List of US Presidents, 1960 to 2020

TIMES CHANGE, AND WE CHANGE WITH THEM
Presidents of the United States of America

What if the Whig Party remained a major party in the United States?

1840: William Henry Harrison / John Tyler (Whig)
1840: def. Martin van Buren (Democratic) [1]
1844: Henry Clay / John Davies (Whig)

1844: def. Martin van Buren / Richard Mentor Johnson (Democratic) [2]
1848: James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic)

1848: def. Millard Fillmore / Daniel Webster (Whig) [3]
1852: George Crawford / George Nixon Briggs (Whig)

1852: def. James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic) [4]
1856: def. Stephan A. Douglas / Linn Boyd (Democratic), Jefferson Davis / John C. Breckinridge (American) [5]
1860: Stephan A. Douglas
/ Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic)
1860: def. William H. Seward / Abraham Lincoln (Whig), John C. Breckinridge / Joseph Lane (American), John C. Fremont / Cassius Clay (Republican)
1861: Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic) [6]
1864: John C. Breckinridge (American) / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic) ɶ

1864: def. Abraham Lincoln / Cassius Clay (Whig), Benjamin Fitzpatrick / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Alexander H. Stephens (American)
1866: John C. Breckinridge (American) [7]
1868: Henry Winter Davis (Whig) / August Belmont (Democratic) ɶ

1868: def. Henry Winter Davis / Lyman Trumbull (Whig), Benjamin Harvey Hill / August Belmont (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Jefferson Davis (American) [8]
1872: Lyman Trumbull / August Belmont (National Union)

1872: def. James A Bayard Jr. / Benjamin Gratz Brown (Democratic) [9]
1876: Benjamin Butler / Ambrose Burnside ('Radical' Whig)

1876: def. Lyman Trumbull / Charles Francis Adams Sr. (Liberal Whig), Benjamin Gratz Brown / John Quincy Adams II (True Democrats) [10]
1880: James G. Blaine/John Sherman (Whig)

1880: def. Winfield S. Hancock / Hendrick Bradley Wright (Democratic), James B. Weaver / Barzillai J. Chambers (Greenback) [11]
1884
: Thomas A. Hendrick / William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig)
1884: def. John Sherman / James B. Weaver (Whig)
1885: William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig) [12]
1888: William McKinley / Benjamin Harrison (Whig)

1888 def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [13]
1892: Benjamin Harrison / George Frisbie Hoar (Whig)

1892: def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [14]
1896: William Jennings Bryan / Henry Teller (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1896: def. Matthew Quay / Levi P. Morton (Whig), Grover Cleveland / Edward Bragg (National Democratic) [15]
1900: William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1900: def. Samuel Clemens / Theodore Roosevelt (Whig) [16]
1904: Theodore Roosevelt / Theodore E. Burton (Whig)

1904: def. William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [17]
1908: def. Eugene V. Debs / Thomas Watson (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [18]
1912: Theodore E. Burton / Booker T. Washington (Whig)

1912: def. Champ Clarke / John A. Johnson (Liberal Democratic-Whig), Thomas Watson / Jacob S. Coxley (People's)
1915: Theodore E. Burton (Whig) [19]
1916: Charles W. Bryan / Hiram Johnson (Progressive)

1916: def. Theodore Burton / Charles Fairbanks (Whig) [20]
1920: def. Charles J. Bonaparte / John R. Lynch (Whig) [21]
1924: Hiram Johnson / William R. Hearst (Progressive)

1924: def. Robert M. La Follette / Charles Young (Whig), Frank Lowden / John W. Davies (National)
1926: William R. Hearst (Progressive) [22]
1928: William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence)

1928 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / Gilbert Hitchcock (Whig), Clement C. Young / George E. Chamberlain (Progressive) [23]
1932: Charles Curtis / John J. Blaine (Whig)

1932 def. William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence), Jacob S. Coxley / Norman Thomas (Progressive) [24]
1936: John J. Blaine / Charles L. McNary (Whig)

1936 def. Huey Long / Alf Landon (Independence), Al Smith / William Borah (Progressive)
1937: Charles L. McNary (Whig) [25]
1940: Quentin Roosevelt / Henry Wallace (Progressive)

1940 def. Charles Lindbergh/Robert A Taft (Independence), Charles L. McNary/Charles Nance Garner (Whig) [26]
1944:
Henry Wallace / Burton Wheeler (Independence)
1944 def. Robert LaFollette Jr. / Thomas Dewey (Whig) Quentin Roosevelt / Cordell Hull (Populist), Alben Barkley / Earl Warren (Progressive) [27]
1948 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / W.E.B. Du Bois (Whig), Quentin Roosevelt / Earl Warren (Populist / Progressive) [28]
1952: Quentin Roosevelt/Harold Stassen (Populist/Progressive)
1952 def. Henry Wallace/Burton Wheeler (Independence), Douglas MacArthur/Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (Whig), Strom Thurmond/John Sparkman (American) [29]
1956: Michael Guzman / Kermit Roosevelt Jr. (Whig)
1956 def. Dwight Eisenhower / Harold Stassen (Populist / Progressive), Michael Guzman / William R. Hearst Jr. (Independence) [30]

= died in office
ɶ = contingent election

[1] William Henry Harrison, the first Whig to hold the White House, was one of the most influential presidents of the Nineteenth Century. Although much of the Whig program was controversial, such as the creation of the Third Bank of the United States, Harrison was an effective administrator capable of holding his party in line. (This was despite disputes with John Tyler, the Vice President, who advocated economic policies synchronous with Democratic positions). Federal patronage strengthened Whig organizations, and the government embarked on an ambitious series of infrastructural projects (such as vital work along the Mississippi). The Whigs also resisted strong calls for war against Mexico, despite a strong lobby within the Democratic Party to push westwards into Texas - although this issue would continue to bubble on throughout the early-1840s. Despite his successes in government, Harrison declined a second term, and the Whig Party went into the 1844 election in a strong position.

[2] Tyler had had a difficult relationship with many Whigs, but it was still with some surprise that he lost on the fourth ballot to Clay. (Sitting Massachusetts Governor John Davies clinched the VP spot). In comparison, the Democratic Convention was straightforward with the former partnership of Van Buren and Johnson being reinstated on the first ballot (disappointed, their opponents would manage to enforce a two-thirds majority for subsequent conventions). Despite Tyler forming his own 'manifest-destiny' party, the election was fought on domestic issues and the Whigs won a further term. Clay’s early focus was on further growth of the American System; high tariffs, stable finances, federal investment in internal improvements and a prudent expansion of the frontier. He continued prior efforts in soothing sectional divisions while recognizing the independence of both Haiti and Liberia. While ‘border’ issues continued to be a problem, the party was satisfied with his achievements and he had to make a decision to seek another term or follow in his predecessor’s footsteps and decline re-election.

[3] Henry Clay had been successful his four years in office, and many expected him to seek a second term. However he instead decided to follow Harrison and decline to seek re-election. The 1848 Whig National Convention nominated New York Representative Millard Fillmore with Daniel Webster as his running mate. On the other hand, the 1848 DNC nominated Senator James Buchanan after former President Martin Van Buren failed to win the nomination. Mississippi Congressman Jefferson Davis was nominated by the party to serve as running mate. The election was mainly focused on economic issues as well as the issue of Texas, with Buchanan receiving a boost as former President Andrew Jackson spoke in favour of Texan annexation. Fillmore failed to continue the Harrison/Clay coalition, making several blunders on the topic of slavery, and with his support of a proposed omnibus bill that alienated both northern and southern Whigs. Buchanan managed to finally return the Democrats to the White House after eight years after a narrow popular vote and electoral victory. Buchanan led the United States into the Mexican-American War (1849-1851) in which he was victorious, winning a major concession from the southern nation. Buchanan however alienated many northern Democrats with his staunch push for slavery in Texas post-war. When it had seemed to be a crippling blow to the Whig Party in '48 actually turned to simply be a re-alignment, as the Whigs started to move to being the party of the North.

[4] By the 1850s the Whigs and the Democrats were moving quickly to become the parties of the North and South respectively, and both suffered from factionalism based around states' rights, slavery, further expansion and economic affairs. Although Buchanan had been triumphant in the war against Mexico the resulting turmoil over the expansion of slavery was a political conflagration. Forced to keep Davis as his running mate in 1852 to maintain the loyalty of the South, Buchanan was outflanked by George Crawford - himself an unusual Whig success story in the state of Georgia. However, the election was divided almost cleanly along the Mason-Dixon line. Briggs, serving as Vice President, was a conservative Whig opposed to many Southern practices; the Crawford administration nevertheless sought to sidestep the wider issue of slavery and concentrate upon economic growth. It was not generally successful, and the country continued to struggle over the best course of action.

[5] George Crawford and George Nixon Briggs were the first President/Vice President partnership to be re-elected since 1820, although it was a close run race. Their success was down to two major factors. Firstly, the Compromise of 1855; the one major package of legislation that had focused on the slavery issue and secondly keeping the balance between Free states and Slave states equal with the joint entry of Minnesota and Texas into the Union. They also more controversially saw the 13th Amendment passed which defined citizenship, allowing for non-American born citizens to become citizens (and even be eligible for President) but which also explicitly stated that slaves (born in America or otherwise) were not citizens until they had lawfully gained freedom. While Briggs had been an active supporter of the compromises, Crawford had been less than enthusiastic. The third and main reason for their victory was that while the Whigs kept mostly united, the Democrats suffered vote-splitting from the more vocally pro-expansionist (and pro-slavery) American Party (founded by Tyler a dozen years earlier, largely insignificant until now, sometimes nicknamed the “Know-Alls” for a perceived ability to argue simple solutions to the most complicated of issues). The election had shown the need for unity, but with Crawford continuing to focus on the Whigs economic platform, the question was - for how much longer could they keep compromising?

[6] The 1860 election was hotly contested. Stephan A. Douglas managed to receive the Democratic nomination for the second time as die-hard Buchananists continued to flock to the America party. The Whigs however also suffered a splinter in the party, with the radical abolitionists forming a ticket under the name of the "Republican" or "Grand Old Party" after the Whigs refused to take a solid stance on slavery other than constant compromise. Douglas managed to barely secure an electoral college majority thanks to the split in the Northern vote while Breckinridge swept the south. Douglas' four years in office where cut short when he passed in 1861. Under Fitzpatrick the Union was extremely volatile as abolitionist and pro-slavery militias clashed in the state of Kansas. Douglas on the campaign trail had supported the idea of popular sovereignty, or allowing every individual new state to decide if it would enter the Union as free or slave, with Fitzpatrick un-enthusiastically allowing Kansas to enter as a free state in 1862. Realizing they stood no chance if the Republican party kept splitting the northern vote, the Whigs finally condemned the expansion of slavery into any new state and absorbed the GOP into their ranks in 1863. Things looked dire for Fitzpatrick going into his re-election, as it seemed both the North and South alike were ready to be rid of him. The United States moved into a dark time headed into 1864 with the American Party and many southern states threatening secession should a Whig enter the White House with their new platform...

[7] The 1864 election made the previous one look like a simple warm-up. The first sign was that Fitzpatrick barely got the nomination. He campaigned reluctantly on the grounds that the Democrats were the only party that preserved the Union. However, the division was marked as the election results showed a tri-color map with Whigs in the North, American Party in the South and Democrats a band in the center (plus New York). Even though the Lincoln / Clay ticket won both the popular and the highest vote in the Electoral College, it was not enough to secure a majority, so the country went to a contingent election for the first time since 1824. The outrage spread as the Senate elected Daniel S. Dickinson, while several Democrats defected in the House to vote for John C. Breckinridge. The Whigs claimed a secret 'Fusion Agreement' between the two parties, negotiated by Jefferson Davis, but nothing could be done to change the outcome. While some argued that the Whigs had lost because of their abolitionist platform, most hardened in their support - especially after 1866, when Breckinridge had effectively stopped trying to govern for the entire country.

[8] The 1864 contingent election had been deeply damaging to the country and dramatically intensified the animosity between North and South. However, when the 1868 election also failed to secure a majority for the Whig Party it was clear the tensions would boil over. The radical Whig, Henry Winter Davis, won the North (beginning the long stretch of the 'Solid North') - although with a noticeably smaller margin in the popular vote - but in the following squall Democrats who opposed the long-threatened secession of the South refused to endorse another Breckenridge administration. When Belmont was elected as Vice President the state of Mississippi moved to secede from the United States, supported by the vast majority of the American Party and a smaller number of Democrats. In reality, however, the cause of the South was already lost. Many regard their attempt at secession as several decades too late, as by the 1860s the North was vastly superior in almost every way. The Constitutional Union of American States (CUAS) struggled to get off the ground - it never secured diplomatic recognition from Europe, was riddled with political factionalism and never secured any major military victories due to the ineptitude of the armed forces. However, for four years the 'Southern Insurrection' inflicted grave moral and human tragedies upon the United States - largely due to the sheer bloody-mindedness of the leadership and the guerrilla warfare campaigns raging across Dixie. By the time of the 1870 election Davis was able to point towards victory, but it was clear that the country would be greatly scarred by the peace.

[9] With the collapse of the nascent CUAS, Henry Winter Davis’ popularity was at an all time-high. However, he shocked nearly everyone when he announced that he would follow in the Whig tradition of Harrison and Clay and not stand for reelection. He did enthusiastically support the creation of the National Union Party to reconstruct the country, recommending Benjamin Wade to replace him, but after Wade refused the nomination on account of his advanced years, the nomination went smoothly to Davis' former Whig Vice-Presidential running mate Lyman Trumbull. The Trumbull/Belmont ticket easily swept the country with a number of Southern States boycotting the election and weak opposition from 'Dove Democrats'. The death of Davis the following year at just 55 years led to a rise in “historical counter-factuals” asking “What would have happened if Davis did run again?” due to the possible crisis that could have arisen as some argued that despite the 13th Amendment, Belmont was still constitutionally ineligible to succeed him. (The most popular counter-factual was of course; "What if the South had attempted succession earlier"?) Trumbull pursued a far less radical agenda than Davis, instead focusing on traditional Whig policies like economic programs and creation of the Yellowstone National Park. This led to an unsuccessful impeachment attempt from the Radical Whig faction, in spite of which he still passed the 14th (which outlawed slavery - except as punishment for a crime) and 15th (which partially revoked the 13th Amendment redefining citizenship) Amendments.

[10] Trumbull tried to hold the National Union government together, but the Whig radicals made it clear that they would not support what they saw as "Democrats in Whig clothes." While it seemed like an apparent split in the party, it was actually the Democrats who were most disadvantaged, as since they had recently lost credibility, most of their supporters and representatives flocked to Trumbull's Liberal Whig party, leaving only a shell in the True Democrats to participate in the elections. This created an interesting situation in which father and son ran for vice president by opposing parties. However, at the end of the day, the Radical Whigs claimed victory, garnering a great deal of support from the newly liberated black population. While a former South sympathizer, Butler, a lawyer, businessman and former Governor, said his greatest regret was not being able to fight against the Insurrection (his critics argued that Burnside was chosen as a running mate solely because of the uniform, although Burnside had gained his own fame in some easy victories over the weak CUAS forces). While much of his program was blocked by a hostile opposition, Butler implemented not only greater emancipation and suffrage in the Civil Rights Act of 1877 and the 16th Amendment, but also promoted measures such as the nine-hour shift and antitrust laws while continuing "traditional Whig" programs, such as improving public health infrastructure. Shortly before the next election, Butler announced that the Radical Whigs would formalize the Whig tradition within the party of presidents running for single terms only (his critics said alleged financial irregularity had more to do with it, though this had little impact on his popularity).

[11] To little surprise the radical faction of Whigs managed to win easy re-election in 1880. They nominated Maine Senator and former House Speaker James Blaine as well as John Sherman as his running mate, the younger brother of General William Tecumseh Sherman. Most so-called "Liberal Whigs" fled back to either the Democrats or Radical Whigs, who were now simply just Whigs. The Democrats nominated who were soundly defeated again outside of the South. There was also the Left-Wing Geenback candidate of James Weaver, a former General and Iowa congressman, but he failed to win any state other than Iowa. President Blaine was a classic Whig, expanding further black suffrage and increasing tariffs. He kept Federal Troops in the South, which were used to ensure the newly passed Suffrage laws stayed enforced and to dissuade any further attempts at secession. However, Blaine began to lose his image in the eyes of the public as his ties to the infamous railroad industry started to come out in the second half of his term. The party was eager to get away from Blaine as they moved to the 84' election as the Democrats started to make gains among voters again.

[12] The 1884 vote was one of the most contentious and controversial non-contingent Presidential elections in American history. Sherman was quietly confident of victory despite his association with the scandal-prone Blaine, especially after former President Butler neutralized the Greenback Party through negotiating an informal alliance. However, while the Sherman/Weaver ticket won the popular vote, the Electoral College vote was almost tied with a number of states declaring “unresolved” results. This gave rise to the Compromise of 1885, by which the liberal Whig faction merged with the Democratic Party in return for a state-by-state approach to Reconstruction and a withdrawal of Federal Troops only once certain conditions had been met. After a controversial post-election process via an Electoral Commission, Hendrick was declared the winner, with the closest ever margin in the Electoral College of only one vote. Hendrick would die eight months into his term, with his successor's time in the Presidency, much like the rest of his political career, being seen as pragmatic. Indeed, many speculated that English had only been added to the ticket as a means to access his vast fortune. Despite only gradual loosening of Reconstruction systems, English declared the disputes of the Civil War settled, and promised to focus on "sound currency, of honest money", restrictions on Chinese immigration, and a "rigid economy in public expenditure". While some in the Liberal-Democratic Whigs wished English would go further, he was generally popular, and not afraid to contribute his personal wealth to causes he supported.

[13] While English was a popular president, he announced he would not stand for a second term, So, the LDWs nominated Grover Cleveland to run as their candidate in 1888, however, Cleveland was an unpopular man who just barely retained his House seat two years earlier. Meanwhile the recently formed Conservative National faction of the Whigs secured Representative William McKinley as their candidate. The campaign was tiresome, Cleveland didn't campaign personally and often sent advisors to do it for him, when Election Day came, McKinley won in a landslide.

[14] Harrison easily won the Whigs nomination and the subsequent election, which was almost a rematch from four years earlier. Harrison began by continuing McKinley's work, continuing protective trade rates and securing the Antitrust Act of 1893, which regulated competition, and the Federal Elections Act of 1894, which increased the security of elections for State Representatives, further protecting the rights of blacks voters. In return, federal troops were finally withdrawn from the southern states. In addition, the number of black political appointments increased, which some argued that McKinley had neglected and took additional measures to promote Native American rights, although many of these measures are now considered misguided. He broke with the historic Whig opposition to "opportunistic expansion", negotiating the entry of the California Republic into the United States, which had been long delayed, arguing that now that the problem of slavery was solved, the United States could expand again . Following tradition, he announced that he would not run for re-election but refused to endorse a successor, which many saw as a reprimand to his more radical vice president.

[15] The 1896 election was a major upset of the natural order that had dominated American politics in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War. The Democrats refused to nominate Cleveland a third time in a row, instead nominating the young and energetic William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, a diehard supporter of bimetallism and evangelical. In another surprising move, pro-silver Whig Henry Teller of Colorado was nominated as Bryan's running mate after staging a walkout from the WNC after they declared a plank in favor of the gold standard. Bryan was also nominated by the left-wing People's party as their candidate for President, albeit with a different running mate. The Whigs also repudiated the current order, defeating Vice President Hoar on the first ballot and instead nominating Pennsylvania Senator Matthew Quay. Cleveland was nominated by pro-Gold Democrats on the short lived National Democratic ticket, but failed to accomplish much as he did basically zero campaigning. Most of the country expected a Quay victory, but following eight years of Whig rule and the Panic of 1893 Bryan prevailed on election day. Supporters of the "Great Commoner" rioted frenziedly out of joy in the streets as he declared victory. At 36 years old he was by far the youngest individual to win office by that point. As President Bryan slashed the Whig tariffs, implemented new labor laws, passed an amendment bringing in direct election of senators, created a Federal Income Tax, brought Oklahoma into the Union as a state and resisted calls for war with Spain. However he began to grows increasingly frustrated as Congress continued to resist his attempts to move the US away from the gold standard. Bryan shocked the nation as he announced he would be one of the first Presidents in decades to seek re-election, but Vice President Teller decided to stick to his Whig roots and refuse to be re-nominated.

[16] The Bryan/Debs Liberal-Democratic Whig/People’s fusion ticket (usually just called the People’s Whigs for convenience) narrowly but clearly won the 1900 election, with a number of close races in both the industrial north and across the south. The Clemens/Roosevelt opposition (nicknamed the “Cowboy who dresses as a Southern Gentleman and the Northern Gentleman who dresses as a Cowboy”) also ran on a progressive platform, with mainly the Gold Standard and “American Expansionism” separating the two campaigns. Roosevelt in particular came to believe it was only the name recognition of Bryan that put him over the top and that the Whigs should reconsider their once Radical policy of single term presidents - “Times change and we need to change with them”. Despite their narrow loss, the Whigs were still in good shape, indeed even helped in places through direct election of senators (including John R. Lynch and Booker T. Washington) and used their numbers to filibuster, amend or otherwise delay any aspect of Bryan’s legislative program they disagreed with (although graduated income-tax, further civil service reform and an eight-hour day were all signed into law). Things came to a head when Bryan publicly mused that due to the actions of the “Radical Whigs” he might have to run again to ensure his People’s Whig legacy was secure. The question was - would he actually do it?

[17] By the beginning of the Twentieth Century the United States was beginning to sit heavily in the two-sided political system. The LDW-People's alliance had proven themselves fit for office and as the clear party of the growing 'left,' while the traditional Whigs were increasingly viewed as the 'default' party of government. With this in mind, Bryan's decision to run again in 1904 was a game-changer. With much of the population frustrated (in one way or another) with the frustrated ambitions of the 1900 administration, Roosevelt - now at the head of his party's ticket - secured a significant victory over the LDW/P in 1904. (Although Booker Washington had launched a strong challenge for the Vice Presidency he had ultimately been defeated by those seeking a less controversial compromise candidate, leading to the nomination of Theodore Burton - inconsequentially, they became the only partnership to share first names since 1852). Roosevelt sought to establish a strongly-interventionist foreign policy, expending upon the Monroe Doctrine to increase American influence directly; the Pineapple War (1905) annexed Hawaii directly to the United States, work began on the Nicaraguan Canal in 1906, and following the collapse of order in the Third Mexican Empire a series of brush wars essentially brought Baja California and Tamaulipas (including the important port of Tampico) under direct American control.

[18] Teddy and Ted broke Whig tradition and ran (and won!) reëlection. Their second term was as productive as their first with continued expansion on traditional Whig policies; vastly increasing the amount of land conservation, military and civil service reform and public infrastructure, though now largely focussed on the Western states. While generally avoiding involvement in labour relations, Roosevelt did make some pro-organized labour policies in order to counter the moves of the LDW/P. Some of the more radical Whigs criticized Roosevelt for not pursuing further civil rights reforms. However, he did make history after Howard Taft was elevated to the Supreme Court (the second former Cabinet member after William Moody to receive such a 'promotion'). In the subsequent reshuffle, he made John Lynch the first black (and former slave) Cabinet member as Secretary of Commerce and Labour (the irony of the position was not lost on many). Internationally, Roosevelt mediated the Russian-Sino-Japanese War (1907 – 1909) for which he won a Nobel Prize and sought rapprochement with the United Kingdom. Despite loud protests from the left (and some quieter grumblings from more traditional Whigs) New Mexico joined the Union as a state while Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas were all officially recognized as United States Territory. At the end of his second term, Roosevelt remained popular and many saw his progressive policies as a strong counter-balance to the growing left; however, he had already broken Whig tradition by running for a second term, could he dare try to run for a third?

[19] In the end two things stopped Roosevelt from running for an unprecedented (Whig) third term; the slight 1910’s economic downturn and the weight of Whig traditionalists. Burton easily won the resulting nomination, though the battle for VP was again competitive; this time Booker Washington just clinching the spot (no evidence has been found to support claims that this was part of Roosevelt’s ‘declining renomination deal’) becoming the first African-American candidate on a major party presidential ticket. It cemented Washington’s legacy despite claims that he was merely a "mantelpiece Vice-President" (in reality Washington was struck down by illness for most of his term and Vice-Presidents had mainly been for show anyway). The Whig ticket won a landslide in the electoral college as the Liberal Democratic-Whigs denied Debs a second run, resulting in a temporary split in the LDW/P fusion (the failure of the separate tickets ultimately persuaded the two parties to create a more formal alliance). Burton’s first two years were seen as an extension of his predecessor, with further business reform and the completion of the Nicaragua Canal. However, when War broke out in Europe, Burton focused on mediation. Roosevelt urged Burton to support the Allies, but Burton demurred, preparing himself for the possibility of running for reelection on a ‘Peace Platform’. Many of the more interventionist Whigs urged Roosevelt to think about running again (or even forming his own ‘Progressive Whig’ movement). Roosevelt declined to make any decision for the moment; with the left more united than ever and war raging overseas, the only sure thing was that the upcoming election was going to be turbulent.

[20] In 1915 the Liberal-Democratic Whigs and the People's party finally merged into the official Progressive Party, and were moving into the new election in a strong position. Despite planning on pushing for the nomination, Eugene Debs instead decided to throw his support behind the eventual ticket of the brother of former President Bryan, Charles Wayland Bryan and California governor Hiram Johnson, a recent convert from the Whig Party. Despite Burton's moderate peace platform, the absolute isolationism of the new Progressive Party allowed them to narrowly deny the President a second term. A large part of the Progressive victory was the new Mexican states, which overwhelmingly voted in their favor. President Bryan (jokingly called Bryan the Second) forbade American ships from travelling to any nation involved in the European War. The Central Powers (Germany, Austria and Russia) fought desperately to defeat the French-British-Ottoman-Japanese entente, but with a Marxist Revolution in Germany crippling their war effort brought the conflict firmly to an end in a Allied victory in 1919. The Great War (1914-1919) was the deadliest conflict mankind had seen up to that moment. On the domestic front Bryan made progress on several progressive platforms such as a railroad commission and giving all states the ability to recall state officials. However the biggest upset was the appointment of Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court, the first ever Jewish Justice and a diehard supporter of progressive causes. The Progressive Party was confident about 1920 after keeping America out of the war the last four years.

[21] With more numbers in the House and Senate, Bryan's second term (Bryan-brother's fourth overall term) quickly gained momentum, though some felt it went too far, too fast. It changed the face of government with an increase in women's suffrage, the registration of lobbyists, and the recording and publication of congressional proceedings. It changed the balance of workers 'rights with a minimum wage for women, stricter laws to enforce the eight-hour workday, a federal securities commission, more farm aid, and compensation for work-related injuries. It changed the relationship that most citizens had with the government, with a national health service to include all existing government medical agencies, social security to care for the elderly, the unemployed and the disabled, and a stronger inheritance tax. They also made further progress in supporting states to implement "direct democracy", including the widespread introduction of referendums and initiatives, in addition to judicial revocation (when a court declared a law unconstitutional, citizens could override that decision by a popular vote, often used to limit the ability of judges to order injunctions against strike action.) Many on the right accused Progressives of trying to turn the United States into 'Marxist Middle Europe' but with the platform proving to be popular with the electorate (even with the tacit support of former President Roosevelt) the Whig Party needed to change with the times once again, lest it be seen solely as the party of "blacks and big business."

[22] C.W. Bryan had learned a lesson from his older brother and declined to run for a third term (although the continuation of his programs were heavily emphasized by the Johnson campaign). The Whigs had learned from the past too and after a heated internal battle eventually nominated Robert M. La Follette from the left (and rural section) of the party. The Progressive chose high-profile (and wealthy supporter) William Hearst for Vice-President, while John Lynch declined renomination for the Whig Vice-Presidential spot, citing his advancing years (but used his influence to swing the nomination to almost equally famous Major-General Charles Young, a hero of the Pineapple and Mexico Bush Wars). The overall left-leaning composition of both campaigns led to some newspapers calling the election a “Progressive Whig Primary,” which caused a resurrection of the old National Democratic branding for a third party run. There was early speculation that it might force another Contingent Election, but in the end while outperforming Cleveland nearly thirty years earlier, the Nationals had a little overall impact. The race between the two main parties was still close, with the Progressive Party just winning the popular and electoral college vote. The Whigs began a major internal party review, this was the first time they had lost three elections in a row. However, this was only the precursor to major upheavals, as just over a year into his term, Johnson was struck down by a Mexican Nationalist, becoming the first President to be assassinated. Hearst began a much more imperialistic foreign policy than his Progressive predecessors and used the excuse of Johnson’s death to pursue further military action against Mexico. While many in the Progressive movement saw this as a betrayal of their core beliefs, it proved popular with the general public (helped in no part by the support of Hearst's media empire). As soul searching continued in both parties, the race to 1928 looked bumpy all around.

