Mississippi Rice (timeline)

This links up to a couple of earlier threads of mine, but this one is going to be for the timeline as I am envisioning it. Basically, the idea is two PoD's: the success of wild rice agriculture and the failure of maize agriculture in the New World, with the effect of boosting Mississippian civilization and retarding the development of civilization in Mesoamerica.

I will be referring here to Iroquoian, Algonquian and Muskogee, these are only very vaguely correlated with OTL tribes, and are more akin to linguistic groupings. The cultures of those people are very different from OTL.

Mississippi Rice

Roughly 8000 BC: Earliest estimates of wild rice horticulture in Pinzonia (North America), though this date is controversial.

2800 BC: The Sanderoan (Mexican) settlement of Tehuacan sees the emergence of a strain of disease affecting the local teosinte plant, which will lead to a reduced population in later years and eventually dispersal.

2500 BC: Most conservative estimates of wild rice horticulture, based on discoveries around the southern Grandes Lagos region.

2500 BC to 1500 BC: Settled agricultural societies begin to form at various points throughout the Colombian continent. Pottery and the burial of the dead develop during this period.

1500 BC to 1000 BC: Wild rice cultivation and mound settlements spread rapidly through the Megalopotamian (Mississippian) region, as well as into the Temegua peninsula (Florida), up the St Dominic River (St Lawrence River), and along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts. Paddy field agriculture develops in the south. Funeral pots first developed in the Equayor river valley (Ohio River).

1000 BC – 200 BC: Consolidation of the Megalopotamian Agricultural Complex, comprised of wild rice, pumpkin, squash, goosefoot, sunflowers, little barley, knotweed, maygrass and sumpweed. Agricultural cities the norm throughout Megalopotamia, with the cultivation of wild rice forming an increasing large proportion of the horticultural package further south. It is believed that sometime during this period the bison was first domesticated. The dominant powers of this age are the Upper Megalopotamian Monolith builders. Meanwhile in South America the Chavin culture emerges in Peru.

200 BC – 500 AD: Trade routes along the Gulf of Masaguar (OTL Gulf of Mexico) see the spread of wild rice in Sandero (Mexico) and the spread of amaranth in parts of Megalopotamia. The warmer Lower Megalopotamia begins to dominate the upper as bigger rice harvests lead to a greater population than the cooler north, and the period of domination by the city of Algonquin-speaking city of Weaku. There is the development of the first limestone cities along the Syuda River (Scioto River, offshoot of the Ohio). The Mochica and Nazca cultures in the Andes.

500 – 1000: Apogee and rapid decline of Weaku in the face of Southern Iroquoian tribes migrating from the north. Rise of the Rio Blanco (Wabash River) culture and its famous statuary. Timucua-speaking towns form along the coast of Temegua. The Muskogee cities begin to expand into the Gulf of Masaguar. Lower Mesopotamia, despite its large population, becomes extremely divided in this period, settling into bickering statelets and cities divided by ethnicity, culture and language. Meanwhile in the north, particularly along the Equayor there is an increasing linguistic and cultural homogeneity spurred in part by a new written script. Waru and Tiwanaku rise and fall around Lake Titicaca.

1000 – 1200: Invasion of the western Temegua coast by speakers of Muskogee and the resultant wars with the Timucua and Calusa tribes in the east. The Syuda valley unifies under a single cultural, political and linguistic order, while the Rio Blanco culture begins to slowly lose its cultural dominance over the Equayor. In Lower Megalopotamia, the city of Quesea is dominant and its population of Iroquoian-speaking elite lord it over an Algonquian underclass of slaves. Literacy has spread south to the Muskogee, who use a modified version of the Equayor script for commercial purposes.

1200 – 1350: Rise of the Sanderoan Mound-builders, farmers of rice, amaranth and beans in the Great Sandero Valley (Valley of Mexico). This is the apogee of Muskogee trade throughout the Gulf, extending from the Yucatan in the south, north as far as New Zealand (Delaware) and throughout the Tainarean Sea (Caribbean). Muskogee-speaking towns emerge on the northern coast of Cuba. Quesea is attacked by an Algonquian alliance and destroyed. In the Andes, the nascent kingdom of Cusco is destroyed by the expansionistic Chachapoyas.

1360-1368: The Syuda conquer the length of the Equayor. This forms a single linguistic and cultural region that becomes increasingly homogenous, though local flavors are often retained.

