Well, I definitely appreciate it. It would be fun to pursue the possibility of a larger Yeniseian presence in Central Asia, and potentially the Middle East. I'll take a look at the material and see what I can do with it. Don't sweat it That does sound interesting, so I will have to some more reading on it. I guess I had read about the spiritual significance of alcoholic drinks in Eastern Europe in Antiquity in the past. I'm wondering how this stuff would taste, though? I'm not really a beer kind of guy. Even the "sweet" beers still taste like moldy bread juice to me. Also, would this be applicable to more seasonal climates? Cuz you mentioned allowing the yeast to rise with natural heat, which I don't think is applicable everywhere. Alright, now I had read that the science was inconclusive as to how drastic the effects of pastoralism had been on the environment in the Sahara. Given that the PoD is about 3500 BCE, the Indo-Europeans will not make it into the Kur River Valley (Azerbaijan) until about 3000 BCE, and to the Iranian Plateau by about 2900-2800 BCE, it might be kind of a tall order to butterfly away what happened to Lake Megachad. Do you have a time frame for how long this environment existed? I have found some decent resources on Proto-Afroasiatic, but what worries me about connecting North Africa to Sub-Saharan Africa is the poor documentation of Sub-Saharan African languages, such as the so-called "Nilo-Saharan" family as well as the Niger-Congo, Mandé, and Songhay families. Because writing is a relatively recent phenomenon for Sub-Saharan Africa, none of these languages were recorded before the Modern Era, and because of the continued social and political instability in Africa (which I don't see improving any time soon), studying these languages and reconstructing their ancient pasts is both difficult and dangerous, which leaves very large holes in our understanding of their evolution and their interaction with each other. Apparently, "Nilo-Saharan" is not a widely accepted classification, and is therefore composed of multiple unrelated families whose internal relationships are ALSO pretty poorly understood at the moment. So, unless it's considered acceptable for me to just pull whole language families out of my ass that bear superficial similarity to OTL African languages, I am wary of touching Sub-Saharan Africa until the Modern Era. For my part, I had thought that the collapse of Old Egypt would look something more like the collapse of Rome, which would mean a large influx of Semitic-speaking peoples who would be linguistically and to some degree culturally assimilated to Egyptian civilization. Architecture and clothing would change somewhat, and probably the pantheon on some level, but many of the institutions would remain similar as the ruling Semites tried to impose themselves on the Native Egyptian population. We can use largely Semitic names for the dynasts however, seeing as that seems to have been common practice (the French still use a wealth of Frankish names, and their monarchs had Frankish names right up until the end of the monarchy). However, if Lake Megachad lasted longer, then your idea for pushing agricultural Afroasiatic-speaking peoples like the Egyptians and perhaps the Berbers further into Africa would definitely be interesting. Again though, I would have to essentially make up language phyla, and that feels kind of... cheap. I like the idea of more sedentary civilizations in Central Asia, and I was following a similar train of thought on the matter, except without the Botai horses being a factor. I would like to see a more agricultural and politically stable Afghanistan specifically. The initial Indo-European migration into the Middle East I wanted to come from crossing the Caucasus Mountains into the Kur River Valley and entering the Iranian Plateau. I wanted this specifically to push Mannaeans, Kassites, and Gutians into Upper Mesopotamia to destabilize the Semitic element in the region so that I could have a little bit of fun with writing the Gutian civilization from scratch, but also to push the Elamites eastward so that they might eventually enter India through Balukhistan after successive waves of Indo-European migration from the northwest. The second wave of Indo-European migration would come from the northeast though, as the Indo-Iranians did IOTL, and I think that would get started around 2600 BCE. So, it's certainly possible that a Botai element could survive in Central Asia long enough to have an impact on the social order. I like this idea of horse stratification - the older Botai horses for heavy labor, milking, and maybe even wool - and the newer horses for riding. On the note of getting the horses further north, maybe this is