Should the President be able to be re-elected in consecutive terms?

  • Yes

    Votes: 24 96.0%
  • No

    Votes: 1 4.0%

  • Total voters
    25
  • Poll closed .
Congrats on 100 chapters, here's to 100 more...I'd raise a beer for ya, but that does make me wonder, and it is a bit mundane. What would be the history of alcohol brewing in the Lone Star Republic?
 
Guess these refugees are gonna help keep the union bell alive. Guess this also explains how the Democrats are stunted for the next 70 or so years till Huey Long makes them populist.
 
Congrats, @Kaiser Chris, at reaching 100 chapters (107 or 108 if you count the interludes and vignettes) and over 300k words and making possibly the best Texas TL on this board. BTW, if you want another story that focuses on Texas, read Forget the Alamo by @drewmc2001 (the link is here for the story: https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/forget-the-alamo.418815/.). That's a good one, too...

Here's hoping this continues on for 100 more chapters and many more words, and waiting for more, of course...

Those Southerners are about to receive a rude awakening, courtesy of the Lone Star Republic, of course (it couldn't happen to a nicer bunch, methinks)...
 
A hundred chapters, a few vignettes, sixty seven pages, and not a one of them a waste of time. Thank you for all the hard work you've put into this Chris. It has been enjoyable all the way so far, and I am sure it'll be the same right up until we get to 2036 and the end of the road.

That said, I've been looking forward to the Southern Exodus update for awhile now, and it was worth the wait. I look forward to seeing the cultural effects down the road, but two things from the update I want to lightly touch on...
Poverty skyrocketed to rates that would not be repeated until the Britannia Recession
Now there is an ominous hint at the future. It's hard to speculate on what it'll lead to, but it is something we'd all be well advised to remember.
an estimated total of 1.16 million Southern Americans
That's a heck of an exodus. What'll that bring the population of Texas up to?
 
Congrats on 100 chapters, here's to 100 more...I'd raise a beer for ya, but that does make me wonder, and it is a bit mundane. What would be the history of alcohol brewing in the Lone Star Republic?

Brewing in the Republic consists of a mix of German and Czech beer, French and Californian wine, and Tejano tequila. Besides a small alcohol tax there is not problems with brewing and you can make anything you want so long as you have a license. The only Commonwealth that would heavily support a prohibition would be Deseret.

Guess these refugees are gonna help keep the union bell alive. Guess this also explains how the Democrats are stunted for the next 70 or so years till Huey Long makes them populist.

The Western Union will return to power eventually, and these refugees will be a strong support base. Yet at the same time the Exodus is going to allow the Republicans to continue their hold on Austin. Compared to OTL the GOP is going to have far more power and America and will dominate national politics until the 1930's. Byron will be known as the man who saved the Democratic Party, and Long the president who made them an equal choice to the GOP.

Congratulations on reaching 100 chapters, and writing quite possibly one of the best Texas timelines on the site!

Thanks.

Congrats, @Kaiser Chris, at reaching 100 chapters (107 or 108 if you count the interludes and vignettes) and over 300k words and making possibly the best Texas TL on this board. BTW, if you want another story that focuses on Texas, read Forget the Alamo by @drewmc2001 (the link is here for the story: https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/forget-the-alamo.418815/.). That's a good one, too...

Here's hoping this continues on for 100 more chapters and many more words, and waiting for more, of course...

Those Southerners are about to receive a rude awakening, courtesy of the Lone Star Republic, of course (it couldn't happen to a nicer bunch, methinks)...

I've already read it. It's a good contrast to my work and does a whole lot better in character chapters than I ever could. Also has slightly more realism and goes greater in depth for the initial politics.

A hundred chapters, a few vignettes, sixty seven pages, and not a one of them a waste of time. Thank you for all the hard work you've put into this Chris. It has been enjoyable all the way so far, and I am sure it'll be the same right up until we get to 2036 and the end of the road.

That said, I've been looking forward to the Southern Exodus update for awhile now, and it was worth the wait. I look forward to seeing the cultural effects down the road, but two things from the update I want to lightly touch on...