1384: Birth of Anuk Skat, the Conqueror, in the Syuda.

1410: The Syuda conquer the northern Megalopotamian region under the famed General Skankakat.

1418: Anuk Skat becomes the most powerful political leader after General Skankakat perishes in an ill-advised invasion of the Rio Blanco (Wabash River) valley.

1420: Second invasion of the Rio Blanco and destruction of the cities along that river and enslavement of the populace.

1422: Adoption by Anuk Skat of the title Engahana, meaning “The Man” as an official title. This title will be misinterpreted later by the Spanish and rendered ‘Inkhan’ which will begin a tradition of referring to Antimesopotamian leaders as either Inkhan or Khan. Ironically, later the line of Anuk will more often be referred to as Emperors, while the erroneous titles will continue to be applied to a variety of Pinzonian political figures.

1423:
Birth of Anuk Dek, the Architect.

1424-9: A series of wars with the Algonquian kingdoms in the south prompt the formation of the Quadruple Alliance between the kingdoms of Megakakwaxaka, Giwegi, Fega and Saux. The Syuda agree to peace terms which see these kingdoms virtual vassals of the Syuda and allow the Syuda unrestrained access to the Megalopotamian trade routes.

1430-6: The First Chachapoyas-Chimu war ends in stalemate but the Chachapoyas have created a strong empire. Few in number, they rule over a heterogenous empire.

1438-9: Conquest of the Syoaha River [Tennessee River] by the Syuda. The Syoahans spoke a Muskogee-related tongue but were considered barbarians by their kin to the south.

1442: Conquest of the Sandstone cities of the Dyai River [Little Beaver River] by the young Anuk Dek. The Dyai, former allies of the Syuda, had become inconvenient and were viewed as an easy way for the young heir to prove his military prowess. He is not as naturally martial as his father but instead is largely interested in the architectural achievements of the local people.

1450: Ascension of Anuk Dek to the throne and the lavish burial of the deceased Anuk Skat at a secret location. The Burial Pot of Anuk Skat is claimed to have require a team of bison to transport it, and to have been filled with the wealth of a hundred conquered cities.

1455: The expansion of a vast system of canals constructed between the various tributaries of the Equayor River, as well as dams and fortifications. These are mostly built of limestone.

1456: Birth of Anuk Axe, the Decadent. He is the first of some four brothers and nine sisters, the former of which are unhelpfully referred to as Anuk Axe as well.

1464-5: Fega conquered by the Syuda, the remaining Quadruple Alliance members vow revenge.

1472: The construction of the great ziggurats of Gadyua, which has recently been made permanent capital of the Syuda.

1477: Northern Iroquoian tribes along to the northeast of Syuda form a defensive alliance.


1490:
Death of Anuk Dek and his burial. Less of a lavish affair than that of his father, and not in a secret location but rather buried underneath an immense statue plated with copper and gold in the centre of Gadyua.

1491:
The marriage of Anuk Axe and his 14-year-old half-sister Oufshutte (known in history as Ophesia). This is not a traditional arrangement and is deplored by the priest-shamans.

1491.PNG
 
Also, a little bit about the Megalopotamian culture:

Food and Drink
Rice forms the common staple for food throughout Megalopotamia but various grains are also well-utilized. In general, rice has a more dominant position in the warm south while in the north they utilize more of the agricultural package. Pastries, breads and porridges made of little barley, sunflowers and maygrass are enjoyed, as are the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke which are treated somewhat like potatoes. Squash, beans and amaranth also form a part of the staple diet. Meat is enjoyed, particularly bison, who have been domesticated as a draft animal but also eaten and ridden in rare tournaments of skill.

Food in the south, particularly among the Muskogee, is known for being sweet and spicy. Chile peppers and sugar apples are common features in the cuisine, often manifesting as a variety of chutneys and relishes. They also make a greater use of seafood than in the north, where the food could be seen as dull in comparison: pastries and porridges often containing meat and seeds.

Cocoa is extremely rare, and has only recently been introduced to the Megalopotamians by way of Muskogee trade with Maya peoples. It is more widely known in the Andes. Vanilla is unknown except for some tribes in Sandero, they will not survive the coming of the Spanish. Peanuts are rare, but pecans are quite common in Pinzonia. Tomatoes are unknown. Alcohol is the most popular kind of drug, made with rice, persimmons, sunflowers and other ingredients. Tobacco is popular and is smoked by the Muskogee and in lower Megalopotamia, but in the northern regions it is brewed into a tea-like concoction instead.

