 40s being plagued by regional conflicts between various countries and ideologies rather than an all-encompassing global war.
[2] Carnarism, also known by the original Italian name of Carnarismo or even the D’Annunzian System, is TTL’s version of Fascism. More on that later.
[3] TTL’s analogue to the combined Warlord Era and the subsequent Chinese Civil War
[4] Otherwise known as the Okhrana, the Tsarist secret police.
[5] IOTL, Mukhtarov only struck Djugashvili in the face before being restrained by his fellow Okhrana officers. He would later be suspended for his actions. Here, he loses his cool and ends up killing Djugashvili on the spot.
[6] IOTL, the 5th Congress took place between May and July in London, with the Tiflis expropriation taking place a few weeks after the Congress ended.
[7] IOTL, the resolution was instead put forward by the Mensheviks, calling for a condemnation of militant actions, especially expropriation. Here, the success of the Tiflis expropriation gives the Bolsheviks an opportunity to push forward their own resolution. The sixty-five percent support for the OTL resolution was all of the Mensheviks and some of the Bolsheviks.
[8] As in OTL, Kamo sustained an injury to his eye, leaving a permanent scar and confining him to his bed for a month, and wasn’t even fully recovered by the time of the robbery.
[9] As in OTL, Zhitomirsky was a prominent Bolshevik physician who operated as an Okhrana spy under those aliases. Later, he would go on to serve in the Russian Expeditionary Force in France during the Great War and report on revolutionary propaganda among Russian troops.
 

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Wow this is going to be an awesome ride. Watched
Right now, I'm in the process of writing the next update. Hopefully I'll have it done by tonight or tomorrow. I won't give away too many spoilers, but it'll cover the initial rise of Kamo, the rumblings of change in post-war Italy, and the start of the Tumultuous Twenties in the US.
 
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Right now, I'm in the process of writing the next update. Hopefully I'll have it done by tonight or tomorrow. I won't give away too many spoilers, but it'll cover the rise of Kamo, the rumblings of change in post-war Italy, and the start of the Tumultuous Twenties in the US.
Regarding Italy, let's see how D'Annunzio take power and more importantly keep it...the man was totally uninterested to the day to day work of the politic and administration and more interested in booze, drugs (adrenaline included) and women; basically your man in case of making an heroic and daring action but anything that can bore him in the medium term will not interest him (the Carnaro Regency was basically managed by the council).
He is like a very cultured and phisically brave Trump, great in making the mass enflamed of passion but once in power...well not so well; plus unlike Benny he was seen as too much revolutionary by the enstablishment
 
Regarding Italy, let's see how D'Annunzio take power and more importantly keep it...the man was totally uninterested to the day to day work of the politic and administration and more interested in booze, drugs (adrenaline included) and women; basically your man in case of making an heroic and daring action but anything that can bore him in the medium term will not interest him (the Carnaro Regency was basically managed by the council).
He is like a very cultured and physically brave Trump, great in making the mass inflamed of passion but once in power...well not so well; plus unlike Benny he was seen as too much revolutionary by the establishment
Good eye on that one. Without showing my hand, so to speak, I will say that D'Annunzio ITTL takes a much more active approach to his leadership than IOTL, due to different circumstances necessitating more of those "heroic and daring" actions.
 
Just made a brief edit in the narrative section of the post after some feedback from a friend. It should now read more smoothly.
 
Stalin dies as a gangster in a bank robbery, instead of being poisoned by the Politburo.
And then the world goes insane...
Watched.
 
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Hey there, folks! While I'm still working on the next update, I'd like to ask folks their opinion on the start of the TL, as well as what they think might happen later on. I'd love to hear y'all's feedback and suggestions for the TL! :happyblush
 
Hey there, folks! While I'm still working on the next update, I'd like to ask folks their opinion on the start of the TL, as well as what they think might happen later on. I'd love to hear y'all's feedback and suggestions for the TL! :happyblush
I'm mostly just excited to see what happens to the Revolution without our good friend Josef, as well as WW2, if that even happens. Also, the fate of the Romanovs, and Sidney Reilly. Also, how all this changes communism and its perception in the modern world.
 
I'm mostly just excited to see what happens to the Revolution without our good friend Josef, as well as WW2, if that even happens. Also, the fate of the Romanovs, and Sidney Reilly. Also, how all this changes communism and its perception in the modern world.
Without spoiling anything, I can say that the main/ruling branch of the Romanovs unfortunately meet the same fate as IOTL.
 