Now there is an ominous hint at the future. It's hard to speculate on what it'll lead to, but it is something we'd all be well advised to remember.

That's a heck of an exodus. What'll that bring the population of Texas up to?

The Britannia Recession is a Great Depression-esque scenario that is actually slightly better than OTL, making it known just as a Recession, at least for North America. However it's nothing that Mosley does directly that leads to the crises, and much of it is due to the aftermath of the Great War.

The population of Texas will rise to about 5 million in 1870, with almost 60% of the total population in the Texas Commonwealth.
 
Bismarck's main plan for complete and total unification was to act aggressive on Germany's western borders and make it look like they were going for a play at Belgium, the Netherlands, and France. Such an audacious move would encourage Austria to jump in a possible war against Germany while they would be distracted on the western front, the Austrians believing it would be the ripe moment to take back their rightful lands and leadership position in Germany. This was the ploy that Bismarck wanted Austria to believe so that they would declare war on Germany and give Kaiser Wilhelm the complete casus belli to invade and annex Austria into the Empire, all the while Bismarck would actually be acting diplomatically to acquire the Western German territories without a single shot. Throughout 1862 and 1863 Bismarck worked to make sure that his master plan would unfold behind the scenes, most of Europe's attention shifted to North America with their ongoing wars. Bismarck's first steps was to recruit as many possible allies in the future war against Austria and ensure that no great power would go to their side in the war. First he focused on Austria's neighbors; Bismarck traveling to St. Petersburg, Budapest, and Rome in 1862. He shared his plans with Tsar Alexander, President Kossuth, and Prime Minister Garibaldi. Once revealed Bismarck drew them all in with promises of a "Partition of Austria", one that would result in all three of the Great Powers receiving territory. Russia would receive Galicia, Hungary Bukovina, and Italy would receive the remainder of Tyrol and most of Trieste. All three powers were enticed since for Russia it would be another easy expansion and further unify all Slavs under Russia, Hungary would see the end of Austria as a sovereign nation, and Italy would finish their unification. With that out of the way Bismarck would turn attentions west and begin the second part of his plan, to complete Western German Unification and draw Austria into attacking Germany. For the Netherlands it was an easy move as the populations of both Limburg and Luxembourg were near revolt at times in their desire to get away from the rule of Amsterdam and become states of Germany. Not wanting to face another war similar to the Belgian war of Independence that would destroy the Netherlands, King William III agreed to annexation of the two states in the German Empire in return for a favorable trade agreement, 3 million Reichsmarks in compensation, and William's sons Prince's Maurice and Alexander being installed as the Grand Dukes of Luxembourg and Limburg respectively. Bismarck returned the deal to the German Reichstag in February with a supermajority passing the treaty. Thus allowing the Duchies of Luxembourg and Limburg to enter into the German Empire on March 7th.

Reading this chapter makes me wonder why they made House of Cards based on a fictional character when they could have made one based on Bismark's life and those around him.
 
The Southern migrants would not go to Europe as they would never willingly live under a monarchy. Latin America was not acceptable as they were inhabited by "lesser" races of Hispanics, Indians, and Blacks.

And their leader is in Cuba which is currently ruled by a European monarchy.

Congratulations on 100 chapters!

Interesting that this major influx of American immigrants is what will lead to the final break with American culture being the 'dominant' force.

What was Breckenridge doing during the war OTL?
 