Architecture
The societies of Megalopotamia could be described as hydraulic civilizations, placing a lot of emphasis on the control of the waterways. Dams and canals are vital aspects of the landscape, as are the ubiquitous rice paddies. Urban-planning is careful and on a large scale, with a particular eye for sanitation. In palaces, the elite enjoy hot and cold running water just as the Minoans did, and there are large public baths for the populace (much more popular in the warm south, while communal hot baths and saunas are common in the north). The Megalopotamians build impressive dockyards, walls and granaries. They erect monoliths, but do not build pyramids. A slave underclass is often used in the construction of the cities and great works, as well as in the farms. Human power in conjunction with the bison are used for most construction projects.
 
Good timline, have you read 1491 by Charles C. Mann or Guns Germs and Steel. As soon as I finished 1491 I was wondering what was the best POD to plausibly strengthen Native American societies.

My question is how do the Mississippians domesticate the buffalo? Does the rice POD help with this or does this qualify as second POd?
 
I've read 1491, I have read parts of GG&S though I'm currently trying to track down a copy of it. There are already two PoDs at any rate, the bison domestication is a byproduct of increased organisation and a higher percieved need. It's not domesticated like the cow, but more like the southeast asian water buffalo. They are used in the paddies and to drag things, but organised ranching does not exist (yet anyway).

This is only the setup part of the timeline anyway. You'll notice I ended it just before things start getting interesting (in the Chinese sense of the world)
 
Interesting TL here.

Can you write a short segment, like on post #2, on the domestication of the Bison? It would be nice to know the details of that. Thanks.
 
I've read 1491, I have read parts of GG&S though I'm currently trying to track down a copy of it. There are already two PoDs at any rate, the bison domestication is a byproduct of increased organisation and a higher percieved need. It's not domesticated like the cow, but more like the southeast asian water buffalo. They are used in the paddies and to drag things, but organised ranching does not exist (yet anyway).

This is only the setup part of the timeline anyway. You'll notice I ended it just before things start getting interesting (in the Chinese sense of the world)


I'd really reccomend it. You've got plausablity issues with the domestication of wild rice, bison, and the defusion on both.

It'll take some significant tinkering with the genome of wild rice and the mentality of the bison. POD would have to be a mutation of both.

Have a look over this for some ideas for wild rice: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/proceedings1993/V2-235.html
 
I am definatley intrigued by this TL, I cant wait to see how the colonization efforts are different in this tl...I couldn't figure out is there a Cahokia equivalent in this TL? and a breakdown of the Maps would also be good too...But Keep it comming.
 
Osakadave said:
I'd really reccomend it. You've got plausablity issues with the domestication of wild rice, bison, and the defusion on both.

It'll take some significant tinkering with the genome of wild rice and the mentality of the bison. POD would have to be a mutation of both.

I'll keep looking for it, and thanks for the link. My thinking is that while tinkering would be necessary, it would be comparatively less than the procress of turning teosinte into maize in OTL (which would seem a pretty implausible development when viewed from a TL where it never happened). The bison issue I'm still grappling with, but from what I'm reading about OTL bison handling and domestication I am confident I can pull it off. But I can't afford to just handwave it.

Historico said:
I am definatley intrigued by this TL, I cant wait to see how the colonization efforts are different in this tl...I couldn't figure out is there a Cahokia equivalent in this TL? and a breakdown of the Maps would also be good too...But Keep it comming.

I have prepared already for the colonization but I'm thinking I really need to get the pre-1491 stuff solid and plausible first. There wasn't really a Cahokia equivalent in this TL, though the cities of the Upper Megalopotamia are in pretty much the same basic geographical area. I'll make the maps a bit clearer.

Interesting; has anybody managed to work copper yet, or is this still a stone age society?

It's solidly copper age. Copper was worked around the Great Lakes region for thousands of years in OTL anyway.
 

1490:
Death of Anuk Dek and his burial. Less of a lavish affair than that of his father, and not in a secret location but rather buried underneath an immense statue plated with copper and gold in the centre of Gadyua.
Apparently they have mastered copper working.

EDIT: Beaten to it heh...