Howdy folks! It's taken me a bit longer than I'd hoped to finish the second update, but in the meantime, I've made a little poll to help me plan ahead for the third update! I'd appreciate it if y'all could vote and comment on what you'd like to see in the third update. The options I've considered for the third update are the following:
  • Oriental Strife: This section would talk about the situation in the Far East, with the main focuses being on China, Japan, and Southeast Asia for the most part.
  • The Balkan Powderkeg: This section is somewhat self-explanatory, focusing on the Kingdoms of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Albania, and Romania as well as the various issues plaguing the region.
  • Bitter Losers: As the name suggests, this section would focus on the losers of the Great War, namely Weimar Germany, the Austrian Republic, the Kingdom of Hungary, and the Republic of Turkey.
  • Keeping The Peace: This section would take a step back from the actual countries of the world to focus on the international side of things and the attempts at maintaining the delicate peace forged after 1919.
  • The Struggle for Independence: Here, we'd be taking a look at the turmoil and strife involved in Central and Eastern Europe and the struggles of various minor nations to maintain their independence.
  • Colonial Woes: Similar to The Struggle for Independence, this section would instead focus on the colonial affairs of the victors of the Great War, mainly looking at the overseas colonial empires of the United Kingdom and France.
  • Other: Also self-explanatory, if there's anything that y'all would like to see discussed that isn't one of the options here, feel free to comment in the thread about it!
 
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Stalin dies as a gangster in a bank robbery, instead of being poisoned by the Politburo.
And then the world goes insane...
Watched.
Honestly, an alternate title for this could be The World Gone Mad, given some of the things that I've got planned. It's got some twists and turns that I hope folks will enjoy. China will be fun to write, as will the Americas, Africa, and the Middle East.
Snipped my own poll description
As a brief update on the status of the second chapter, I'm still chugging away at it. It's going to be nice and long, and it'll hopefully be an enjoyable read. My current estimate is gonna be something like 2K words at the minimum.
I'm mostly just excited to see what happens to the Revolution without our good friend Josef, as well as WW2, if that even happens. Also, the fate of the Romanovs, and Sidney Reilly. Also, how all this changes communism and its perception in the modern world.
After a bit more thought/discussion on things with Otto, I can reveal a bit more of what I've got planned, partially to help drum up interest and partially because I want to get people excited for future updates. I hope this gives a better picture of what's to come than my earlier (and frankly lackluster) comment on the fate of the Romanovs

First off, I can positively confirm that the Second World War doesn't happen, but the conflicts and events that happen instead are nowhere near pretty.

With regards to the esteemed Sidney Reilly, he doesn't meet his OTL fate and continues his activities for a fair while, and eventually becomes a possible candidate to succeed his superiors in the SIS, Sir Mansfield Smith-Cumming and Admiral Hugh "Quex" Sinclair, once he's too old for active service.

As for the perception of Socialism and Communism in the modern world, it's gonna be a bit of a mixed bag, with certain currents being more well-regarded than others, depending on the region. Without getting too ahead of myself, the multipolar nature of TTL's Cold War will play a key role in these developments.
 
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Hey folks, while I still have a bit more to do for the second update, I figure I'd post this wikibox I made as a bit of a teaser to tide folks over til then. It's about an event that occurs a bit later in the timeline following the events that will be covered in Chapter I, the Battle of Parma. As for Chapter I, I'm hoping to have that posted by noon today, if not sooner. For now though, enjoy this glimpse at the bloody events in Italy that will become known to history as the Anni di Piombo, The Years of Lead.

1593022688164.png
 
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Maybe is better cut a zero in the number of both side; even in the March of Rome using all the force available the blackshirt were 50.000...such number indicate or a civil war or end with the army intervention plus it represent more than a third of the entire population of the city in 1920
 
Maybe is better cut a zero in the number of both side; even in the March of Rome using all the force available the blackshirt were 50.000...
For the numbers, I'm using the OTL Battle of Parma in 1922 as a base, with the numbers for the communist side being a rough estimate based on the overall numbers of the Arditi del Popolo (they had roughly 20,000 members throughout Italy by the summer of 1920). In OTL, Farinacci and Balbo led 20,000 Blackshirts to Parma, where they were effectively held at bay by 350 members of the Arditi del Popolo (who had considerable local support) before Balbo handed control over to the military and withdrew. Here, it's an actual battle as part of a larger conflict, rather than the brief series of clashes it was in OTL.
such number indicate or a civil war
Funny thing about that...
Well, let's just say that between an extended Vlora War, the rabble-rousing of a certain Marxist journalist and war veteran, and a sarcastic comment from Prime Minister Giolitti being interpreted as an order by an overeager attendant, things start to fall apart rather quickly.
 