When election time came there was little doubt on what would happen. Abraham Lincoln announced in early Spring that he would seek for reelection as the GOP candidate, riding to the National Convention virtually unopposed and winning the delegate vote in a landslide, keeping Vice President William Seward on the ticket. As the sitting president who kept the nation together and rode the Union to victory in the Civil War in only two short years, Lincoln became one of the most popular presidents of all time (with the exception of the South) only Washington and possibly Harrison being able to eclipse Lincoln's achievements. The only question of the race was just how the Democrats would nominate and what they could salvage from defeat, as there was little realistic chance of them taking a victory unless the Lincoln campaign and the Republican Party somehow acted in a manner that was worse than Toombs. For the Democrats it was a matter of life or death not centered on winning the White House, but simply staying relevant and alive as a party. In their short history the Democrats only had their founder Andrew Jackson to call upon as a great president (even Jackson though was unable to stand the test of time as reevaluation in the 20th century places him as one of the worst presidents), the others being the mediocre Johnson, the well-intentioned Douglas who drove the nation further to Civil War, and lastly Toombs. In many respects the Toombs administration virtually killed the Democrats standing in national politics for seven decades as the Americans who experienced the Civil War as well as the generations that followed equated Toombs with the Democratic party. In their eyes the Democrats were traitors with much of their establishment seceding in the Confederacy and their sitting president defecting to the Rebels. In the North the Republicans milked this in every election, equating any of their Democratic opponents no matter their character as being sympathetic with slavery scum. Worse of all was how two traditional pillars of the Democratic Party, the Immigrants and Catholics, were defecting to the Republicans in droves due to successful national propaganda that depicted the Democrats as fighting only for Anglo-Saxon Protestant supremacy. With many of their leaders either being Confederates or lackluster in performance, the Democrats were forced to nominate the Seymour/Johnson ticket that had been wiped out electorally in the last election. Practically the only reason that the Democrats managed to continue to exist was due to the party seemingly embracing total social conservatism along with economic liberalism in order to act as an alternative to the socially liberal and protectionist policies of the Republicans. On election day the results were a virtual red wipeout as Lincoln and won 192 electoral votes to 48 (Seymour only winning the border states) and a landslide of the popular vote. The Republican hold on congress became a supermajority with the Democrats holding only a fraction of the total seats. Thus began the Third Party System that would last until 1932.

Just wondering but will there be any political earthquakes to note in the future of this timeline?
 
Brewing in the Republic consists of a mix of German and Czech beer, French and Californian wine, and Tejano tequila. Besides a small alcohol tax there is not problems with brewing and you can make anything you want so long as you have a license. The only Commonwealth that would heavily support a prohibition would be Deseret.
......The Great Prohibition of 1920 its likely to make EVERY Texan outside of the Deseret Mormons to gape to the Americans and say "Are they NUTS!?"
That and even the MENTION of Prohibition its more likely to get the guy who dared to mention it in the Texan Senate or Representatives Chamber to be tarred, Feathered then thrown in the nearest water mass, a consequence of having a far higher influence of European, and Tejano groups what would see the Prohibition as an act of utter sanctimonious stupidity not based in any historical or logical basis but blind fanatism

Hmm....It wouldn't be rare and ironical that the Prohibition while it near killed the Spirits and liqueurs business in the US, it would literally mark the "Second Great Boom of the Liqueur Industry" for Texas, the coastal Cities of the Pacific and Atlantic growing with Casinos and such, as they become highly popular vacation sites for the American population what flounted the Prohibition by the simple expedient of taking vacations or a weekend in Texas.

I say the "Second Great Boom of the Liqueur Industry" because the first will be linked to the disaster known as the Great Wine Blight that JUST started in 1863, and pretty much Killed the ENTIRETY of the French and European Wine Grape Plantations across 15 Years, until ironically someone discovered that only using the method of Grafting the Wine plants to the Roots of a TEXAN Native Grape Wine, resistent to the American originated Phylloxera, you could replant wine in lands infected by Phylloxera without the plant dying.

Its likely that this will kick off the Texas/California Wine industry when the grafting method its discovered earlier for the French Texan Colonists who were dealing with the issue of Grape Wines dying for an unknown reason in Texan Lands until someone got the clue that Native Grape Wines Survived what it killed European Plants , grafting being an agricultural technique quite old.....

Ironically you known from WHERE it was practically replanted the near entirety of the Wine plants for grafting? from the Wine plantatons from Chile that the Cousiño family imported during the 1850's.