[23] The Election of 1928 was a muddy affair. Hearst was an extremely popular president, but the anger in his party towards him was astronomical. The Isolationist Progressive party began to despise President Hearst after intervening in the Nicaraguan Civil war. The war was extremely popular at first, but after the military became severely bogged down in the jungles of Nicaragua and the death of War Hero Smedley Butler, the morale of the country took a nosedive. The Progressives, seeing a chink in Hearst's armor decided to challenge him in the primary with Newcomer Governor C.C. Young. Young lost in almost every primary race except for California but won in the Convention. Hearst was Furious calling the primary, "A whole lot of Bullshit". He decided to leave the party and create his own. Not many Progressives left the party, but whigs flocked to the party after their own was completely collapsing. To rub salt into the wounds of the Progressive Party, he elected Independent Senator J. Edgar Hoover, who was a devout Interventionist. The Whigs were seemingly tearing themselves apart, but one man was able to hold the party together. Archibald Roosevelt wasn't a well-known figure, but his prowess in the US Volunteer Corps and the Nicaraguan civil war shot him into the limelight. The Whig primary was a blood bath, with almost 14 candidates battling for the presidency, but After Archie threw his hat in the field it became a two-man race between Archie and Frank Lowden. Lowden was despised by the party elites but was extremely popular with the voters. But nothing could stop Archie from becoming the head of the ticket. After defeating Lowden, he decided to choose Gilbert Hancock as his running mate. The 1928 election was going to be a close battle. With two extremely popular candidates and another one in the mix, nobody really knew who was going to win. But after weeks of campaigning, Hearst was able to win the presidency by the skin of his teeth without a contingent election. Archie was sad about his loss, but promised to stay in politics.

[24] While 1928 had been a shock, the 1932 election was the first genuine “three horse race” in over fifty years. Hearst had continued to run a controversial yet populist Presidency and the Hearst/Hoover ticket surprised no-one when it ran for reëlection. However, both the prolonged military presence in Nicaragua and the recession of the early 1930’s put enough of a dint into the “Independence” popularity to allow a genuine Progressive challenge, arguing it was their economic policies that had prevented the recession from being anything worse. However, it was the Whig Party, out of office for the longest period since their founding which reaped the benefit, with the resulting vote splitting, narrowly avoiding another contingent election and propelling Charles Curtis to the White House (becoming the oldest elected President and the first Native American). Curtis came into office as the definition of a compromise candidate, the representative of the “anyone but Archie” movement. Curtis was accused of being a “do-nothing President” but he kept up a busy social calendar, much as he had done for most of his political career, balancing the wishes of both wings of the party and generally keeping all factions feeling like they had some influence. He did make strong efforts into integrating the Hispanic population of the newest American states into the fold of American democracy as former Whig regimes had done with African-Americans. Fiscally, he was a moderate, focussed on a balanced budget and work creation schemes, believing full employment the best way to ensure that all America’s citizens were truly equal. However, the workload would have tired even a younger man, and so Curtis became the first President since Benjamin Harrison to decline renomination after a single term. With Vice-President Blaine seen as almost a non-entity (although he had not ruled out a run), the field was wide open for 1936. While the “good times” continued, Hearst had put enough of his personal fortune into building Independence as a true party while the Progressives were still a force to be reckoned with.

[25] Riding high off the "good times" Vice-President Blaine would win the 1936 election but sadly his term would come to an early end when Blaine would die on April 13, 1937, leading to Charles L. McNary becoming the new President of the United States. McNary's term is most famous for his crackdown on organized crime with many mob bosses being either arrested or killed, the most famous being Al Capone in what would become known as the Halloween Massacre. On October 30, 1938 police alongside the National Guard would bust Capone's gang which would lead to a gunfight. Most of Capone's men would die with Capone being crippled and would later die in prison three years later.

[26] An unlikely candidate emerged in the 1940 Progressive Convention in Chicago in the son of former (Whig) President Theodore Roosevelt, Quentin Roosevelt. The younger Roosevelt had been a Brigadier General in the USAF before becoming a Progressive in the mid-30s and stepping onto the ticket alongside Iowan Henry Wallace. War was raging in Europe between the Continental Entente of Italy, France, and the United Kingdom against the new alliance of the ultranationalist All-Russian Union under "Vozhd" Peter Wrangel and the German State under National Socialist dictator Gregor Strasser. Russia was desperate to repudiate the embarrassment of the Great War, invading Poland in January 1940 leading to the Entente's declaration of war. The Ottoman Empire also fought alongside their former enemies, determined to retake their claims in the Balkans. Roosevelt had run on a campaign on pro-Entente leanings compared to the isolationist Charles Lindbergh who was initially favored to win with the statement of "Lindbergh, or war". However things took a turn with the fall of Rome in late October shifted the American public to a pro-war stance and mobilized voters to the polls in favor of Quentin, allowing him to defeat both Lindbergh and incumbent McNary. Roosevelt immediately got to work getting war materials sent to Britain and France, with France barely holding off the Russo-German invasion. Roosevelt didn't declare war until September 11th, 1941 when Russian bombers obliterated several US ships off the coast off Japan who was a neutral power. America mobilized as Russian troops landed in Alaska, sweeping through both US National Guard and Canadian forces. The North American theater became of the bloodiest in history, with Allied troops finally retaking Anchorage in late 1943. With the Russians forced from US soil, America looked to Europe, where a bloody stalemate persisted in both northern and southern France as German and Russian troops desperately trying to push through.

[27] Quentin Roosevelt's Administration created much disdain in the Progressive Party. Like Lindbergh, Roosevelt belonged to the smaller wing of his party. The majority of the Progressives were Isolationist, while Roosevelt was an Interventionist. This was quite decisive, but with the popularity of Roosevelt and the war going well Roosevelt was able to hold onto his party. But with the invasion of Alaska, the popularity of the war turned drastically. Roosevelt's high popularity plummeted, with even his older brother Archie being disappointed in his actions. Instead of focusing on Europe, Roosevelt decided to throw even more men into Alaska, resulting in the Battle of Juneau which resulted in over 10,000 deaths. Protests spread across the country against Roosevelt. Henry Wallace demanded Roosevelt to pull out so many troops from Alaska, but refused and forced Wallace to resign. The Progressives and populace were furious with Roosevelt alike, calling for Roosevelt to be impeached. Roosevelt's impeachment failed, with Independence Senators saying the terms for Impeachment were 'Overblown'. Alben Barkley decided to challenge Roosevelt in the Primary, defeating him. Roosevelt was furious, deciding to run for the Independence Primary. In a shocking turn of events, instead of a normal Independence candidate, Hearst called for Wallace to run instead. Wallace easily defeated Roosevelt, causing Roosevelt to run for President in the Populist Party. The Whigs choose Robert LaFollette Jr. as their candidate, campaigning on a return to normalcy. The 1944 election was one of the most decisive Elections during a war ever, resulting in the victory of former Vice President Henry Wallace. Wallace on his first month as President pulled out 20,000 US soldiers out of Alaska and placed General MacArthur in charge of the Front instead of Joseph Stilwell. The front saw increased success, leading to the battle of Nome, which resulted in the Russian pulling out of Alaska. In the Homefront, Wallace passed the Healthcare act which gave Veterans free Healthcare after serving. The Allies decided to create a joint Naval invasion of Germany and Russia, with the Americans landing in Naples and Vladivostock, and the British and French landing in Hannover and Kiel.

[28] While 1876 had seen a father and son divide, the war-time election of 1948 was the “Battle of the Roosevelt's” with brother against brother. But like 1876, both family members had little chance of claiming victory, with the American public in no mood to change leadership mid a successful war. All the opposition was fractured, with a Progressive-Populist fusion ticket hearkening back to a mid-century before and the Whig ticket reflecting extreme ends of their “big tent” philosophy (indeed, many argued they only got away with running such a ticket because they knew they were going to lose) with Archie Roosevelt not even talking to Vice-Presidential candidate, the former Ambassador and Senator W.E.B. Du Bois. The war came to a conclusion in late 1949, just in time for the mid-term elections, though Wallace did receive some criticism for his support of the ‘mega-bombing’ of Tsargrad to force Russia’s final surrender. Alaska was officially seeded to America (despite heavy American emigration during the Northern Gold Rush, it had never been formally recognized as US territory) and Wallace would controversially fast-track it to state-hood to become the 52nd state in 1952 (just in time for the next election). While Wallace was riding high (under the direct-democracy model introduced by Progressives, it was argued that he could potentially have won any of the main party’s Primary processes) it was uncertain whether he was the right person to reunite the country - he had helped win the war, but could he win the peace?

[29] At one point it seemed certain that Wallace would win yet another term in office, with most writing off former President Roosevelt's third straight run under the Progressive/Populist line as a vanity project that would accomplish little. However, public opinion turned against the former popular war time leader as many saw him as failing to meet the threat of the Communes of Japan, a rising Syndicalist power in the East that oddly still maintained the Emperor as a powerless figurehead. Japan had nearly total dominance over East Asia following the defeat of Russia in the Second Great War as well as their own defeat of China. Still, even with Wallace's unpopular "Cold War" decisions of playing nice with Japan many still saw his third term as imminent, with newspapers printing out Wallace defeats Roosevelt on election night only to see it blow up in their face as former President Roosevelt became the first ever President to win a second non-consecutive term in the White House. Also running was former war hero Douglas MacArthur for the Whigs, who many saw as a spoiler with the fellow war hero hurting President Wallace's electoral chances, as well as Arch-Segregationist Strom Thurmond running on the revived American Party of old. President Roosevelt found himself dealing with war on his hands yet again when the young nation of Syria a former territory of the Ottomans, came under invasion by the Syndicalist Iraq supported by Japan. The League of Nations which had just been created after the surrender of Russia declared the invasion to be illegal and 16 members of the new League including the new Russian Republic sent volunteer troops to defend Syria. Americans made up the bulk of the forces and Roosevelt's popular soared for his confrontation of Syndicalism in the Middle East. However with the war dragging on his popular started to wane, especially with his expulsion of general Dwight Eisenhower from service after Eisenhower suggested Roosevelt wasn't doing enough to truly defeat Iraq. By 1955 Roosevelt's popularity had sunk and he sought a return to status quo in the Middle East. After a disastrous showing in the first few primaries, Roosevelt announced he would not seek re-election. But who could be trusted to handle the new Cold War with Japan?

[30] The 1956 election (also known as the khaki election, because of the large number of former military officers running as candidates) was notable as the culmination of the Fifth Party System. Since the First Great War, American politics had been driven by personality rather than policies, and Senators and Representatives alike often changed affiliations (or, more commonly, participated in 'jungle primaries' across all main party platforms). In 1956, Eisenhower, MacArthur, and Michael Guzman (hero of the Battle of Vladivostok) all ran in all party's primaries. All major parties that is - after receiving a single protest vote in the Electoral College in 1952, new regulations were put in place to restrict the ability of the American Party to appear on the ballot (due to the radical nature of its agenda - segregation had not accepted since Reconstruction). In the end, it was Guzmán, with his limited political experience as governor of Tamaulipas and his catchy publicity on radio and television that brought him to the top. (Against Japan as in many things, MacArthur was shown to be too extreme, Eisenhower too weak, while Guzmán was just right!). Guzmán was the dual candidate of both the Whig and Independence Parties, and he made concessions in his cabinet to both movements, but political historians generally consider him a Whig president, as it was his original affiliation (and the presence of another Whig Roosevelt as his Vice President). Unsurprisingly in his situation, Guzmán led a moderate government, focused on land reform, the creation of an interstate highway system, and the co-founding of the ISA (International Space Agency), designed as a unifying peace organization (although it's debatable about the success of that mission). Guzmán faced criticism for using the old Whig tradition of promoting rivals to the Supreme Court with the elevation of former candidates Dewey and Warren and for failing to crack down early enough against promotion of "Syndicalist Scare" (another example of a cross-party phenomenon).
 
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In the end, it was Guzmán, with his limited political experience as governor of Tamaulipas and his catchy publicity on radio and television that brought him to the top.
I'm not exactly sure who Michael Guzman is - I'm assuming it is an Anglicized name of a Mexican figure, but the only Miguel Guzman's I can find seem to be wrestlers! Anyway, it didn't make a big difference as my update focused on international events, but I would love to know who the OTL figure is!

TIMES CHANGE, AND WE CHANGE WITH THEM
Presidents of the United States of America

What if the Whig Party remained a major party in the United States?

1840: William Henry Harrison / John Tyler (Whig)
1840: def. Martin van Buren (Democratic) [1]
1844: Henry Clay / John Davies (Whig)

1844: def. Martin van Buren / Richard Mentor Johnson (Democratic) [2]
1848: James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic)

1848: def. Millard Fillmore / Daniel Webster (Whig) [3]
1852: George Crawford / George Nixon Briggs (Whig)

1852: def. James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic) [4]
1856: def. Stephan A. Douglas / Linn Boyd (Democratic), Jefferson Davis / John C. Breckinridge (American) [5]
1860: Stephan A. Douglas
/ Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic)
1860: def. William H. Seward / Abraham Lincoln (Whig), John C. Breckinridge / Joseph Lane (American), John C. Fremont / Cassius Clay (Republican)
1861: Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic) [6]
1864: John C. Breckinridge (American) / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic) ɶ

1864: def. Abraham Lincoln / Cassius Clay (Whig), Benjamin Fitzpatrick / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Alexander H. Stephens (American)
1866: John C. Breckinridge (American) [7]
1868: Henry Winter Davis (Whig) / August Belmont (Democratic) ɶ

1868: def. Henry Winter Davis / Lyman Trumbull (Whig), Benjamin Harvey Hill / August Belmont (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Jefferson Davis (American) [8]
1872: Lyman Trumbull / August Belmont (National Union)

1872: def. James A Bayard Jr. / Benjamin Gratz Brown (Democratic) [9]
1876: Benjamin Butler / Ambrose Burnside ('Radical' Whig)

1876: def. Lyman Trumbull / Charles Francis Adams Sr. (Liberal Whig), Benjamin Gratz Brown / John Quincy Adams II (True Democrats) [10]
1880: James G. Blaine/John Sherman (Whig)

1880: def. Winfield S. Hancock / Hendrick Bradley Wright (Democratic), James B. Weaver / Barzillai J. Chambers (Greenback) [11]
1884
: Thomas A. Hendrick / William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig)
1884: def. John Sherman / James B. Weaver (Whig)
1885: William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig) [12]
1888: William McKinley / Benjamin Harrison (Whig)

1888 def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [13]
1892: Benjamin Harrison / George Frisbie Hoar (Whig)

1892: def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [14]
1896: William Jennings Bryan / Henry Teller (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1896: def. Matthew Quay / Levi P. Morton (Whig), Grover Cleveland / Edward Bragg (National Democratic) [15]
1900: William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1900: def. Samuel Clemens / Theodore Roosevelt (Whig) [16]
1904: Theodore Roosevelt / Theodore E. Burton (Whig)

1904: def. William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [17]
1908: def. Eugene V. Debs / Thomas Watson (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [18]
1912: Theodore E. Burton / Booker T. Washington (Whig)

1912: def. Champ Clarke / John A. Johnson (Liberal Democratic-Whig), Thomas Watson / Jacob S. Coxley (People's)
1915: Theodore E. Burton (Whig) [19]
1916: Charles W. Bryan / Hiram Johnson (Progressive)

1916: def. Theodore Burton / Charles Fairbanks (Whig) [20]
1920: def. Charles J. Bonaparte / John R. Lynch (Whig) [21]
1924: Hiram Johnson / William R. Hearst (Progressive)

1924: def. Robert M. La Follette / Charles Young (Whig), Frank Lowden / John W. Davies (National)
1926: William R. Hearst (Progressive) [22]
1928: William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence)

1928 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / Gilbert Hitchcock (Whig), Clement C. Young / George E. Chamberlain (Progressive) [23]
1932: Charles Curtis / John J. Blaine (Whig)

1932 def. William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence), Jacob S. Coxley / Norman Thomas (Progressive) [24]
1936: John J. Blaine / Charles L. McNary (Whig)

1936 def. Huey Long / Alf Landon (Independence), Al Smith / William Borah (Progressive)
1937: Charles L. McNary (Whig) [25]
1940: Quentin Roosevelt / Henry Wallace (Progressive)

1940 def. Charles Lindbergh/Robert A Taft (Independence), Charles L. McNary/Charles Nance Garner (Whig) [26]
1944:
Henry Wallace / Burton Wheeler (Independence)
1944 def. Robert LaFollette Jr. / Thomas Dewey (Whig) Quentin Roosevelt / Cordell Hull (Populist), Alben Barkley / Earl Warren (Progressive) [27]
1948 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / W.E.B. Du Bois (Whig), Quentin Roosevelt / Earl Warren (Populist / Progressive) [28]
1952: Quentin Roosevelt/Harold Stassen (Populist/Progressive)
1952 def. Henry Wallace/Burton Wheeler (Independence), Douglas MacArthur/Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (Whig), Strom Thurmond/John Sparkman (American) [29]
1956: Michael Guzman / Kermit Roosevelt Jr. (Whig)
1956 def. Dwight Eisenhower / Harold Stassen (Populist / Progressive), Michael Guzman / William R. Hearst Jr. (Independence) [30]
1960 def. William R. Hearst Jr. / Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. (Independence), Harold Stassen / Richard Nixon (Populist / Progressive) [31]


= died in office
ɶ = contingent election

[1] William Henry Harrison, the first Whig to hold the White House, was one of the most influential presidents of the Nineteenth Century. Although much of the Whig program was controversial, such as the creation of the Third Bank of the United States, Harrison was an effective administrator capable of holding his party in line. (This was despite disputes with John Tyler, the Vice President, who advocated economic policies synchronous with Democratic positions). Federal patronage strengthened Whig organizations, and the government embarked on an ambitious series of infrastructural projects (such as vital work along the Mississippi). The Whigs also resisted strong calls for war against Mexico, despite a strong lobby within the Democratic Party to push westwards into Texas - although this issue would continue to bubble on throughout the early-1840s. Despite his successes in government, Harrison declined a second term, and the Whig Party went into the 1844 election in a strong position.

[2] Tyler had had a difficult relationship with many Whigs, but it was still with some surprise that he lost on the fourth ballot to Clay. (Sitting Massachusetts Governor John Davies clinched the VP spot). In comparison, the Democratic Convention was straightforward with the former partnership of Van Buren and Johnson being reinstated on the first ballot (disappointed, their opponents would manage to enforce a two-thirds majority for subsequent conventions). Despite Tyler forming his own 'manifest-destiny' party, the election was fought on domestic issues and the Whigs won a further term. Clay’s early focus was on further growth of the American System; high tariffs, stable finances, federal investment in internal improvements and a prudent expansion of the frontier. He continued prior efforts in soothing sectional divisions while recognizing the independence of both Haiti and Liberia. While ‘border’ issues continued to be a problem, the party was satisfied with his achievements and he had to make a decision to seek another term or follow in his predecessor’s footsteps and decline re-election.

[3] Henry Clay had been successful his four years in office, and many expected him to seek a second term. However he instead decided to follow Harrison and decline to seek re-election. The 1848 Whig National Convention nominated New York Representative Millard Fillmore with Daniel Webster as his running mate. On the other hand, the 1848 DNC nominated Senator James Buchanan after former President Martin Van Buren failed to win the nomination. Mississippi Congressman Jefferson Davis was nominated by the party to serve as running mate. The election was mainly focused on economic issues as well as the issue of Texas, with Buchanan receiving a boost as former President Andrew Jackson spoke in favour of Texan annexation. Fillmore failed to continue the Harrison/Clay coalition, making several blunders on the topic of slavery, and with his support of a proposed omnibus bill that alienated both northern and southern Whigs. Buchanan managed to finally return the Democrats to the White House after eight years after a narrow popular vote and electoral victory. Buchanan led the United States into the Mexican-American War (1849-1851) in which he was victorious, winning a major concession from the southern nation. Buchanan however alienated many northern Democrats with his staunch push for slavery in Texas post-war. When it had seemed to be a crippling blow to the Whig Party in '48 actually turned to simply be a re-alignment, as the Whigs started to move to being the party of the North.

[4] By the 1850s the Whigs and the Democrats were moving quickly to become the parties of the North and South respectively, and both suffered from factionalism based around states' rights, slavery, further expansion and economic affairs. Although Buchanan had been triumphant in the war against Mexico the resulting turmoil over the expansion of slavery was a political conflagration. Forced to keep Davis as his running mate in 1852 to maintain the loyalty of the South, Buchanan was outflanked by George Crawford - himself an unusual Whig success story in the state of Georgia. However, the election was divided almost cleanly along the Mason-Dixon line. Briggs, serving as Vice President, was a conservative Whig opposed to many Southern practices; the Crawford administration nevertheless sought to sidestep the wider issue of slavery and concentrate upon economic growth. It was not generally successful, and the country continued to struggle over the best course of action.

[5] George Crawford and George Nixon Briggs were the first President/Vice President partnership to be re-elected since 1820, although it was a close run race. Their success was down to two major factors. Firstly, the Compromise of 1855; the one major package of legislation that had focused on the slavery issue and secondly keeping the balance between Free states and Slave states equal with the joint entry of Minnesota and Texas into the Union. They also more controversially saw the 13th Amendment passed which defined citizenship, allowing for non-American born citizens to become citizens (and even be eligible for President) but which also explicitly stated that slaves (born in America or otherwise) were not citizens until they had lawfully gained freedom. While Briggs had been an active supporter of the compromises, Crawford had been less than enthusiastic. The third and main reason for their victory was that while the Whigs kept mostly united, the Democrats suffered vote-splitting from the more vocally pro-expansionist (and pro-slavery) American Party (founded by Tyler a dozen years earlier, largely insignificant until now, sometimes nicknamed the “Know-Alls” for a perceived ability to argue simple solutions to the most complicated of issues). The election had shown the need for unity, but with Crawford continuing to focus on the Whigs economic platform, the question was - for how much longer could they keep compromising?

[6] The 1860 election was hotly contested. Stephan A. Douglas managed to receive the Democratic nomination for the second time as die-hard Buchananists continued to flock to the America party. The Whigs however also suffered a splinter in the party, with the radical abolitionists forming a ticket under the name of the "Republican" or "Grand Old Party" after the Whigs refused to take a solid stance on slavery other than constant compromise. Douglas managed to barely secure an electoral college majority thanks to the split in the Northern vote while Breckinridge swept the south. Douglas' four years in office where cut short when he passed in 1861. Under Fitzpatrick the Union was extremely volatile as abolitionist and pro-slavery militias clashed in the state of Kansas. Douglas on the campaign trail had supported the idea of popular sovereignty, or allowing every individual new state to decide if it would enter the Union as free or slave, with Fitzpatrick un-enthusiastically allowing Kansas to enter as a free state in 1862. Realizing they stood no chance if the Republican party kept splitting the northern vote, the Whigs finally condemned the expansion of slavery into any new state and absorbed the GOP into their ranks in 1863. Things looked dire for Fitzpatrick going into his re-election, as it seemed both the North and South alike were ready to be rid of him. The United States moved into a dark time headed into 1864 with the American Party and many southern states threatening secession should a Whig enter the White House with their new platform...

[7] The 1864 election made the previous one look like a simple warm-up. The first sign was that Fitzpatrick barely got the nomination. He campaigned reluctantly on the grounds that the Democrats were the only party that preserved the Union. However, the division was marked as the election results showed a tri-color map with Whigs in the North, American Party in the South and Democrats a band in the center (plus New York). Even though the Lincoln / Clay ticket won both the popular and the highest vote in the Electoral College, it was not enough to secure a majority, so the country went to a contingent election for the first time since 1824. The outrage spread as the Senate elected Daniel S. Dickinson, while several Democrats defected in the House to vote for John C. Breckinridge. The Whigs claimed a secret 'Fusion Agreement' between the two parties, negotiated by Jefferson Davis, but nothing could be done to change the outcome. While some argued that the Whigs had lost because of their abolitionist platform, most hardened in their support - especially after 1866, when Breckinridge had effectively stopped trying to govern for the entire country.

[8] The 1864 contingent election had been deeply damaging to the country and dramatically intensified the animosity between North and South. However, when the 1868 election also failed to secure a majority for the Whig Party it was clear the tensions would boil over. The radical Whig, Henry Winter Davis, won the North (beginning the long stretch of the 'Solid North') - although with a noticeably smaller margin in the popular vote - but in the following squall Democrats who opposed the long-threatened secession of the South refused to endorse another Breckenridge administration. When Belmont was elected as Vice President the state of Mississippi moved to secede from the United States, supported by the vast majority of the American Party and a smaller number of Democrats. In reality, however, the cause of the South was already lost. Many regard their attempt at secession as several decades too late, as by the 1860s the North was vastly superior in almost every way. The Constitutional Union of American States (CUAS) struggled to get off the ground - it never secured diplomatic recognition from Europe, was riddled with political factionalism and never secured any major military victories due to the ineptitude of the armed forces. However, for four years the 'Southern Insurrection' inflicted grave moral and human tragedies upon the United States - largely due to the sheer bloody-mindedness of the leadership and the guerrilla warfare campaigns raging across Dixie. By the time of the 1870 election Davis was able to point towards victory, but it was clear that the country would be greatly scarred by the peace.

[9] With the collapse of the nascent CUAS, Henry Winter Davis’ popularity was at an all time-high. However, he shocked nearly everyone when he announced that he would follow in the Whig tradition of Harrison and Clay and not stand for reelection. He did enthusiastically support the creation of the National Union Party to reconstruct the country, recommending Benjamin Wade to replace him, but after Wade refused the nomination on account of his advanced years, the nomination went smoothly to Davis' former Whig Vice-Presidential running mate Lyman Trumbull. The Trumbull/Belmont ticket easily swept the country with a number of Southern States boycotting the election and weak opposition from 'Dove Democrats'. The death of Davis the following year at just 55 years led to a rise in “historical counter-factuals” asking “What would have happened if Davis did run again?” due to the possible crisis that could have arisen as some argued that despite the 13th Amendment, Belmont was still constitutionally ineligible to succeed him. (The most popular counter-factual was of course; "What if the South had attempted succession earlier"?) Trumbull pursued a far less radical agenda than Davis, instead focusing on traditional Whig policies like economic programs and creation of the Yellowstone National Park. This led to an unsuccessful impeachment attempt from the Radical Whig faction, in spite of which he still passed the 14th (which outlawed slavery - except as punishment for a crime) and 15th (which partially revoked the 13th Amendment redefining citizenship) Amendments.

[10] Trumbull tried to hold the National Union government together, but the Whig radicals made it clear that they would not support what they saw as "Democrats in Whig clothes." While it seemed like an apparent split in the party, it was actually the Democrats who were most disadvantaged, as since they had recently lost credibility, most of their supporters and representatives flocked to Trumbull's Liberal Whig party, leaving only a shell in the True Democrats to participate in the elections. This created an interesting situation in which father and son ran for vice president by opposing parties. However, at the end of the day, the Radical Whigs claimed victory, garnering a great deal of support from the newly liberated black population. While a former South sympathizer, Butler, a lawyer, businessman and former Governor, said his greatest regret was not being able to fight against the Insurrection (his critics argued that Burnside was chosen as a running mate solely because of the uniform, although Burnside had gained his own fame in some easy victories over the weak CUAS forces). While much of his program was blocked by a hostile opposition, Butler implemented not only greater emancipation and suffrage in the Civil Rights Act of 1877 and the 16th Amendment, but also promoted measures such as the nine-hour shift and antitrust laws while continuing "traditional Whig" programs, such as improving public health infrastructure. Shortly before the next election, Butler announced that the Radical Whigs would formalize the Whig tradition within the party of presidents running for single terms only (his critics said alleged financial irregularity had more to do with it, though this had little impact on his popularity).

[11] To little surprise the radical faction of Whigs managed to win easy re-election in 1880. They nominated Maine Senator and former House Speaker James Blaine as well as John Sherman as his running mate, the younger brother of General William Tecumseh Sherman. Most so-called "Liberal Whigs" fled back to either the Democrats or Radical Whigs, who were now simply just Whigs. The Democrats nominated who were soundly defeated again outside of the South. There was also the Left-Wing Geenback candidate of James Weaver, a former General and Iowa congressman, but he failed to win any state other than Iowa. President Blaine was a classic Whig, expanding further black suffrage and increasing tariffs. He kept Federal Troops in the South, which were used to ensure the newly passed Suffrage laws stayed enforced and to dissuade any further attempts at secession. However, Blaine began to lose his image in the eyes of the public as his ties to the infamous railroad industry started to come out in the second half of his term. The party was eager to get away from Blaine as they moved to the 84' election as the Democrats started to make gains among voters again.