For the numbers, I'm using the OTL Battle of Parma in 1922 as a base, with the numbers for the communist side being a rough estimate based on the overall numbers of the Arditi del Popolo (they had roughly 20,000 members throughout Italy by the summer of 1920). In OTL, Farinacci and Balbo led 20,000 Blackshirts to Parma, where they were effectively held at bay by 350 members of the Arditi del Popolo (who had considerable local support) before Balbo handed control over to the military and withdrew. Here, it's an actual battle as part of a larger conflict, rather than the brief series of clashes it was in OTL.

Funny thing about that...
Well, let's just say that between an extended Vlora War, the rabble-rousing of a certain Marxist journalist and war veteran, and a sarcastic comment from Prime Minister Giolitti being interpreted as an order by an overeager attendant, things start to fall apart rather quickly.
Yeah, but that numbers are not an indication of the arditi del popolo and blackshirt real numbers more of general supporters (the arditi were roughly 500 and the blackshirts 10.000, the 20.000 is the numbers given by the antifascists later and is doubtfoul) and a battle with this numbers will basically devastate the city (and waste what resources both side had) and call the immediate intervention of the military and starting a general national crackdown and btw killing Balbo and Farinacci mean another big hit to the fascist leaderships as they were two of the best organizer and leader of the bunch.

In any case if a civil war or something similar start, well things will not end well for both the blackshirt and the communist, neither had the resources and men to even entertain the possibility to win; in general the army is not really a friends of the workers, sure they will be reluctant to shoot them if they are not attacked but they will not go on their support, the left is totally divided as the right and as i said, unless D'Annunzio had a total change of personality (or limit itself to be just a figurehead and pass his time with women, booze and drugs) he will be the worse type of leader possible for any would be revolution unless he do a favor to everybody and die before taking power becoming a martyr.

Plus don't overstimate Benny capacity, he was even before the war a very controversial figure and one of the big reason he left the socialist was because well there were too much competition for the leaderships, here he is just a voice among many many others; he is capable and smart but he also had very few friends and allies
 
Yeah, but that numbers are not an indication of the arditi del popolo and blackshirt real numbers more of general supporters (the arditi were roughly 500 and the blackshirts 10.000, the 20.000 is the numbers given by the antifascists later and is doubtfoul) and a battle with this numbers will basically devastate the city (and waste what resources both side had)
Again, the numbers are a rough estimate based off of the OTL numbers, but more importantly, the ranks of the communists will be bolstered as a result of outward ripples from the POD, with the Arditi del Popolo in particular getting official support from the PCI, which they didn't receive IOTL.
call the immediate intervention of the military and starting a general national crackdown and btw killing Balbo and Farinacci mean another big hit to the fascist leaderships as they were two of the best organizer and leader of the bunch.
The military will find their loyalties divided at the start of the conflict, to say the least. As for Balbo and Farinacci, Balbo doesn't die, only Farinacci does. EDIT: Hell, the only reason Farinacci gets killed off is two-fold. First, it will provide a suitable martyr for the movement. Secondly, I have a personal distaste for anti-semitism, and wanted to get rid of one of the prominent anti-semitic figures in the Fascist movement. As for the blackshirts, they don't exist ITTL, for reasons that will be explained in the chapter.
In any case if a civil war or something similar start, well things will not end well for both the blackshirt and the communist, neither had the resources and men to even entertain the possibility to win; in general the army is not really a friends of the workers, sure they will be reluctant to shoot them if they are not attacked but they will not go on their support, the left is totally divided
Again, the military will have divided loyalties at the start of the conflict, while the left will have a much more unified and much more militant front as a result of mistakes made by the Giolitti government during their handling of the Bienno Rossi and the Vlora War.
the right and as i said, unless D'Annunzio had a total change of personality (or limit itself to be just a figurehead and pass his time with women, booze and drugs) he will be the worse type of leader possible for any would be revolution unless he do a favor to everybody and die before taking power becoming a martyr.
As I've said before, D'Annunzio will be forced by circumstance to take on a much more active role in his leadership of the movement, circumstances that will also force him to sober up considerably, and circumstances that ensure that the movement as a whole will be bolstered by the support of others (namely the ANI, of which D'Annunzio was a prominent figure, and figures within the military whom the Fiumans courted during their attempts at arranging a government coup) within Italy. I've done my own fair deal of research on D'Annunzio for this and chose him for a reason, in that he was arguably a much more charismatic and more importantly, a much more prominent figure than Mussolini up until Mussolini's rise to power in 1922, where he was subsequently shut out from politics. EDIT: As far as martyrs go, there will be more than one figure martyred within the initial start of the conflict, including those who were considered war heroes in Italy.
Plus don't overstimate Benny capacity, he was even before the war a very controversial figure and one of the big reason he left the socialist was because well there were too much competition for the leaderships, here he is just a voice among many many others; he is capable and smart but he also had very few friends and allies
I'm not "overestimating" Benny. In fact, I've avoided mentioning him at all so far because his entire political persuasion ITTL is radically different than it was in OTL. As for "leaving" the socialists, it wasn't that he made the conscious choice to leave, but that he was expelled during the war for his views. ITTL, as a result of the changes in the wider socialist movement following the Bolsheviks' triumph in the 5th Congress, his more militant and nationalistic brand of socialism becomes more prominent and accepted than it was IOTL.

