Miscellaneous <1900 (Alternate) History Thread

What (or Where even) could be the counterpart of the Druze in "No Islam" scenarios, "Ebionitism as substitute" included?
Berber pseudo-Christianity like the OTL Barghawata faith (which was pseudo-Islam)? There are a lot of reports of Judaism among the Berbers which may been anything from actual Jews to highly divergent Christians to some mixture of all the above. Probably it emerges in the more remote parts of Roman Africa in Mauretania.
 
Surviving/not converted out Samaritans, perhaps?
Oh yes, they could be the nearest counterpart of OTL Druze, at least in the Levant.

Berber pseudo-Christianity like the OTL Barghawata faith (which was pseudo-Islam)? There are a lot of reports of Judaism among the Berbers which may been anything from actual Jews to highly divergent Christians to some mixture of all the above. Probably it emerges in the more remote parts of Roman Africa in Mauretania.
How it be more widespread across North Africa or just restricted to OTL Morocco?
 
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Challenge: Try to make Russian from the 16-18th century have the same social mobility as the West did during that period & explain what that may entail for its future
 
How it be more widespread across North Africa or just restricted to OTL Morocco?
Probably just OTL Morocco and western Algeria since it would very much be a tribal thing limited to one particular tribal confederation. Theoretically though some tribes could migrate (like maybe against persecution) and spread to isolated oases or insular merchant communities in West Africa.
 
Probably just OTL Morocco and western Algeria since it would very much be a tribal thing limited to one particular tribal confederation. Theoretically though some tribes could migrate (like maybe against persecution) and spread to isolated oases or insular merchant communities in West Africa.
Oh, I forgot about the geography.
 
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If Henry, Duke of Cornwall survived or Catherine of Aragon gave birth to more sons, thus leading to Henry VIII staying with Rome, would the lack of a unifying force for Protestantism in England lead to even more people moving to the New World once the reformation inevitably takes off in the British Isles? How bad could religious conflict in Britain get if the monarchs stayed Catholic the entire time?

Also, what are some good TLs I can read where Henry VIII stays Catholic?
 
If Henry, Duke of Cornwall survived or Catherine of Aragon gave birth to more sons, thus leading to Henry VIII staying with Rome, would the lack of a unifying force for Protestantism in England lead to even more people moving to the New World once the reformation inevitably takes off in the British Isles? How bad could religious conflict in Britain get if the monarchs stayed Catholic the entire time?

Also, what are some good TLs I can read where Henry VIII stays Catholic?
I’m not sure it’s a given there would be religiousntrouble. Up until the middle point of Liz reign a large part of England was catholic. Without a top down enforcement thay numbers going to be much higher. And we’d likelt see Protestantism kept to an enclave in the south east
 
Why did the numbers 3, 4, 7, and 12 have major significance in the past?
Three is the lowest odd prime number, and three of anything is going to be markedly different than one or two of anything. Four is 2x2 and the human body has four limbs, four gaps between the fingers (used for counting in some cultures), there are four directions (two based on the sunrise and sunset, two based on the points opposite or alternatively the points to your left and right and in front and behind you), etc.

Twelve is significant because of the zodiac. In ancient times, the sun passed through twelve constellations over the course of the year (because of changes in Earth's axis and stellar motion, it is now thirteen constellations) and there are usually 12 moons in a given year hence why practically every culture has a concept of 12 months plus a short leap month. In the Old World there is a very ancient link to the Sumerians who influenced Indian and Chinese astronomy from the earliest times much as they did with Ancient Greek astronomy. Most African and practically all New World peoples lack this Sumerian influence so the number twelve had no significance.

As for seven, that's also because of the Sumerians since they had a seven day week due to seven days being 1/4 of a lunar month and eventually identified with there being seven classical planets.

Since the cultures of Europe and Asia have always culturally and intellectually dominated the world, it's not surprising this is the case. Other cultures had different significant numbers, like some Indians of the Pacific Northwest viewed five as a sacred number, while others in that region viewed four (or eight, 4+4) as a sacred number, while the cultures of ancient Mesoamerica (perhaps under Maya influence) extensively used 13 and 20.
 
Why 13 and 20?
13 is the number of prominent joints in the human body, and 13*28=364, a very close approximation with the length of the solar year and number of moons in some years. Twenty is the number of fingers and toes (which in many languages, the same word is used for each) which led to a Base-20 system (as the Mesoamericans used). 13*20=260 relates to human pregnancy (260 days on average from earliest detection by premodern medicine to birth), Maya agriculture, and cycles of Venus as viewed from Earth.
 
What if Henry 8 after Katherine has multiple daughters and still born sons plus the Pope says no to a divorce decides he loves his wife and raises Mary to be the strongest Queen she can be?

So Mary is loved and taught by her Father with her Mothers influence, but does not go through the harsh wilderness years of OTL. What sort of Queen is she and whom does she marry?
 
What if Henry 8 after Katherine has multiple daughters and still born sons plus the Pope says no to a divorce decides he loves his wife and raises Mary to be the strongest Queen she can be?

So Mary is loved and taught by her Father with her Mothers influence, but does not go through the harsh wilderness years of OTL. What sort of Queen is she and whom does she marry?
First the fact who Henry VIII felt the need of a male heir was not based on some imaginary thing but a fear for the future of England with solid basis as no woman had been ever able to inherit the English Crown until that moment and Henry was only the second King of the Tudor dynasty... Second if Catherine had multiple daughters Mary will not be the heiress of the Crown as her mother was pregnant only once after her. Third Mary becoming Queen would mean who her husband would be the effective ruler of England
 
a Boer republic like Lesotho in side south africa still letting the British go north is this possible?
Screenshot 2023-11-07 12.29.39 PM.png
 
What were the effects of the Ottoman empire crushing the religious minorities (Shias, Sufis, Christians, etc) of the empire in the 1600s?
 
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