Great TL, I can't wait to see the impact of colonization, but I'm also rather curious to see how megalopatamian politics develop, and exactly why Anuk Axe is called "the Decadent" (although, with his marriage to his half cousin, I can already start to see why...).
 
Domestication of Wild Rice

Wild rice is a useful and nutritious crop, containing a high protein and carbohydrate content, amino acids, fatty acids, phosphorus, potassium and B vitamins. Wild rice was first domesticated by using a technique in which the seed was mixed with clay and rolled into small balls, and dropped in water. Initial domestication was hampered by the ease in which wild rice found in natural stands shattered, but shattering resistant cultivars were discovered around the Grandes Lagos region sometime between 8000 and 2500 BC (current thinking favors the later option, consensus averaging around 3000 BC).

As time passed, shattering-resistant cultivars of uniform seed size were developed, which saw the vast expansion of wild rice agriculture. In the south, diseases hampered the development of wild rice cultivation until the productive Z. palustris crop was combined with the Z. aquatica crop found both in the northern St Dominic river and parts of Masaguay. This hybrid crop was bred for slower growth rates in warm weather. This saw the vast expansion of paddy agriculture in the south, followed by population growth and increased social organization after 1000 BC in the warm southern regions. In the northern region, wild rice is harvested in the autumn months, while in the warmer southern region it is harvested in the spring (then placed in cool underground over-ripening pools to ripen).

Domestication of the Bison

From 19th century studies of now-extinct populations of wild western bison, there must have been significant issues with the domestication of these animals. Western bison were known for their skittishness and violence, leading to high levels of aggression and stampede behavior. Studies of modern bison herds, known to have been bred with then-extent western bison populations by 19th century ranchers, have been found to secrete higher levels of the fear hormone Cortisol which gives those animals the reputation of skittishness they retain today. The domestic Megalopotamian basin surely had similar or identical issues which interfered with domestication.

It is believed that bison domestication was partially begun due to the increased social complexity and size of Megalopotamian society. In the north, meat has always been considered a valuable food source eaten voraciously by the burgeoning towns. While among earlier populations, managed hunting was the order of the day, the upper Megalopotamian culture began to have a need for the controlled access to the bison, which led to the first ranches. During the period of Weaku, dangerous bison-jumping was the main sport of choice. It is believed that in this period those members of the bison herds with fear and violence issues were separated from the herd and participated in these violent contests of man versus beast. This inevitably led to the genetic drift of the Megalopotamian bison away from its wild roots to a more manageable form.

In the early period darkened corrals were used to control bison herds, but these became unnecessary as domestication progessed. Whistles and rattles, believed to have been used to control bison herds, have been recovered from archaeological sites across the region. In the southern region they were encouraged to wallow in the rice paddies, while in the north they became useful as pack animals. Bison are most manageable when in herds, and herds were attached to military units first along the Equayor after 1000 AD, improving mobility and logistics for those armies. By the time of European colonization, the Megalopotamian bison was almost unrecognizable from its natural form.
 
Interesting Tidbit on the cultivation of Wild Rice and domestication of the Bison(I wonder if Colonoziation efforts and expansion will wipe them out, by settling the new world with Beef Cattle?)Also might these ATL Natives suffer from Vitamin A deficiency with a rice oriented culture instead of Maize based such as the peoples in Southeast Asia in OTL? Also might the Wheel which was used in toys created by the Tawantinsuya find a practical usages in the plains and valleys of this atl Mississippian civilization? and always Keep it comming
 
Very, very interesting! Great start!

I like the background info on the domestication efforts...that's the type of stuff that sets a good TL apart from a list of dates and facts.

Any plans on developing the *Mississippian culture and society further? I'm curious to see what it'd look like beyond the hydraulic works and bison culture (do I detect a hint of Messopotamia?). Obviously there's scant historical to go on other than maybe assumptions based on OTL Natchez culture (heirarcical sun-theocracies) or theories of Muskogian cultural connections (IIRC there's thoughts that some SW Muskhogean tribes were the remnants of the Mississippians).

Artistically that's called a "blank slate"! :D

Keep it up!
 
Here are my tentative first ten years, might be subject to revision but in general it's how I'm going with it.