[12] The 1884 vote was one of the most contentious and controversial non-contingent Presidential elections in American history. Sherman was quietly confident of victory despite his association with the scandal-prone Blaine, especially after former President Butler neutralized the Greenback Party through negotiating an informal alliance. However, while the Sherman/Weaver ticket won the popular vote, the Electoral College vote was almost tied with a number of states declaring “unresolved” results. This gave rise to the Compromise of 1885, by which the liberal Whig faction merged with the Democratic Party in return for a state-by-state approach to Reconstruction and a withdrawal of Federal Troops only once certain conditions had been met. After a controversial post-election process via an Electoral Commission, Hendrick was declared the winner, with the closest ever margin in the Electoral College of only one vote. Hendrick would die eight months into his term, with his successor's time in the Presidency, much like the rest of his political career, being seen as pragmatic. Indeed, many speculated that English had only been added to the ticket as a means to access his vast fortune. Despite only gradual loosening of Reconstruction systems, English declared the disputes of the Civil War settled, and promised to focus on "sound currency, of honest money", restrictions on Chinese immigration, and a "rigid economy in public expenditure". While some in the Liberal-Democratic Whigs wished English would go further, he was generally popular, and not afraid to contribute his personal wealth to causes he supported.

[13] While English was a popular president, he announced he would not stand for a second term, So, the LDWs nominated Grover Cleveland to run as their candidate in 1888, however, Cleveland was an unpopular man who just barely retained his House seat two years earlier. Meanwhile the recently formed Conservative National faction of the Whigs secured Representative William McKinley as their candidate. The campaign was tiresome, Cleveland didn't campaign personally and often sent advisors to do it for him, when Election Day came, McKinley won in a landslide.

[14] Harrison easily won the Whigs nomination and the subsequent election, which was almost a rematch from four years earlier. Harrison began by continuing McKinley's work, continuing protective trade rates and securing the Antitrust Act of 1893, which regulated competition, and the Federal Elections Act of 1894, which increased the security of elections for State Representatives, further protecting the rights of blacks voters. In return, federal troops were finally withdrawn from the southern states. In addition, the number of black political appointments increased, which some argued that McKinley had neglected and took additional measures to promote Native American rights, although many of these measures are now considered misguided. He broke with the historic Whig opposition to "opportunistic expansion", negotiating the entry of the California Republic into the United States, which had been long delayed, arguing that now that the problem of slavery was solved, the United States could expand again . Following tradition, he announced that he would not run for re-election but refused to endorse a successor, which many saw as a reprimand to his more radical vice president.

[15] The 1896 election was a major upset of the natural order that had dominated American politics in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War. The Democrats refused to nominate Cleveland a third time in a row, instead nominating the young and energetic William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, a diehard supporter of bimetallism and evangelical. In another surprising move, pro-silver Whig Henry Teller of Colorado was nominated as Bryan's running mate after staging a walkout from the WNC after they declared a plank in favor of the gold standard. Bryan was also nominated by the left-wing People's party as their candidate for President, albeit with a different running mate. The Whigs also repudiated the current order, defeating Vice President Hoar on the first ballot and instead nominating Pennsylvania Senator Matthew Quay. Cleveland was nominated by pro-Gold Democrats on the short lived National Democratic ticket, but failed to accomplish much as he did basically zero campaigning. Most of the country expected a Quay victory, but following eight years of Whig rule and the Panic of 1893 Bryan prevailed on election day. Supporters of the "Great Commoner" rioted frenziedly out of joy in the streets as he declared victory. At 36 years old he was by far the youngest individual to win office by that point. As President Bryan slashed the Whig tariffs, implemented new labor laws, passed an amendment bringing in direct election of senators, created a Federal Income Tax, brought Oklahoma into the Union as a state and resisted calls for war with Spain. However he began to grows increasingly frustrated as Congress continued to resist his attempts to move the US away from the gold standard. Bryan shocked the nation as he announced he would be one of the first Presidents in decades to seek re-election, but Vice President Teller decided to stick to his Whig roots and refuse to be re-nominated.

[16] The Bryan/Debs Liberal-Democratic Whig/People’s fusion ticket (usually just called the People’s Whigs for convenience) narrowly but clearly won the 1900 election, with a number of close races in both the industrial north and across the south. The Clemens/Roosevelt opposition (nicknamed the “Cowboy who dresses as a Southern Gentleman and the Northern Gentleman who dresses as a Cowboy”) also ran on a progressive platform, with mainly the Gold Standard and “American Expansionism” separating the two campaigns. Roosevelt in particular came to believe it was only the name recognition of Bryan that put him over the top and that the Whigs should reconsider their once Radical policy of single term presidents - “Times change and we need to change with them”. Despite their narrow loss, the Whigs were still in good shape, indeed even helped in places through direct election of senators (including John R. Lynch and Booker T. Washington) and used their numbers to filibuster, amend or otherwise delay any aspect of Bryan’s legislative program they disagreed with (although graduated income-tax, further civil service reform and an eight-hour day were all signed into law). Things came to a head when Bryan publicly mused that due to the actions of the “Radical Whigs” he might have to run again to ensure his People’s Whig legacy was secure. The question was - would he actually do it?

[17] By the beginning of the Twentieth Century the United States was beginning to sit heavily in the two-sided political system. The LDW-People's alliance had proven themselves fit for office and as the clear party of the growing 'left,' while the traditional Whigs were increasingly viewed as the 'default' party of government. With this in mind, Bryan's decision to run again in 1904 was a game-changer. With much of the population frustrated (in one way or another) with the frustrated ambitions of the 1900 administration, Roosevelt - now at the head of his party's ticket - secured a significant victory over the LDW/P in 1904. (Although Booker Washington had launched a strong challenge for the Vice Presidency he had ultimately been defeated by those seeking a less controversial compromise candidate, leading to the nomination of Theodore Burton - inconsequentially, they became the only partnership to share first names since 1852). Roosevelt sought to establish a strongly-interventionist foreign policy, expending upon the Monroe Doctrine to increase American influence directly; the Pineapple War (1905) annexed Hawaii directly to the United States, work began on the Nicaraguan Canal in 1906, and following the collapse of order in the Third Mexican Empire a series of brush wars essentially brought Baja California and Tamaulipas (including the important port of Tampico) under direct American control.

[18] Teddy and Ted broke Whig tradition and ran (and won!) reëlection. Their second term was as productive as their first with continued expansion on traditional Whig policies; vastly increasing the amount of land conservation, military and civil service reform and public infrastructure, though now largely focussed on the Western states. While generally avoiding involvement in labour relations, Roosevelt did make some pro-organized labour policies in order to counter the moves of the LDW/P. Some of the more radical Whigs criticized Roosevelt for not pursuing further civil rights reforms. However, he did make history after Howard Taft was elevated to the Supreme Court (the second former Cabinet member after William Moody to receive such a 'promotion'). In the subsequent reshuffle, he made John Lynch the first black (and former slave) Cabinet member as Secretary of Commerce and Labour (the irony of the position was not lost on many). Internationally, Roosevelt mediated the Russian-Sino-Japanese War (1907 – 1909) for which he won a Nobel Prize and sought rapprochement with the United Kingdom. Despite loud protests from the left (and some quieter grumblings from more traditional Whigs) New Mexico joined the Union as a state while Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas were all officially recognized as United States Territory. At the end of his second term, Roosevelt remained popular and many saw his progressive policies as a strong counter-balance to the growing left; however, he had already broken Whig tradition by running for a second term, could he dare try to run for a third?

[19] In the end two things stopped Roosevelt from running for an unprecedented (Whig) third term; the slight 1910’s economic downturn and the weight of Whig traditionalists. Burton easily won the resulting nomination, though the battle for VP was again competitive; this time Booker Washington just clinching the spot (no evidence has been found to support claims that this was part of Roosevelt’s ‘declining renomination deal’) becoming the first African-American candidate on a major party presidential ticket. It cemented Washington’s legacy despite claims that he was merely a "mantelpiece Vice-President" (in reality Washington was struck down by illness for most of his term and Vice-Presidents had mainly been for show anyway). The Whig ticket won a landslide in the electoral college as the Liberal Democratic-Whigs denied Debs a second run, resulting in a temporary split in the LDW/P fusion (the failure of the separate tickets ultimately persuaded the two parties to create a more formal alliance). Burton’s first two years were seen as an extension of his predecessor, with further business reform and the completion of the Nicaragua Canal. However, when War broke out in Europe, Burton focused on mediation. Roosevelt urged Burton to support the Allies, but Burton demurred, preparing himself for the possibility of running for reelection on a ‘Peace Platform’. Many of the more interventionist Whigs urged Roosevelt to think about running again (or even forming his own ‘Progressive Whig’ movement). Roosevelt declined to make any decision for the moment; with the left more united than ever and war raging overseas, the only sure thing was that the upcoming election was going to be turbulent.

[20] In 1915 the Liberal-Democratic Whigs and the People's party finally merged into the official Progressive Party, and were moving into the new election in a strong position. Despite planning on pushing for the nomination, Eugene Debs instead decided to throw his support behind the eventual ticket of the brother of former President Bryan, Charles Wayland Bryan and California governor Hiram Johnson, a recent convert from the Whig Party. Despite Burton's moderate peace platform, the absolute isolationism of the new Progressive Party allowed them to narrowly deny the President a second term. A large part of the Progressive victory was the new Mexican states, which overwhelmingly voted in their favor. President Bryan (jokingly called Bryan the Second) forbade American ships from travelling to any nation involved in the European War. The Central Powers (Germany, Austria and Russia) fought desperately to defeat the French-British-Ottoman-Japanese entente, but with a Marxist Revolution in Germany crippling their war effort brought the conflict firmly to an end in a Allied victory in 1919. The Great War (1914-1919) was the deadliest conflict mankind had seen up to that moment. On the domestic front Bryan made progress on several progressive platforms such as a railroad commission and giving all states the ability to recall state officials. However the biggest upset was the appointment of Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court, the first ever Jewish Justice and a diehard supporter of progressive causes. The Progressive Party was confident about 1920 after keeping America out of the war the last four years.

[21] With more numbers in the House and Senate, Bryan's second term (Bryan-brother's fourth overall term) quickly gained momentum, though some felt it went too far, too fast. It changed the face of government with an increase in women's suffrage, the registration of lobbyists, and the recording and publication of congressional proceedings. It changed the balance of workers 'rights with a minimum wage for women, stricter laws to enforce the eight-hour workday, a federal securities commission, more farm aid, and compensation for work-related injuries. It changed the relationship that most citizens had with the government, with a national health service to include all existing government medical agencies, social security to care for the elderly, the unemployed and the disabled, and a stronger inheritance tax. They also made further progress in supporting states to implement "direct democracy", including the widespread introduction of referendums and initiatives, in addition to judicial revocation (when a court declared a law unconstitutional, citizens could override that decision by a popular vote, often used to limit the ability of judges to order injunctions against strike action.) Many on the right accused Progressives of trying to turn the United States into 'Marxist Middle Europe' but with the platform proving to be popular with the electorate (even with the tacit support of former President Roosevelt) the Whig Party needed to change with the times once again, lest it be seen solely as the party of "blacks and big business."

[22] C.W. Bryan had learned a lesson from his older brother and declined to run for a third term (although the continuation of his programs were heavily emphasized by the Johnson campaign). The Whigs had learned from the past too and after a heated internal battle eventually nominated Robert M. La Follette from the left (and rural section) of the party. The Progressive chose high-profile (and wealthy supporter) William Hearst for Vice-President, while John Lynch declined renomination for the Whig Vice-Presidential spot, citing his advancing years (but used his influence to swing the nomination to almost equally famous Major-General Charles Young, a hero of the Pineapple and Mexico Bush Wars). The overall left-leaning composition of both campaigns led to some newspapers calling the election a “Progressive Whig Primary,” which caused a resurrection of the old National Democratic branding for a third party run. There was early speculation that it might force another Contingent Election, but in the end while outperforming Cleveland nearly thirty years earlier, the Nationals had a little overall impact. The race between the two main parties was still close, with the Progressive Party just winning the popular and electoral college vote. The Whigs began a major internal party review, this was the first time they had lost three elections in a row. However, this was only the precursor to major upheavals, as just over a year into his term, Johnson was struck down by a Mexican Nationalist, becoming the first President to be assassinated. Hearst began a much more imperialistic foreign policy than his Progressive predecessors and used the excuse of Johnson’s death to pursue further military action against Mexico. While many in the Progressive movement saw this as a betrayal of their core beliefs, it proved popular with the general public (helped in no part by the support of Hearst's media empire). As soul searching continued in both parties, the race to 1928 looked bumpy all around.

[23] The Election of 1928 was a muddy affair. Hearst was an extremely popular president, but the anger in his party towards him was astronomical. The Isolationist Progressive party began to despise President Hearst after intervening in the Nicaraguan Civil war. The war was extremely popular at first, but after the military became severely bogged down in the jungles of Nicaragua and the death of War Hero Smedley Butler, the morale of the country took a nosedive. The Progressives, seeing a chink in Hearst's armor decided to challenge him in the primary with Newcomer Governor C.C. Young. Young lost in almost every primary race except for California but won in the Convention. Hearst was Furious calling the primary, "A whole lot of Bullshit". He decided to leave the party and create his own. Not many Progressives left the party, but whigs flocked to the party after their own was completely collapsing. To rub salt into the wounds of the Progressive Party, he elected Independent Senator J. Edgar Hoover, who was a devout Interventionist. The Whigs were seemingly tearing themselves apart, but one man was able to hold the party together. Archibald Roosevelt wasn't a well-known figure, but his prowess in the US Volunteer Corps and the Nicaraguan civil war shot him into the limelight. The Whig primary was a blood bath, with almost 14 candidates battling for the presidency, but After Archie threw his hat in the field it became a two-man race between Archie and Frank Lowden. Lowden was despised by the party elites but was extremely popular with the voters. But nothing could stop Archie from becoming the head of the ticket. After defeating Lowden, he decided to choose Gilbert Hancock as his running mate. The 1928 election was going to be a close battle. With two extremely popular candidates and another one in the mix, nobody really knew who was going to win. But after weeks of campaigning, Hearst was able to win the presidency by the skin of his teeth without a contingent election. Archie was sad about his loss, but promised to stay in politics.

[24] While 1928 had been a shock, the 1932 election was the first genuine “three horse race” in over fifty years. Hearst had continued to run a controversial yet populist Presidency and the Hearst/Hoover ticket surprised no-one when it ran for reëlection. However, both the prolonged military presence in Nicaragua and the recession of the early 1930’s put enough of a dint into the “Independence” popularity to allow a genuine Progressive challenge, arguing it was their economic policies that had prevented the recession from being anything worse. However, it was the Whig Party, out of office for the longest period since their founding which reaped the benefit, with the resulting vote splitting, narrowly avoiding another contingent election and propelling Charles Curtis to the White House (becoming the oldest elected President and the first Native American). Curtis came into office as the definition of a compromise candidate, the representative of the “anyone but Archie” movement. Curtis was accused of being a “do-nothing President” but he kept up a busy social calendar, much as he had done for most of his political career, balancing the wishes of both wings of the party and generally keeping all factions feeling like they had some influence. He did make strong efforts into integrating the Hispanic population of the newest American states into the fold of American democracy as former Whig regimes had done with African-Americans. Fiscally, he was a moderate, focussed on a balanced budget and work creation schemes, believing full employment the best way to ensure that all America’s citizens were truly equal. However, the workload would have tired even a younger man, and so Curtis became the first President since Benjamin Harrison to decline renomination after a single term. With Vice-President Blaine seen as almost a non-entity (although he had not ruled out a run), the field was wide open for 1936. While the “good times” continued, Hearst had put enough of his personal fortune into building Independence as a true party while the Progressives were still a force to be reckoned with.

[25] Riding high off the "good times" Vice-President Blaine would win the 1936 election but sadly his term would come to an early end when Blaine would die on April 13, 1937, leading to Charles L. McNary becoming the new President of the United States. McNary's term is most famous for his crackdown on organized crime with many mob bosses being either arrested or killed, the most famous being Al Capone in what would become known as the Halloween Massacre. On October 30, 1938 police alongside the National Guard would bust Capone's gang which would lead to a gunfight. Most of Capone's men would die with Capone being crippled and would later die in prison three years later.

[26] An unlikely candidate emerged in the 1940 Progressive Convention in Chicago in the son of former (Whig) President Theodore Roosevelt, Quentin Roosevelt. The younger Roosevelt had been a Brigadier General in the USAF before becoming a Progressive in the mid-30s and stepping onto the ticket alongside Iowan Henry Wallace. War was raging in Europe between the Continental Entente of Italy, France, and the United Kingdom against the new alliance of the ultranationalist All-Russian Union under "Vozhd" Peter Wrangel and the German State under National Socialist dictator Gregor Strasser. Russia was desperate to repudiate the embarrassment of the Great War, invading Poland in January 1940 leading to the Entente's declaration of war. The Ottoman Empire also fought alongside their former enemies, determined to retake their claims in the Balkans. Roosevelt had run on a campaign on pro-Entente leanings compared to the isolationist Charles Lindbergh who was initially favored to win with the statement of "Lindbergh, or war". However things took a turn with the fall of Rome in late October shifted the American public to a pro-war stance and mobilized voters to the polls in favor of Quentin, allowing him to defeat both Lindbergh and incumbent McNary. Roosevelt immediately got to work getting war materials sent to Britain and France, with France barely holding off the Russo-German invasion. Roosevelt didn't declare war until September 11th, 1941 when Russian bombers obliterated several US ships off the coast off Japan who was a neutral power. America mobilized as Russian troops landed in Alaska, sweeping through both US National Guard and Canadian forces. The North American theater became of the bloodiest in history, with Allied troops finally retaking Anchorage in late 1943. With the Russians forced from US soil, America looked to Europe, where a bloody stalemate persisted in both northern and southern France as German and Russian troops desperately trying to push through.

[27] Quentin Roosevelt's Administration created much disdain in the Progressive Party. Like Lindbergh, Roosevelt belonged to the smaller wing of his party. The majority of the Progressives were Isolationist, while Roosevelt was an Interventionist. This was quite decisive, but with the popularity of Roosevelt and the war going well Roosevelt was able to hold onto his party. But with the invasion of Alaska, the popularity of the war turned drastically. Roosevelt's high popularity plummeted, with even his older brother Archie being disappointed in his actions. Instead of focusing on Europe, Roosevelt decided to throw even more men into Alaska, resulting in the Battle of Juneau which resulted in over 10,000 deaths. Protests spread across the country against Roosevelt. Henry Wallace demanded Roosevelt to pull out so many troops from Alaska, but refused and forced Wallace to resign. The Progressives and populace were furious with Roosevelt alike, calling for Roosevelt to be impeached. Roosevelt's impeachment failed, with Independence Senators saying the terms for Impeachment were 'Overblown'. Alben Barkley decided to challenge Roosevelt in the Primary, defeating him. Roosevelt was furious, deciding to run for the Independence Primary. In a shocking turn of events, instead of a normal Independence candidate, Hearst called for Wallace to run instead. Wallace easily defeated Roosevelt, causing Roosevelt to run for President in the Populist Party. The Whigs choose Robert LaFollette Jr. as their candidate, campaigning on a return to normalcy. The 1944 election was one of the most decisive Elections during a war ever, resulting in the victory of former Vice President Henry Wallace. Wallace on his first month as President pulled out 20,000 US soldiers out of Alaska and placed General MacArthur in charge of the Front instead of Joseph Stilwell. The front saw increased success, leading to the battle of Nome, which resulted in the Russian pulling out of Alaska. In the Homefront, Wallace passed the Healthcare act which gave Veterans free Healthcare after serving. The Allies decided to create a joint Naval invasion of Germany and Russia, with the Americans landing in Naples and Vladivostock, and the British and French landing in Hannover and Kiel.

[28] While 1876 had seen a father and son divide, the war-time election of 1948 was the “Battle of the Roosevelt's” with brother against brother. But like 1876, both family members had little chance of claiming victory, with the American public in no mood to change leadership mid a successful war. All the opposition was fractured, with a Progressive-Populist fusion ticket hearkening back to a mid-century before and the Whig ticket reflecting extreme ends of their “big tent” philosophy (indeed, many argued they only got away with running such a ticket because they knew they were going to lose) with Archie Roosevelt not even talking to Vice-Presidential candidate, the former Ambassador and Senator W.E.B. Du Bois. The war came to a conclusion in late 1949, just in time for the mid-term elections, though Wallace did receive some criticism for his support of the ‘mega-bombing’ of Tsargrad to force Russia’s final surrender. Alaska was officially seeded to America (despite heavy American emigration during the Northern Gold Rush, it had never been formally recognized as US territory) and Wallace would controversially fast-track it to state-hood to become the 52nd state in 1952 (just in time for the next election). While Wallace was riding high (under the direct-democracy model introduced by Progressives, it was argued that he could potentially have won any of the main party’s Primary processes) it was uncertain whether he was the right person to reunite the country - he had helped win the war, but could he win the peace?

[29] At one point it seemed certain that Wallace would win yet another term in office, with most writing off former President Roosevelt's third straight run under the Progressive/Populist line as a vanity project that would accomplish little. However, public opinion turned against the former popular war time leader as many saw him as failing to meet the threat of the Communes of Japan, a rising Syndicalist power in the East that oddly still maintained the Emperor as a powerless figurehead. Japan had nearly total dominance over East Asia following the defeat of Russia in the Second Great War as well as their own defeat of China. Still, even with Wallace's unpopular "Cold War" decisions of playing nice with Japan many still saw his third term as imminent, with newspapers printing out Wallace defeats Roosevelt on election night only to see it blow up in their face as former President Roosevelt became the first ever President to win a second non-consecutive term in the White House. Also running was former war hero Douglas MacArthur for the Whigs, who many saw as a spoiler with the fellow war hero hurting President Wallace's electoral chances, as well as Arch-Segregationist Strom Thurmond running on the revived American Party of old. President Roosevelt found himself dealing with war on his hands yet again when the young nation of Syria a former territory of the Ottomans, came under invasion by the Syndicalist Iraq supported by Japan. The League of Nations which had just been created after the surrender of Russia declared the invasion to be illegal and 16 members of the new League including the new Russian Republic sent volunteer troops to defend Syria. Americans made up the bulk of the forces and Roosevelt's popular soared for his confrontation of Syndicalism in the Middle East. However with the war dragging on his popular started to wane, especially with his expulsion of general Dwight Eisenhower from service after Eisenhower suggested Roosevelt wasn't doing enough to truly defeat Iraq. By 1955 Roosevelt's popularity had sunk and he sought a return to status quo in the Middle East. After a disastrous showing in the first few primaries, Roosevelt announced he would not seek re-election. But who could be trusted to handle the new Cold War with Japan?

[30] The 1956 election (also known as the khaki election, because of the large number of former military officers running as candidates) was notable as the culmination of the Fifth Party System. Since the First Great War, American politics had been driven by personality rather than policies, and Senators and Representatives alike often changed affiliations (or, more commonly, participated in 'jungle primaries' across all main party platforms). In 1956, Eisenhower, MacArthur, and Michael Guzman (hero of the Battle of Vladivostok) all ran in all party's primaries. All major parties that is - after receiving a single protest vote in the Electoral College in 1952, new regulations were put in place to restrict the ability of the American Party to appear on the ballot (due to the radical nature of its agenda - segregation had not accepted since Reconstruction). In the end, it was Guzmán, with his limited political experience as governor of Tamaulipas and his catchy publicity on radio and television that brought him to the top. (Against Japan as in many things, MacArthur was shown to be too extreme, Eisenhower too weak, while Guzmán was just right!). Guzmán was the dual candidate of both the Whig and Independence Parties, and he made concessions in his cabinet to both movements, but political historians generally consider him a Whig president, as it was his original affiliation (and the presence of another Whig Roosevelt as his Vice President). Unsurprisingly in his situation, Guzmán led a moderate government, focused on land reform, the creation of an interstate highway system, and the co-founding of the ISA (International Space Agency), designed as a unifying peace organization (although it's debatable about the success of that mission). Guzmán faced criticism for using the old Whig tradition of promoting rivals to the Supreme Court with the elevation of former candidates Dewey and Warren and for failing to crack down early enough against promotion of "Syndicalist Scare" (another example of a cross-party phenomenon).

[31] While Guzman put little effort into the Jungle Primaries for the Populist/Progressives and Independence Parties, he still managed to easily win re-election on the back of a scandal free first term and the catchy mariachi jingle “Guzman Goodman”. Whereas his first term had been focused mainly on domestic policy - at least in public, the secret ‘Kermit Doctrine’ named after his VP instigated a program of replacing or ‘influencing’ foreign powers to America’s way of thinking. This would change in his second term, which would come to dominated by international affairs - domestically programs continued as before, with continued farm-aid, further expansion of the highway system and checks and balances placed on the social welfare programs (but no roll back despite calls from more Conservative Whigs, the programs were far too popular for that). Shortly before his re-election, there was a Syndicalist Coup in the Kingdom of Hawaii and soon, much like in Japan, there was a powerless Monarch overseeing a workers run nation. It soon became clear that Hawaii was preparing itself as a forward air base for Japanese long-range bombers and other military hardware. While many in Guzman’s administration urged a military response, Guzman decided to negotiate and after some tension filled weeks, Hawaii announced they would dismantle their Armed Forces “in a show of international brotherhood.” In return, America removed a number of its remaining assets from Syria and other strategic locations. Interestingly, this crisis burnt out the "Syndicalist Scare" as most politicians came to understand where the true threat was coming from. Guzman maintained moderately high opinion poll ratings (which were becoming increasingly important) but he declined further renomination. A major war avoided, his eight years had been largely filled with peace and prosperity, but who would come to claim the benefits?
 
'm not exactly sure who Michael Guzman is - I'm assuming it is an Anglicized name of a Mexican figure, but the only Miguel Guzman's I can find seem to be wrestlers! Anyway, it didn't make a big difference as my update focused on international events, but I would love to know who the OTL figure is!
Miguel Henríquez Guzmán: He was a Mexican politician and military man. He was born in Coahuila, a border state with Texas, so I assumed on this timeline that he would be a US citizen. Of course, it is unlikely that he would have been born, but that would account for most of the figures, since we are a long way from POD. Anyway, that's the man I had in mind. He was not so bad as president here, I think :)
 
TIMES CHANGE, AND WE CHANGE WITH THEM
Presidents of the United States of America

What if the Whig Party remained a major party in the United States?