where the Yeniseians come in? I had no idea about that, so that is somewhat depressing. I love to add milk to my cooking, and no heavy cream? What about all the creamy desserts of Europe? I feel like I could be creating a dystopian hell... In terms of genetics, I had read somewhere (I think the blog that I linked) that Corded Ware peoples were somewhat darker (perhaps more along the lines of Albanians) than people in Germany today, which could be very interesting in terms of redistributing phenotypes. The Indo-European migration into the Middle East is going to be essentially on par with what it was into Europe IOTL, so it could be interesting to see lighter-skinned peoples in Anatolia, Iran, and Central Asia and somewhat darker Europeans. So, not ALL Indo-European migration is butterflied here. The Proto-Anatolians are still in the Balkans, and Greece, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, and former Yugoslavia will be Indo-Europeanized, and probably at least Northern Italy as well. A second wave of migration will hit Europe as well starting in the 2nd millennium BCE with horse nomads from the Pontic Steppe whose particular branch of Indo-European is on an increasingly isolating trend that will result in an analytic tonal language being spoken on the Pannonian Plain by the end of the 1st millennium BCE. Of course, this language will probably be replaced by something else later, but the point of mentioning that was that I think that it's feasible for the Uralic-speaking Corded Ware people of Central Europe at least to begin living a more agricultural lifestyle at an earlier period, but they might not go on the same campaign of deforestation that was undertaken by the Indo-Europeans during the Bronze Age. As far as the Semites expanding across the Mediterranean, I didn't want to get rid of the Semites entirely or just butterfly them all into Arabia, so, I think it will make for a good story. I had this idea of an anti-climactic showdown between the Insular Semites and an Indo-European-speaking power, perhaps in Italy or Greece (I lean towards Greece though, with the Semites being centered on Crete) resulting in the eventual destruction of the Indo-European power through the subversion of the Semites. Think if Rome had incorporated Carthage into the socii system, and the Carthaginians had never forgotten their reduction at the hands of Rome and plotted for a century or more to bring the Republic/Empire down on itself. Just an idea, though. We'll have to see. I mentioned the idea of a Turkic Manchuria and/or Korea, but you're thinking Eastern Europe, huh? That could be fun. Turkic languages are really sexy sounding to me, but there was a lot of interaction between Turkic peoples and Eastern Europeans IOTL. You don't think that would be cliché? Another idea I had for East Asia was to make sure that China remains balkanized for much of its history, and to have a William the Conqueror-type figure conquering Japan, which would mean that the Japanese might have a claim to a throne somewhere in China and might try to expand their territories there as the English did in France IOTL. Ooooo... I have mulled over many ideas for this department. One of them would be colonization happening via the Canaries, perhaps as a Phoenician-like civilization sets up permanent settlements there, or maybe some group of exiles from the more civilized Mediterranean do. Maybe they get blown off course attempting to charter Africa or attempting to find the mouth of the Niger River or something or other (trying to get access to that West African gold) and end up establishing a relationship with the Maya. I also have entertained the idea of East Asian settlement of the West Coast, perhaps religiously motivated, idk. I have read some really, really cool ideas about getting Polynesians to the Galapagos Islands on here that included a sort of semi-domestication of seals and/or marine iguanas that I thought were awesome, but I'm not sure how to make that happen, as Polynesia is kind of remote. I've never heard that one before. A Vasconic-speaking Empire could be fun, although I think getting it over to the Vistula or Dniester is kind of a tall order, especially if these parts of Europe remain more heavily forested and less develop ITTL. Your post gave me an idea for a united, Vasconic-speaking state in Iberia however that might be ruled in a similar manner, though. Maybe this empire is responsible for the discovery of the Americas via the Canaries? EDIT: Discussion of alternate evolution of pandemic diseases (the ones that hadn’t already evolved at this point) is also welcome here. I was interested in GoT’s greyscale for example, which took me down some interesting paths for ideas for epidemics.