The reason it's taken me so long to write everything is because I've spent the past two weeks doing meticulous research to make sure everything (not just in Italy, but the entire world)comes across as relatively plausible. The one thing that hampers my research is the fact that I can't read Italian, which makes it difficult since there's a dearth of reliable information translated into English. While your notes and observations so far are helpful (to an extent), I'd appreciate it if I could actually post the chapter first before my choices start being dissected. The only reason I posted that particular teaser was in an effort to drum up interest prior to my posting of the chapter. I've had a personal interest in Italy's 20th Century history, with a particular focus on D'Annunzio, for several years now, ever since I first learned about him. He's an obscure figure outside of Italy and is often (in my opinion) overlooked in favor of Mussolini and others in Italy. As an American, one who's had a particular fascination with Italy since childhood, I'm trying to do him justice, especially since he's widely seen as a figure akin to John the Baptist in the history of Fascism. My plans for Italy involve a number of figures who are often ignored by the mainstream, such as Guido Keller, Harukichi Shimoi, Luigi Federzoni, Enrico Corradini, and other prominent figures both within Italy and the Fiuman Endeavor.
 
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As an additional note to my comments above, the reason I've chosen to name the movement that D'Annunzio ends up pioneering Chartism or Carnarismo is because it's based on the original Charter of Carnaro, which is subsequently revised and expanded upon following their eventual rise to power rather than Gentile's Doctrine of Fascism. Indeed, the changes to Mussolini's character as a result of the ripple effects from the POD are what lead to this, including the absence of 1919's Sansepolcrismo speech and subsequent ideology, elements of which that are instead implemented as part of the foundations of Chartism/Carnarismo. Furthermore, there are additional changes caused by the actions of the United States, which becomes even more anti-Italian than it was in OTL as a result of the actions taken by Italian anarchist movements (primarily the Galleanisti) and their Italian-American followers, which leads to a sort of reverse exodus due to increased deportations back to the fatherland.

EDIT: On top of that, Italy has gone through a vast revision compared to the original conception of this TL, which involved a greater emphasis on Futurist influence, the pro-monarchist version of Fascism that the ideology morphed into over time, and was essentially more of an OTL Fascism wank. It's a vast improvement that I'm very proud of, because it's a lot more interesting to me (and hopefully to my audience) now than it was in its original incarnation.

EDIT II: Another thing I feel obligated to mention is that there's a greater sense of Vittoria Mutilata (mutilated victory) within Italy ITTL, as a result of the butterflies that have affected TTL's version of the Paris Peace Conference, particularly due to the organization that pops up in place of the League of Nations being even more ineffectual due to a particular lack of Wilsonian influence, leading to outright annexation of territories that were LON mandates within OTL, naturally leading to Britain and France gaining far bigger colonial empires in comparison to Italy ITTL. Ironically, this will lead to an increased over-extension on the part of British and French colonial administrations, which will further accelerate the decline of said empires due to the changes in the political atmosphere within the mainland.
 
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