1840: William Henry Harrison / John Tyler (Whig)
1840: def. Martin van Buren (Democratic) [1]
1844: Henry Clay / John Davies (Whig)

1844: def. Martin van Buren / Richard Mentor Johnson (Democratic) [2]
1848: James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic)

1848: def. Millard Fillmore / Daniel Webster (Whig) [3]
1852: George Crawford / George Nixon Briggs (Whig)

1852: def. James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic) [4]
1856: def. Stephan A. Douglas / Linn Boyd (Democratic), Jefferson Davis / John C. Breckinridge (American) [5]
1860: Stephan A. Douglas
/ Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic)
1860: def. William H. Seward / Abraham Lincoln (Whig), John C. Breckinridge / Joseph Lane (American), John C. Fremont / Cassius Clay (Republican)
1861: Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic) [6]
1864: John C. Breckinridge (American) / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic) ɶ

1864: def. Abraham Lincoln / Cassius Clay (Whig), Benjamin Fitzpatrick / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Alexander H. Stephens (American)
1866: John C. Breckinridge (American) [7]
1868: Henry Winter Davis (Whig) / August Belmont (Democratic) ɶ

1868: def. Henry Winter Davis / Lyman Trumbull (Whig), Benjamin Harvey Hill / August Belmont (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Jefferson Davis (American) [8]
1872: Lyman Trumbull / August Belmont (National Union)

1872: def. James A Bayard Jr. / Benjamin Gratz Brown (Democratic) [9]
1876: Benjamin Butler / Ambrose Burnside ('Radical' Whig)

1876: def. Lyman Trumbull / Charles Francis Adams Sr. (Liberal Whig), Benjamin Gratz Brown / John Quincy Adams II (True Democrats) [10]
1880: James G. Blaine/John Sherman (Whig)

1880: def. Winfield S. Hancock / Hendrick Bradley Wright (Democratic), James B. Weaver / Barzillai J. Chambers (Greenback) [11]
1884
: Thomas A. Hendrick / William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig)
1884: def. John Sherman / James B. Weaver (Whig)
1885: William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig) [12]
1888: William McKinley / Benjamin Harrison (Whig)

1888 def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [13]
1892: Benjamin Harrison / George Frisbie Hoar (Whig)

1892: def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [14]
1896: William Jennings Bryan / Henry Teller (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1896: def. Matthew Quay / Levi P. Morton (Whig), Grover Cleveland / Edward Bragg (National Democratic) [15]
1900: William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1900: def. Samuel Clemens / Theodore Roosevelt (Whig) [16]
1904: Theodore Roosevelt / Theodore E. Burton (Whig)

1904: def. William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [17]
1908: def. Eugene V. Debs / Thomas Watson (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [18]
1912: Theodore E. Burton / Booker T. Washington (Whig)

1912: def. Champ Clarke / John A. Johnson (Liberal Democratic-Whig), Thomas Watson / Jacob S. Coxley (People's)
1915: Theodore E. Burton (Whig) [19]
1916: Charles W. Bryan / Hiram Johnson (Progressive)

1916: def. Theodore Burton / Charles Fairbanks (Whig) [20]
1920: def. Charles J. Bonaparte / John R. Lynch (Whig) [21]
1924: Hiram Johnson / William R. Hearst (Progressive)

1924: def. Robert M. La Follette / Charles Young (Whig), Frank Lowden / John W. Davies (National)
1926: William R. Hearst (Progressive) [22]
1928: William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence)

1928 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / Gilbert Hitchcock (Whig), Clement C. Young / George E. Chamberlain (Progressive) [23]
1932: Charles Curtis / John J. Blaine (Whig)

1932 def. William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence), Jacob S. Coxley / Norman Thomas (Progressive) [24]
1936: John J. Blaine / Charles L. McNary (Whig)

1936 def. Huey Long / Alf Landon (Independence), Al Smith / William Borah (Progressive)
1937: Charles L. McNary (Whig) [25]
1940: Quentin Roosevelt / Henry Wallace (Progressive)

1940 def. Charles Lindbergh/Robert A Taft (Independence), Charles L. McNary/Charles Nance Garner (Whig) [26]
1944:
Henry Wallace / Burton Wheeler (Independence)
1944 def. Robert LaFollette Jr. / Thomas Dewey (Whig) Quentin Roosevelt / Cordell Hull (Populist), Alben Barkley / Earl Warren (Progressive) [27]
1948 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / W.E.B. Du Bois (Whig), Quentin Roosevelt / Earl Warren (Populist / Progressive) [28]
1952: Quentin Roosevelt/Harold Stassen (Populist/Progressive)
1952 def. Henry Wallace/Burton Wheeler (Independence), Douglas MacArthur/Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (Whig), Strom Thurmond/John Sparkman (American) [29]
1956: Michael Guzman / Kermit Roosevelt Jr. (Whig)
1956 def. Dwight Eisenhower / Harold Stassen (Populist / Progressive), Michael Guzman / William R. Hearst Jr. (Independence) [30]
1960 def. William R. Hearst Jr. / Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. (Independence), Harold Stassen / Richard Nixon (Populist / Progressive) [31]
1964: Fidel Velazquez Sanchez / Micheal DiSalle (Whig) [32]

1964 def. Wayne Morse / Claude Pepper (Independence) Everett Dirksen / Daniel Brewster (People's)


= died in office
ɶ = contingent election

[1] William Henry Harrison, the first Whig to hold the White House, was one of the most influential presidents of the Nineteenth Century. Although much of the Whig program was controversial, such as the creation of the Third Bank of the United States, Harrison was an effective administrator capable of holding his party in line. (This was despite disputes with John Tyler, the Vice President, who advocated economic policies synchronous with Democratic positions). Federal patronage strengthened Whig organizations, and the government embarked on an ambitious series of infrastructural projects (such as vital work along the Mississippi). The Whigs also resisted strong calls for war against Mexico, despite a strong lobby within the Democratic Party to push westwards into Texas - although this issue would continue to bubble on throughout the early-1840s. Despite his successes in government, Harrison declined a second term, and the Whig Party went into the 1844 election in a strong position.

[2] Tyler had had a difficult relationship with many Whigs, but it was still with some surprise that he lost on the fourth ballot to Clay. (Sitting Massachusetts Governor John Davies clinched the VP spot). In comparison, the Democratic Convention was straightforward with the former partnership of Van Buren and Johnson being reinstated on the first ballot (disappointed, their opponents would manage to enforce a two-thirds majority for subsequent conventions). Despite Tyler forming his own 'manifest-destiny' party, the election was fought on domestic issues and the Whigs won a further term. Clay’s early focus was on further growth of the American System; high tariffs, stable finances, federal investment in internal improvements and a prudent expansion of the frontier. He continued prior efforts in soothing sectional divisions while recognizing the independence of both Haiti and Liberia. While ‘border’ issues continued to be a problem, the party was satisfied with his achievements and he had to make a decision to seek another term or follow in his predecessor’s footsteps and decline re-election.

[3] Henry Clay had been successful his four years in office, and many expected him to seek a second term. However he instead decided to follow Harrison and decline to seek re-election. The 1848 Whig National Convention nominated New York Representative Millard Fillmore with Daniel Webster as his running mate. On the other hand, the 1848 DNC nominated Senator James Buchanan after former President Martin Van Buren failed to win the nomination. Mississippi Congressman Jefferson Davis was nominated by the party to serve as running mate. The election was mainly focused on economic issues as well as the issue of Texas, with Buchanan receiving a boost as former President Andrew Jackson spoke in favour of Texan annexation. Fillmore failed to continue the Harrison/Clay coalition, making several blunders on the topic of slavery, and with his support of a proposed omnibus bill that alienated both northern and southern Whigs. Buchanan managed to finally return the Democrats to the White House after eight years after a narrow popular vote and electoral victory. Buchanan led the United States into the Mexican-American War (1849-1851) in which he was victorious, winning a major concession from the southern nation. Buchanan however alienated many northern Democrats with his staunch push for slavery in Texas post-war. When it had seemed to be a crippling blow to the Whig Party in '48 actually turned to simply be a re-alignment, as the Whigs started to move to being the party of the North.

[4] By the 1850s the Whigs and the Democrats were moving quickly to become the parties of the North and South respectively, and both suffered from factionalism based around states' rights, slavery, further expansion and economic affairs. Although Buchanan had been triumphant in the war against Mexico the resulting turmoil over the expansion of slavery was a political conflagration. Forced to keep Davis as his running mate in 1852 to maintain the loyalty of the South, Buchanan was outflanked by George Crawford - himself an unusual Whig success story in the state of Georgia. However, the election was divided almost cleanly along the Mason-Dixon line. Briggs, serving as Vice President, was a conservative Whig opposed to many Southern practices; the Crawford administration nevertheless sought to sidestep the wider issue of slavery and concentrate upon economic growth. It was not generally successful, and the country continued to struggle over the best course of action.

[5] George Crawford and George Nixon Briggs were the first President/Vice President partnership to be re-elected since 1820, although it was a close run race. Their success was down to two major factors. Firstly, the Compromise of 1855; the one major package of legislation that had focused on the slavery issue and secondly keeping the balance between Free states and Slave states equal with the joint entry of Minnesota and Texas into the Union. They also more controversially saw the 13th Amendment passed which defined citizenship, allowing for non-American born citizens to become citizens (and even be eligible for President) but which also explicitly stated that slaves (born in America or otherwise) were not citizens until they had lawfully gained freedom. While Briggs had been an active supporter of the compromises, Crawford had been less than enthusiastic. The third and main reason for their victory was that while the Whigs kept mostly united, the Democrats suffered vote-splitting from the more vocally pro-expansionist (and pro-slavery) American Party (founded by Tyler a dozen years earlier, largely insignificant until now, sometimes nicknamed the “Know-Alls” for a perceived ability to argue simple solutions to the most complicated of issues). The election had shown the need for unity, but with Crawford continuing to focus on the Whigs economic platform, the question was - for how much longer could they keep compromising?

[6] The 1860 election was hotly contested. Stephan A. Douglas managed to receive the Democratic nomination for the second time as die-hard Buchananists continued to flock to the America party. The Whigs however also suffered a splinter in the party, with the radical abolitionists forming a ticket under the name of the "Republican" or "Grand Old Party" after the Whigs refused to take a solid stance on slavery other than constant compromise. Douglas managed to barely secure an electoral college majority thanks to the split in the Northern vote while Breckinridge swept the south. Douglas' four years in office where cut short when he passed in 1861. Under Fitzpatrick the Union was extremely volatile as abolitionist and pro-slavery militias clashed in the state of Kansas. Douglas on the campaign trail had supported the idea of popular sovereignty, or allowing every individual new state to decide if it would enter the Union as free or slave, with Fitzpatrick un-enthusiastically allowing Kansas to enter as a free state in 1862. Realizing they stood no chance if the Republican party kept splitting the northern vote, the Whigs finally condemned the expansion of slavery into any new state and absorbed the GOP into their ranks in 1863. Things looked dire for Fitzpatrick going into his re-election, as it seemed both the North and South alike were ready to be rid of him. The United States moved into a dark time headed into 1864 with the American Party and many southern states threatening secession should a Whig enter the White House with their new platform...

[7] The 1864 election made the previous one look like a simple warm-up. The first sign was that Fitzpatrick barely got the nomination. He campaigned reluctantly on the grounds that the Democrats were the only party that preserved the Union. However, the division was marked as the election results showed a tri-color map with Whigs in the North, American Party in the South and Democrats a band in the center (plus New York). Even though the Lincoln / Clay ticket won both the popular and the highest vote in the Electoral College, it was not enough to secure a majority, so the country went to a contingent election for the first time since 1824. The outrage spread as the Senate elected Daniel S. Dickinson, while several Democrats defected in the House to vote for John C. Breckinridge. The Whigs claimed a secret 'Fusion Agreement' between the two parties, negotiated by Jefferson Davis, but nothing could be done to change the outcome. While some argued that the Whigs had lost because of their abolitionist platform, most hardened in their support - especially after 1866, when Breckinridge had effectively stopped trying to govern for the entire country.

[8] The 1864 contingent election had been deeply damaging to the country and dramatically intensified the animosity between North and South. However, when the 1868 election also failed to secure a majority for the Whig Party it was clear the tensions would boil over. The radical Whig, Henry Winter Davis, won the North (beginning the long stretch of the 'Solid North') - although with a noticeably smaller margin in the popular vote - but in the following squall Democrats who opposed the long-threatened secession of the South refused to endorse another Breckenridge administration. When Belmont was elected as Vice President the state of Mississippi moved to secede from the United States, supported by the vast majority of the American Party and a smaller number of Democrats. In reality, however, the cause of the South was already lost. Many regard their attempt at secession as several decades too late, as by the 1860s the North was vastly superior in almost every way. The Constitutional Union of American States (CUAS) struggled to get off the ground - it never secured diplomatic recognition from Europe, was riddled with political factionalism and never secured any major military victories due to the ineptitude of the armed forces. However, for four years the 'Southern Insurrection' inflicted grave moral and human tragedies upon the United States - largely due to the sheer bloody-mindedness of the leadership and the guerrilla warfare campaigns raging across Dixie. By the time of the 1870 election Davis was able to point towards victory, but it was clear that the country would be greatly scarred by the peace.

[9] With the collapse of the nascent CUAS, Henry Winter Davis’ popularity was at an all time-high. However, he shocked nearly everyone when he announced that he would follow in the Whig tradition of Harrison and Clay and not stand for reelection. He did enthusiastically support the creation of the National Union Party to reconstruct the country, recommending Benjamin Wade to replace him, but after Wade refused the nomination on account of his advanced years, the nomination went smoothly to Davis' former Whig Vice-Presidential running mate Lyman Trumbull. The Trumbull/Belmont ticket easily swept the country with a number of Southern States boycotting the election and weak opposition from 'Dove Democrats'. The death of Davis the following year at just 55 years led to a rise in “historical counter-factuals” asking “What would have happened if Davis did run again?” due to the possible crisis that could have arisen as some argued that despite the 13th Amendment, Belmont was still constitutionally ineligible to succeed him. (The most popular counter-factual was of course; "What if the South had attempted succession earlier"?) Trumbull pursued a far less radical agenda than Davis, instead focusing on traditional Whig policies like economic programs and creation of the Yellowstone National Park. This led to an unsuccessful impeachment attempt from the Radical Whig faction, in spite of which he still passed the 14th (which outlawed slavery - except as punishment for a crime) and 15th (which partially revoked the 13th Amendment redefining citizenship) Amendments.

[10] Trumbull tried to hold the National Union government together, but the Whig radicals made it clear that they would not support what they saw as "Democrats in Whig clothes." While it seemed like an apparent split in the party, it was actually the Democrats who were most disadvantaged, as since they had recently lost credibility, most of their supporters and representatives flocked to Trumbull's Liberal Whig party, leaving only a shell in the True Democrats to participate in the elections. This created an interesting situation in which father and son ran for vice president by opposing parties. However, at the end of the day, the Radical Whigs claimed victory, garnering a great deal of support from the newly liberated black population. While a former South sympathizer, Butler, a lawyer, businessman and former Governor, said his greatest regret was not being able to fight against the Insurrection (his critics argued that Burnside was chosen as a running mate solely because of the uniform, although Burnside had gained his own fame in some easy victories over the weak CUAS forces). While much of his program was blocked by a hostile opposition, Butler implemented not only greater emancipation and suffrage in the Civil Rights Act of 1877 and the 16th Amendment, but also promoted measures such as the nine-hour shift and antitrust laws while continuing "traditional Whig" programs, such as improving public health infrastructure. Shortly before the next election, Butler announced that the Radical Whigs would formalize the Whig tradition within the party of presidents running for single terms only (his critics said alleged financial irregularity had more to do with it, though this had little impact on his popularity).

[11] To little surprise the radical faction of Whigs managed to win easy re-election in 1880. They nominated Maine Senator and former House Speaker James Blaine as well as John Sherman as his running mate, the younger brother of General William Tecumseh Sherman. Most so-called "Liberal Whigs" fled back to either the Democrats or Radical Whigs, who were now simply just Whigs. The Democrats nominated who were soundly defeated again outside of the South. There was also the Left-Wing Geenback candidate of James Weaver, a former General and Iowa congressman, but he failed to win any state other than Iowa. President Blaine was a classic Whig, expanding further black suffrage and increasing tariffs. He kept Federal Troops in the South, which were used to ensure the newly passed Suffrage laws stayed enforced and to dissuade any further attempts at secession. However, Blaine began to lose his image in the eyes of the public as his ties to the infamous railroad industry started to come out in the second half of his term. The party was eager to get away from Blaine as they moved to the 84' election as the Democrats started to make gains among voters again.

[12] The 1884 vote was one of the most contentious and controversial non-contingent Presidential elections in American history. Sherman was quietly confident of victory despite his association with the scandal-prone Blaine, especially after former President Butler neutralized the Greenback Party through negotiating an informal alliance. However, while the Sherman/Weaver ticket won the popular vote, the Electoral College vote was almost tied with a number of states declaring “unresolved” results. This gave rise to the Compromise of 1885, by which the liberal Whig faction merged with the Democratic Party in return for a state-by-state approach to Reconstruction and a withdrawal of Federal Troops only once certain conditions had been met. After a controversial post-election process via an Electoral Commission, Hendrick was declared the winner, with the closest ever margin in the Electoral College of only one vote. Hendrick would die eight months into his term, with his successor's time in the Presidency, much like the rest of his political career, being seen as pragmatic. Indeed, many speculated that English had only been added to the ticket as a means to access his vast fortune. Despite only gradual loosening of Reconstruction systems, English declared the disputes of the Civil War settled, and promised to focus on "sound currency, of honest money", restrictions on Chinese immigration, and a "rigid economy in public expenditure". While some in the Liberal-Democratic Whigs wished English would go further, he was generally popular, and not afraid to contribute his personal wealth to causes he supported.

[13] While English was a popular president, he announced he would not stand for a second term, So, the LDWs nominated Grover Cleveland to run as their candidate in 1888, however, Cleveland was an unpopular man who just barely retained his House seat two years earlier. Meanwhile the recently formed Conservative National faction of the Whigs secured Representative William McKinley as their candidate. The campaign was tiresome, Cleveland didn't campaign personally and often sent advisors to do it for him, when Election Day came, McKinley won in a landslide.

[14] Harrison easily won the Whigs nomination and the subsequent election, which was almost a rematch from four years earlier. Harrison began by continuing McKinley's work, continuing protective trade rates and securing the Antitrust Act of 1893, which regulated competition, and the Federal Elections Act of 1894, which increased the security of elections for State Representatives, further protecting the rights of blacks voters. In return, federal troops were finally withdrawn from the southern states. In addition, the number of black political appointments increased, which some argued that McKinley had neglected and took additional measures to promote Native American rights, although many of these measures are now considered misguided. He broke with the historic Whig opposition to "opportunistic expansion", negotiating the entry of the California Republic into the United States, which had been long delayed, arguing that now that the problem of slavery was solved, the United States could expand again . Following tradition, he announced that he would not run for re-election but refused to endorse a successor, which many saw as a reprimand to his more radical vice president.
[15] The 1896 election was a major upset of the natural order that had dominated American politics in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War. The Democrats refused to nominate Cleveland a third time in a row, instead nominating the young and energetic William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, a diehard supporter of bimetallism and evangelical. In another surprising move, pro-silver Whig Henry Teller of Colorado was nominated as Bryan's running mate after staging a walkout from the WNC after they declared a plank in favor of the gold standard. Bryan was also nominated by the left-wing People's party as their candidate for President, albeit with a different running mate. The Whigs also repudiated the current order, defeating Vice President Hoar on the first ballot and instead nominating Pennsylvania Senator Matthew Quay. Cleveland was nominated by pro-Gold Democrats on the short lived National Democratic ticket, but failed to accomplish much as he did basically zero campaigning. Most of the country expected a Quay victory, but following eight years of Whig rule and the Panic of 1893 Bryan prevailed on election day. Supporters of the "Great Commoner" rioted frenziedly out of joy in the streets as he declared victory. At 36 years old he was by far the youngest individual to win office by that point. As President Bryan slashed the Whig tariffs, implemented new labor laws, passed an amendment bringing in direct election of senators, created a Federal Income Tax, brought Oklahoma into the Union as a state and resisted calls for war with Spain. However he began to grows increasingly frustrated as Congress continued to resist his attempts to move the US away from the gold standard. Bryan shocked the nation as he announced he would be one of the first Presidents in decades to seek re-election, but Vice President Teller decided to stick to his Whig roots and refuse to be re-nominated.

[16] The Bryan/Debs Liberal-Democratic Whig/People’s fusion ticket (usually just called the People’s Whigs for convenience) narrowly but clearly won the 1900 election, with a number of close races in both the industrial north and across the south. The Clemens/Roosevelt opposition (nicknamed the “Cowboy who dresses as a Southern Gentleman and the Northern Gentleman who dresses as a Cowboy”) also ran on a progressive platform, with mainly the Gold Standard and “American Expansionism” separating the two campaigns. Roosevelt in particular came to believe it was only the name recognition of Bryan that put him over the top and that the Whigs should reconsider their once Radical policy of single term presidents - “Times change and we need to change with them”. Despite their narrow loss, the Whigs were still in good shape, indeed even helped in places through direct election of senators (including John R. Lynch and Booker T. Washington) and used their numbers to filibuster, amend or otherwise delay any aspect of Bryan’s legislative program they disagreed with (although graduated income-tax, further civil service reform and an eight-hour day were all signed into law). Things came to a head when Bryan publicly mused that due to the actions of the “Radical Whigs” he might have to run again to ensure his People’s Whig legacy was secure. The question was - would he actually do it?

[17] By the beginning of the Twentieth Century the United States was beginning to sit heavily in the two-sided political system. The LDW-People's alliance had proven themselves fit for office and as the clear party of the growing 'left,' while the traditional Whigs were increasingly viewed as the 'default' party of government. With this in mind, Bryan's decision to run again in 1904 was a game-changer. With much of the population frustrated (in one way or another) with the frustrated ambitions of the 1900 administration, Roosevelt - now at the head of his party's ticket - secured a significant victory over the LDW/P in 1904. (Although Booker Washington had launched a strong challenge for the Vice Presidency he had ultimately been defeated by those seeking a less controversial compromise candidate, leading to the nomination of Theodore Burton - inconsequentially, they became the only partnership to share first names since 1852). Roosevelt sought to establish a strongly-interventionist foreign policy, expending upon the Monroe Doctrine to increase American influence directly; the Pineapple War (1905) annexed Hawaii directly to the United States, work began on the Nicaraguan Canal in 1906, and following the collapse of order in the Third Mexican Empire a series of brush wars essentially brought Baja California and Tamaulipas (including the important port of Tampico) under direct American control.

[18] Teddy and Ted broke Whig tradition and ran (and won!) reëlection. Their second term was as productive as their first with continued expansion on traditional Whig policies; vastly increasing the amount of land conservation, military and civil service reform and public infrastructure, though now largely focussed on the Western states. While generally avoiding involvement in labour relations, Roosevelt did make some pro-organized labour policies in order to counter the moves of the LDW/P. Some of the more radical Whigs criticized Roosevelt for not pursuing further civil rights reforms. However, he did make history after Howard Taft was elevated to the Supreme Court (the second former Cabinet member after William Moody to receive such a 'promotion'). In the subsequent reshuffle, he made John Lynch the first black (and former slave) Cabinet member as Secretary of Commerce and Labour (the irony of the position was not lost on many). Internationally, Roosevelt mediated the Russian-Sino-Japanese War (1907 – 1909) for which he won a Nobel Prize and sought rapprochement with the United Kingdom. Despite loud protests from the left (and some quieter grumblings from more traditional Whigs) New Mexico joined the Union as a state while Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas were all officially recognized as United States Territory. At the end of his second term, Roosevelt remained popular and many saw his progressive policies as a strong counter-balance to the growing left; however, he had already broken Whig tradition by running for a second term, could he dare try to run for a third?

[19] In the end two things stopped Roosevelt from running for an unprecedented (Whig) third term; the slight 1910’s economic downturn and the weight of Whig traditionalists. Burton easily won the resulting nomination, though the battle for VP was again competitive; this time Booker Washington just clinching the spot (no evidence has been found to support claims that this was part of Roosevelt’s ‘declining renomination deal’) becoming the first African-American candidate on a major party presidential ticket. It cemented Washington’s legacy despite claims that he was merely a "mantelpiece Vice-President" (in reality Washington was struck down by illness for most of his term and Vice-Presidents had mainly been for show anyway). The Whig ticket won a landslide in the electoral college as the Liberal Democratic-Whigs denied Debs a second run, resulting in a temporary split in the LDW/P fusion (the failure of the separate tickets ultimately persuaded the two parties to create a more formal alliance). Burton’s first two years were seen as an extension of his predecessor, with further business reform and the completion of the Nicaragua Canal. However, when War broke out in Europe, Burton focused on mediation. Roosevelt urged Burton to support the Allies, but Burton demurred, preparing himself for the possibility of running for reelection on a ‘Peace Platform’. Many of the more interventionist Whigs urged Roosevelt to think about running again (or even forming his own ‘Progressive Whig’ movement). Roosevelt declined to make any decision for the moment; with the left more united than ever and war raging overseas, the only sure thing was that the upcoming election was going to be turbulent.

[20] In 1915 the Liberal-Democratic Whigs and the People's party finally merged into the official Progressive Party, and were moving into the new election in a strong position. Despite planning on pushing for the nomination, Eugene Debs instead decided to throw his support behind the eventual ticket of the brother of former President Bryan, Charles Wayland Bryan and California governor Hiram Johnson, a recent convert from the Whig Party. Despite Burton's moderate peace platform, the absolute isolationism of the new Progressive Party allowed them to narrowly deny the President a second term. A large part of the Progressive victory was the new Mexican states, which overwhelmingly voted in their favor. President Bryan (jokingly called Bryan the Second) forbade American ships from travelling to any nation involved in the European War. The Central Powers (Germany, Austria and Russia) fought desperately to defeat the French-British-Ottoman-Japanese entente, but with a Marxist Revolution in Germany crippling their war effort brought the conflict firmly to an end in a Allied victory in 1919. The Great War (1914-1919) was the deadliest conflict mankind had seen up to that moment. On the domestic front Bryan made progress on several progressive platforms such as a railroad commission and giving all states the ability to recall state officials. However the biggest upset was the appointment of Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court, the first ever Jewish Justice and a diehard supporter of progressive causes. The Progressive Party was confident about 1920 after keeping America out of the war the last four years.

[21] With more numbers in the House and Senate, Bryan's second term (Bryan-brother's fourth overall term) quickly gained momentum, though some felt it went too far, too fast. It changed the face of government with an increase in women's suffrage, the registration of lobbyists, and the recording and publication of congressional proceedings. It changed the balance of workers 'rights with a minimum wage for women, stricter laws to enforce the eight-hour workday, a federal securities commission, more farm aid, and compensation for work-related injuries. It changed the relationship that most citizens had with the government, with a national health service to include all existing government medical agencies, social security to care for the elderly, the unemployed and the disabled, and a stronger inheritance tax. They also made further progress in supporting states to implement "direct democracy", including the widespread introduction of referendums and initiatives, in addition to judicial revocation (when a court declared a law unconstitutional, citizens could override that decision by a popular vote, often used to limit the ability of judges to order injunctions against strike action.) Many on the right accused Progressives of trying to turn the United States into 'Marxist Middle Europe' but with the platform proving to be popular with the electorate (even with the tacit support of former President Roosevelt) the Whig Party needed to change with the times once again, lest it be seen solely as the party of "blacks and big business."

[22] C.W. Bryan had learned a lesson from his older brother and declined to run for a third term (although the continuation of his programs were heavily emphasized by the Johnson campaign). The Whigs had learned from the past too and after a heated internal battle eventually nominated Robert M. La Follette from the left (and rural section) of the party. The Progressive chose high-profile (and wealthy supporter) William Hearst for Vice-President, while John Lynch declined renomination for the Whig Vice-Presidential spot, citing his advancing years (but used his influence to swing the nomination to almost equally famous Major-General Charles Young, a hero of the Pineapple and Mexico Bush Wars). The overall left-leaning composition of both campaigns led to some newspapers calling the election a “Progressive Whig Primary,” which caused a resurrection of the old National Democratic branding for a third party run. There was early speculation that it might force another Contingent Election, but in the end while outperforming Cleveland nearly thirty years earlier, the Nationals had a little overall impact. The race between the two main parties was still close, with the Progressive Party just winning the popular and electoral college vote. The Whigs began a major internal party review, this was the first time they had lost three elections in a row. However, this was only the precursor to major upheavals, as just over a year into his term, Johnson was struck down by a Mexican Nationalist, becoming the first President to be assassinated. Hearst began a much more imperialistic foreign policy than his Progressive predecessors and used the excuse of Johnson’s death to pursue further military action against Mexico. While many in the Progressive movement saw this as a betrayal of their core beliefs, it proved popular with the general public (helped in no part by the support of Hearst's media empire). As soul searching continued in both parties, the race to 1928 looked bumpy all around.

[23] The Election of 1928 was a muddy affair. Hearst was an extremely popular president, but the anger in his party towards him was astronomical. The Isolationist Progressive party began to despise President Hearst after intervening in the Nicaraguan Civil war. The war was extremely popular at first, but after the military became severely bogged down in the jungles of Nicaragua and the death of War Hero Smedley Butler, the morale of the country took a nosedive. The Progressives, seeing a chink in Hearst's armor decided to challenge him in the primary with Newcomer Governor C.C. Young. Young lost in almost every primary race except for California but won in the Convention. Hearst was Furious calling the primary, "A whole lot of Bullshit". He decided to leave the party and create his own. Not many Progressives left the party, but whigs flocked to the party after their own was completely collapsing. To rub salt into the wounds of the Progressive Party, he elected Independent Senator J. Edgar Hoover, who was a devout Interventionist. The Whigs were seemingly tearing themselves apart, but one man was able to hold the party together. Archibald Roosevelt wasn't a well-known figure, but his prowess in the US Volunteer Corps and the Nicaraguan civil war shot him into the limelight. The Whig primary was a blood bath, with almost 14 candidates battling for the presidency, but After Archie threw his hat in the field it became a two-man race between Archie and Frank Lowden. Lowden was despised by the party elites but was extremely popular with the voters. But nothing could stop Archie from becoming the head of the ticket. After defeating Lowden, he decided to choose Gilbert Hancock as his running mate. The 1928 election was going to be a close battle. With two extremely popular candidates and another one in the mix, nobody really knew who was going to win. But after weeks of campaigning, Hearst was able to win the presidency by the skin of his teeth without a contingent election. Archie was sad about his loss, but promised to stay in politics.