1492: Columbus’s voyage encounters a number of Muskogee trading catamaran as they navigate the coast of Juana [Cuba], and learn of the cities to the west. These traders can communicate readily with the other Colombians already captured, and several of these are taken on the ship. The Pinta is separated from the other ships as its captain Martin Pinzon seeks further exploration west while Columbus turns east. The problem arises due to a communication mix-up. One of the Muskogee traders, asked about cities, points to his home in the west. Another, when asked about gold, points to the northeast, where gold is more commonly found [eastern part of OTL Georgia Gold Belt].

1493: Pinzon travels up the coast of Juana and make contact with the local Muskogee settlements there, who offer to trade for items found aboard ship. Some Juanans come aboard the ship, and some of the Spanish opt to stay with their generous hosts. Meanwhile, the Nina and Santa Maria are hit by a storm off northern Hispaniola. The latter is sunk with all hands, but the Nina is merely grounded and Columbus is able to make an agreement with the locals to set up a small settlement (La Navidad) to repair their ship. Pinzon returns to Spain, missing the settlement, but returning to glory. He returns to the New World later in the year, this time discovering La Navidad in the midst of a struggle with the locals, which has already seen Columbus killed.

1494: Pinzon reaches Juana to discover that smallpox, called anuli by the locals, has begun to tear through the cities, and that many of the men who remained have been killed as an attempt to placate the gods. Pinzon’s ships are attacked but the port city of Iqalo remains friendly and he is able to shelter there. In Iqalo, a Spaniard from the Pinta married the local king’s daughter and became a trusted advisor (not bad for a drunk from Andalusia). Spanish missionaries begin to spread the word that the plague is caused by sin and the only cure is the conversion to Catholicism.

1495: With reinforcements landing in Iqalo, the Spanish and their local allies conquer the hostile Juanan cities, which are in a state of chaos and plague. The towns fall one by one, and are placed under Spanish rule. Unbeknownst to the Spanish, as refugees flee the cities to the mainland they take smallpox with them.

1496: Rebellions in the Juanan cities are repressed and much of the able-bodied native population flees into the south or to other islands, bringing smallpox with them. Pinzon is named governor of Juana and Hispaniola, and sets his capital in Iqalo. The Iqalans have suffered terribly from smallpox but they are given special privileges over the Juanans of other towns.

1497: Among the Muskogee, plagues spread causing chaos in the dominant city of Ayaanchaca, prompting an invasion by its rival Sonoccyala. By the end of the year, plague has spread to all the cities in the region. Vincent Yanez Pinzon explores the eastern coast of Temegua [Florida] and makes contact with the Muskogee-speaking towns there.

1498: In France, Charles VIII almost suffers a fatal accident while playing a game of real tennis, but survives. He continues to plan for the resumption of his Italian adventures. Spread of smallpox to Yacatea [Yucatan] and the abandonment of the Muskogee colonies and trading posts along that coastline. Smallpox deaths in Ayaanchaca die down, but there has been a huge loss of life and trade has dropped off in all of the Muskogee cities. In the north, Syuda and the Triple Alliance war over the ancient city of Weaku. The casus belli is the blockade of the trade of Muskogee chili rice wine along the river by the reports of plague in the south. Anuk Axe orders his troops to open the trade route by force.

1499: Amerigo Vespucci sets off to map the eastern edge of the Pinzonian continent. The region of Pinzonia east of the Maroon Alps [the Appalachians] will be known as America in later years. The resumption of the Italian wars as Charles VIII of France concludes an alliance with Venice and the Swiss and invades the duchy of Milan. In Spain, a Muskogee named Hasi, the only survivor of an Iqalo trade delegation which had originally consisted of 12 men, earns the patronage of Isabella due to his quick command of the Spanish language and conversion to the Catholic faith. He takes the Spanish name Jose.

1500: Formal contact between the king of Ayaanchaca and the conquistador Rodrigo de Bastidas. The king seeks to use the Spanish weapons and ships to dominate the other Muskogee cities (particularly the perfidious Sonoccyala), and initially agrees to convert to Christianity. All seems to be going to plan when plague again breaks out. The cities religious elite use this as an excuse to declare the Spaniard foreign demons and this leads to attacks by the citizenry on the Spanish and subsequent retaliation. The king and his retinue are taken as slaves back to Spain, but he is forgiven and called the first Christian king of Masaguay. He dies of disease in 1506.

