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King Hussein sought to take control of the Arabian Peninsula. The main troublemaker in the region was the Emirate of Najd, ruled by a Wahhabi sect. Wahhabi squads known as ikhvans (brothers in Arabic) attacked neighboring states. By 1922, a coalition had emerged from Hijaz, Kuwait, Qatar and the countries of Treaty of Oman, which, with British support, wanted to destroy the source of the raids. During the campaigns of 1923-1925, the Wahhabis were defeated, the emir Muhammad was killed, and Nedzh himself was annexed to Hijaz. The neighbors were happy to accept the replacement of the Saudi scumbags with the capable Hashimites.
In 1924, the caliphate was abolished in Turkey. Only one person claimed the vacant title of Caliph of the Faithful - King of Arabia Hussein. He substantiated his claims with the possession of two sacred mosques - the Great Mosque of Mecca and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, which was a prerequisite for possession, and descent from the Prophet. The proclamation of the Caliphate initially found little support in the still colonial Muslim world. The Caliphate movement that existed in British India and opposed the abolition of the Ottoman caliphate generally perceived this act negatively at first. The Hashemite Caliphate achieved wide recognition only in the 1940s thanks to the active diplomacy of the dynasty.
After the subjugation of Nejd, Hussein drew attention to the southern borders. In 1923, after the death of Muhammad bin Ali, a feud between the son and brother of the late emir began in Asira in Asir. The power in Asira passed to the son of Muhammad Ali, who was too young and did not have the authority of his father, and therefore could not hold power in his hands. In early 1926, Ali was overthrown by uncle al-Hassan, who considered himself more worthy of the throne.
In addition, the rulers of Yemen and Hejaz claimed for the possession of Idrisides. In April 1925, Imam Yahya annexed Hodeida and occupied part of the Idrisid emirate. Fearing the absorption of the emirate by the Yemenis, the emir al-Hasan signed an agreement with the Caliph king in October 1926, which actually incorporated Asir into the Hashemite kingdom. During the transient war, the Arabians managed to push the Yemenis south. Hodeida and Najran remained in the hands of Yemen. The situation continued until the death of Hussein I in December 1931.
Caliph King Ali bin Hussein, who inherited the throne, clashed with the opposition. In the next three years, he repressed the unhappy centralization of the nobility and crushed the Wahhabi revolt in Nejd. Al-Hassan al-Idrisi also tried to take advantage of the change of king and restore his power in Asira. His rebellion was quickly crushed, and al-Hassan fled to Yemen.
The second Arabian-Yemeni war lasted two years and ended in an unconvincing victory for the Hashemites. They regained Najran, but Yahya bin Muhammad Hamid ad-Din retained the royal title and power in Yemen.
In 1933, the Hashemite government granted a concession to the oil company Standard Oil of California for oil production in the eastern regions of the kingdom. In 1938, the first oil was produced in Darkhan. This largely determined the fate of Arabia and was the beginning of the ARAMCO company.
The British mandates, ruled by representatives of the house of al-Hashimi, sought independence. Iraq, where Abdullah bin Hussein ruled, was more peaceful. The King of Iraq successfully built the institutions of the Kingdom of Iraq, maneuvering between the ruling Sunni Arab minority, Shiite Arabs and Kurds. In relations with the Shiites, King Abdullah used the fact that he is a descendant of the Prophet. The legislative assembly of Iraq was convened in 1928, but the king continued to rule by authoritarian methods. In 1936, the Anglo-Iraqi treaty was concluded, according to which the Mandate ceased on January 1, 1939. Abdullah formed the Armed Forces of Iraq on the model of the British Army. In general, Iraq continued to operate in the wake of Britain, strengthening relations with fraternal Arab peoples.
The political situation in Syria ruled by King Faisal was less stable. Although the country was a Sunni minority, there were problems with minorities, the main ones being Druze and Kurds. Another destabilizing factor was the emigration of Sunnis driven out of the Levant. First of all, it affected Palestine, which was supposed to become a Jewish national center. This caused unrest, anti-colonial and anti-Semitic sentiments. The British mandate ended in 1932, but this did not help Faisal to strengthen its position in the country. In 1933 he prepared and died. Rumors circulated about the violent death of the king. The new king of Syria was Gazi bin Faisal. He decided to keep up and died in a car accident in 1939. Faisal II at the age of four became his heir. The uncle of King Zeid bin Hussein became the regent.
The Sunni population in the French mandate has come under oppression. France feared pro-Syrian sentiment and supported non-Sunni groups - Alawites, Lebanese Maronites and Palestinian Jews. In the Alexandretta Sanjak, the French were unable to find support. The local Turkish population sought to reunite with their homeland and in 1938 the independence of the Republic of Hatay was proclaimed, which the next year became part of Turkey.
The French encouraged Jewish immigration to Palestine, intensified after the Nazis came to power in 1933. By 1939, the Jewish population of Palestine exceeded two million people, as a result of which their share in the population reached 70%. The Arabs, led by the Mufti of Jerusalem, amin al-Husseini, were in opposition to the local government and sought allies overseas.
On August 31, 1939, Germany attacked Poland. The Second World War began. Abdullah bin Ali, who became king after the death of Ali bin Hussein, had to respond to a new problem.
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