[24] While 1928 had been a shock, the 1932 election was the first genuine “three horse race” in over fifty years. Hearst had continued to run a controversial yet populist Presidency and the Hearst/Hoover ticket surprised no-one when it ran for reëlection. However, both the prolonged military presence in Nicaragua and the recession of the early 1930’s put enough of a dint into the “Independence” popularity to allow a genuine Progressive challenge, arguing it was their economic policies that had prevented the recession from being anything worse. However, it was the Whig Party, out of office for the longest period since their founding which reaped the benefit, with the resulting vote splitting, narrowly avoiding another contingent election and propelling Charles Curtis to the White House (becoming the oldest elected President and the first Native American). Curtis came into office as the definition of a compromise candidate, the representative of the “anyone but Archie” movement. Curtis was accused of being a “do-nothing President” but he kept up a busy social calendar, much as he had done for most of his political career, balancing the wishes of both wings of the party and generally keeping all factions feeling like they had some influence. He did make strong efforts into integrating the Hispanic population of the newest American states into the fold of American democracy as former Whig regimes had done with African-Americans. Fiscally, he was a moderate, focussed on a balanced budget and work creation schemes, believing full employment the best way to ensure that all America’s citizens were truly equal. However, the workload would have tired even a younger man, and so Curtis became the first President since Benjamin Harrison to decline renomination after a single term. With Vice-President Blaine seen as almost a non-entity (although he had not ruled out a run), the field was wide open for 1936. While the “good times” continued, Hearst had put enough of his personal fortune into building Independence as a true party while the Progressives were still a force to be reckoned with.

[25] Riding high off the "good times" Vice-President Blaine would win the 1936 election but sadly his term would come to an early end when Blaine would die on April 13, 1937, leading to Charles L. McNary becoming the new President of the United States. McNary's term is most famous for his crackdown on organized crime with many mob bosses being either arrested or killed, the most famous being Al Capone in what would become known as the Halloween Massacre. On October 30, 1938 police alongside the National Guard would bust Capone's gang which would lead to a gunfight. Most of Capone's men would die with Capone being crippled and would later die in prison three years later.

[26] An unlikely candidate emerged in the 1940 Progressive Convention in Chicago in the son of former (Whig) President Theodore Roosevelt, Quentin Roosevelt. The younger Roosevelt had been a Brigadier General in the USAF before becoming a Progressive in the mid-30s and stepping onto the ticket alongside Iowan Henry Wallace. War was raging in Europe between the Continental Entente of Italy, France, and the United Kingdom against the new alliance of the ultranationalist All-Russian Union under "Vozhd" Peter Wrangel and the German State under National Socialist dictator Gregor Strasser. Russia was desperate to repudiate the embarrassment of the Great War, invading Poland in January 1940 leading to the Entente's declaration of war. The Ottoman Empire also fought alongside their former enemies, determined to retake their claims in the Balkans. Roosevelt had run on a campaign on pro-Entente leanings compared to the isolationist Charles Lindbergh who was initially favored to win with the statement of "Lindbergh, or war". However things took a turn with the fall of Rome in late October shifted the American public to a pro-war stance and mobilized voters to the polls in favor of Quentin, allowing him to defeat both Lindbergh and incumbent McNary. Roosevelt immediately got to work getting war materials sent to Britain and France, with France barely holding off the Russo-German invasion. Roosevelt didn't declare war until September 11th, 1941 when Russian bombers obliterated several US ships off the coast off Japan who was a neutral power. America mobilized as Russian troops landed in Alaska, sweeping through both US National Guard and Canadian forces. The North American theater became of the bloodiest in history, with Allied troops finally retaking Anchorage in late 1943. With the Russians forced from US soil, America looked to Europe, where a bloody stalemate persisted in both northern and southern France as German and Russian troops desperately trying to push through.

[27] Quentin Roosevelt's Administration created much disdain in the Progressive Party. Like Lindbergh, Roosevelt belonged to the smaller wing of his party. The majority of the Progressives were Isolationist, while Roosevelt was an Interventionist. This was quite decisive, but with the popularity of Roosevelt and the war going well Roosevelt was able to hold onto his party. But with the invasion of Alaska, the popularity of the war turned drastically. Roosevelt's high popularity plummeted, with even his older brother Archie being disappointed in his actions. Instead of focusing on Europe, Roosevelt decided to throw even more men into Alaska, resulting in the Battle of Juneau which resulted in over 10,000 deaths. Protests spread across the country against Roosevelt. Henry Wallace demanded Roosevelt to pull out so many troops from Alaska, but refused and forced Wallace to resign. The Progressives and populace were furious with Roosevelt alike, calling for Roosevelt to be impeached. Roosevelt's impeachment failed, with Independence Senators saying the terms for Impeachment were 'Overblown'. Alben Barkley decided to challenge Roosevelt in the Primary, defeating him. Roosevelt was furious, deciding to run for the Independence Primary. In a shocking turn of events, instead of a normal Independence candidate, Hearst called for Wallace to run instead. Wallace easily defeated Roosevelt, causing Roosevelt to run for President in the Populist Party. The Whigs choose Robert LaFollette Jr. as their candidate, campaigning on a return to normalcy. The 1944 election was one of the most decisive Elections during a war ever, resulting in the victory of former Vice President Henry Wallace. Wallace on his first month as President pulled out 20,000 US soldiers out of Alaska and placed General MacArthur in charge of the Front instead of Joseph Stilwell. The front saw increased success, leading to the battle of Nome, which resulted in the Russian pulling out of Alaska. In the Homefront, Wallace passed the Healthcare act which gave Veterans free Healthcare after serving. The Allies decided to create a joint Naval invasion of Germany and Russia, with the Americans landing in Naples and Vladivostock, and the British and French landing in Hannover and Kiel.

[28] While 1876 had seen a father and son divide, the war-time election of 1948 was the “Battle of the Roosevelt's” with brother against brother. But like 1876, both family members had little chance of claiming victory, with the American public in no mood to change leadership mid a successful war. All the opposition was fractured, with a Progressive-Populist fusion ticket hearkening back to a mid-century before and the Whig ticket reflecting extreme ends of their “big tent” philosophy (indeed, many argued they only got away with running such a ticket because they knew they were going to lose) with Archie Roosevelt not even talking to Vice-Presidential candidate, the former Ambassador and Senator W.E.B. Du Bois. The war came to a conclusion in late 1949, just in time for the mid-term elections, though Wallace did receive some criticism for his support of the ‘mega-bombing’ of Tsargrad to force Russia’s final surrender. Alaska was officially seeded to America (despite heavy American emigration during the Northern Gold Rush, it had never been formally recognized as US territory) and Wallace would controversially fast-track it to state-hood to become the 52nd state in 1952 (just in time for the next election). While Wallace was riding high (under the direct-democracy model introduced by Progressives, it was argued that he could potentially have won any of the main party’s Primary processes) it was uncertain whether he was the right person to reunite the country - he had helped win the war, but could he win the peace?

[29] At one point it seemed certain that Wallace would win yet another term in office, with most writing off former President Roosevelt's third straight run under the Progressive/Populist line as a vanity project that would accomplish little. However, public opinion turned against the former popular war time leader as many saw him as failing to meet the threat of the Communes of Japan, a rising Syndicalist power in the East that oddly still maintained the Emperor as a powerless figurehead. Japan had nearly total dominance over East Asia following the defeat of Russia in the Second Great War as well as their own defeat of China. Still, even with Wallace's unpopular "Cold War" decisions of playing nice with Japan many still saw his third term as imminent, with newspapers printing out Wallace defeats Roosevelt on election night only to see it blow up in their face as former President Roosevelt became the first ever President to win a second non-consecutive term in the White House. Also running was former war hero Douglas MacArthur for the Whigs, who many saw as a spoiler with the fellow war hero hurting President Wallace's electoral chances, as well as Arch-Segregationist Strom Thurmond running on the revived American Party of old. President Roosevelt found himself dealing with war on his hands yet again when the young nation of Syria a former territory of the Ottomans, came under invasion by the Syndicalist Iraq supported by Japan. The League of Nations which had just been created after the surrender of Russia declared the invasion to be illegal and 16 members of the new League including the new Russian Republic sent volunteer troops to defend Syria. Americans made up the bulk of the forces and Roosevelt's popular soared for his confrontation of Syndicalism in the Middle East. However with the war dragging on his popular started to wane, especially with his expulsion of general Dwight Eisenhower from service after Eisenhower suggested Roosevelt wasn't doing enough to truly defeat Iraq. By 1955 Roosevelt's popularity had sunk and he sought a return to status quo in the Middle East. After a disastrous showing in the first few primaries, Roosevelt announced he would not seek re-election. But who could be trusted to handle the new Cold War with Japan?

[30] The 1956 election (also known as the khaki election, because of the large number of former military officers running as candidates) was notable as the culmination of the Fifth Party System. Since the First Great War, American politics had been driven by personality rather than policies, and Senators and Representatives alike often changed affiliations (or, more commonly, participated in 'jungle primaries' across all main party platforms). In 1956, Eisenhower, MacArthur, and Michael Guzman (hero of the Battle of Vladivostok) all ran in all party's primaries. All major parties that is - after receiving a single protest vote in the Electoral College in 1952, new regulations were put in place to restrict the ability of the American Party to appear on the ballot (due to the radical nature of its agenda - segregation had not accepted since Reconstruction). In the end, it was Guzmán, with his limited political experience as governor of Tamaulipas and his catchy publicity on radio and television that brought him to the top. (Against Japan as in many things, MacArthur was shown to be too extreme, Eisenhower too weak, while Guzmán was just right!). Guzmán was the dual candidate of both the Whig and Independence Parties, and he made concessions in his cabinet to both movements, but political historians generally consider him a Whig president, as it was his original affiliation (and the presence of another Whig Roosevelt as his Vice President). Unsurprisingly in his situation, Guzmán led a moderate government, focused on land reform, the creation of an interstate highway system, and the co-founding of the ISA (International Space Agency), designed as a unifying peace organization (although it's debatable about the success of that mission). Guzmán faced criticism for using the old Whig tradition of promoting rivals to the Supreme Court with the elevation of former candidates Dewey and Warren and for failing to crack down early enough against promotion of "Syndicalist Scare" (another example of a cross-party phenomenon).

[31] While Guzman put little effort into the Jungle Primaries for the Populist/Progressives and Independence Parties, he still managed to easily win re-election on the back of a scandal free first term and the catchy mariachi jingle “Guzman Goodman”. Whereas his first term had been focused mainly on domestic policy - at least in public, the secret ‘Kermit Doctrine’ named after his VP instigated a program of replacing or ‘influencing’ foreign powers to America’s way of thinking. This would change in his second term, which would come to dominated by international affairs - domestically programs continued as before, with continued farm-aid, further expansion of the highway system and checks and balances placed on the social welfare programs (but no roll back despite calls from more Conservative Whigs, the programs were far too popular for that). Shortly before his re-election, there was a Syndicalist Coup in the Kingdom of Hawaii and soon, much like in Japan, there was a powerless Monarch overseeing a workers run nation. It soon became clear that Hawaii was preparing itself as a forward air base for Japanese long-range bombers and other military hardware. While many in Guzman’s administration urged a military response, Guzman decided to negotiate and after some tension filled weeks, Hawaii announced they would dismantle their Armed Forces “in a show of international brotherhood.” In return, America removed a number of its remaining assets from Syria and other strategic locations. Interestingly, this crisis burnt out the "Syndicalist Scare" as most politicians came to understand where the true threat was coming from. Guzman maintained moderately high opinion poll ratings (which were becoming increasingly important) but he declined further renomination. A major war avoided, his eight years had been largely filled with peace and prosperity, but who would come to claim the benefits?

[32] Guzman's Administration was still very popular by 1964, and the whigs easily saw higher polling numbers than any of the other Parties. The whigs, hoping to cash out on this sentiment elected Vice President Roosevelt as their candidate. The Progressives and Populist Parties, fearing Roosevelt would win their Primary, merged forming the People's Party. The new party only allowed Party members to run, ending the worry that Kermit might steal their party away from them. The Independence primary, however, was extremely chaotic. With Roosevelt trying to take the party over like Guzman in 1956, Party bigshots were trying to unite the party. Jospeh Roosevelt Jr. was seen as a competent candidate, but he refused, endorsing Claude Pepper instead. William R. Hearst blocked Pepper, instead of asking Senator Morse. Morse beat out Kermit Roosevelt Jr. and Claude Pepper, choosing Pepper for his running mate to unite the party. With Everett Dirksen winning the People's Primary, the 1964 election seemed to be a Whig blowout. This was not the case when an 18-year-old Syndicalist Bill Clinton shot at Kermit Roosevelt 4 times during a rally in Tijuana. He hit Kermit 3 times in the chest, and one shot him in the neck. Kermit didn't die instantly, but to blood loss in the ambulance. The Whig party was shocked by the death of their Candidate and scrambled for a replacement as Kermit never selected a Running mate. President Guzman backed Arizona Governor Fidel Sanchez. Fidel was appointed as the Whig Candidate, with Ohio Senator Micheal DiSalle as his running mate. Sanchez easily won the election, as the popularity of Whigs after the assassination of Vice President Roosevelt skyrocketed. Fidel was sworn in on January 20, 1965 becoming the second Mexican President of the United States. Sanchez was completely uninterested in International Affairs, leaving it to Secretary of State Henry Cabot Lodge and Secretary of Defense Joseph Kennedy Jr. What Sanchez was interested was domestic Policy. He met with Economists and Whig Policy writers to draft what he would call 'The New America Plan'. This plan would revitalize the country, creating more highways, rebuilding aging cities, fixing the countries dilapidated Water Pipe system, and Nationalize the Utility Industry. Only time will tell if this plan will be finished to completion, or thrown in the waste basket of History.


Can we do two timelines at a time?
Nothing bad happens to the Grants
Ulysses S. Grant is Assassinated in 1870
1868: Ulysses S. Grant / Schulyer Colfax (Republican)

1868 def. Horatio Seymour / Francis P. Blair Jr. (Democrat)
1870: Schulyer Colfax (Republican)
1872: Horace Greeley / Charles A. Adams Sr. (Liberal Republican)

1872 def. James Blaine / Benjamin Bristow (Republican James Bayard / Thomas Hendricks (Democrat)

1872: Charles Adams Sr. (Liberal Republican) [1]
[1]
The assassination of President Grant shocked the nation. With Lincoln being killed just 5 years prior, the nation was shocked to the core. The nation was even more astounded when President Colfax and members of both the Republicans and Democrats was revealed to be taking Bribes from railroad companies and Banks. Colfax's popularity plummeted, leading him to pull out of the 1872 primary. Many Republicans were furious with the way the party was turning' they decided to leave the party and form the Liberal Republicans. Horace Greeley was chosen as their Candidate, and led a fierce campaign, calling for the end of the widespread corruption in the government and the implementation of more Labor friendly policies. Greeley was able to defeat both the major parties, as the country was angry with the status quo. Sadly, Greeley died only 4 days after winning the election, causing his running mate Charles Adams to be sworn in as President instead.
 
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TIMES CHANGE, AND WE CHANGE WITH THEM
Presidents of the United States of America

What if the Whig Party remained a major party in the United States?

1840: William Henry Harrison / John Tyler (Whig)
1840: def. Martin van Buren (Democratic) [1]
1844: Henry Clay / John Davies (Whig)

1844: def. Martin van Buren / Richard Mentor Johnson (Democratic) [2]
1848: James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic)

1848: def. Millard Fillmore / Daniel Webster (Whig) [3]
1852: George Crawford / George Nixon Briggs (Whig)

1852: def. James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic) [4]
1856: def. Stephan A. Douglas / Linn Boyd (Democratic), Jefferson Davis / John C. Breckinridge (American) [5]
1860: Stephan A. Douglas
/ Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic)
1860: def. William H. Seward / Abraham Lincoln (Whig), John C. Breckinridge / Joseph Lane (American), John C. Fremont / Cassius Clay (Republican)
1861: Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic) [6]
1864: John C. Breckinridge (American) / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic) ɶ

1864: def. Abraham Lincoln / Cassius Clay (Whig), Benjamin Fitzpatrick / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Alexander H. Stephens (American)
1866: John C. Breckinridge (American) [7]
1868: Henry Winter Davis (Whig) / August Belmont (Democratic) ɶ

1868: def. Henry Winter Davis / Lyman Trumbull (Whig), Benjamin Harvey Hill / August Belmont (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Jefferson Davis (American) [8]
1872: Lyman Trumbull / August Belmont (National Union)

1872: def. James A Bayard Jr. / Benjamin Gratz Brown (Democratic) [9]
1876: Benjamin Butler / Ambrose Burnside ('Radical' Whig)

1876: def. Lyman Trumbull / Charles Francis Adams Sr. (Liberal Whig), Benjamin Gratz Brown / John Quincy Adams II (True Democrats) [10]
1880: James G. Blaine / John Sherman (Whig)

1880: def. Winfield S. Hancock / Hendrick Bradley Wright (Democratic), James B. Weaver / Barzillai J. Chambers (Greenback) [11]
1884
: Thomas A. Hendrick / William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig)
1884: def. John Sherman / James B. Weaver (Whig)
1885: William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig) [12]
1888: William McKinley / Benjamin Harrison (Whig)

1888 def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [13]
1892: Benjamin Harrison / George Frisbie Hoar (Whig)

1892: def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [14]
1896: William Jennings Bryan / Henry Teller (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1896: def. Matthew Quay / Levi P. Morton (Whig), Grover Cleveland / Edward Bragg (National Democratic) [15]
1900: William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1900: def. Samuel Clemens / Theodore Roosevelt (Whig) [16]
1904: Theodore Roosevelt / Theodore E. Burton (Whig)

1904: def. William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [17]
1908: def. Eugene V. Debs / Thomas Watson (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [18]
1912: Theodore E. Burton / Booker T. Washington (Whig)

1912: def. Champ Clarke / John A. Johnson (Liberal Democratic-Whig), Thomas Watson / Jacob S. Coxley (People's)
1915: Theodore E. Burton (Whig) [19]
1916: Charles W. Bryan / Hiram Johnson (Progressive)

1916: def. Theodore Burton / Charles Fairbanks (Whig) [20]
1920: def. Charles J. Bonaparte / John R. Lynch (Whig) [21]
1924: Hiram Johnson / William R. Hearst (Progressive)

1924: def. Robert M. La Follette / Charles Young (Whig), Frank Lowden / John W. Davies (National)
1926: William R. Hearst (Progressive) [22]
1928: William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence)

1928 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / Gilbert Hitchcock (Whig), Clement C. Young / George E. Chamberlain (Progressive) [23]
1932: Charles Curtis / John J. Blaine (Whig)

1932 def. William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence), Jacob S. Coxley / Norman Thomas (Progressive) [24]
1936: John J. Blaine / Charles L. McNary (Whig)

1936 def. Huey Long / Alf Landon (Independence), Al Smith / William Borah (Progressive)
1937: Charles L. McNary (Whig) [25]
1940: Quentin Roosevelt / Henry Wallace (Progressive)

1940 def. Charles Lindbergh/Robert A Taft (Independence), Charles L. McNary/Charles Nance Garner (Whig) [26]
1944:
Henry Wallace / Burton Wheeler (Independence)
1944 def. Robert LaFollette Jr. / Thomas Dewey (Whig) Quentin Roosevelt / Cordell Hull (Populist), Alben Barkley / Earl Warren (Progressive) [27]
1948 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / W.E.B. Du Bois (Whig), Quentin Roosevelt / Earl Warren (Populist / Progressive) [28]
1952: Quentin Roosevelt/Harold Stassen (Populist/Progressive)
1952 def. Henry Wallace/Burton Wheeler (Independence), Douglas MacArthur/Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (Whig), Strom Thurmond/John Sparkman (American) [29]
1956: Michael Guzman / Kermit Roosevelt Jr. (Whig)
1956 def. Dwight Eisenhower / Harold Stassen (Populist / Progressive), Michael Guzman / William R. Hearst Jr. (Independence) [30]
1960 def. William R. Hearst Jr. / Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. (Independence), Harold Stassen / Richard Nixon (Populist / Progressive) [31]

1964: Fidel Velazquez Sanchez / Micheal DiSalle (Whig)
1964 def. Wayne Morse / Claude Pepper (Independence), Everett Dirksen / Daniel Brewster (People's) [32]
1968: Fidel Velazquez Sanchez (Whig) / Claude Pepper (Independence) ɶ

1968 def. Fidel Velazquez Sanchez / Micheal DiSalle (Whig), Wayne Morse / Claude Pepper (Independence), Everett Dirksen / Daniel Brewster (People's) [33]

= died in office
ɶ = contingent election

[1] William Henry Harrison, the first Whig to hold the White House, was one of the most influential presidents of the Nineteenth Century. Although much of the Whig program was controversial, such as the creation of the Third Bank of the United States, Harrison was an effective administrator capable of holding his party in line. (This was despite disputes with John Tyler, the Vice President, who advocated economic policies synchronous with Democratic positions). Federal patronage strengthened Whig organizations, and the government embarked on an ambitious series of infrastructural projects (such as vital work along the Mississippi). The Whigs also resisted strong calls for war against Mexico, despite a strong lobby within the Democratic Party to push westwards into Texas - although this issue would continue to bubble on throughout the early-1840s. Despite his successes in government, Harrison declined a second term, and the Whig Party went into the 1844 election in a strong position.

[2] Tyler had had a difficult relationship with many Whigs, but it was still with some surprise that he lost on the fourth ballot to Clay. (Sitting Massachusetts Governor John Davies clinched the VP spot). In comparison, the Democratic Convention was straightforward with the former partnership of Van Buren and Johnson being reinstated on the first ballot (disappointed, their opponents would manage to enforce a two-thirds majority for subsequent conventions). Despite Tyler forming his own 'manifest-destiny' party, the election was fought on domestic issues and the Whigs won a further term. Clay’s early focus was on further growth of the American System; high tariffs, stable finances, federal investment in internal improvements and a prudent expansion of the frontier. He continued prior efforts in soothing sectional divisions while recognizing the independence of both Haiti and Liberia. While ‘border’ issues continued to be a problem, the party was satisfied with his achievements and he had to make a decision to seek another term or follow in his predecessor’s footsteps and decline re-election.

[3] Henry Clay had been successful his four years in office, and many expected him to seek a second term. However he instead decided to follow Harrison and decline to seek re-election. The 1848 Whig National Convention nominated New York Representative Millard Fillmore with Daniel Webster as his running mate. On the other hand, the 1848 DNC nominated Senator James Buchanan after former President Martin Van Buren failed to win the nomination. Mississippi Congressman Jefferson Davis was nominated by the party to serve as running mate. The election was mainly focused on economic issues as well as the issue of Texas, with Buchanan receiving a boost as former President Andrew Jackson spoke in favour of Texan annexation. Fillmore failed to continue the Harrison/Clay coalition, making several blunders on the topic of slavery, and with his support of a proposed omnibus bill that alienated both northern and southern Whigs. Buchanan managed to finally return the Democrats to the White House after eight years after a narrow popular vote and electoral victory. Buchanan led the United States into the Mexican-American War (1849-1851) in which he was victorious, winning a major concession from the southern nation. Buchanan however alienated many northern Democrats with his staunch push for slavery in Texas post-war. When it had seemed to be a crippling blow to the Whig Party in '48 actually turned to simply be a re-alignment, as the Whigs started to move to being the party of the North.

[4] By the 1850s the Whigs and the Democrats were moving quickly to become the parties of the North and South respectively, and both suffered from factionalism based around states' rights, slavery, further expansion and economic affairs. Although Buchanan had been triumphant in the war against Mexico the resulting turmoil over the expansion of slavery was a political conflagration. Forced to keep Davis as his running mate in 1852 to maintain the loyalty of the South, Buchanan was outflanked by George Crawford - himself an unusual Whig success story in the state of Georgia. However, the election was divided almost cleanly along the Mason-Dixon line. Briggs, serving as Vice President, was a conservative Whig opposed to many Southern practices; the Crawford administration nevertheless sought to sidestep the wider issue of slavery and concentrate upon economic growth. It was not generally successful, and the country continued to struggle over the best course of action.

[5] George Crawford and George Nixon Briggs were the first President/Vice President partnership to be re-elected since 1820, although it was a close run race. Their success was down to two major factors. Firstly, the Compromise of 1855; the one major package of legislation that had focused on the slavery issue and secondly keeping the balance between Free states and Slave states equal with the joint entry of Minnesota and Texas into the Union. They also more controversially saw the 13th Amendment passed which defined citizenship, allowing for non-American born citizens to become citizens (and even be eligible for President) but which also explicitly stated that slaves (born in America or otherwise) were not citizens until they had lawfully gained freedom. While Briggs had been an active supporter of the compromises, Crawford had been less than enthusiastic. The third and main reason for their victory was that while the Whigs kept mostly united, the Democrats suffered vote-splitting from the more vocally pro-expansionist (and pro-slavery) American Party (founded by Tyler a dozen years earlier, largely insignificant until now, sometimes nicknamed the “Know-Alls” for a perceived ability to argue simple solutions to the most complicated of issues). The election had shown the need for unity, but with Crawford continuing to focus on the Whigs economic platform, the question was - for how much longer could they keep compromising?

[6] The 1860 election was hotly contested. Stephan A. Douglas managed to receive the Democratic nomination for the second time as die-hard Buchananists continued to flock to the America party. The Whigs however also suffered a splinter in the party, with the radical abolitionists forming a ticket under the name of the "Republican" or "Grand Old Party" after the Whigs refused to take a solid stance on slavery other than constant compromise. Douglas managed to barely secure an electoral college majority thanks to the split in the Northern vote while Breckinridge swept the south. Douglas' four years in office where cut short when he passed in 1861. Under Fitzpatrick the Union was extremely volatile as abolitionist and pro-slavery militias clashed in the state of Kansas. Douglas on the campaign trail had supported the idea of popular sovereignty, or allowing every individual new state to decide if it would enter the Union as free or slave, with Fitzpatrick un-enthusiastically allowing Kansas to enter as a free state in 1862. Realizing they stood no chance if the Republican party kept splitting the northern vote, the Whigs finally condemned the expansion of slavery into any new state and absorbed the GOP into their ranks in 1863. Things looked dire for Fitzpatrick going into his re-election, as it seemed both the North and South alike were ready to be rid of him. The United States moved into a dark time headed into 1864 with the American Party and many southern states threatening secession should a Whig enter the White House with their new platform...

[7] The 1864 election made the previous one look like a simple warm-up. The first sign was that Fitzpatrick barely got the nomination. He campaigned reluctantly on the grounds that the Democrats were the only party that preserved the Union. However, the division was marked as the election results showed a tri-color map with Whigs in the North, American Party in the South and Democrats a band in the center (plus New York). Even though the Lincoln / Clay ticket won both the popular and the highest vote in the Electoral College, it was not enough to secure a majority, so the country went to a contingent election for the first time since 1824. The outrage spread as the Senate elected Daniel S. Dickinson, while several Democrats defected in the House to vote for John C. Breckinridge. The Whigs claimed a secret 'Fusion Agreement' between the two parties, negotiated by Jefferson Davis, but nothing could be done to change the outcome. While some argued that the Whigs had lost because of their abolitionist platform, most hardened in their support - especially after 1866, when Breckinridge had effectively stopped trying to govern for the entire country.

[8] The 1864 contingent election had been deeply damaging to the country and dramatically intensified the animosity between North and South. However, when the 1868 election also failed to secure a majority for the Whig Party it was clear the tensions would boil over. The radical Whig, Henry Winter Davis, won the North (beginning the long stretch of the 'Solid North') - although with a noticeably smaller margin in the popular vote - but in the following squall Democrats who opposed the long-threatened secession of the South refused to endorse another Breckenridge administration. When Belmont was elected as Vice President the state of Mississippi moved to secede from the United States, supported by the vast majority of the American Party and a smaller number of Democrats. In reality, however, the cause of the South was already lost. Many regard their attempt at secession as several decades too late, as by the 1860s the North was vastly superior in almost every way. The Constitutional Union of American States (CUAS) struggled to get off the ground - it never secured diplomatic recognition from Europe, was riddled with political factionalism and never secured any major military victories due to the ineptitude of the armed forces. However, for four years the 'Southern Insurrection' inflicted grave moral and human tragedies upon the United States - largely due to the sheer bloody-mindedness of the leadership and the guerrilla warfare campaigns raging across Dixie. By the time of the 1870 election Davis was able to point towards victory, but it was clear that the country would be greatly scarred by the peace.