Here ITTL its likely to not be a total destruction of the Wine Plantations, the knowledge of the Grafting technique arriving earlier and making the Wineyards from Texas grow immensely in fortune and name as they literally had to supply France AND the rest of the World during nearly the entire decade that took to replacing the roots of Wine Plantations in France and most of Europe to allow the Wineyards to regrow...Texan Wine would be a term as common as Meat and other stuff for the world after that date....
 
And their leader is in Cuba which is currently ruled by a European monarchy.

Congratulations on 100 chapters!

Interesting that this major influx of American immigrants is what will lead to the final break with American culture being the 'dominant' force.

What was Breckenridge doing during the war OTL?

Breckenridge OTL much like TTL, deserted serving in the Senate after the Confederacy was formed and joined the Confederacy as a Brigadier General. OTL he was promoted to Major General, here he stayed as a Brigadier. Breckenridge TTL is considered one of the many great traitors of the United States alongside Toombs, ranking far higher than other Confederate officials as Breckenridge's entire presidential campaign platform was about compromise and unity, only for the man to tarnish that by defecting when his own state didn't even secede. And do to how much damage Kentucky sustained TTL, Breckenridge is not thought of fondly in his home state.

Just wondering but will there be any political earthquakes to note in the future of this timeline?

What exactly do you mean?

......The Great Prohibition of 1920 its likely to make EVERY Texan outside of the Deseret Mormons to gape to the Americans and say "Are they NUTS!?"
That and even the MENTION of Prohibition its more likely to get the guy who dared to mention it in the Texan Senate or Representatives Chamber to be tarred, Feathered then thrown in the nearest water mass, a consequence of having a far higher influence of European, and Tejano groups what would see the Prohibition as an act of utter sanctimonious stupidity not based in any historical or logical basis but blind fanatism

Hmm....It wouldn't be rare and ironical that the Prohibition while it near killed the Spirits and liqueurs business in the US, it would literally mark the "Second Great Boom of the Liqueur Industry" for Texas, the coastal Cities of the Pacific and Atlantic growing with Casinos and such, as they become highly popular vacation sites for the American population what flounted the Prohibition by the simple expedient of taking vacations or a weekend in Texas.

I say the "Second Great Boom of the Liqueur Industry" because the first will be linked to the disaster known as the Great Wine Blight that JUST started in 1863, and pretty much Killed the ENTIRETY of the French and European Wine Grape Plantations across 15 Years, until ironically someone discovered that only using the method of Grafting the Wine plants to the Roots of a TEXAN Native Grape Wine, resistent to the American originated Phylloxera, you could replant wine in lands infected by Phylloxera without the plant dying.

Its likely that this will kick off the Texas/California Wine industry when the grafting method its discovered earlier for the French Texan Colonists who were dealing with the issue of Grape Wines dying for an unknown reason in Texan Lands until someone got the clue that Native Grape Wines Survived what it killed European Plants , grafting being an agricultural technique quite old.....

Ironically you known from WHERE it was practically replanted the near entirety of the Wine plants for grafting? from the Wine plantatons from Chile that the Cousiño family imported during the 1850's.

Here ITTL its likely to not be a total destruction of the Wine Plantations, the knowledge of the Grafting technique arriving earlier and making the Wineyards from Texas grow immensely in fortune and name as they literally had to supply France AND the rest of the World during nearly the entire decade that took to replacing the roots of Wine Plantations in France and most of Europe to allow the Wineyards to regrow...Texan Wine would be a term as common as Meat and other stuff for the world after that date....

Man that's actually really cool that it was a Texan plant which solved the Wine crisis. You are generally right though in that the introduction of American prohibition will lead to a boon for the Texan economy. Texarkana is one example of a place that is going to be a boom town due to Arkansas residents taking regular trips across the border to get drinks and insert their dollars into other local businesses. Due to Texas being a Catholic majority and non-Anglo-Saxon state than there's no chance of such an amendment being passed in the first place. The most you could see it being popular outside of Deseret is for certain country towns to pass dry laws, though this may be fought in the Supreme Court.
 
Chapter 101 Untergang
Chapter 101 Untergang
"I have done it! I have completed Frederick's dream! Germany is ours and it is an empire that shall last for a thousand years!"- Kaiser Wilhelm I 1864
"I fear we have gotten rid of a corpse and instead given rise to a monster."- Emperor Napoleon III 1865
"The position of Prussia in Germany will not be determined by its liberalism but by its power [...] Prussia must concentrate its strength and hold it for the favorable moment, which has already come and gone several times. Since the treaties of Vienna, our frontiers have been ill-designed for a healthy body politic. Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided, but by iron and blood."- Foreign Minister Otto von Bismarck 1862


Among Germans and Austrians today many regard Franz Joseph as one of the worst rulers in German history. His haphazard ruling of the remnant of the Austrian empire and the disastorous decision to declare war on Germany with his weak "alliances" and the rather poor and corrupt state of the Austrian Army, leads many to consider him as the penultimate failure of the once hegemonic Hapsburg dynasty. Even among the modern Hapsburgs, Franz Joseph's name is reviled and despised, not a single Hapsburg since his generation sharing the same name and Franz Joseph's legacy barely having a presence within the Hofburg besides a few paintings and some artifacts that used to belong to the last Emperor. This opinion is also shared by most historians, though a few tend to disagree. A popular theory that has been rising in recent years is one that is attributed to Doctor Wolfgang Koller in his book, "Dynasty of the Sun", explains that Franz Joseph declaring war on Germany was an utter necessity at that point in time and had he not declared war, then Austria would've collapsed in the near future in another revolution anyways. Contemporary evidence shows high discontent among all corners of the population against the Imperial leadership, with only the staunchest conservative Austrians being a stable base which the Hapsburgs could rely upon. With thousands of deaths all over the nation on an annual basis thanks to racial riots and insurgencies, it was only a matter of time until the spark lit the fuse and Austria truly collapsed on itself. Franz's actions were merely a premature death that spared Austria most of the effects that a civil war would bring about, said civil collapse most likely only resulting in the same foreign intervention as seen in the Second War for Unification. Had Germany truly acted in such an aggressive manner and Austria manage to rally true allies to their cause then maybe the Empire could move forward in the coming years. As it was, 1864 marked the final days of Austria's independence as a sovereign nation.

Bukovina: Out of all the fronts in the war Bukovina is the one which is traditionally considered to be the least intense in terms of fighting. This was due to Austria placing the least amount of their available troops in the province with Bukovina being the least economically developed province within the entire Austrian Empire and being a state that had almost no German Austrians within their borders. Only 10,000 troops were stationed there at the start of the conflict with a large majority of them being conscripts with little training. Against this motley bunch the 30,000 trained Hungarian soldiers under the command of Major General Gyorgy Klapka were practically assured victory, only an act of God seemingly able to save the Austrian forces. On March 20th the Hungarian IX corps crossed the borders and entered into Bukovina. On March 25th the Battle of Lemberg took place with Austrian General Klaus von Higenfild desperately trying to rally a defense of the capitol against the approaching Austrian forces. The first half of the battle commenced with Klapka ordering his cavalry to charge towards the Austrian artillery encampments and destroy their artillery pieces. While to most this would seem suicidal, Austria only had about 13 cannons on hand and little ammunition to fire, the crew having barely any experience with them anyways due to lack of funding and little need to bring about cannon fire against Romanian peasants. The gamble worked and at the cost of 23 Hungarian casualties, what little artillery pieces Austria had were destroyed. Hungarian artillery then began to rain down upon the city and enemy encampments, while waves of Hungarian soldiers rushed forward. Seeing the situation as hopeless and not wanting to fight against the tide, most Austrians laid down their arms upon seeing the Hungarians cross and many began to run away, trying to flee into the countryside. A few units dared to make a stand and fought fiercely with whatever they could, sadly their efforts would be for naught against the overwhelming Hungarian numerical superiority. Lemberg was over within two hours and cost the Hungarians 345 killed, and 407 wounded, while the Austrians suffered 621 killed, 638 wounded, and over 8,000 taken prisoner, Higenfild himself surrendering to Klapka. By the end of the month Bukovina was fully conquered by Hungary, or so it seemed.

images

Hungarian soldiers resting during the Bukovina campaign.

While the Kossuth administration had taken a far lighter stance in their treatment of the Romanian Transylvanians in comparison to the Hapsburgs, to the Romanian population of Bukovina it looked merely that they were having one master replaced with another. In the weeks after the initial occupation of Bukovina began, reports began to filter into Budapest of peasant uprising and insurgent attacks against the Hungarian soldiers. In April of 1864, Hungary suffered over 400 casualties brought on by conflicts of the Romanian people. In return Klapka was given authorization to institute total martial law for the province, and began a brutal campaign to weed out the rebels and bring the province into the fold of Budapest. By the war's end Hungary would suffer 724 casualties while the Romanian rebels are estimated to have taken over 6,000 casualties in return. While the resistance to Hungarian occupation was squashed, said actions only inflamed all Romanians within the region, this was especially seen within Transylvannia which brought new life to rebel groups which began what is known as the Second Transylvannian War, a general uprising across the province from 1864 that lasted until late 1866. The most heated calls for action took place in Romania were tens of thousands of people took to the streets and demanded that their brethren be liberated from the "Foul Hungarian scum". Demonstrations popped up in the capitol of Bucharest and Prince Nicholas was hounded to take action, though the monarch was under strict orders from his brother Tsar Alexander to stay neutral in the current conflict. Not wanting to appear weak, Nicholas ordered 50,000 Romanian troops to take to the border, promising to cross unless Hungary ceased their attacks on the rights of the Romanian peoples. An intense deployment by both sides arrived on the border with each looking gladly to fire upon the other. Thankfully cooler heads prevailed and thanks to the efforts of Berlin and St. Petersburg, both Hungary and Romania backed off with Bucharest being promised some settlement in the peace treaty. Unfortunately the lingering hatred between the Romanian and Hungarian peoples would continue on for the next half a century, coming to brutal blows in the Great War.

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A Transylvanian village ravaged by the uprisings.

Galicia: Having plotted with Bismarck beforehand and fully aware of the details of the upcoming partition, Tsar Alexander had been preparing for months to strike the deathblow against Austria. Late in 1863 he had gathered approximately 230,000 soldiers on the border of Galicia, to Franz-Joseph he claimed that they were preparing for war with Germany, which alleviated the fears of the Hapsburg. On the 16th Alexander's lie would be revealed when the behemoth of the Russian Army descended not on Germany, but on Galicia, tens of thousands of Russian soldiers overwhelming the Polish countryside in the quest to "liberate" their Slavic brethren from the shackles of Vienna. The only major battle that took place in this campaign was the Battle of Krakow from March 19th-20th. Here Russian General Mikhail Gorkachov surrounded the city and bombarded it relentlessly with hundreds of artillery cannons. Afterwords Russian regiments rushed into the streets and made quick work of whatever defenses that the Austrians could put up with. Gorkachov received the surrender of the historical Polish city on the 20th, taking only 3,459 casualties in comparison to the 5,281 of Austria. For the rest of the war Russia would spread its troops across the countryside and establish a new law and order, hoping to integrate Galicia into the Congress of Poland. Much to the surprise of the Russian Army however (although expected from the other European powers), most of the Polish citizenry even with their poor treatment in the last decade by Vienna, despised and hated the Russians even more for the poor treatment of their brethren within the Polish Congress, Russia reacting to Polish Nationalism with harsh and brutal suppression which made German and Austrian governance seem far more benevolent in comparison. Tens of thousands in Galaicia would rise up and try to make a stand against the Russian horde, unfortunately for them it was all in vain as the poor Polish peasants could do little serious harm against the trained and well-equipped Russian army. In 1864 an estimated 16,000 Polish Galicians died in conflict with the Russian Army while Russia took 1,874 casualties in return. After the signing of the Treaty of Vienna, Tsar Alexander would find that its aggressive behavior would have immense consequences for his empire with the beginning of the Polish Insurrection, the latter conflict having a stain that would last for decades, coming to full fruition during the Great War.

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Russian soldiers looting a Polish tavern.

Bohemia: With the taking of the Sudetenland and Silesia, Germany had the Bohemia province surrounded on all sides with its most productive and defensible territories firmly in German hands. All that was left was roughly flat and forested terrain. After a week of organizing on March 21st a German Army of 160,000 men led by Field Marshal Frederich Graf von Wrangel, German forces practically blitzkrieged through the Bohemian land, taking most of Bohemia and completely occupying Moravia by the middle of April. With most of the Austrian offensive forces moving through Southern Germany in Bavaria , along with the Hungarian advance on Vienna as well as the concurrent German sweep through Austria proper led by von Multke severely depleted any available troops in Bohemia. With Austria under attack on all fronts, miscommunication and confusion ran high through the ranks of the Austrian defenders, most not knowing what to do by the time the Germans came right on them. With little hope to stop the far superior German force, Prague surrendered without a shot on the 9th of April, unofficially bringing the Bohemian campaign to an anti-climatic end. While Germany experienced immense success on this front, German troops were on high alert due to the potential backlash from the Czech population. With the Czechs having been wrongly mistreated by Vienna for the past decade for the failures of the Revolutions, few were in any mood to fight for the Hapsburg dynasty. Yet most Czechs reacted lukewarmly to the German Army as they saw Kaiser Wilhelm as simply another German master that would use Bohemia for their benefit. Unfortunately for Bohemia it was either join Germany or be swallowed by Russia, the Czech kingdom stuck in a state of political limbo with few ways out.

Slovenia/Mediterranean: While Italy had gained its territorial goals in its own war of unification and the Italian Federation had been doing well off for the past decade, for many of the people of Italy this was not enough to satisfy their Nationalist urges. Ever since the creation of the Federation, growing sentiments had been spreading across the peninsula that now was the time for Italy to rise up and claim the mantle of the Roman Empire, unifying the entire Mediterranean under Pax Romana. The irrendentionist movement became widely popular thanks to the support of Prime Minister Garibaldi, and with the decay and stagnation of the Austrian Empire, Tyrol and the Slovene region made the perfect targets to begin the birth of this New Rome. Immediately after the declaration of war by the Italian Parliament, the Holy Italian Navy began going to work by blockading the port of Trieste and setting out to destroy whatever remnants of a Navy that Austria had left. Over the course of the spring and summer of 1864, Austria lost almost their entire Navy with 13 ships destroyed and four remaining in port with the crews either deserting or entering into mutiny. With most of the Austrian Army focused on the German threat, Italy faced little resistance when crossing into Tyrol and Slovenia. Upon hearing that "Papal Knights" had entered into their borders, mass uprisings of the remaining Italian minority within Austria occured practically overnight, ensuring that most Italian units received a warm and grateful welcome upon entering an Austrian village. Even in Slovenia which despite being a Slavic region, most of the population joined the Italian uprisings and stated their support for Italy due to the Slovene peoples devotion to the Catholic faith. If Pope Pius supported the actions of Italy and proclaimed them to be righteous in this war, then what right did the Slovenes have to question His Holiness? The fighting that took place was primarily thanks to the Austrian contingent of 40,000 troops led by Archduke Albrecht, the Austrians augmented by a small number of Slovene Nationalists who had no wish to be ruled by the Italians.

The first major battle of the campaign was the First Battle of Trieste, a battle that took place on April 13th when the Vangaurd of the Italian forces led by Major General Alberto Mizanni tried to take the port of Trieste in order to entirely cut off Austria from the Mediterranean. However in his haste to claim glory, Mizanni only took 18,000 men with him to capture the city, expecting a general uprising within the city to support the Italian advance and hoping that the supposed "Austrian incompetency" would grant the Italians a major victory, no matter how outnumbered the Italian forces were. Unfortunately for Mizanni Trieste had been one of the more Liberal administrative centers of Austria, thus when war broke out only minor riots occured within the city which Albrecht was able to contain. Mizanni's cavalry found themselves running into a well-fortified city and suffered heavy losses in their suprise. Not knowing how to respond and most of his army still catching up, Mizanni was unprepared for Albrecht's counterattack with 11,000 if his infantry which overran the Italian positions. By the end of the day the Italians had been pushed back at least 15 kilometers and Trieste was temporarily secure. Italian losses were somewhat high with 1,302 killed, 967 wounded, and 543 captured. The Austrians in turn suffered 769 killed, 844 wounded, and 130 captured. Trieste was one of the few victories that Austria would be able to claim in the war, but overall it would be of little use to them. At the same time of the Italian advance, an Hungarian force of 60,000 led by Croatian General Lothar Tomic, invaded the Slovene countryside in a preemptive strike to save Croatia from suffering any attacks. While Albrecht put up a sufficient defense in Trieste, by doing so he had neglected the majority of Slovenia which allowed the Hungarians to practically steamroll through the countryside, taking Ljubljana on April 22nd. After some communication was exchanged between Rome and Budapest, the Italian and Hungarian/Croatian forces resolved to combine their numbers to take the city of Trieste. Joint command of the forces was undertaken by Italian General Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora, and together a total of 110,000 Italian and Hungarian forces reached the outskirts of Trieste on May 11th. A short siege with many frequent skirmishes then proceeded for the next four days, making up the Second Battle of Trieste. Knowing that he was completely outnumbered and had little chance of victory, along with receiving news of collapses on all fronts, Albrecht gave in and surrendered the city on the 15th. For the rest of the war Italy would secure the region along with the Tyrol province while Hungary shifted its focus to Vienna and the Romanian buildup near Bukovina.

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The Holy Italian Army marching into Tyrol (Left). Second Battle of Trieste (Right)

Austria: In the beginning of the war Franz Joseph had made the strategic mistake of sending most of his professional army into Bavaria in the hopes of hurting Germany by pushing through their southern flank, hoping somewhat that a South German/Catholic uprising would rise up against the leadership of Prussia. Franz Joseph had been relying on the Russian tide along with a possible strike from Alsace-Lorraine by Napoleon to completely encircle and surround Germany before the British could make any moves. While this may have worked with allies, the nightmarish situation of continental Europe abandoning Austria completely left the capitol of Vienna open to attack, one which Hungary gleefully exploited. In the beginning of April, Hungarian Field Marshal Artur Gorgie led a force of 125,000 Hungarians to the gates of Vienna, encamping on the cities outskirts and starting a siege on April 27th, cutting of the capitol from the rest of Austria. While Gorgie could've just as easily marched into Vienna and taken the city by force, doing so would've brought on high casualties of his men from the Imperial Guard and would end the war too soon before Hungary ensured that the situation would be a favorable advantage for them in the peace talks. This way Hungary could achieve all of its other primary objectives in the conflict and its fellow belligerents would be able to secure its slice of Austrian territory in the war, Austria unable to resist due to being split all across the Empire. With the siege breaking out, Franz Joseph ordered most of the Austrian Army to rush onto the capitol and preserve it from capture by the Hungarians, this was a nearly impossible task with the rest of the Austrian professionals trying to protect their own piece of Austria, volunteer regiments were also unable to be formed because those few who did want to join soon found their homes occupied by Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Russia. As the war dragged on those Austrians who did enter into battle soon either surrendered to the enemy forces or deserted en masse and headed back towards their homes. Most saw the writing on the wall and knew that Austria had little time left, there was little use laying down one's life for a corpse after all. With these conditions Field Marshal Helmuth von Moltke was able to sweep Austria proper with his force of 110,000 men, heading directly for Vienna. There Moltke met with Gorgie on the 9th of June, the next day the combined forces entered the city and proceeded to battle with the Imperial Guard and whatever scrap of civilians that took up resistance. With overwhelming firepower and superior arms on their side, the German-Hungarian forces triumphed and captured the city by the end of the day, Emperor Franz Joseph and much of the Hapsburg dynasty captured in the Hofberg. On June 11th Franz Joseph would sign an unconditional surrender, thus signaling the end of the Second War of German Unification.

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German occupation of Vienna
 
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