The Unfair Mexican Treaties
The Unfair Mexican Treaties are the names given to the Treaty of Belize and the Treaty of Ciudad de México; which were involved in the Mexican American Wars. These wars consisting of two conflicts with a short peace between them, due to the almost immediate continuation of war, many historians lump together as a continuous conflict.
The First Mexican America War was over the disputed Texas border with Mexico, which had been adopted when the United States annexed the Republic of Texas. During the Texan Revolution, the Treaty defined the border as the Rio Grande, though exactly which river was the Rio Grande was debated; the Mexican claimed the Rio Grande was a different, smaller river. To Enforce their claims, the United States occupied the disputed territory and when the Mexican army fired on the invaders, the United States declared war on Mexico in April of 1846. While initially hoping for a quick victory, logistics proved to make the war long and after two years, President Meyer made good on his promised to make peace before the end of his term. Mediated by the British, the United States and Mexico met in British Honduras to sign the Treaty of Belize in 1848.
The Treaty of Belize ceded the Alta California and Santa fe de Nuevo Mexico territories north of the 37th parallel to the United States, as well as negotiated a new Texan border [the Nueces river until the 30th parallel, then proceeding west until hitting the Pecos River. From there, the border follows the Pecos river until hitting the 100th Meridian West, it then goes north until hitting the 37th parallel.]. The United States in turn agreed to retract any support of rebel groups within Mexico's borders, pay 25 million dollars to the Mexican government for the territory, and leave any and all Mexican Territory. Mexico also had to make peace with the rebel groups along the new US border [including but not limited to; the Bear Flag Revolts, the North Mexican Revolts and the Republic of the Rio Grande] within 4 months of the Treaty of Belize [By October 14th].
Even after the Treaty, the rebellions in Southern Alta California would prove deadly to the Mexicans as revolts began to pop up in the Northwest states such as Sonora and Chihuahua, taking control of the California and New Mexico Territories. A few months after the signing of Treaty of Belize, the United States had yet to retreat from the Yucatan Peninsula; they had already recognized the Republic of the Yucatan and annexed it a year earlier. Additionally, the United states had continued to support rebels in Mexico, violating the Peace of Belize. The Mexicans saw Yucatan as a rebellious state of Mexico and claimed the Treaty of Belize demanded the US leave the region.
Mexico again sent a representative to the United States to give them an ultimatum to retreat from the Yucatan. The United States refused and the Mexican Empire replied by declaring war, sparking the Second Mexican-American War. Mexico sent diplomats to Jamaica hoping to receive support from the United Kingdom over the violation. However, the British did not support their claim, saying that the Yucatan was a legitimate nation that had already been annexed by the United States as of the signing of the Treaty of Belize.
Starting on November 2, the Second War was longer [about twice as long] and bloodier than the first conflict, with Mexico militarizing almost 30% of their total population. It is believed that the bloodiness of the war is what lead to the harsh terms of the Treaty of Ciudad de México in 1852. The Treaty of Mexico brought an end to the Mexican American war and an even larger end to the idea of a powerful Mexico. The Untied States demanded an unconditional surrender and as such, the terms were harsh;
The Alta and Baja California Territories below the 37th parallel and west of the Colorado river are to be granted Independence as the Republic of California and established as a US protectorate, with its capital in San Diego. The Mexican States of Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, and Durango are to be given Independence as the Mexican Republic of the North and established as a US client state. The Mexican States of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas are to be granted Independence as the Republic of the Rio Grande and established as a US client state. The remainder of the Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico Territory is to be ceded to the United States along with all lands east of the Rio Grande River. The Mexican State of Tabasco is to be placed under US administration for 5 years, after which it will be returned to Mexico. The State of Zacatecas is to be placed under North Mexican administration for 10 years, after which it will vote whether or not to join North Mexico. The United States, and it's dependencies are to pay Mexico 30 million for the conquered territory.
Slavery was established in the US States of Texas and New Rhineland, while the States of Santa Fe and Shasta became free states. The Utah and Bexar Territories were formed as Free Territories in exchange for the slave statehood of Yucatan. Slavery was readopted fairly quickly in Rio Grande, with North Mexico continuing abolition; California technically practiced slavery, though much in the way Delaware did, were very few slaves existed across the country. These wars and their unfair treaties changed the face of the North America forever, establishing the United States back to it's powerful position after the Great Lakes War.
This map is part of the Timeline "The Lion, the Eagle, and the Rooster"
, As always, hoped you enjoyed the map and any feedback would be greatly appreciated!