The Portuguese navigator Cabral is blown off-course and discovers a new land in the far south, which is named Laurentia. Meanwhile, another Portugeuse navigator, Gaspar Corte-Real, explores the coast of [Panama] and is the first European to sight the Pacific Ocean. In Europe, Ludovico Sforza is captured by the French.

1501: In Juana and Hispaniola, the collapse of the native population has led to difficulties with labor, and has necessitated the importation of the first black slaves to Hispaniola and Juana. A punitive expedition against Ayaanchaca is led by Vasco Nunez de Balboa, who captures the city as a second wave of plague deaths has irreparably weakened the city. Gaspar Corte-Real explores the northern Laurentian coastline [Venezuela].

1502: Andreas Palaiologos, de jure ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire, dies in Rome. The title of Roman emperor transfers to Charles VIII of France, who purchased the rights in 1494. The ambitious and over-reaching Charles VIII begins to dream of the liberation of the East from the Turk and French domination of Constantinople. In Wales, Catherine of Aragon dies of apparent consumption, leaving her husband Arthur Tudor heartbroken. Arthur was also sick but recovered. The first outbreaks of the Sweataches, a zootropic disease originating in Masaguay, in Juana and Hispaniola, while in Pinzonia smallpox has reached the Algonquian kingdoms. The Sweataches decimates the Spanish in Ayaanchaca, but they repulse an attack by an alliance of Muskogee cities.
 
Very, very interesting! Great start!

I like the background info on the domestication efforts...that's the type of stuff that sets a good TL apart from a list of dates and facts.

Any plans on developing the *Mississippian culture and society further? I'm curious to see what it'd look like beyond the hydraulic works and bison culture (do I detect a hint of Messopotamia?). Obviously there's scant historical to go on other than maybe assumptions based on OTL Natchez culture (heirarcical sun-theocracies) or theories of Muskogian cultural connections (IIRC there's thoughts that some SW Muskhogean tribes were the remnants of the Mississippians).

Artistically that's called a "blank slate"! :D

Keep it up!

Thanks, I'm enjoying this, but some of the Europe-related butterflies are starting to do my head in.

I will be definately developing the Megalopotamian culture and society further, I need to put some effort into their government structure, trade, copper-working, religion, and so forth. I will be taking inspiration from a variety of sources, from OTL Mississippians and other native peoples (for obvious enough reasons), Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and Egypt (rivers, don't ya know) as well as pre-Shang China and ancient southeast Asia (rice and it's effects). And possibly other places, there's shades of the Minoans in parts as well. Basically I'm trying to keep it plausible but also unique and evocative.
 
1491 Map of Pinzonia

Pinzonia, the northern continent of the New World, was home to vibrant urban civilizations before the coming of Spain. Below is a guide to some of the larger and more important native cities, with a guide to some of the geographical terminology I'm using.

1491 cities map.PNG
 

Stalker

Banned
I'll play avocado diaboli if you don't mind...
Interesting but somewhat unreaistic, seems to me. Wild rice is good, of course but you need several more millenia to have the locals get the idea of its domestification. Your initial supposition of such an early rice horticulture really looks ASBish. Why? Because until later times even after the arriva of the Europeans, Northamerican indians gathered rice growing in wild. They never raised it, or I am mistaken badly.
There was no populational pressure, even in Missisippan culture, and thus no need in domestification of rice. Especially when by 8th century AD there already had been in pace the main culture, zonated maiz. Rice is a very capricious cuture and is reasonably hard to raise. It will require communal works on irrigation and thus you will get societies close to early Chinese or eary Sumer.
The most necessary task is to direct the initial waves of American colonisation to the region of Missisipi several millenia earlier simply to give the locas enough time to build civilisation here. The region in OTL was populated comaratively late because the waves of colonisation moved two ways - along Kordiliera down south and a much weaker one - to the east in Canada north from Great Plains. It were Great Plains ans deserts and semideserts to the south of them that prevented Stome Age colonists to get to the Missisipi fast en masse.
That's really the most promising region of all Americas but, as I said, it was colonised too late. And maiz, very sensitive to the length of the day, got there too late to let the agricultural civilizations in the region get on their feet and harden. When De Sotto got there, it was still in the epoch of early competing polices.
Jared Diamond, read him. His expanations look very solid.
 
Great Installment, what Language to the names for your Amerindian cities come from and what are the translations lol? How far has the plague spread into the interior of North America?
 
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