[9] With the collapse of the nascent CUAS, Henry Winter Davis’ popularity was at an all time-high. However, he shocked nearly everyone when he announced that he would follow in the Whig tradition of Harrison and Clay and not stand for reelection. He did enthusiastically support the creation of the National Union Party to reconstruct the country, recommending Benjamin Wade to replace him, but after Wade refused the nomination on account of his advanced years, the nomination went smoothly to Davis' former Whig Vice-Presidential running mate Lyman Trumbull. The Trumbull/Belmont ticket easily swept the country with a number of Southern States boycotting the election and weak opposition from 'Dove Democrats'. The death of Davis the following year at just 55 years led to a rise in “historical counter-factuals” asking “What would have happened if Davis did run again?” due to the possible crisis that could have arisen as some argued that despite the 13th Amendment, Belmont was still constitutionally ineligible to succeed him. (The most popular counter-factual was of course; "What if the South had attempted succession earlier"?) Trumbull pursued a far less radical agenda than Davis, instead focusing on traditional Whig policies like economic programs and creation of the Yellowstone National Park. This led to an unsuccessful impeachment attempt from the Radical Whig faction, in spite of which he still passed the 14th (which outlawed slavery - except as punishment for a crime) and 15th (which partially revoked the 13th Amendment redefining citizenship) Amendments.

[10] Trumbull tried to hold the National Union government together, but the Whig radicals made it clear that they would not support what they saw as "Democrats in Whig clothes." While it seemed like an apparent split in the party, it was actually the Democrats who were most disadvantaged, as since they had recently lost credibility, most of their supporters and representatives flocked to Trumbull's Liberal Whig party, leaving only a shell in the True Democrats to participate in the elections. This created an interesting situation in which father and son ran for vice president by opposing parties. However, at the end of the day, the Radical Whigs claimed victory, garnering a great deal of support from the newly liberated black population. While a former South sympathizer, Butler, a lawyer, businessman and former Governor, said his greatest regret was not being able to fight against the Insurrection (his critics argued that Burnside was chosen as a running mate solely because of the uniform, although Burnside had gained his own fame in some easy victories over the weak CUAS forces). While much of his program was blocked by a hostile opposition, Butler implemented not only greater emancipation and suffrage in the Civil Rights Act of 1877 and the 16th Amendment, but also promoted measures such as the nine-hour shift and antitrust laws while continuing "traditional Whig" programs, such as improving public health infrastructure. Shortly before the next election, Butler announced that the Radical Whigs would formalize the Whig tradition within the party of presidents running for single terms only (his critics said alleged financial irregularity had more to do with it, though this had little impact on his popularity).

[11] To little surprise the radical faction of Whigs managed to win easy re-election in 1880. They nominated Maine Senator and former House Speaker James Blaine as well as John Sherman as his running mate, the younger brother of General William Tecumseh Sherman. Most so-called "Liberal Whigs" fled back to either the Democrats or Radical Whigs, who were now simply just Whigs. The Democrats nominated who were soundly defeated again outside of the South. There was also the Left-Wing Geenback candidate of James Weaver, a former General and Iowa congressman, but he failed to win any state other than Iowa. President Blaine was a classic Whig, expanding further black suffrage and increasing tariffs. He kept Federal Troops in the South, which were used to ensure the newly passed Suffrage laws stayed enforced and to dissuade any further attempts at secession. However, Blaine began to lose his image in the eyes of the public as his ties to the infamous railroad industry started to come out in the second half of his term. The party was eager to get away from Blaine as they moved to the 84' election as the Democrats started to make gains among voters again.

[12] The 1884 vote was one of the most contentious and controversial non-contingent Presidential elections in American history. Sherman was quietly confident of victory despite his association with the scandal-prone Blaine, especially after former President Butler neutralized the Greenback Party through negotiating an informal alliance. However, while the Sherman/Weaver ticket won the popular vote, the Electoral College vote was almost tied with a number of states declaring “unresolved” results. This gave rise to the Compromise of 1885, by which the liberal Whig faction merged with the Democratic Party in return for a state-by-state approach to Reconstruction and a withdrawal of Federal Troops only once certain conditions had been met. After a controversial post-election process via an Electoral Commission, Hendrick was declared the winner, with the closest ever margin in the Electoral College of only one vote. Hendrick would die eight months into his term, with his successor's time in the Presidency, much like the rest of his political career, being seen as pragmatic. Indeed, many speculated that English had only been added to the ticket as a means to access his vast fortune. Despite only gradual loosening of Reconstruction systems, English declared the disputes of the Civil War settled, and promised to focus on "sound currency, of honest money", restrictions on Chinese immigration, and a "rigid economy in public expenditure". While some in the Liberal-Democratic Whigs wished English would go further, he was generally popular, and not afraid to contribute his personal wealth to causes he supported.

[13] While English was a popular president, he announced he would not stand for a second term, So, the LDWs nominated Grover Cleveland to run as their candidate in 1888, however, Cleveland was an unpopular man who just barely retained his House seat two years earlier. Meanwhile the recently formed Conservative National faction of the Whigs secured Representative William McKinley as their candidate. The campaign was tiresome, Cleveland didn't campaign personally and often sent advisors to do it for him, when Election Day came, McKinley won in a landslide.

[14] Harrison easily won the Whigs nomination and the subsequent election, which was almost a rematch from four years earlier. Harrison began by continuing McKinley's work, continuing protective trade rates and securing the Antitrust Act of 1893, which regulated competition, and the Federal Elections Act of 1894, which increased the security of elections for State Representatives, further protecting the rights of blacks voters. In return, federal troops were finally withdrawn from the southern states. In addition, the number of black political appointments increased, which some argued that McKinley had neglected and took additional measures to promote Native American rights, although many of these measures are now considered misguided. He broke with the historic Whig opposition to "opportunistic expansion", negotiating the entry of the California Republic into the United States, which had been long delayed, arguing that now that the problem of slavery was solved, the United States could expand again . Following tradition, he announced that he would not run for re-election but refused to endorse a successor, which many saw as a reprimand to his more radical vice president.

[15] The 1896 election was a major upset of the natural order that had dominated American politics in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War. The Democrats refused to nominate Cleveland a third time in a row, instead nominating the young and energetic William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, a diehard supporter of bimetallism and evangelical. In another surprising move, pro-silver Whig Henry Teller of Colorado was nominated as Bryan's running mate after staging a walkout from the WNC after they declared a plank in favor of the gold standard. Bryan was also nominated by the left-wing People's party as their candidate for President, albeit with a different running mate. The Whigs also repudiated the current order, defeating Vice President Hoar on the first ballot and instead nominating Pennsylvania Senator Matthew Quay. Cleveland was nominated by pro-Gold Democrats on the short lived National Democratic ticket, but failed to accomplish much as he did basically zero campaigning. Most of the country expected a Quay victory, but following eight years of Whig rule and the Panic of 1893 Bryan prevailed on election day. Supporters of the "Great Commoner" rioted frenziedly out of joy in the streets as he declared victory. At 36 years old he was by far the youngest individual to win office by that point. As President Bryan slashed the Whig tariffs, implemented new labor laws, passed an amendment bringing in direct election of senators, created a Federal Income Tax, brought Oklahoma into the Union as a state and resisted calls for war with Spain. However he began to grows increasingly frustrated as Congress continued to resist his attempts to move the US away from the gold standard. Bryan shocked the nation as he announced he would be one of the first Presidents in decades to seek re-election, but Vice President Teller decided to stick to his Whig roots and refuse to be re-nominated.
[16] The Bryan/Debs Liberal-Democratic Whig/People’s fusion ticket (usually just called the People’s Whigs for convenience) narrowly but clearly won the 1900 election, with a number of close races in both the industrial north and across the south. The Clemens/Roosevelt opposition (nicknamed the “Cowboy who dresses as a Southern Gentleman and the Northern Gentleman who dresses as a Cowboy”) also ran on a progressive platform, with mainly the Gold Standard and “American Expansionism” separating the two campaigns. Roosevelt in particular came to believe it was only the name recognition of Bryan that put him over the top and that the Whigs should reconsider their once Radical policy of single term presidents - “Times change and we need to change with them”. Despite their narrow loss, the Whigs were still in good shape, indeed even helped in places through direct election of senators (including John R. Lynch and Booker T. Washington) and used their numbers to filibuster, amend or otherwise delay any aspect of Bryan’s legislative program they disagreed with (although graduated income-tax, further civil service reform and an eight-hour day were all signed into law). Things came to a head when Bryan publicly mused that due to the actions of the “Radical Whigs” he might have to run again to ensure his People’s Whig legacy was secure. The question was - would he actually do it?

[17] By the beginning of the Twentieth Century the United States was beginning to sit heavily in the two-sided political system. The LDW-People's alliance had proven themselves fit for office and as the clear party of the growing 'left,' while the traditional Whigs were increasingly viewed as the 'default' party of government. With this in mind, Bryan's decision to run again in 1904 was a game-changer. With much of the population frustrated (in one way or another) with the frustrated ambitions of the 1900 administration, Roosevelt - now at the head of his party's ticket - secured a significant victory over the LDW/P in 1904. (Although Booker Washington had launched a strong challenge for the Vice Presidency he had ultimately been defeated by those seeking a less controversial compromise candidate, leading to the nomination of Theodore Burton - inconsequentially, they became the only partnership to share first names since 1852). Roosevelt sought to establish a strongly-interventionist foreign policy, expending upon the Monroe Doctrine to increase American influence directly; the Pineapple War (1905) annexed Hawaii directly to the United States, work began on the Nicaraguan Canal in 1906, and following the collapse of order in the Third Mexican Empire a series of brush wars essentially brought Baja California and Tamaulipas (including the important port of Tampico) under direct American control.

[18] Teddy and Ted broke Whig tradition and ran (and won!) reëlection. Their second term was as productive as their first with continued expansion on traditional Whig policies; vastly increasing the amount of land conservation, military and civil service reform and public infrastructure, though now largely focussed on the Western states. While generally avoiding involvement in labour relations, Roosevelt did make some pro-organized labour policies in order to counter the moves of the LDW/P. Some of the more radical Whigs criticized Roosevelt for not pursuing further civil rights reforms. However, he did make history after Howard Taft was elevated to the Supreme Court (the second former Cabinet member after William Moody to receive such a 'promotion'). In the subsequent reshuffle, he made John Lynch the first black (and former slave) Cabinet member as Secretary of Commerce and Labour (the irony of the position was not lost on many). Internationally, Roosevelt mediated the Russian-Sino-Japanese War (1907 – 1909) for which he won a Nobel Prize and sought rapprochement with the United Kingdom. Despite loud protests from the left (and some quieter grumblings from more traditional Whigs) New Mexico joined the Union as a state while Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas were all officially recognized as United States Territory. At the end of his second term, Roosevelt remained popular and many saw his progressive policies as a strong counter-balance to the growing left; however, he had already broken Whig tradition by running for a second term, could he dare try to run for a third?

[19] In the end two things stopped Roosevelt from running for an unprecedented (Whig) third term; the slight 1910’s economic downturn and the weight of Whig traditionalists. Burton easily won the resulting nomination, though the battle for VP was again competitive; this time Booker Washington just clinching the spot (no evidence has been found to support claims that this was part of Roosevelt’s ‘declining renomination deal’) becoming the first African-American candidate on a major party presidential ticket. It cemented Washington’s legacy despite claims that he was merely a "mantelpiece Vice-President" (in reality Washington was struck down by illness for most of his term and Vice-Presidents had mainly been for show anyway). The Whig ticket won a landslide in the electoral college as the Liberal Democratic-Whigs denied Debs a second run, resulting in a temporary split in the LDW/P fusion (the failure of the separate tickets ultimately persuaded the two parties to create a more formal alliance). Burton’s first two years were seen as an extension of his predecessor, with further business reform and the completion of the Nicaragua Canal. However, when War broke out in Europe, Burton focused on mediation. Roosevelt urged Burton to support the Allies, but Burton demurred, preparing himself for the possibility of running for reelection on a ‘Peace Platform’. Many of the more interventionist Whigs urged Roosevelt to think about running again (or even forming his own ‘Progressive Whig’ movement). Roosevelt declined to make any decision for the moment; with the left more united than ever and war raging overseas, the only sure thing was that the upcoming election was going to be turbulent.

[20] In 1915 the Liberal-Democratic Whigs and the People's party finally merged into the official Progressive Party, and were moving into the new election in a strong position. Despite planning on pushing for the nomination, Eugene Debs instead decided to throw his support behind the eventual ticket of the brother of former President Bryan, Charles Wayland Bryan and California governor Hiram Johnson, a recent convert from the Whig Party. Despite Burton's moderate peace platform, the absolute isolationism of the new Progressive Party allowed them to narrowly deny the President a second term. A large part of the Progressive victory was the new Mexican states, which overwhelmingly voted in their favor. President Bryan (jokingly called Bryan the Second) forbade American ships from travelling to any nation involved in the European War. The Central Powers (Germany, Austria and Russia) fought desperately to defeat the French-British-Ottoman-Japanese entente, but with a Marxist Revolution in Germany crippling their war effort brought the conflict firmly to an end in a Allied victory in 1919. The Great War (1914-1919) was the deadliest conflict mankind had seen up to that moment. On the domestic front Bryan made progress on several progressive platforms such as a railroad commission and giving all states the ability to recall state officials. However the biggest upset was the appointment of Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court, the first ever Jewish Justice and a diehard supporter of progressive causes. The Progressive Party was confident about 1920 after keeping America out of the war the last four years.

[21] With more numbers in the House and Senate, Bryan's second term (Bryan-brother's fourth overall term) quickly gained momentum, though some felt it went too far, too fast. It changed the face of government with an increase in women's suffrage, the registration of lobbyists, and the recording and publication of congressional proceedings. It changed the balance of workers 'rights with a minimum wage for women, stricter laws to enforce the eight-hour workday, a federal securities commission, more farm aid, and compensation for work-related injuries. It changed the relationship that most citizens had with the government, with a national health service to include all existing government medical agencies, social security to care for the elderly, the unemployed and the disabled, and a stronger inheritance tax. They also made further progress in supporting states to implement "direct democracy", including the widespread introduction of referendums and initiatives, in addition to judicial revocation (when a court declared a law unconstitutional, citizens could override that decision by a popular vote, often used to limit the ability of judges to order injunctions against strike action.) Many on the right accused Progressives of trying to turn the United States into 'Marxist Middle Europe' but with the platform proving to be popular with the electorate (even with the tacit support of former President Roosevelt) the Whig Party needed to change with the times once again, lest it be seen solely as the party of "blacks and big business."

[22] C.W. Bryan had learned a lesson from his older brother and declined to run for a third term (although the continuation of his programs were heavily emphasized by the Johnson campaign). The Whigs had learned from the past too and after a heated internal battle eventually nominated Robert M. La Follette from the left (and rural section) of the party. The Progressive chose high-profile (and wealthy supporter) William Hearst for Vice-President, while John Lynch declined renomination for the Whig Vice-Presidential spot, citing his advancing years (but used his influence to swing the nomination to almost equally famous Major-General Charles Young, a hero of the Pineapple and Mexico Bush Wars). The overall left-leaning composition of both campaigns led to some newspapers calling the election a “Progressive Whig Primary,” which caused a resurrection of the old National Democratic branding for a third party run. There was early speculation that it might force another Contingent Election, but in the end while outperforming Cleveland nearly thirty years earlier, the Nationals had a little overall impact. The race between the two main parties was still close, with the Progressive Party just winning the popular and electoral college vote. The Whigs began a major internal party review, this was the first time they had lost three elections in a row. However, this was only the precursor to major upheavals, as just over a year into his term, Johnson was struck down by a Mexican Nationalist, becoming the first President to be assassinated. Hearst began a much more imperialistic foreign policy than his Progressive predecessors and used the excuse of Johnson’s death to pursue further military action against Mexico. While many in the Progressive movement saw this as a betrayal of their core beliefs, it proved popular with the general public (helped in no part by the support of Hearst's media empire). As soul searching continued in both parties, the race to 1928 looked bumpy all around.

[23] The Election of 1928 was a muddy affair. Hearst was an extremely popular president, but the anger in his party towards him was astronomical. The Isolationist Progressive party began to despise President Hearst after intervening in the Nicaraguan Civil war. The war was extremely popular at first, but after the military became severely bogged down in the jungles of Nicaragua and the death of War Hero Smedley Butler, the morale of the country took a nosedive. The Progressives, seeing a chink in Hearst's armor decided to challenge him in the primary with Newcomer Governor C.C. Young. Young lost in almost every primary race except for California but won in the Convention. Hearst was Furious calling the primary, "A whole lot of Bullshit". He decided to leave the party and create his own. Not many Progressives left the party, but whigs flocked to the party after their own was completely collapsing. To rub salt into the wounds of the Progressive Party, he elected Independent Senator J. Edgar Hoover, who was a devout Interventionist. The Whigs were seemingly tearing themselves apart, but one man was able to hold the party together. Archibald Roosevelt wasn't a well-known figure, but his prowess in the US Volunteer Corps and the Nicaraguan civil war shot him into the limelight. The Whig primary was a blood bath, with almost 14 candidates battling for the presidency, but After Archie threw his hat in the field it became a two-man race between Archie and Frank Lowden. Lowden was despised by the party elites but was extremely popular with the voters. But nothing could stop Archie from becoming the head of the ticket. After defeating Lowden, he decided to choose Gilbert Hancock as his running mate. The 1928 election was going to be a close battle. With two extremely popular candidates and another one in the mix, nobody really knew who was going to win. But after weeks of campaigning, Hearst was able to win the presidency by the skin of his teeth without a contingent election. Archie was sad about his loss, but promised to stay in politics.

[24] While 1928 had been a shock, the 1932 election was the first genuine “three horse race” in over fifty years. Hearst had continued to run a controversial yet populist Presidency and the Hearst/Hoover ticket surprised no-one when it ran for reëlection. However, both the prolonged military presence in Nicaragua and the recession of the early 1930’s put enough of a dint into the “Independence” popularity to allow a genuine Progressive challenge, arguing it was their economic policies that had prevented the recession from being anything worse. However, it was the Whig Party, out of office for the longest period since their founding which reaped the benefit, with the resulting vote splitting, narrowly avoiding another contingent election and propelling Charles Curtis to the White House (becoming the oldest elected President and the first Native American). Curtis came into office as the definition of a compromise candidate, the representative of the “anyone but Archie” movement. Curtis was accused of being a “do-nothing President” but he kept up a busy social calendar, much as he had done for most of his political career, balancing the wishes of both wings of the party and generally keeping all factions feeling like they had some influence. He did make strong efforts into integrating the Hispanic population of the newest American states into the fold of American democracy as former Whig regimes had done with African-Americans. Fiscally, he was a moderate, focussed on a balanced budget and work creation schemes, believing full employment the best way to ensure that all America’s citizens were truly equal. However, the workload would have tired even a younger man, and so Curtis became the first President since Benjamin Harrison to decline renomination after a single term. With Vice-President Blaine seen as almost a non-entity (although he had not ruled out a run), the field was wide open for 1936. While the “good times” continued, Hearst had put enough of his personal fortune into building Independence as a true party while the Progressives were still a force to be reckoned with.

[25] Riding high off the "good times" Vice-President Blaine would win the 1936 election but sadly his term would come to an early end when Blaine would die on April 13, 1937, leading to Charles L. McNary becoming the new President of the United States. McNary's term is most famous for his crackdown on organized crime with many mob bosses being either arrested or killed, the most famous being Al Capone in what would become known as the Halloween Massacre. On October 30, 1938 police alongside the National Guard would bust Capone's gang which would lead to a gunfight. Most of Capone's men would die with Capone being crippled and would later die in prison three years later.

[26] An unlikely candidate emerged in the 1940 Progressive Convention in Chicago in the son of former (Whig) President Theodore Roosevelt, Quentin Roosevelt. The younger Roosevelt had been a Brigadier General in the USAF before becoming a Progressive in the mid-30s and stepping onto the ticket alongside Iowan Henry Wallace. War was raging in Europe between the Continental Entente of Italy, France, and the United Kingdom against the new alliance of the ultranationalist All-Russian Union under "Vozhd" Peter Wrangel and the German State under National Socialist dictator Gregor Strasser. Russia was desperate to repudiate the embarrassment of the Great War, invading Poland in January 1940 leading to the Entente's declaration of war. The Ottoman Empire also fought alongside their former enemies, determined to retake their claims in the Balkans. Roosevelt had run on a campaign on pro-Entente leanings compared to the isolationist Charles Lindbergh who was initially favored to win with the statement of "Lindbergh, or war". However things took a turn with the fall of Rome in late October shifted the American public to a pro-war stance and mobilized voters to the polls in favor of Quentin, allowing him to defeat both Lindbergh and incumbent McNary. Roosevelt immediately got to work getting war materials sent to Britain and France, with France barely holding off the Russo-German invasion. Roosevelt didn't declare war until September 11th, 1941 when Russian bombers obliterated several US ships off the coast off Japan who was a neutral power. America mobilized as Russian troops landed in Alaska, sweeping through both US National Guard and Canadian forces. The North American theater became of the bloodiest in history, with Allied troops finally retaking Anchorage in late 1943. With the Russians forced from US soil, America looked to Europe, where a bloody stalemate persisted in both northern and southern France as German and Russian troops desperately trying to push through.

[27] Quentin Roosevelt's Administration created much disdain in the Progressive Party. Like Lindbergh, Roosevelt belonged to the smaller wing of his party. The majority of the Progressives were Isolationist, while Roosevelt was an Interventionist. This was quite decisive, but with the popularity of Roosevelt and the war going well Roosevelt was able to hold onto his party. But with the invasion of Alaska, the popularity of the war turned drastically. Roosevelt's high popularity plummeted, with even his older brother Archie being disappointed in his actions. Instead of focusing on Europe, Roosevelt decided to throw even more men into Alaska, resulting in the Battle of Juneau which resulted in over 10,000 deaths. Protests spread across the country against Roosevelt. Henry Wallace demanded Roosevelt to pull out so many troops from Alaska, but refused and forced Wallace to resign. The Progressives and populace were furious with Roosevelt alike, calling for Roosevelt to be impeached. Roosevelt's impeachment failed, with Independence Senators saying the terms for Impeachment were 'Overblown'. Alben Barkley decided to challenge Roosevelt in the Primary, defeating him. Roosevelt was furious, deciding to run for the Independence Primary. In a shocking turn of events, instead of a normal Independence candidate, Hearst called for Wallace to run instead. Wallace easily defeated Roosevelt, causing Roosevelt to run for President in the Populist Party. The Whigs choose Robert LaFollette Jr. as their candidate, campaigning on a return to normalcy. The 1944 election was one of the most decisive Elections during a war ever, resulting in the victory of former Vice President Henry Wallace. Wallace on his first month as President pulled out 20,000 US soldiers out of Alaska and placed General MacArthur in charge of the Front instead of Joseph Stilwell. The front saw increased success, leading to the battle of Nome, which resulted in the Russian pulling out of Alaska. In the Homefront, Wallace passed the Healthcare act which gave Veterans free Healthcare after serving. The Allies decided to create a joint Naval invasion of Germany and Russia, with the Americans landing in Naples and Vladivostock, and the British and French landing in Hannover and Kiel.

[28] While 1876 had seen a father and son divide, the war-time election of 1948 was the “Battle of the Roosevelt's” with brother against brother. But like 1876, both family members had little chance of claiming victory, with the American public in no mood to change leadership mid a successful war. All the opposition was fractured, with a Progressive-Populist fusion ticket hearkening back to a mid-century before and the Whig ticket reflecting extreme ends of their “big tent” philosophy (indeed, many argued they only got away with running such a ticket because they knew they were going to lose) with Archie Roosevelt not even talking to Vice-Presidential candidate, the former Ambassador and Senator W.E.B. Du Bois. The war came to a conclusion in late 1949, just in time for the mid-term elections, though Wallace did receive some criticism for his support of the ‘mega-bombing’ of Tsargrad to force Russia’s final surrender. Alaska was officially seeded to America (despite heavy American emigration during the Northern Gold Rush, it had never been formally recognized as US territory) and Wallace would controversially fast-track it to state-hood to become the 52nd state in 1952 (just in time for the next election). While Wallace was riding high (under the direct-democracy model introduced by Progressives, it was argued that he could potentially have won any of the main party’s Primary processes) it was uncertain whether he was the right person to reunite the country - he had helped win the war, but could he win the peace?

[29] At one point it seemed certain that Wallace would win yet another term in office, with most writing off former President Roosevelt's third straight run under the Progressive/Populist line as a vanity project that would accomplish little. However, public opinion turned against the former popular war time leader as many saw him as failing to meet the threat of the Communes of Japan, a rising Syndicalist power in the East that oddly still maintained the Emperor as a powerless figurehead. Japan had nearly total dominance over East Asia following the defeat of Russia in the Second Great War as well as their own defeat of China. Still, even with Wallace's unpopular "Cold War" decisions of playing nice with Japan many still saw his third term as imminent, with newspapers printing out Wallace defeats Roosevelt on election night only to see it blow up in their face as former President Roosevelt became the first ever President to win a second non-consecutive term in the White House. Also running was former war hero Douglas MacArthur for the Whigs, who many saw as a spoiler with the fellow war hero hurting President Wallace's electoral chances, as well as Arch-Segregationist Strom Thurmond running on the revived American Party of old. President Roosevelt found himself dealing with war on his hands yet again when the young nation of Syria a former territory of the Ottomans, came under invasion by the Syndicalist Iraq supported by Japan. The League of Nations which had just been created after the surrender of Russia declared the invasion to be illegal and 16 members of the new League including the new Russian Republic sent volunteer troops to defend Syria. Americans made up the bulk of the forces and Roosevelt's popular soared for his confrontation of Syndicalism in the Middle East. However with the war dragging on his popular started to wane, especially with his expulsion of general Dwight Eisenhower from service after Eisenhower suggested Roosevelt wasn't doing enough to truly defeat Iraq. By 1955 Roosevelt's popularity had sunk and he sought a return to status quo in the Middle East. After a disastrous showing in the first few primaries, Roosevelt announced he would not seek re-election. But who could be trusted to handle the new Cold War with Japan?

[30] The 1956 election (also known as the khaki election, because of the large number of former military officers running as candidates) was notable as the culmination of the Fifth Party System. Since the First Great War, American politics had been driven by personality rather than policies, and Senators and Representatives alike often changed affiliations (or, more commonly, participated in 'jungle primaries' across all main party platforms). In 1956, Eisenhower, MacArthur, and Michael Guzman (hero of the Battle of Vladivostok) all ran in all party's primaries. All major parties that is - after receiving a single protest vote in the Electoral College in 1952, new regulations were put in place to restrict the ability of the American Party to appear on the ballot (due to the radical nature of its agenda - segregation had not accepted since Reconstruction). In the end, it was Guzmán, with his limited political experience as governor of Tamaulipas and his catchy publicity on radio and television that brought him to the top. (Against Japan as in many things, MacArthur was shown to be too extreme, Eisenhower too weak, while Guzmán was just right!). Guzmán was the dual candidate of both the Whig and Independence Parties, and he made concessions in his cabinet to both movements, but political historians generally consider him a Whig president, as it was his original affiliation (and the presence of another Whig Roosevelt as his Vice President). Unsurprisingly in his situation, Guzmán led a moderate government, focused on land reform, the creation of an interstate highway system, and the co-founding of the ISA (International Space Agency), designed as a unifying peace organization (although it's debatable about the success of that mission). Guzmán faced criticism for using the old Whig tradition of promoting rivals to the Supreme Court with the elevation of former candidates Dewey and Warren and for failing to crack down early enough against promotion of "Syndicalist Scare" (another example of a cross-party phenomenon).
[31] While Guzman put little effort into the Jungle Primaries for the Populist/Progressives and Independence Parties, he still managed to easily win re-election on the back of a scandal free first term and the catchy mariachi jingle “Guzman Goodman”. Whereas his first term had been focused mainly on domestic policy - at least in public, the secret ‘Kermit Doctrine’ named after his VP instigated a program of replacing or ‘influencing’ foreign powers to America’s way of thinking. This would change in his second term, which would come to dominated by international affairs - domestically programs continued as before, with continued farm-aid, further expansion of the highway system and checks and balances placed on the social welfare programs (but no roll back despite calls from more Conservative Whigs, the programs were far too popular for that). Shortly before his re-election, there was a Syndicalist Coup in the Kingdom of Hawaii and soon, much like in Japan, there was a powerless Monarch overseeing a workers run nation. It soon became clear that Hawaii was preparing itself as a forward air base for Japanese long-range bombers and other military hardware. While many in Guzman’s administration urged a military response, Guzman decided to negotiate and after some tension filled weeks, Hawaii announced they would dismantle their Armed Forces “in a show of international brotherhood.” In return, America removed a number of its remaining assets from Syria and other strategic locations. Interestingly, this crisis burnt out the "Syndicalist Scare" as most politicians came to understand where the true threat was coming from. Guzman maintained moderately high opinion poll ratings (which were becoming increasingly important) but he declined further renomination. A major war avoided, his eight years had been largely filled with peace and prosperity, but who would come to claim the benefits?

[32] Guzman's Administration was still very popular by 1964, and the Whigs easily saw higher polling numbers than any of the other Parties. The Whigs, hoping to cash out on this sentiment elected Vice President Roosevelt as their candidate. The Progressives and Populist Parties, fearing Roosevelt would win their Primary, merged forming the People's Party. The new party only allowed Party members to run, ending the worry that Kermit might steal their party away from them. The Independence primary, however, was extremely chaotic. With Roosevelt trying to take the party over like Guzman in 1956, party bigshots were trying to unite the party. Joseph Roosevelt Jr. was seen as a competent candidate, but he refused, endorsing Claude Pepper instead. William R. Hearst blocked Pepper, instead of asking Senator Morse. Morse beat out Kermit Roosevelt Jr. and Claude Pepper, choosing Pepper for his running mate to unite the party. With Everett Dirksen winning the People's Primary, the 1964 election seemed to be a Whig blowout. This was not the case when an 18-year-old Syndicalist Bill Clinton shot at Kermit Roosevelt 4 times during a rally in Tijuana. He hit Kermit 3 times in the chest, and one shot him in the neck. Kermit didn't die instantly, but to blood loss in the ambulance. The Whig party was shocked by the death of their Candidate and scrambled for a replacement as Kermit never selected a Running mate. President Guzman backed Arizona Governor Fidel Sanchez. Fidel was appointed as the Whig Candidate, with Ohio Senator Micheal DiSalle as his running mate. Sanchez easily won the election, as the popularity of Whigs after the assassination of Vice President Roosevelt skyrocketed. Fidel was sworn in on January 20, 1965 becoming the second Mexican President of the United States (and first born outside the United States). Sanchez was completely uninterested in International Affairs, leaving it to Secretary of State Henry Cabot Lodge and Secretary of Defense Joseph Kennedy Jr. What Sanchez was interested was domestic Policy. He met with Economists and Whig Policy writers to draft what he would call 'The New America Plan'. This plan would revitalize the country, creating more highways, rebuilding aging cities, fixing the countries dilapidated Water Pipe system, and Nationalize the Utility Industry. Only time would tell if this plan will be finished to completion, or thrown in the waste basket of History?

[33] The 1968 election was a repeat of the line-up four years earlier, but this time this vote was much closer. Forced into a Contingent Election for the first time in 100 years, all the major parties agreed that it was a miracle that it had not happened more recently - in fact, it was a lack of party loyalty on the part of party members and the public that that allowed popularity to fluctuate widely across all elections (both major and intermediate). Sánchez used his influence to engage with the Independence Party / Campo de la Independencia (of which Sánchez's cabinet already had some key members) and negotiated the fourth back-to-back Whig victory. He was allowed to continue their domestic politics largely unopposed, but provided support for long-standing Independence amendments, including the establishment of the District of Columbia as a state and the abolition of the Electoral College, replaced by a popular vote (going to a second round if no candidate received more than 40% in the first). Both passed relatively fast and they were received positively by the public. At the international level, the Sánchez administration received kudos for the détente with Syndicalist Japan and a growing commercial relationship with Europe (even though Sánchez himself remains uninterested). Yet could the Whigs pull off an unprecedented fifth electoral victory?

Can we do two timelines at a time?
I can only manage the timelines one at a time, but we've had two good suggestions recently. Maybe we can make a list (of lists) to continue after this one. I can think of
A Less Tragic End to Camelot and now Nothing Bad Happens to the Grants
 
TIMES CHANGE, AND WE CHANGE WITH THEM
Presidents of the United States of America

What if the Whig Party remained a major party in the United States?

1840: William Henry Harrison / John Tyler (Whig)
1840: def. Martin van Buren (Democratic) [1]
1844: Henry Clay / John Davies (Whig)

1844: def. Martin van Buren / Richard Mentor Johnson (Democratic) [2]
1848: James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic)

1848: def. Millard Fillmore / Daniel Webster (Whig) [3]
1852: George Crawford / George Nixon Briggs (Whig)

1852: def. James Buchanan / Jefferson Davis (Democratic) [4]
1856: def. Stephan A. Douglas / Linn Boyd (Democratic), Jefferson Davis / John C. Breckinridge (American) [5]
1860: Stephan A. Douglas
/ Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic)
1860: def. William H. Seward / Abraham Lincoln (Whig), John C. Breckinridge / Joseph Lane (American), John C. Fremont / Cassius Clay (Republican)
1861: Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic) [6]
1864: John C. Breckinridge (American) / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic) ɶ

1864: def. Abraham Lincoln / Cassius Clay (Whig), Benjamin Fitzpatrick / Daniel S. Dickinson (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Alexander H. Stephens (American)
1866: John C. Breckinridge (American) [7]
1868: Henry Winter Davis (Whig) / August Belmont (Democratic) ɶ

1868: def. Henry Winter Davis / Lyman Trumbull (Whig), Benjamin Harvey Hill / August Belmont (Democratic), John C. Breckinridge / Jefferson Davis (American) [8]
1872: Lyman Trumbull / August Belmont (National Union)

1872: def. James A Bayard Jr. / Benjamin Gratz Brown (Democratic) [9]
1876: Benjamin Butler / Ambrose Burnside ('Radical' Whig)

1876: def. Lyman Trumbull / Charles Francis Adams Sr. (Liberal Whig), Benjamin Gratz Brown / John Quincy Adams II (True Democrats) [10]
1880: James G. Blaine / John Sherman (Whig)

1880: def. Winfield S. Hancock / Hendrick Bradley Wright (Democratic), James B. Weaver / Barzillai J. Chambers (Greenback) [11]
1884
: Thomas A. Hendrick / William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig)
1884: def. John Sherman / James B. Weaver (Whig)
1885: William H. English (Liberal-Democratic Whig) [12]
1888: William McKinley / Benjamin Harrison (Whig)

1888 def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [13]
1892: Benjamin Harrison / George Frisbie Hoar (Whig)

1892: def. Grover Cleveland / Adlai Stevenson (Liberal Democratic-Whig) [14]
1896: William Jennings Bryan / Henry Teller (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1896: def. Matthew Quay / Levi P. Morton (Whig), Grover Cleveland / Edward Bragg (National Democratic) [15]
1900: William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's)

1900: def. Samuel Clemens / Theodore Roosevelt (Whig) [16]
1904: Theodore Roosevelt / Theodore E. Burton (Whig)

1904: def. William Jennings Bryan / Eugene V. Debs (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [17]
1908: def. Eugene V. Debs / Thomas Watson (Liberal Democratic-Whig/People's) [18]
1912: Theodore E. Burton / Booker T. Washington (Whig)

1912: def. Champ Clarke / John A. Johnson (Liberal Democratic-Whig), Thomas Watson / Jacob S. Coxley (People's)
1915: Theodore E. Burton (Whig) [19]
1916: Charles W. Bryan / Hiram Johnson (Progressive)

1916: def. Theodore Burton / Charles Fairbanks (Whig) [20]
1920: def. Charles J. Bonaparte / John R. Lynch (Whig) [21]
1924: Hiram Johnson / William R. Hearst (Progressive)

1924: def. Robert M. La Follette / Charles Young (Whig), Frank Lowden / John W. Davies (National)
1926: William R. Hearst (Progressive) [22]
1928: William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence)

1928 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / Gilbert Hitchcock (Whig), Clement C. Young / George E. Chamberlain (Progressive) [23]
1932: Charles Curtis / John J. Blaine (Whig)

1932 def. William R. Hearst / J. Edgar Hoover (Independence), Jacob S. Coxley / Norman Thomas (Progressive) [24]
1936: John J. Blaine / Charles L. McNary (Whig)

1936 def. Huey Long / Alf Landon (Independence), Al Smith / William Borah (Progressive)
1937: Charles L. McNary (Whig) [25]
1940: Quentin Roosevelt / Henry Wallace (Progressive)

1940 def. Charles Lindbergh/Robert A Taft (Independence), Charles L. McNary/Charles Nance Garner (Whig) [26]
1944:
Henry Wallace / Burton Wheeler (Independence)
1944 def. Robert LaFollette Jr. / Thomas Dewey (Whig) Quentin Roosevelt / Cordell Hull (Populist), Alben Barkley / Earl Warren (Progressive) [27]
1948 def. Archibald 'Archie' Roosevelt / W.E.B. Du Bois (Whig), Quentin Roosevelt / Earl Warren (Populist / Progressive) [28]
1952: Quentin Roosevelt/Harold Stassen (Populist/Progressive)
1952 def. Henry Wallace/Burton Wheeler (Independence), Douglas MacArthur/Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (Whig), Strom Thurmond/John Sparkman (American) [29]
1956: Michael Guzman / Kermit Roosevelt Jr. (Whig)
1956 def. Dwight Eisenhower / Harold Stassen (Populist / Progressive), Michael Guzman / William R. Hearst Jr. (Independence) [30]
1960 def. William R. Hearst Jr. / Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. (Independence), Harold Stassen / Richard Nixon (Populist / Progressive) [31]

1964: Fidel Velazquez Sanchez / Micheal DiSalle (Whig)
1964 def. Wayne Morse / Claude Pepper (Independence), Everett Dirksen / Daniel Brewster (People's) [32]
1968: Fidel Velazquez Sanchez (Whig) / Claude Pepper (Independence) ɶ

1968 def. Fidel Velazquez Sanchez / Micheal DiSalle (Whig), Wayne Morse / Claude Pepper (Independence), Everett Dirksen / Daniel Brewster (People's) [33]
1972: Harold Hughes / Margaret Chase Brown (Whig)

1972: def. Howard Hughes III / Walter Fauntroy (Independence), Daniel Brewster / Benjamin Spock (People's) [34]

= died in office
ɶ = contingent election

[1] William Henry Harrison, the first Whig to hold the White House, was one of the most influential presidents of the Nineteenth Century. Although much of the Whig program was controversial, such as the creation of the Third Bank of the United States, Harrison was an effective administrator capable of holding his party in line. (This was despite disputes with John Tyler, the Vice President, who advocated economic policies synchronous with Democratic positions). Federal patronage strengthened Whig organizations, and the government embarked on an ambitious series of infrastructural projects (such as vital work along the Mississippi). The Whigs also resisted strong calls for war against Mexico, despite a strong lobby within the Democratic Party to push westwards into Texas - although this issue would continue to bubble on throughout the early-1840s. Despite his successes in government, Harrison declined a second term, and the Whig Party went into the 1844 election in a strong position.

[2] Tyler had had a difficult relationship with many Whigs, but it was still with some surprise that he lost on the fourth ballot to Clay. (Sitting Massachusetts Governor John Davies clinched the VP spot). In comparison, the Democratic Convention was straightforward with the former partnership of Van Buren and Johnson being reinstated on the first ballot (disappointed, their opponents would manage to enforce a two-thirds majority for subsequent conventions). Despite Tyler forming his own 'manifest-destiny' party, the election was fought on domestic issues and the Whigs won a further term. Clay’s early focus was on further growth of the American System; high tariffs, stable finances, federal investment in internal improvements and a prudent expansion of the frontier. He continued prior efforts in soothing sectional divisions while recognizing the independence of both Haiti and Liberia. While ‘border’ issues continued to be a problem, the party was satisfied with his achievements and he had to make a decision to seek another term or follow in his predecessor’s footsteps and decline re-election.

[3] Henry Clay had been successful his four years in office, and many expected him to seek a second term. However he instead decided to follow Harrison and decline to seek re-election. The 1848 Whig National Convention nominated New York Representative Millard Fillmore with Daniel Webster as his running mate. On the other hand, the 1848 DNC nominated Senator James Buchanan after former President Martin Van Buren failed to win the nomination. Mississippi Congressman Jefferson Davis was nominated by the party to serve as running mate. The election was mainly focused on economic issues as well as the issue of Texas, with Buchanan receiving a boost as former President Andrew Jackson spoke in favour of Texan annexation. Fillmore failed to continue the Harrison/Clay coalition, making several blunders on the topic of slavery, and with his support of a proposed omnibus bill that alienated both northern and southern Whigs. Buchanan managed to finally return the Democrats to the White House after eight years after a narrow popular vote and electoral victory. Buchanan led the United States into the Mexican-American War (1849-1851) in which he was victorious, winning a major concession from the southern nation. Buchanan however alienated many northern Democrats with his staunch push for slavery in Texas post-war. When it had seemed to be a crippling blow to the Whig Party in '48 actually turned to simply be a re-alignment, as the Whigs started to move to being the party of the North.

[4] By the 1850s the Whigs and the Democrats were moving quickly to become the parties of the North and South respectively, and both suffered from factionalism based around states' rights, slavery, further expansion and economic affairs. Although Buchanan had been triumphant in the war against Mexico the resulting turmoil over the expansion of slavery was a political conflagration. Forced to keep Davis as his running mate in 1852 to maintain the loyalty of the South, Buchanan was outflanked by George Crawford - himself an unusual Whig success story in the state of Georgia. However, the election was divided almost cleanly along the Mason-Dixon line. Briggs, serving as Vice President, was a conservative Whig opposed to many Southern practices; the Crawford administration nevertheless sought to sidestep the wider issue of slavery and concentrate upon economic growth. It was not generally successful, and the country continued to struggle over the best course of action.

[5] George Crawford and George Nixon Briggs were the first President/Vice President partnership to be re-elected since 1820, although it was a close run race. Their success was down to two major factors. Firstly, the Compromise of 1855; the one major package of legislation that had focused on the slavery issue and secondly keeping the balance between Free states and Slave states equal with the joint entry of Minnesota and Texas into the Union. They also more controversially saw the 13th Amendment passed which defined citizenship, allowing for non-American born citizens to become citizens (and even be eligible for President) but which also explicitly stated that slaves (born in America or otherwise) were not citizens until they had lawfully gained freedom. While Briggs had been an active supporter of the compromises, Crawford had been less than enthusiastic. The third and main reason for their victory was that while the Whigs kept mostly united, the Democrats suffered vote-splitting from the more vocally pro-expansionist (and pro-slavery) American Party (founded by Tyler a dozen years earlier, largely insignificant until now, sometimes nicknamed the “Know-Alls” for a perceived ability to argue simple solutions to the most complicated of issues). The election had shown the need for unity, but with Crawford continuing to focus on the Whigs economic platform, the question was - for how much longer could they keep compromising?

[6] The 1860 election was hotly contested. Stephan A. Douglas managed to receive the Democratic nomination for the second time as die-hard Buchananists continued to flock to the America party. The Whigs however also suffered a splinter in the party, with the radical abolitionists forming a ticket under the name of the "Republican" or "Grand Old Party" after the Whigs refused to take a solid stance on slavery other than constant compromise. Douglas managed to barely secure an electoral college majority thanks to the split in the Northern vote while Breckinridge swept the south. Douglas' four years in office where cut short when he passed in 1861. Under Fitzpatrick the Union was extremely volatile as abolitionist and pro-slavery militias clashed in the state of Kansas. Douglas on the campaign trail had supported the idea of popular sovereignty, or allowing every individual new state to decide if it would enter the Union as free or slave, with Fitzpatrick un-enthusiastically allowing Kansas to enter as a free state in 1862. Realizing they stood no chance if the Republican party kept splitting the northern vote, the Whigs finally condemned the expansion of slavery into any new state and absorbed the GOP into their ranks in 1863. Things looked dire for Fitzpatrick going into his re-election, as it seemed both the North and South alike were ready to be rid of him. The United States moved into a dark time headed into 1864 with the American Party and many southern states threatening secession should a Whig enter the White House with their new platform...

[7] The 1864 election made the previous one look like a simple warm-up. The first sign was that Fitzpatrick barely got the nomination. He campaigned reluctantly on the grounds that the Democrats were the only party that preserved the Union. However, the division was marked as the election results showed a tri-color map with Whigs in the North, American Party in the South and Democrats a band in the center (plus New York). Even though the Lincoln / Clay ticket won both the popular and the highest vote in the Electoral College, it was not enough to secure a majority, so the country went to a contingent election for the first time since 1824. The outrage spread as the Senate elected Daniel S. Dickinson, while several Democrats defected in the House to vote for John C. Breckinridge. The Whigs claimed a secret 'Fusion Agreement' between the two parties, negotiated by Jefferson Davis, but nothing could be done to change the outcome. While some argued that the Whigs had lost because of their abolitionist platform, most hardened in their support - especially after 1866, when Breckinridge had effectively stopped trying to govern for the entire country.

[8] The 1864 contingent election had been deeply damaging to the country and dramatically intensified the animosity between North and South. However, when the 1868 election also failed to secure a majority for the Whig Party it was clear the tensions would boil over. The radical Whig, Henry Winter Davis, won the North (beginning the long stretch of the 'Solid North') - although with a noticeably smaller margin in the popular vote - but in the following squall Democrats who opposed the long-threatened secession of the South refused to endorse another Breckenridge administration. When Belmont was elected as Vice President the state of Mississippi moved to secede from the United States, supported by the vast majority of the American Party and a smaller number of Democrats. In reality, however, the cause of the South was already lost. Many regard their attempt at secession as several decades too late, as by the 1860s the North was vastly superior in almost every way. The Constitutional Union of American States (CUAS) struggled to get off the ground - it never secured diplomatic recognition from Europe, was riddled with political factionalism and never secured any major military victories due to the ineptitude of the armed forces. However, for four years the 'Southern Insurrection' inflicted grave moral and human tragedies upon the United States - largely due to the sheer bloody-mindedness of the leadership and the guerrilla warfare campaigns raging across Dixie. By the time of the 1870 election Davis was able to point towards victory, but it was clear that the country would be greatly scarred by the peace.

[9] With the collapse of the nascent CUAS, Henry Winter Davis’ popularity was at an all time-high. However, he shocked nearly everyone when he announced that he would follow in the Whig tradition of Harrison and Clay and not stand for reelection. He did enthusiastically support the creation of the National Union Party to reconstruct the country, recommending Benjamin Wade to replace him, but after Wade refused the nomination on account of his advanced years, the nomination went smoothly to Davis' former Whig Vice-Presidential running mate Lyman Trumbull. The Trumbull/Belmont ticket easily swept the country with a number of Southern States boycotting the election and weak opposition from 'Dove Democrats'. The death of Davis the following year at just 55 years led to a rise in “historical counter-factuals” asking “What would have happened if Davis did run again?” due to the possible crisis that could have arisen as some argued that despite the 13th Amendment, Belmont was still constitutionally ineligible to succeed him. (The most popular counter-factual was of course; "What if the South had attempted succession earlier"?) Trumbull pursued a far less radical agenda than Davis, instead focusing on traditional Whig policies like economic programs and creation of the Yellowstone National Park. This led to an unsuccessful impeachment attempt from the Radical Whig faction, in spite of which he still passed the 14th (which outlawed slavery - except as punishment for a crime) and 15th (which partially revoked the 13th Amendment redefining citizenship) Amendments.

[10] Trumbull tried to hold the National Union government together, but the Whig radicals made it clear that they would not support what they saw as "Democrats in Whig clothes." While it seemed like an apparent split in the party, it was actually the Democrats who were most disadvantaged, as since they had recently lost credibility, most of their supporters and representatives flocked to Trumbull's Liberal Whig party, leaving only a shell in the True Democrats to participate in the elections. This created an interesting situation in which father and son ran for vice president by opposing parties. However, at the end of the day, the Radical Whigs claimed victory, garnering a great deal of support from the newly liberated black population. While a former South sympathizer, Butler, a lawyer, businessman and former Governor, said his greatest regret was not being able to fight against the Insurrection (his critics argued that Burnside was chosen as a running mate solely because of the uniform, although Burnside had gained his own fame in some easy victories over the weak CUAS forces). While much of his program was blocked by a hostile opposition, Butler implemented not only greater emancipation and suffrage in the Civil Rights Act of 1877 and the 16th Amendment, but also promoted measures such as the nine-hour shift and antitrust laws while continuing "traditional Whig" programs, such as improving public health infrastructure. Shortly before the next election, Butler announced that the Radical Whigs would formalize the Whig tradition within the party of presidents running for single terms only (his critics said alleged financial irregularity had more to do with it, though this had little impact on his popularity).

[11] To little surprise the radical faction of Whigs managed to win easy re-election in 1880. They nominated Maine Senator and former House Speaker James Blaine as well as John Sherman as his running mate, the younger brother of General William Tecumseh Sherman. Most so-called "Liberal Whigs" fled back to either the Democrats or Radical Whigs, who were now simply just Whigs. The Democrats nominated who were soundly defeated again outside of the South. There was also the Left-Wing Geenback candidate of James Weaver, a former General and Iowa congressman, but he failed to win any state other than Iowa. President Blaine was a classic Whig, expanding further black suffrage and increasing tariffs. He kept Federal Troops in the South, which were used to ensure the newly passed Suffrage laws stayed enforced and to dissuade any further attempts at secession. However, Blaine began to lose his image in the eyes of the public as his ties to the infamous railroad industry started to come out in the second half of his term. The party was eager to get away from Blaine as they moved to the 84' election as the Democrats started to make gains among voters again.

[12] The 1884 vote was one of the most contentious and controversial non-contingent Presidential elections in American history. Sherman was quietly confident of victory despite his association with the scandal-prone Blaine, especially after former President Butler neutralized the Greenback Party through negotiating an informal alliance. However, while the Sherman/Weaver ticket won the popular vote, the Electoral College vote was almost tied with a number of states declaring “unresolved” results. This gave rise to the Compromise of 1885, by which the liberal Whig faction merged with the Democratic Party in return for a state-by-state approach to Reconstruction and a withdrawal of Federal Troops only once certain conditions had been met. After a controversial post-election process via an Electoral Commission, Hendrick was declared the winner, with the closest ever margin in the Electoral College of only one vote. Hendrick would die eight months into his term, with his successor's time in the Presidency, much like the rest of his political career, being seen as pragmatic. Indeed, many speculated that English had only been added to the ticket as a means to access his vast fortune. Despite only gradual loosening of Reconstruction systems, English declared the disputes of the Civil War settled, and promised to focus on "sound currency, of honest money", restrictions on Chinese immigration, and a "rigid economy in public expenditure". While some in the Liberal-Democratic Whigs wished English would go further, he was generally popular, and not afraid to contribute his personal wealth to causes he supported.

[13] While English was a popular president, he announced he would not stand for a second term, So, the LDWs nominated Grover Cleveland to run as their candidate in 1888, however, Cleveland was an unpopular man who just barely retained his House seat two years earlier. Meanwhile the recently formed Conservative National faction of the Whigs secured Representative William McKinley as their candidate. The campaign was tiresome, Cleveland didn't campaign personally and often sent advisors to do it for him, when Election Day came, McKinley won in a landslide.

[14] Harrison easily won the Whigs nomination and the subsequent election, which was almost a rematch from four years earlier. Harrison began by continuing McKinley's work, continuing protective trade rates and securing the Antitrust Act of 1893, which regulated competition, and the Federal Elections Act of 1894, which increased the security of elections for State Representatives, further protecting the rights of blacks voters. In return, federal troops were finally withdrawn from the southern states. In addition, the number of black political appointments increased, which some argued that McKinley had neglected and took additional measures to promote Native American rights, although many of these measures are now considered misguided. He broke with the historic Whig opposition to "opportunistic expansion", negotiating the entry of the California Republic into the United States, which had been long delayed, arguing that now that the problem of slavery was solved, the United States could expand again . Following tradition, he announced that he would not run for re-election but refused to endorse a successor, which many saw as a reprimand to his more radical vice president.

[15] The 1896 election was a major upset of the natural order that had dominated American politics in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War. The Democrats refused to nominate Cleveland a third time in a row, instead nominating the young and energetic William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, a diehard supporter of bimetallism and evangelical. In another surprising move, pro-silver Whig Henry Teller of Colorado was nominated as Bryan's running mate after staging a walkout from the WNC after they declared a plank in favor of the gold standard. Bryan was also nominated by the left-wing People's party as their candidate for President, albeit with a different running mate. The Whigs also repudiated the current order, defeating Vice President Hoar on the first ballot and instead nominating Pennsylvania Senator Matthew Quay. Cleveland was nominated by pro-Gold Democrats on the short lived National Democratic ticket, but failed to accomplish much as he did basically zero campaigning. Most of the country expected a Quay victory, but following eight years of Whig rule and the Panic of 1893 Bryan prevailed on election day. Supporters of the "Great Commoner" rioted frenziedly out of joy in the streets as he declared victory. At 36 years old he was by far the youngest individual to win office by that point. As President Bryan slashed the Whig tariffs, implemented new labor laws, passed an amendment bringing in direct election of senators, created a Federal Income Tax, brought Oklahoma into the Union as a state and resisted calls for war with Spain. However he began to grows increasingly frustrated as Congress continued to resist his attempts to move the US away from the gold standard. Bryan shocked the nation as he announced he would be one of the first Presidents in decades to seek re-election, but Vice President Teller decided to stick to his Whig roots and refuse to be re-nominated.
[16] The Bryan/Debs Liberal-Democratic Whig/People’s fusion ticket (usually just called the People’s Whigs for convenience) narrowly but clearly won the 1900 election, with a number of close races in both the industrial north and across the south. The Clemens/Roosevelt opposition (nicknamed the “Cowboy who dresses as a Southern Gentleman and the Northern Gentleman who dresses as a Cowboy”) also ran on a progressive platform, with mainly the Gold Standard and “American Expansionism” separating the two campaigns. Roosevelt in particular came to believe it was only the name recognition of Bryan that put him over the top and that the Whigs should reconsider their once Radical policy of single term presidents - “Times change and we need to change with them”. Despite their narrow loss, the Whigs were still in good shape, indeed even helped in places through direct election of senators (including John R. Lynch and Booker T. Washington) and used their numbers to filibuster, amend or otherwise delay any aspect of Bryan’s legislative program they disagreed with (although graduated income-tax, further civil service reform and an eight-hour day were all signed into law). Things came to a head when Bryan publicly mused that due to the actions of the “Radical Whigs” he might have to run again to ensure his People’s Whig legacy was secure. The question was - would he actually do it?

[17] By the beginning of the Twentieth Century the United States was beginning to sit heavily in the two-sided political system. The LDW-People's alliance had proven themselves fit for office and as the clear party of the growing 'left,' while the traditional Whigs were increasingly viewed as the 'default' party of government. With this in mind, Bryan's decision to run again in 1904 was a game-changer. With much of the population frustrated (in one way or another) with the frustrated ambitions of the 1900 administration, Roosevelt - now at the head of his party's ticket - secured a significant victory over the LDW/P in 1904. (Although Booker Washington had launched a strong challenge for the Vice Presidency he had ultimately been defeated by those seeking a less controversial compromise candidate, leading to the nomination of Theodore Burton - inconsequentially, they became the only partnership to share first names since 1852). Roosevelt sought to establish a strongly-interventionist foreign policy, expending upon the Monroe Doctrine to increase American influence directly; the Pineapple War (1905) annexed Hawaii directly to the United States, work began on the Nicaraguan Canal in 1906, and following the collapse of order in the Third Mexican Empire a series of brush wars essentially brought Baja California and Tamaulipas (including the important port of Tampico) under direct American control.

[18] Teddy and Ted broke Whig tradition and ran (and won!) reëlection. Their second term was as productive as their first with continued expansion on traditional Whig policies; vastly increasing the amount of land conservation, military and civil service reform and public infrastructure, though now largely focussed on the Western states. While generally avoiding involvement in labour relations, Roosevelt did make some pro-organized labour policies in order to counter the moves of the LDW/P. Some of the more radical Whigs criticized Roosevelt for not pursuing further civil rights reforms. However, he did make history after Howard Taft was elevated to the Supreme Court (the second former Cabinet member after William Moody to receive such a 'promotion'). In the subsequent reshuffle, he made John Lynch the first black (and former slave) Cabinet member as Secretary of Commerce and Labour (the irony of the position was not lost on many). Internationally, Roosevelt mediated the Russian-Sino-Japanese War (1907 – 1909) for which he won a Nobel Prize and sought rapprochement with the United Kingdom. Despite loud protests from the left (and some quieter grumblings from more traditional Whigs) New Mexico joined the Union as a state while Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas were all officially recognized as United States Territory. At the end of his second term, Roosevelt remained popular and many saw his progressive policies as a strong counter-balance to the growing left; however, he had already broken Whig tradition by running for a second term, could he dare try to run for a third?

[19] In the end two things stopped Roosevelt from running for an unprecedented (Whig) third term; the slight 1910’s economic downturn and the weight of Whig traditionalists. Burton easily won the resulting nomination, though the battle for VP was again competitive; this time Booker Washington just clinching the spot (no evidence has been found to support claims that this was part of Roosevelt’s ‘declining renomination deal’) becoming the first African-American candidate on a major party presidential ticket. It cemented Washington’s legacy despite claims that he was merely a "mantelpiece Vice-President" (in reality Washington was struck down by illness for most of his term and Vice-Presidents had mainly been for show anyway). The Whig ticket won a landslide in the electoral college as the Liberal Democratic-Whigs denied Debs a second run, resulting in a temporary split in the LDW/P fusion (the failure of the separate tickets ultimately persuaded the two parties to create a more formal alliance). Burton’s first two years were seen as an extension of his predecessor, with further business reform and the completion of the Nicaragua Canal. However, when War broke out in Europe, Burton focused on mediation. Roosevelt urged Burton to support the Allies, but Burton demurred, preparing himself for the possibility of running for reelection on a ‘Peace Platform’. Many of the more interventionist Whigs urged Roosevelt to think about running again (or even forming his own ‘Progressive Whig’ movement). Roosevelt declined to make any decision for the moment; with the left more united than ever and war raging overseas, the only sure thing was that the upcoming election was going to be turbulent.

[20] In 1915 the Liberal-Democratic Whigs and the People's party finally merged into the official Progressive Party, and were moving into the new election in a strong position. Despite planning on pushing for the nomination, Eugene Debs instead decided to throw his support behind the eventual ticket of the brother of former President Bryan, Charles Wayland Bryan and California governor Hiram Johnson, a recent convert from the Whig Party. Despite Burton's moderate peace platform, the absolute isolationism of the new Progressive Party allowed them to narrowly deny the President a second term. A large part of the Progressive victory was the new Mexican states, which overwhelmingly voted in their favor. President Bryan (jokingly called Bryan the Second) forbade American ships from travelling to any nation involved in the European War. The Central Powers (Germany, Austria and Russia) fought desperately to defeat the French-British-Ottoman-Japanese entente, but with a Marxist Revolution in Germany crippling their war effort brought the conflict firmly to an end in a Allied victory in 1919. The Great War (1914-1919) was the deadliest conflict mankind had seen up to that moment. On the domestic front Bryan made progress on several progressive platforms such as a railroad commission and giving all states the ability to recall state officials. However the biggest upset was the appointment of Louis Brandeis to the Supreme Court, the first ever Jewish Justice and a diehard supporter of progressive causes. The Progressive Party was confident about 1920 after keeping America out of the war the last four years.

[21] With more numbers in the House and Senate, Bryan's second term (Bryan-brother's fourth overall term) quickly gained momentum, though some felt it went too far, too fast. It changed the face of government with an increase in women's suffrage, the registration of lobbyists, and the recording and publication of congressional proceedings. It changed the balance of workers 'rights with a minimum wage for women, stricter laws to enforce the eight-hour workday, a federal securities commission, more farm aid, and compensation for work-related injuries. It changed the relationship that most citizens had with the government, with a national health service to include all existing government medical agencies, social security to care for the elderly, the unemployed and the disabled, and a stronger inheritance tax. They also made further progress in supporting states to implement "direct democracy", including the widespread introduction of referendums and initiatives, in addition to judicial revocation (when a court declared a law unconstitutional, citizens could override that decision by a popular vote, often used to limit the ability of judges to order injunctions against strike action.) Many on the right accused Progressives of trying to turn the United States into 'Marxist Middle Europe' but with the platform proving to be popular with the electorate (even with the tacit support of former President Roosevelt) the Whig Party needed to change with the times once again, lest it be seen solely as the party of "blacks and big business."

[22] C.W. Bryan had learned a lesson from his older brother and declined to run for a third term (although the continuation of his programs were heavily emphasized by the Johnson campaign). The Whigs had learned from the past too and after a heated internal battle eventually nominated Robert M. La Follette from the left (and rural section) of the party. The Progressive chose high-profile (and wealthy supporter) William Hearst for Vice-President, while John Lynch declined renomination for the Whig Vice-Presidential spot, citing his advancing years (but used his influence to swing the nomination to almost equally famous Major-General Charles Young, a hero of the Pineapple and Mexico Bush Wars). The overall left-leaning composition of both campaigns led to some newspapers calling the election a “Progressive Whig Primary,” which caused a resurrection of the old National Democratic branding for a third party run. There was early speculation that it might force another Contingent Election, but in the end while outperforming Cleveland nearly thirty years earlier, the Nationals had a little overall impact. The race between the two main parties was still close, with the Progressive Party just winning the popular and electoral college vote. The Whigs began a major internal party review, this was the first time they had lost three elections in a row. However, this was only the precursor to major upheavals, as just over a year into his term, Johnson was struck down by a Mexican Nationalist, becoming the first President to be assassinated. Hearst began a much more imperialistic foreign policy than his Progressive predecessors and used the excuse of Johnson’s death to pursue further military action against Mexico. While many in the Progressive movement saw this as a betrayal of their core beliefs, it proved popular with the general public (helped in no part by the support of Hearst's media empire). As soul searching continued in both parties, the race to 1928 looked bumpy all around.

[23] The Election of 1928 was a muddy affair. Hearst was an extremely popular president, but the anger in his party towards him was astronomical. The Isolationist Progressive party began to despise President Hearst after intervening in the Nicaraguan Civil war. The war was extremely popular at first, but after the military became severely bogged down in the jungles of Nicaragua and the death of War Hero Smedley Butler, the morale of the country took a nosedive. The Progressives, seeing a chink in Hearst's armor decided to challenge him in the primary with Newcomer Governor C.C. Young. Young lost in almost every primary race except for California but won in the Convention. Hearst was Furious calling the primary, "A whole lot of Bullshit". He decided to leave the party and create his own. Not many Progressives left the party, but whigs flocked to the party after their own was completely collapsing. To rub salt into the wounds of the Progressive Party, he elected Independent Senator J. Edgar Hoover, who was a devout Interventionist. The Whigs were seemingly tearing themselves apart, but one man was able to hold the party together. Archibald Roosevelt wasn't a well-known figure, but his prowess in the US Volunteer Corps and the Nicaraguan civil war shot him into the limelight. The Whig primary was a blood bath, with almost 14 candidates battling for the presidency, but After Archie threw his hat in the field it became a two-man race between Archie and Frank Lowden. Lowden was despised by the party elites but was extremely popular with the voters. But nothing could stop Archie from becoming the head of the ticket. After defeating Lowden, he decided to choose Gilbert Hancock as his running mate. The 1928 election was going to be a close battle. With two extremely popular candidates and another one in the mix, nobody really knew who was going to win. But after weeks of campaigning, Hearst was able to win the presidency by the skin of his teeth without a contingent election. Archie was sad about his loss, but promised to stay in politics.

[24] While 1928 had been a shock, the 1932 election was the first genuine “three horse race” in over fifty years. Hearst had continued to run a controversial yet populist Presidency and the Hearst/Hoover ticket surprised no-one when it ran for reëlection. However, both the prolonged military presence in Nicaragua and the recession of the early 1930’s put enough of a dint into the “Independence” popularity to allow a genuine Progressive challenge, arguing it was their economic policies that had prevented the recession from being anything worse. However, it was the Whig Party, out of office for the longest period since their founding which reaped the benefit, with the resulting vote splitting, narrowly avoiding another contingent election and propelling Charles Curtis to the White House (becoming the oldest elected President and the first Native American). Curtis came into office as the definition of a compromise candidate, the representative of the “anyone but Archie” movement. Curtis was accused of being a “do-nothing President” but he kept up a busy social calendar, much as he had done for most of his political career, balancing the wishes of both wings of the party and generally keeping all factions feeling like they had some influence. He did make strong efforts into integrating the Hispanic population of the newest American states into the fold of American democracy as former Whig regimes had done with African-Americans. Fiscally, he was a moderate, focussed on a balanced budget and work creation schemes, believing full employment the best way to ensure that all America’s citizens were truly equal. However, the workload would have tired even a younger man, and so Curtis became the first President since Benjamin Harrison to decline renomination after a single term. With Vice-President Blaine seen as almost a non-entity (although he had not ruled out a run), the field was wide open for 1936. While the “good times” continued, Hearst had put enough of his personal fortune into building Independence as a true party while the Progressives were still a force to be reckoned with.

[25] Riding high off the "good times" Vice-President Blaine would win the 1936 election but sadly his term would come to an early end when Blaine would die on April 13, 1937, leading to Charles L. McNary becoming the new President of the United States. McNary's term is most famous for his crackdown on organized crime with many mob bosses being either arrested or killed, the most famous being Al Capone in what would become known as the Halloween Massacre. On October 30, 1938 police alongside the National Guard would bust Capone's gang which would lead to a gunfight. Most of Capone's men would die with Capone being crippled and would later die in prison three years later.

[26] An unlikely candidate emerged in the 1940 Progressive Convention in Chicago in the son of former (Whig) President Theodore Roosevelt, Quentin Roosevelt. The younger Roosevelt had been a Brigadier General in the USAF before becoming a Progressive in the mid-30s and stepping onto the ticket alongside Iowan Henry Wallace. War was raging in Europe between the Continental Entente of Italy, France, and the United Kingdom against the new alliance of the ultranationalist All-Russian Union under "Vozhd" Peter Wrangel and the German State under National Socialist dictator Gregor Strasser. Russia was desperate to repudiate the embarrassment of the Great War, invading Poland in January 1940 leading to the Entente's declaration of war. The Ottoman Empire also fought alongside their former enemies, determined to retake their claims in the Balkans. Roosevelt had run on a campaign on pro-Entente leanings compared to the isolationist Charles Lindbergh who was initially favored to win with the statement of "Lindbergh, or war". However things took a turn with the fall of Rome in late October shifted the American public to a pro-war stance and mobilized voters to the polls in favor of Quentin, allowing him to defeat both Lindbergh and incumbent McNary. Roosevelt immediately got to work getting war materials sent to Britain and France, with France barely holding off the Russo-German invasion. Roosevelt didn't declare war until September 11th, 1941 when Russian bombers obliterated several US ships off the coast off Japan who was a neutral power. America mobilized as Russian troops landed in Alaska, sweeping through both US National Guard and Canadian forces. The North American theater became of the bloodiest in history, with Allied troops finally retaking Anchorage in late 1943. With the Russians forced from US soil, America looked to Europe, where a bloody stalemate persisted in both northern and southern France as German and Russian troops desperately trying to push through.

[27] Quentin Roosevelt's Administration created much disdain in the Progressive Party. Like Lindbergh, Roosevelt belonged to the smaller wing of his party. The majority of the Progressives were Isolationist, while Roosevelt was an Interventionist. This was quite decisive, but with the popularity of Roosevelt and the war going well Roosevelt was able to hold onto his party. But with the invasion of Alaska, the popularity of the war turned drastically. Roosevelt's high popularity plummeted, with even his older brother Archie being disappointed in his actions. Instead of focusing on Europe, Roosevelt decided to throw even more men into Alaska, resulting in the Battle of Juneau which resulted in over 10,000 deaths. Protests spread across the country against Roosevelt. Henry Wallace demanded Roosevelt to pull out so many troops from Alaska, but refused and forced Wallace to resign. The Progressives and populace were furious with Roosevelt alike, calling for Roosevelt to be impeached. Roosevelt's impeachment failed, with Independence Senators saying the terms for Impeachment were 'Overblown'. Alben Barkley decided to challenge Roosevelt in the Primary, defeating him. Roosevelt was furious, deciding to run for the Independence Primary. In a shocking turn of events, instead of a normal Independence candidate, Hearst called for Wallace to run instead. Wallace easily defeated Roosevelt, causing Roosevelt to run for President in the Populist Party. The Whigs choose Robert LaFollette Jr. as their candidate, campaigning on a return to normalcy. The 1944 election was one of the most decisive Elections during a war ever, resulting in the victory of former Vice President Henry Wallace. Wallace on his first month as President pulled out 20,000 US soldiers out of Alaska and placed General MacArthur in charge of the Front instead of Joseph Stilwell. The front saw increased success, leading to the battle of Nome, which resulted in the Russian pulling out of Alaska. In the Homefront, Wallace passed the Healthcare act which gave Veterans free Healthcare after serving. The Allies decided to create a joint Naval invasion of Germany and Russia, with the Americans landing in Naples and Vladivostock, and the British and French landing in Hannover and Kiel.

[28] While 1876 had seen a father and son divide, the war-time election of 1948 was the “Battle of the Roosevelt's” with brother against brother. But like 1876, both family members had little chance of claiming victory, with the American public in no mood to change leadership mid a successful war. All the opposition was fractured, with a Progressive-Populist fusion ticket hearkening back to a mid-century before and the Whig ticket reflecting extreme ends of their “big tent” philosophy (indeed, many argued they only got away with running such a ticket because they knew they were going to lose) with Archie Roosevelt not even talking to Vice-Presidential candidate, the former Ambassador and Senator W.E.B. Du Bois. The war came to a conclusion in late 1949, just in time for the mid-term elections, though Wallace did receive some criticism for his support of the ‘mega-bombing’ of Tsargrad to force Russia’s final surrender. Alaska was officially seeded to America (despite heavy American emigration during the Northern Gold Rush, it had never been formally recognized as US territory) and Wallace would controversially fast-track it to state-hood to become the 52nd state in 1952 (just in time for the next election). While Wallace was riding high (under the direct-democracy model introduced by Progressives, it was argued that he could potentially have won any of the main party’s Primary processes) it was uncertain whether he was the right person to reunite the country - he had helped win the war, but could he win the peace?

[29] At one point it seemed certain that Wallace would win yet another term in office, with most writing off former President Roosevelt's third straight run under the Progressive/Populist line as a vanity project that would accomplish little. However, public opinion turned against the former popular war time leader as many saw him as failing to meet the threat of the Communes of Japan, a rising Syndicalist power in the East that oddly still maintained the Emperor as a powerless figurehead. Japan had nearly total dominance over East Asia following the defeat of Russia in the Second Great War as well as their own defeat of China. Still, even with Wallace's unpopular "Cold War" decisions of playing nice with Japan many still saw his third term as imminent, with newspapers printing out Wallace defeats Roosevelt on election night only to see it blow up in their face as former President Roosevelt became the first ever President to win a second non-consecutive term in the White House. Also running was former war hero Douglas MacArthur for the Whigs, who many saw as a spoiler with the fellow war hero hurting President Wallace's electoral chances, as well as Arch-Segregationist Strom Thurmond running on the revived American Party of old. President Roosevelt found himself dealing with war on his hands yet again when the young nation of Syria a former territory of the Ottomans, came under invasion by the Syndicalist Iraq supported by Japan. The League of Nations which had just been created after the surrender of Russia declared the invasion to be illegal and 16 members of the new League including the new Russian Republic sent volunteer troops to defend Syria. Americans made up the bulk of the forces and Roosevelt's popular soared for his confrontation of Syndicalism in the Middle East. However with the war dragging on his popular started to wane, especially with his expulsion of general Dwight Eisenhower from service after Eisenhower suggested Roosevelt wasn't doing enough to truly defeat Iraq. By 1955 Roosevelt's popularity had sunk and he sought a return to status quo in the Middle East. After a disastrous showing in the first few primaries, Roosevelt announced he would not seek re-election. But who could be trusted to handle the new Cold War with Japan?

[30] The 1956 election (also known as the khaki election, because of the large number of former military officers running as candidates) was notable as the culmination of the Fifth Party System. Since the First Great War, American politics had been driven by personality rather than policies, and Senators and Representatives alike often changed affiliations (or, more commonly, participated in 'jungle primaries' across all main party platforms). In 1956, Eisenhower, MacArthur, and Michael Guzman (hero of the Battle of Vladivostok) all ran in all party's primaries. All major parties that is - after receiving a single protest vote in the Electoral College in 1952, new regulations were put in place to restrict the ability of the American Party to appear on the ballot (due to the radical nature of its agenda - segregation had not accepted since Reconstruction). In the end, it was Guzmán, with his limited political experience as governor of Tamaulipas and his catchy publicity on radio and television that brought him to the top. (Against Japan as in many things, MacArthur was shown to be too extreme, Eisenhower too weak, while Guzmán was just right!). Guzmán was the dual candidate of both the Whig and Independence Parties, and he made concessions in his cabinet to both movements, but political historians generally consider him a Whig president, as it was his original affiliation (and the presence of another Whig Roosevelt as his Vice President). Unsurprisingly in his situation, Guzmán led a moderate government, focused on land reform, the creation of an interstate highway system, and the co-founding of the ISA (International Space Agency), designed as a unifying peace organization (although it's debatable about the success of that mission). Guzmán faced criticism for using the old Whig tradition of promoting rivals to the Supreme Court with the elevation of former candidates Dewey and Warren and for failing to crack down early enough against promotion of "Syndicalist Scare" (another example of a cross-party phenomenon).
Post 1960 footnotes
[31]
While Guzman put little effort into the Jungle Primaries for the Populist/Progressives and Independence Parties, he still managed to easily win re-election on the back of a scandal free first term and the catchy mariachi jingle “Guzman Goodman”. Whereas his first term had been focused mainly on domestic policy - at least in public, the secret ‘Kermit Doctrine’ named after his VP instigated a program of replacing or ‘influencing’ foreign powers to America’s way of thinking. This would change in his second term, which would come to dominated by international affairs - domestically programs continued as before, with continued farm-aid, further expansion of the highway system and checks and balances placed on the social welfare programs (but no roll back despite calls from more Conservative Whigs, the programs were far too popular for that). Shortly before his re-election, there was a Syndicalist Coup in the Kingdom of Hawaii and soon, much like in Japan, there was a powerless Monarch overseeing a workers run nation. It soon became clear that Hawaii was preparing itself as a forward air base for Japanese long-range bombers and other military hardware. While many in Guzman’s administration urged a military response, Guzman decided to negotiate and after some tension filled weeks, Hawaii announced they would dismantle their Armed Forces “in a show of international brotherhood.” In return, America removed a number of its remaining assets from Syria and other strategic locations. Interestingly, this crisis burnt out the "Syndicalist Scare" as most politicians came to understand where the true threat was coming from. Guzman maintained moderately high opinion poll ratings (which were becoming increasingly important) but he declined further renomination. A major war avoided, his eight years had been largely filled with peace and prosperity, but who would come to claim the benefits?

[32] Guzman's Administration was still very popular by 1964, and the Whigs easily saw higher polling numbers than any of the other Parties. The Whigs, hoping to cash out on this sentiment elected Vice President Roosevelt as their candidate. The Progressives and Populist Parties, fearing Roosevelt would win their Primary, merged forming the People's Party. The new party only allowed Party members to run, ending the worry that Kermit might steal their party away from them. The Independence primary, however, was extremely chaotic. With Roosevelt trying to take the party over like Guzman in 1956, party bigshots were trying to unite the party. Joseph Roosevelt Jr. was seen as a competent candidate, but he refused, endorsing Claude Pepper instead. William R. Hearst blocked Pepper, instead of asking Senator Morse. Morse beat out Kermit Roosevelt Jr. and Claude Pepper, choosing Pepper for his running mate to unite the party. With Everett Dirksen winning the People's Primary, the 1964 election seemed to be a Whig blowout. This was not the case when an 18-year-old Syndicalist Bill Clinton shot at Kermit Roosevelt 4 times during a rally in Tijuana. He hit Kermit 3 times in the chest, and one shot him in the neck. Kermit didn't die instantly, but to blood loss in the ambulance. The Whig party was shocked by the death of their Candidate and scrambled for a replacement as Kermit never selected a Running mate. President Guzman backed Arizona Governor Fidel Sanchez. Fidel was appointed as the Whig Candidate, with Ohio Senator Micheal DiSalle as his running mate. Sanchez easily won the election, as the popularity of Whigs after the assassination of Vice President Roosevelt skyrocketed. Fidel was sworn in on January 20, 1965 becoming the second Mexican President of the United States (and first born outside the United States). Sanchez was completely uninterested in International Affairs, leaving it to Secretary of State Henry Cabot Lodge and Secretary of Defense Joseph Kennedy Jr. What Sanchez was interested was domestic Policy. He met with Economists and Whig Policy writers to draft what he would call 'The New America Plan'. This plan would revitalize the country, creating more highways, rebuilding aging cities, fixing the countries dilapidated Water Pipe system, and Nationalize the Utility Industry. Only time would tell if this plan will be finished to completion, or thrown in the waste basket of History?

[33] The 1968 election was a repeat of the line-up four years earlier, but this time this vote was much closer. Forced into a Contingent Election for the first time in 100 years, all the major parties agreed that it was a miracle that it had not happened more recently - in fact, it was a lack of party loyalty on the part of party members and the public that that allowed popularity to fluctuate widely across all elections (both major and intermediate). Sánchez used his influence to engage with the Independence Party / Campo de la Independencia (of which Sánchez's cabinet already had some key members) and negotiated the fourth back-to-back Whig victory. He was allowed to continue their domestic politics largely unopposed, but provided support for long-standing Independence amendments, including the establishment of the District of Columbia as a state and the abolition of the Electoral College, replaced by a popular vote (going to a second round if no candidate received more than 40% in the first). Both passed relatively fast and they were received positively by the public. At the international level, the Sánchez administration received kudos for the détente with Syndicalist Japan and a growing commercial relationship with Europe (even though Sánchez himself remains uninterested). Yet could the Whigs pull off an unprecedented fifth electoral victory?

[34] The Constitutional Amendment that abolished the Electoral College fundamentally changed the American political system - though there was some debate whether it led to the Fifth, Sixth or even Seventh Party System. The first election held under the Popular Presidential vote was expectedly tight, with some confusion over the similar naming of the Whig and Independence lineups (a minor falling out between the two organisations over the constitutional change is most often cited as the reason that Sanchez did not run for a third term and for Pepper failing in his Independence Party bid). Howard Hughes III (son of Howard Hughes Jr. one of the “working man’s millionaires” who financed the Independence Party along with the Hearst and Kennedy dynasties) just managed a first place finish in the initial round, but was confident of receiving the votes of the People’s Party in the second, however when that support failed to eventuate, found himself losing to Harold Hughes, who wooed Progressive voters with an anti-death penalty and anti-Prohibition platform (a minor yet vocal issues that had been bubbling away in several states). Despite the Whig victory, Hughes maintained Joseph Kennedy as Secretary of Defense and even brought in his brother Robert as Attorney-General. Hughes largely continued the domestic programs of Guzman and Sanchez while simultaneously implementing a “kinder, gentler” approach to both health and crime. He also achieved success internationally, pursuing further detente, which resulted in the landmark Tri-Nations Lunar Mission through the ISA with the aim to land a multinational (American, Japanese and European/Russian) team on the moon by the decade's end. He did receive criticism from some with blurring the boundary between Church and State (taking America off the Gold and Silver Standards, he placed “In God We Trust'' on all American Currency), however, overall was praised for injecting some new life into a Whig administration that had been in power for twenty-years. The question was - was it enough to win yet another Whig term?

OOC: I don't have any idea of how to represent a first and second round Presidential election, so I've left it in the standard list format!

I can only manage the timelines one at a time, but we've had two good suggestions recently. Maybe we can make a list (of lists) to continue after this one. I can think of
A Less Tragic End to Camelot and now Nothing Bad Happens to the Grants
Perhaps we can keep a list of suggested lists to continue when this one finishes? (I can almost taste the finish line!)
A Less Tragic End to Camelot
Nothing Bad Happens to the Grants
 
Hi! Seeing as this thread has (sadly) been dead for a few months, I thought I'd revive it! This will be a reverse list, just as was done in the UK List thread a few weeks back. I've kept the first footnote short and vague so others can develop the story. Hopefully we can revive this thread and get it going again!

2020: John F. Kennedy Jr. / Veronica Escobar (Liberal) [1]
2020 def.
Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican)

[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
 
2020: John F. Kennedy Jr. / Veronica Escobar (Liberal) [1]
2020 def.
Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican)
2016: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal) [2]
2016 def. Al Gore/ Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis/ John Kasich (Republican)


[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
 
Thanks for reviving the thread! I had forgotten about the American version. There were also some great suggestions that we could continue on after this list. Only in a personal capacity, can we avoid references to incumbents and re-elections if possible? It takes the fun out of the updates a little.

BACK TO THE FUTURE?
A Reverse TL

20?? - 2017: Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic)
2012 def. Sean Penn / Bernard Sanders (Liberal), Herman Cain / Rodney Davis (Republican) [3]
2017 - 2025: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal)
2016 def. Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis/ John Kasich (Republican) [2]
2020 def. Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican) [1]

[3] Al Gore is a Bore! Al Gore makes me Snore! were just some of the posters seen at Gore’s public appearances - and many of these from his supports, who thought that Gore’s moderate platform a fresh contrast to the turbulent 2000’s, though critics feared he was failing to keep a rise on the growing Democratic shift to the right.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
 
Ready for some Hellworld? I'll be honest I'm just trying to imagine the worst TL possible for my Millennial ass to grow up in. I call it Paleocon Nightmare World:

1992: Bill Clinton/Al Gore, def. George H.W. Bush/Dan Quayle (as OTL)
* Monica Lewinsky scandal breaks earlier, denting Clinton's popularity from the start
* Seeing opportunity, Ross Perot ditches the reform party and instead seeks to take over the Republicans

1996: Pat Buchanan/Ross Perot, def. Bill Clinton/Al Gore
2000: Pat Buchanan/Ross Perot, def. John Edwards/Joe Biden
* 9/11 still happens as OTL
* Neocons gravitate to the Democrats after 8 years of Buchanan

2004: John Kerry/Harvey Weinstein, def. Rick Perry/Ron Johnson
* Kerry invades Iraq in 2005 with a similar cabinet to the OTL Bush Jr. Administration
* Kerry also chokes on a pretzel and dies that year

2005: Harvey Weinstein/Jesse Jackson
* Harvey Weinstein resigns in disgrace after his sexual history is uncovered
2006: Jesse Jackson/Hillary Clinton
2008: Donald Trump/Rick Santorum, def. Jesse Jackson/Hillary Clinton, using the most racist and sexist playbook you can imagine
2012: Donald Trump/Rick Santorum, def. Barack Obama/Amy Klobuchar (ditto)
2016: Anthony Weiner/Al Franken, def. Ted Cruz/Mike Pence
 
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Ready for some Hellworld? I'll be honest I'm just trying to imagine the worst TL possible.

1992: Bill Clinton/Al Gore, def. George H.W. Bush/Dan Quayle (as OTL)
* Monica Lewinsky scandal breaks earlier, denting Clinton's popularity from the start
* Seeing opportunity, Ross Perot ditches the reform party and instead seeks to take over the Republicans

1996: Pat Buchanan/Ross Perot, def. Bill Clinton/Al Gore
2000: Pat Buchanan/Ross Perot, def. John Edwards/Joe Biden
* 9/11 still happens as OTL
2004: John Kerry/Harvey Weinstein, def. Rick Perry/Ron Johnson
* John Kerry chokes on a pretzel and dies in 2005
2005: Harvey Weinstein/Jesse Jackson
* Harvey Weinstein resigns in disgrace after his sexual history is uncovered
2006: Jesse Jackson/Hillary Clinton
2008: Donald Trump/Rick Santorum, def. Jesse Jackson/Hillary Clinton
2012: Donald Trump/Rick Santorum, def. Barack Obama/Amy Klobuchar
2016: Anthony Weiner/Al Franken, def. Ted Cruz/Mike Pence
Uhhh wrong thread
 
BACK TO THE FUTURE?
A Reverse TL

20?? - 2013: Colin Powell / Al Gore (Democratic)
2008 def. Chuck Hagel / Cindy McCain (Republican), Cornel West / Tony Evers (Liberal) [4]
2013 - 2017: Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic)
2012 def. Sean Penn / Bernard Sanders (Liberal), Herman Cain / Rodney Davis (Republican) [3]
2017 - 2025: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal)

2016 def. Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis/ John Kasich (Republican) [2]
2020 def. Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican) [1]

[4]
Question: How did the Democrats manage to keep their big tent from bursting for so long? Answer: Nominate a war hero. Not many people could unite the left and right wings of the Democratic party quite like Colin Powell did. For all the in-party bickering, neither the radical right, led by Tom Tancredo, nor the leftist and centrist factions, could doubt his skill, track record, or acumen. Powell ran the government with a steady hand, and served as a voice of reason abroad, as social unrest grew in Europe. Powell and Secretary of State Bill Richardson were hailed for their statesmanship as Brittany and Catalonia formally declared independence from France and Spain respectively.
[3] Al Gore is a Bore! Al Gore makes me Snore! were just some of the posters seen at Gore’s public appearances - and many of these from his supports, who thought that Gore’s moderate platform a fresh contrast to the turbulent 2000’s, though critics feared he was failing to keep a rise on the growing Democratic shift to the right.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
 
BACK TO THE FUTURE?
A Reverse TL

20?? - 2013: Colin Powell / Al Gore (Democratic)
2004 def. Joseph Kennedy III / Al Sharpton (Liberal), Elizabeth Dole / Lincoln Chafee (Republican) [5]
2008 def.
Chuck Hagel / Cindy McCain (Republican), