Map Thread XXII

The deluge of contest entries continues:



When I thought about the scenario of the United States losing the Revolutionary War, I pictured it being part of a larger trend of Enlightenment ideas failing to prove themselves in reality and eventually being abandoned in favor of Romanticism, and that got me envisioning a global conflict between two alternate ideologies: Chartism (a kind of Christian socialism with its origins in England and North America) and Caesarism (essentially a form of fascism that evolves in absolutist France). In the 1860's, this conflict tears the overextended British Empire in two, with the United Chartist Empire arising in the west, and the East India Company commandeering much of her empire in the east. Caesarism reaches its height in the mid-20th century, as the United Chartist Empire collapses due to internal problems, but the reality of a world filled with militaristic regimes averse to free trade ends in catastrophe, and the Caesarist powers turn on each other as they go into decline. As the century comes to a close, a world tired of wars and imperialism begins to revisit Chartism, among other anti-Caesarist ideas, and many ruined or downtrodden nations grow optimistic as the world continues to reshape itself.


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In celebration of the Philippines' Independence Day, I looked at 8 different realities and saw 8 different Philippines.

The (Fifth) Republic of the Philippines
[Current day Philippines in our own timeline] On July 4, 1946, the Philippines gained full independence from the United States after a period of Japanese occupation during World War II. Ferdinand Marcos was elected president in 1965 and declared martial law in 1972, with his regime being characterized by human rights abuses, suppression of political dissent, and widespread corruption. The 1986 snap elections, marred by allegations of electoral fraud, led to the People Power Revolution. This peaceful uprising, supported by key military leaders and the Catholic Church, forced Marcos into exile and resulted in Corazon Aquino, becoming president, establishing the Fifth Philippine Republic.

People's Republic of the Philippines
The Communist Party of the Philippines-New People's Army-National Democratic Front (CPP-NPA-NDF) grew into a more significant armed movement during the Marcos dictatorship, occupying large portions of the Philippine countryside. The legal national-democratic left did not boycott the 1986 snap elections and played a substantial role in the EDSA Revolution. With left and progressive figures in the new government, peace talks led to the NPA becoming a distinct armed force within a coalition government, being organized as a paramilitary force separate from the conventional armed forces. The NDF entered electoral politics and eventually formed the first leftist government of the Philippines. This sparked a US-sponsored coup by anti-communist military elements, conservative opposition, and the former Marcos elite. However, loyal NPA forces and military factions supported the leftist government, escalating into a large-scale civil war. The NDF's victory in this conflict resulted in the establishment of the People's Republic of the Philippines, embracing a New Democracy framework.

(First) Republic of the Philippines
A more cautious First Philippine Republic saw through the plans of the Americans and successfully fended off their colonial ambitions. Through international support from sympathetic countries, the new republic managed to sustain its independence. By the early 20th century, the Philippines embarked on a path of nation-building, focusing on agrarian reforms, industrialization, and education. The leadership adopted progressive policies that encouraged economic growth and political stability. The country's strategic location and commitment to neutrality allowed it to become a significant trade hub in Southeast Asia. During World War II, the Philippines maintained its neutrality and after the war, emerged as a leading voice in the newly formed United Nations, advocating for decolonization and regional cooperation.

(Second) Republic of the Philippines
In the early 1930s, amidst global economic depression and growing dissatisfaction with American colonial rule, Filipino Falangists, inspired by the ideologies of Mussolini's Italy and the Falangists in Spain, founded the Partido Nacionalista Filipina (PNF), quickly gaining a significant following, and eventually orchestrating a successful putsch against the American colonial government, establishing the Second Republic of the Philippines. During the war, the country aligned with their fascist Axis partners. Subsequently, the country was put under Allied Occupation after war. Among the eight versions of the Philipines featured in this map, the Second Republic is the one that lived the shortest.

Kingdom of Spain (Crown of Manila)
The Glorious Revolution of 1868 in Spain was far more decisive and led to the complete overthrow of the Spanish monarchy. Queen Isabella II and the royal family, facing imminent capture and execution, fled the country with the help of loyalists and foreign allies. Seeking refuge, they sailed to the farthest reaches of the Spanish Empire, establishing the Kingdom of Spain in exile in the Philippines, known as the Crown of Manila.

Dominion of the Philippine Islands
After their successful capture of Manila during the Seven Years' War in 1762, the British retained control over the islands, capitalizing on their strategic location and economic potential. The British East India Company took administrative control, integrating the archipelago into the British colonial empire. The early 20th century brought a growing sense of Filipino nationalism and a push for self-government. Inspired by the Dominions of Canada and Australia, the Filipino elite began advocating for greater autonomy. Recognizing this, the British granted the Philippines dominion status, akin to Canada and Australia, with a fully self-governing parliamentary system while recognizing the British monarch as the ceremonial head of state.

Tondo Empire (Partly inspired by Alex0505050's 'Big Nations: Romania to Philippines')
Tondo, located around the modern-day Manila Bay, evolved into a powerful maritime thalassocracy. By the 10th century, Tondo's strategic location made it a hub for trade between China, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean. The rulers of Tondo, known as Lakans, established a formidable navy, protecting their waters and expanding their influence across the archipelago. The thalassocracy controlled vast territories, from Luzon down to the Visayas, and even established trading posts in Mindanao. Tondo then extended its influence throughout Southeast Asia, establishing Tondo-loyal kingdoms in strategic locations. Royal family members and trusted nobles were installed as monarchs in these satellite kingdoms, ensuring loyalty and cohesion within the expanding Tondo Empire. Inspired by Chinese bureaucratic governance practices, the Lakans began to adapt and implement similar systems within their empire, consolidating control over the diverse territories and ensured efficient administration across the empire.

United Republics of the Philippines, Apolaki, Mabini, and New Bicol
In the mid-21st century, the Philippines was one of the dozens of nations that jumped on the space colonization train. The first colonies of humanity were established and administered by government-chartered companies created by various countries. Many of these settlements attracted large Filipino migrations, drawn by promises of new opportunities and adventures in space. Filipino settlers played crucial roles in the development and prosperity of these off-world colonies, contributing their expertise in engineering, science, and culture.

As Filipino communities thrived in space, the Philippines began launching its own settlement efforts, establishing colonies that would one day become Apolaki, Mabini, and New Bicol. With the Philippines beginning to establish its own off-world settlements, it attracted a lot of migration from the Filipinos already in space. Centuries down the line, with terraforming finished on Mars and Venus, these off-world territories started to surpass the Home Islands in population, prompting the establishment of Apolaki, Mabini, and New Bicol as separate republics, albeit in a federal union with each other and the Home Islands back on Earth.
 
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Kingdom of Sicily and the surrounding Mediterranean as a result of the reigns of King Roger II and his son William I from de Hauteville dynasty.

Southern Italy had long been a battleground for influence between the Holy Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire. It was important for the empires to control this region, as it played the role of gateway for further invasion: for the Greeks it was an outpost for the conquest of Italy, and for the Germans the local ports would serve as good bases for attacks on Byzantine coastal cities. The irreconcilable struggle between the two empires was stopped by the appearance of the Normans: summoned by the local Lombard rulers, they quickly eliminated Greek domination, destroyed the local Muslim rulers and made a vassal oath to the German Emperor. However, they did not stop there. Soon the vassal oaths were forgotten, and instead of Lombard and Greek possessions Normans founded their own states, united later under the rule of Roger II de Hauteville, who received the title of King of Sicily in 1130. There was no man whom the German and Greek Emperors hated more than Roger II, and several joint campaigns were planned against the Sicilian king, but each time such campaigns met with opposition from the local nobility of both states, and instead of large armies, the Sicilians met relatively small groups of invaders. However, Catholic rulers were wary of him. He actively used the services of Muslims, who lived in Sicily in large numbers; his contribution to the Crusades was relatively small; he had a cold attitude to the fate of Jerusalem: Roger claimed the crown of Jerusalen, but his claims were not supported by anyone either in the kingdom or outside it; led an active struggle with the Roman popes, for which he was for some time excommunicated from the Church. Being between a hammer and anvil, the Sicilian king constantly had to maneuver between East and West. On the joint naval operations of the Greeks and Germans, he responded with blitz attacks with his large fleet under the command of ammiratus ammiratorum George of Antioch, and in the case of land invasions he sat back in impregnable Sicily, waiting for the exhaustion of the enemy. Broken into a bunch of counties and communes Sicily could not fight on equal terms with the strongest states in Europe, so Roger tried to centralize the country as far as possible - all subjects of power were subordinate directly to the authority of the king. There was also growing dissatisfaction with the king among the nobility, so he did everything possible to keep the nobility as far away from the instruments of power.

In an attempt to centralize the state, Roger II issued the Assizes of Ariano. Their contents can be summarized as follows: the Sicilian monarch's power was given by God himself, and he was responsible for his rule before him, and not before anyone else (this meant that Roger denied the primacy of papal authority in his territory, and, as papal legate of Sicily, was free to lead the Catholic Church in his territory. Any disagreement with the royal law could be regarded as a disagreement with the will of God, and, as a consequence, was equated with a sacrilege); the entirety of the kingdom's possessions, rights and privileges - regalia - could not be given away without the king's consent (this also applied to cases of inheritance of possessions by vassals); the king of Sicily was declared an adherent of the Catholic faith, and apostasy was recognized as a crime and punishable by death. However, members of other religious denominations were not openly harassed. They were given freedom to practice their religion. For example, marriages concluded according to Muslim customs were recognized as valid. In addition, Jews and Muslims were forbidden to have Christian slaves.

With issuing the Assizes of Ariano Roger divided the country into districts with Justiciars at the head, who monitored the implementation of royal laws, and in fact governed the territory entrusted to them without taking into account the opinion of royal vassals. Roger appointed his sons and closest men to such positions, making sure that no Justiciar was seen to have ties with the discontents.

At the end of Roger's reign, the Normans planned a campaign to Africa - here they were led not by religious, but purely economic interest. Tunisian Zirid state collapsed under the attacks of Arab tribes, and the capture of its territories opened the way for Sicily to trade with the states of West Africa through the Sahara, which in the tight situation between Byzantium and the Holy Roman Empire meant a much-needed economic strengthening. The captured territories were conventionally named the "Kingdom of Africa", although no one awarded it such a title, Roger and his descendants used it in their titulature. Almost all lands of this kingdom were included in the royal domain and ruled by Justiciars, but there were also local vassals - Emirs from local Arab and Berber tribes, integrated into the system of power with a certain degree of autonomy (Justiciars on their lands had no power), but with the obligation to protect the borders of the kingdom from raids and to pay taxes to the kingdom treasury. Norman rule in African territories, as in the rest of the state, was characterized by a certain religious tolerance. Roger ordered not to destroy mosques, and allowed the Greek population of the mainland to move and rebuild temples, including some of those rebuilt into mosques during the Arab conquest of Africa. In general, the population of Africa bore less taxes than the mainland population: this titillated the local population, tired of Zirids tax oppression, and ensured that they would not rebel. To repel Berber raids, Roger ordered the construction of a network of ribates on the frontier, called Roger's Wall.

The conquest of Tunisia opened an unhindered route to West Africa for Europeans. The maritime republics did not fail to seize this opportunity, and the coast of Africa was soon dotted with a chain of trade factories. However, the Radhanites, traveling Jewish merchants, did not tolerate possible competition and demanded from Roger to close the factories, and he significantly increased the amount of fees for the Italian traders, making it impossible for them to trade independently without the help of the Radhanites. The rulers of the maritime republics were dissatisfied with this step, but in return he gave them the opportunity to open factories to replace those closed in mainland Sicily.

The Sicilian kingdom tolerated Muslim culture as well as Greek Christianity. The royal curia included representatives of the Muslim and Greek communities, and their representatives were not legally restricted from holding office in the state. On the royal coins minted in Sicily one could often find quotations from the Quran, and the royal palace in Palermo was decorated with Greek mosaics of the events of Roger's great deeds. However, Roger did not forget his commitment to the Catholic faith. Every year the state treasury was spent on the construction of ten Latin churches, and episcopal seats were re-established in Africa.

Roger's reign came to an end with his death in 1155. He was succeeded by his fourth son William, who was not originally prepared for rule and had no experience in public service. In one way or another, William was first in line of succession because of the deaths of his older brothers before Roger's death. William had little involvement in the internal administration of the state, preferring it to harems and commanding armies. The actual power in the state was exercised by the Al-Caide of the royal curia, Thomas Brun, an Englishman by birth, who fought for supreme power with Maio of Bari, a Lombard, who held the position of chancellor of the duana regia (royal diwan), the fiscal body of the Sicilian kingdom, and Philip of Rhuspia, ammiratus ammiratorum, commander-in-chief of the Sicilian fleet. The beginning of William's reign was overshadowed by a major revolt of barons dissatisfied with the excessive centralization of the state under his predecessor. The Byzantine Emperor Manuel Komnenos decided to help the rebellion, planning to take advantage of the situation and retake Southern Italy. Pope Adrian IV also invaded the territory of the kingdom in order to return the lands conquered by Roger and overthrow William as a papal legate, whose inherited status was transferred by the popes to his grandfather, also Roger. By the end of 1155 the mainland of the kingdom was divided between the Papacy, Byzantium, and the rebels; only a small part of Calabria, Africa, and the islands of Sicily, Corfu, and Kefalonia remained under William's control. For three months William took no action, waiting for reinforcements from Africa, which were delayed by the Almohad attacks, until a rebellion also broke out in Sicily, after defeating which it was decided to attack the mainland. William's army, the core of which was made up of Muslims, managed to defeat the rebel army at Taranto, at that point had already broken up with the Byzantine commander. Thomas Brun was able to negotiate with Almohads on the termination of hostilities in exchange for payment of the contribution, and the relieved fleet went to join the army of William in Brindisi, the remaining not yet surrendered to the Greeks city in Apulia, where were the main forces of the Byzantine expedition. During the ensuing battle in July 1156, the Byzantine army was defeated, and their commander John Doukas was taken prisoner and taken to Palermo, where he was taken into everlasting captivity and was blinded. The same fate was planned for Robert II of Capua, who was banished from the country by Roger and returned with the beginning of the rebellion and managed to become its head. William also dealt harshly with the regular participants of the rebellion: many barons were deprived of their possessions or imprisoned. Bari, one of the first towns to support the rebellion, was razed to the ground (although it was rebuilt fifteen years later). William was nicknamed the Evil for his actions.

As a result of peace negotiations with Byzantium, Sicily ceded Kefalonia and Corfu, which had been captured under the reign of Roger. The Pope did not wish further continuation of hostilities and immediately requested peace, according to the terms of which the borders before the war were preserved, as well as the status of William as papal legate, which gave him almost unquestioned religious authority in the kingdom, he could freely create dioceses, appoint and dismiss bishops. In addition, the peace agreement with the Pope established perpetual peace with the kings of Sicily, and the parties undertook not to condone and not to let in their territory opponents of the kingdom, which, on the one hand, created a kind of buffer between Sicily and the German emperors, and on the other hand guaranteed that the Sicilian kings in the nascent struggle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines will not act on the side of the emperors.

After the rebellion and foreign invasion were done away with, the kingdom set about finding allies. In the fight against the Almohads, William found an ally in the person of Ramon IV Berenguer, Count of Barcelona and regent of the kingdom of Aragon, as well as a participant in the Spanish Reconquista and intra-imperial politics. In the event of a possible confrontation with Byzantium, William decided to rely on Hungary, which had previously been at constant war with the Greeks for influence in the Balkans. In 1161, William briefly conquered the principality of Antioch as a pretender to the throne, but under pressure from the Pope, he had to cede the title to Bohemond de Poitiers, his cousin. William planned to use Antioch as a base to subdue the kingdom of Jerusalem, which William claimed. After this, active expansion of the kingdom ceased, and William's reign saw no major wars.
 
<MAP>

Kingdom of Sicily and the surrounding Mediterranean as a result of the reigns of King Roger II and his son William I from de Hauteville dynasty.

Southern Italy had long been a battleground for influence between the Holy Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire. It was important for the empires to control this region, as it played the role of gateway for further invasion: for the Greeks it was an outpost for the conquest of Italy, and for the Germans the local ports would serve as good bases for attacks on Byzantine coastal cities. The irreconcilable struggle between the two empires was stopped by the appearance of the Normans: summoned by the local Lombard rulers, they quickly eliminated Greek domination, destroyed the local Muslim rulers and made a vassal oath to the German Emperor. However, they did not stop there. Soon the vassal oaths were forgotten, and instead of Lombard and Greek possessions Normans founded their own states, united later under the rule of Roger II de Hauteville, who received the title of King of Sicily in 1130. There was no man whom the German and Greek Emperors hated more than Roger II, and several joint campaigns were planned against the Sicilian king, but each time such campaigns met with opposition from the local nobility of both states, and instead of large armies, the Sicilians met relatively small groups of invaders. However, Catholic rulers were wary of him. He actively used the services of Muslims, who lived in Sicily in large numbers; his contribution to the Crusades was relatively small; he had a cold attitude to the fate of Jerusalem: Roger claimed the crown of Jerusalen, but his claims were not supported by anyone either in the kingdom or outside it; led an active struggle with the Roman popes, for which he was for some time excommunicated from the Church. Being between a hammer and anvil, the Sicilian king constantly had to maneuver between East and West. On the joint naval operations of the Greeks and Germans, he responded with blitz attacks with his large fleet under the command of ammiratus ammiratorum George of Antioch, and in the case of land invasions he sat back in impregnable Sicily, waiting for the exhaustion of the enemy. Broken into a bunch of counties and communes Sicily could not fight on equal terms with the strongest states in Europe, so Roger tried to centralize the country as far as possible - all subjects of power were subordinate directly to the authority of the king. There was also growing dissatisfaction with the king among the nobility, so he did everything possible to keep the nobility as far away from the instruments of power.

In an attempt to centralize the state, Roger II issued the Assizes of Ariano. Their contents can be summarized as follows: the Sicilian monarch's power was given by God himself, and he was responsible for his rule before him, and not before anyone else (this meant that Roger denied the primacy of papal authority in his territory, and, as papal legate of Sicily, was free to lead the Catholic Church in his territory. Any disagreement with the royal law could be regarded as a disagreement with the will of God, and, as a consequence, was equated with a sacrilege); the entirety of the kingdom's possessions, rights and privileges - regalia - could not be given away without the king's consent (this also applied to cases of inheritance of possessions by vassals); the king of Sicily was declared an adherent of the Catholic faith, and apostasy was recognized as a crime and punishable by death. However, members of other religious denominations were not openly harassed. They were given freedom to practice their religion. For example, marriages concluded according to Muslim customs were recognized as valid. In addition, Jews and Muslims were forbidden to have Christian slaves.

With issuing the Assizes of Ariano Roger divided the country into districts with Justiciars at the head, who monitored the implementation of royal laws, and in fact governed the territory entrusted to them without taking into account the opinion of royal vassals. Roger appointed his sons and closest men to such positions, making sure that no Justiciar was seen to have ties with the discontents.

At the end of Roger's reign, the Normans planned a campaign to Africa - here they were led not by religious, but purely economic interest. Tunisian Zirid state collapsed under the attacks of Arab tribes, and the capture of its territories opened the way for Sicily to trade with the states of West Africa through the Sahara, which in the tight situation between Byzantium and the Holy Roman Empire meant a much-needed economic strengthening. The captured territories were conventionally named the "Kingdom of Africa", although no one awarded it such a title, Roger and his descendants used it in their titulature. Almost all lands of this kingdom were included in the royal domain and ruled by Justiciars, but there were also local vassals - Emirs from local Arab and Berber tribes, integrated into the system of power with a certain degree of autonomy (Justiciars on their lands had no power), but with the obligation to protect the borders of the kingdom from raids and to pay taxes to the kingdom treasury. Norman rule in African territories, as in the rest of the state, was characterized by a certain religious tolerance. Roger ordered not to destroy mosques, and allowed the Greek population of the mainland to move and rebuild temples, including some of those rebuilt into mosques during the Arab conquest of Africa. In general, the population of Africa bore less taxes than the mainland population: this titillated the local population, tired of Zirids tax oppression, and ensured that they would not rebel. To repel Berber raids, Roger ordered the construction of a network of ribates on the frontier, called Roger's Wall.

The conquest of Tunisia opened an unhindered route to West Africa for Europeans. The maritime republics did not fail to seize this opportunity, and the coast of Africa was soon dotted with a chain of trade factories. However, the Radhanites, traveling Jewish merchants, did not tolerate possible competition and demanded from Roger to close the factories, and he significantly increased the amount of fees for the Italian traders, making it impossible for them to trade independently without the help of the Radhanites. The rulers of the maritime republics were dissatisfied with this step, but in return he gave them the opportunity to open factories to replace those closed in mainland Sicily.

The Sicilian kingdom tolerated Muslim culture as well as Greek Christianity. The royal curia included representatives of the Muslim and Greek communities, and their representatives were not legally restricted from holding office in the state. On the royal coins minted in Sicily one could often find quotations from the Quran, and the royal palace in Palermo was decorated with Greek mosaics of the events of Roger's great deeds. However, Roger did not forget his commitment to the Catholic faith. Every year the state treasury was spent on the construction of ten Latin churches, and episcopal seats were re-established in Africa.

Roger's reign came to an end with his death in 1155. He was succeeded by his fourth son William, who was not originally prepared for rule and had no experience in public service. In one way or another, William was first in line of succession because of the deaths of his older brothers before Roger's death. William had little involvement in the internal administration of the state, preferring it to harems and commanding armies. The actual power in the state was exercised by the Al-Caide of the royal curia, Thomas Brun, an Englishman by birth, who fought for supreme power with Maio of Bari, a Lombard, who held the position of chancellor of the duana regia (royal diwan), the fiscal body of the Sicilian kingdom, and Philip of Rhuspia, ammiratus ammiratorum, commander-in-chief of the Sicilian fleet. The beginning of William's reign was overshadowed by a major revolt of barons dissatisfied with the excessive centralization of the state under his predecessor. The Byzantine Emperor Manuel Komnenos decided to help the rebellion, planning to take advantage of the situation and retake Southern Italy. Pope Adrian IV also invaded the territory of the kingdom in order to return the lands conquered by Roger and overthrow William as a papal legate, whose inherited status was transferred by the popes to his grandfather, also Roger. By the end of 1155 the mainland of the kingdom was divided between the Papacy, Byzantium, and the rebels; only a small part of Calabria, Africa, and the islands of Sicily, Corfu, and Kefalonia remained under William's control. For three months William took no action, waiting for reinforcements from Africa, which were delayed by the Almohad attacks, until a rebellion also broke out in Sicily, after defeating which it was decided to attack the mainland. William's army, the core of which was made up of Muslims, managed to defeat the rebel army at Taranto, at that point had already broken up with the Byzantine commander. Thomas Brun was able to negotiate with Almohads on the termination of hostilities in exchange for payment of the contribution, and the relieved fleet went to join the army of William in Brindisi, the remaining not yet surrendered to the Greeks city in Apulia, where were the main forces of the Byzantine expedition. During the ensuing battle in July 1156, the Byzantine army was defeated, and their commander John Doukas was taken prisoner and taken to Palermo, where he was taken into everlasting captivity and was blinded. The same fate was planned for Robert II of Capua, who was banished from the country by Roger and returned with the beginning of the rebellion and managed to become its head. William also dealt harshly with the regular participants of the rebellion: many barons were deprived of their possessions or imprisoned. Bari, one of the first towns to support the rebellion, was razed to the ground (although it was rebuilt fifteen years later). William was nicknamed the Evil for his actions.

As a result of peace negotiations with Byzantium, Sicily ceded Kefalonia and Corfu, which had been captured under the reign of Roger. The Pope did not wish further continuation of hostilities and immediately requested peace, according to the terms of which the borders before the war were preserved, as well as the status of William as papal legate, which gave him almost unquestioned religious authority in the kingdom, he could freely create dioceses, appoint and dismiss bishops. In addition, the peace agreement with the Pope established perpetual peace with the kings of Sicily, and the parties undertook not to condone and not to let in their territory opponents of the kingdom, which, on the one hand, created a kind of buffer between Sicily and the German emperors, and on the other hand guaranteed that the Sicilian kings in the nascent struggle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines will not act on the side of the emperors.

After the rebellion and foreign invasion were done away with, the kingdom set about finding allies. In the fight against the Almohads, William found an ally in the person of Ramon IV Berenguer, Count of Barcelona and regent of the kingdom of Aragon, as well as a participant in the Spanish Reconquista and intra-imperial politics. In the event of a possible confrontation with Byzantium, William decided to rely on Hungary, which had previously been at constant war with the Greeks for influence in the Balkans. In 1161, William briefly conquered the principality of Antioch as a pretender to the throne, but under pressure from the Pope, he had to cede the title to Bohemond de Poitiers, his cousin. William planned to use Antioch as a base to subdue the kingdom of Jerusalem, which William claimed. After this, active expansion of the kingdom ceased, and William's reign saw no major wars.
This seems to break from OTL in the second-to-last paragraph, right?
 
Is Angola a rump and theocratic Portuguese Empire that has relocated the court to Luanda instead of Rio de Janeiro?, like Lusitânia in The Footprint of Mussolini?
Not quite. During a Portuguese civil war, Caesarist France occupied Angola and began milking the colony for all it was worth. After a few decades, a Pan-African, Christian millenarian movement emerged under the leadership of a figure who could be described as "Simon Kimbangu meets Kwame Nkrumah", and after France started suppressing the movement, the country broke into open revolt. France, being overextended and short on funds, begrudgingly quit the country, allowing the millenarians to take over, and their Pan-African, "anti-Caesarist" aspirations have now become a problem for the country's neighbors to deal with.
 
Not quite. During a Portuguese civil war, Caesarist France occupied Angola and began milking the colony for all it was worth. After a few decades, a Pan-African, Christian millenarian movement emerged under the leadership of a figure who could be described as "Simon Kimbangu meets Kwame Nkrumah", and after France started suppressing the movement, the country broke into open revolt. France, being overextended and short on funds, begrudgingly quit the country, allowing the millenarians to take over, and their Pan-African, "anti-Caesarist" aspirations have now become a problem for the country's neighbors to deal with.
Love that idea! (wanked) Christian millenarian movements in Africa are a very underrated topic in alternate history, despite how common and prevalent they are IOTL.
 
Love that idea! (wanked) Christian millenarian movements in Africa are a very underrated topic in alternate history, despite how common and prevalent they are IOTL.

I’ve always regretted not finishing Colossus of the New World, in which I had started working on a Neo-Antonian religious movement in Angola. Had the plans for it to spread to Brazil’s black population as well and be a big part of black politics there. Might try a redux eventually.
 
Reading up on the founding of the PCI, the fact that it was founded in Livorno seems pretty incidental: it was only founded there because the PSI meeting that resulted in the Italian communists breaking off to form their own party happened to take place there. It's a symbolically important location, but the PCI doesn't seem to have had any special relationship with the city otherwise.
Oh, really? I honestly just read the wikipedia page (i know, shameful) but thanks for informing on that.
 
All right, you asked for it, the map of 1990s World is done!

Without a doubt the most optimistic Retrofuture World we've made. Peace, growth, and unity are the order of the day, with only a few problematic holdouts.
1990s Punk.png
 
All right, you asked for it, the map of 1990s World is done!

Without a doubt the most optimistic Retrofuture World we've made. Peace, growth, and unity are the order of the day, with only a few problematic holdouts.
View attachment 912126
Is Republika Srpska supposed to be controlled by Serbia but claimed by Bosnia or merely a Serbian puppet region within Bosnia?
 
Is Republika Srpska supposed to be controlled by Serbia but claimed by Bosnia or merely a Serbian puppet region within Bosnia?
An autonomous region within Bosnia, very much tied to Serbia. In general in this world, extended autonomy as a way of resolving geopolitical disputes worked much better than it did in real life.

I'm sort of surprised Cuba is in the Western sphere rather than being one of those holdouts

Yeah I debated making Cuba a rogue state still, but I think you could have reasonably said in the 1990s that after the cessation of Soviet imports, it would eventually shuffle off the mortal coil.
 
An autonomous region within Bosnia, very much tied to Serbia. In general in this world, extended autonomy as a way of resolving geopolitical disputes worked much better than it did in real life.

Mmm sensible enough. Speaking of a more peaceful world, hows the kosovo situation doing? I can't imagine Serbs are happy to see it joining Albania. Would this be one of those exceptions where trouble and instability remain the norm?
 
Mmm sensible enough. Speaking of a more peaceful world, hows the kosovo situation doing? I can't imagine Serbs are happy to see it joining Albania. Would this be one of those exceptions where trouble and instability remain the norm?

Definitely. Well, at least that’s the in-universe explanation.

The authorial, out-of-universe reason I made Kosovo join Albania is that it’s too small for me to make lines showing a framework of extended autonomy.
 
Definitely. Well, at least that’s the in-universe explanation.

The authorial, out-of-universe reason I made Kosovo join Albania is that it’s too small for me to make lines showing a framework of extended autonomy.

So extended autonomy here is represented by all the "filled in the color of their ethnic homeland, outlined in the color of the nation that controls the autonomous region" areas, like Ogaden?

Would extended autonomy have looked like this:
1718329650562.png
 
So extended autonomy here is represented by all the "filled in the color of their ethnic homeland, outlined in the color of the nation that controls the autonomous region" areas, like Ogaden?

Would extended autonomy have looked like this: View attachment 912132
Yes, I think that would work better! I’ll be sure to merge that into the final map version,

Along with changes to Yemen, which somehow got forgotten.
 
Yes, I think that would work better! I’ll be sure to merge that into the final map version,

Along with changes to Yemen, which somehow got forgotten.

If you’re making changes to the map, I figure indicating that Montenegro is a distinct state in the FRY/SUSM may also be warranted? Or are you extrapolating from the pro-Serbia attitudes of the Montenegrin public in the 90s that they would eventually merge into a unitary state?

I assume North Kosovo was intentionally left in Serbia proper, to mirror the strong desire in the region to remain with Serbia and continued strong de facto integration even after the army’s withdrawal in 99?
 
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If you’re making changes to the map, I figure indicating that Montenegro is a distinct state in the FRY/SUSM may also be warranted? Or are you extrapolating from the pro-Serbia attitudes of the Montenegrin public in the 90s that they would eventually merge into a unitary state?

I assume North Kosovo was intentionally left in Serbia proper, to mirror the strong desire in the region to remain with Serbia and continued strong de facto integration even after the army’s withdrawal in 99?
I did extrapolate that Montenegro would eventually merge into Serbia, it may not be realistic, but unity and transnationalism are major themes of this retrofuture, and it would have been reasonable to suggest it would happen (just as it would have been reasonable to suggest in 1992 that the Castro regime would not survive the cessation of Soviet fossil fuel and foodstuffs exports).

To be frank I didn't think all that much about the Balkans, I probably put more thought into the post-Russian sphere and Africa.
 
I did extrapolate that Montenegro would eventually merge into Serbia, it may not be realistic, but unity and transnationalism are major themes of this retrofuture, and it would have been reasonable to suggest it would happen (just as it would have been reasonable to suggest in 1992 that the Castro regime would not survive the cessation of Soviet fossil fuel and foodstuffs exports).

Fair fair, I mean, tbh, before 1997 I would definitely see eventual full merger as likely and still possible into the late 90s.

To be frank I didn't think all that much about the Balkans,
An unforgivable crime lmao. That’s why I exist on this forum.

I always think of the 90s as a particularly Balkan-focused decade. I don’t think that’s JUST because my family is from there, we definitely got more attention globally than usual, but I do tend to forget how important other parts of the world were to defining the character of the 90s.

Speaking of big global events in the 90s, how’s Japan?

I probably put more thought into the post-Russian sphere and Africa.
Makes sense
 
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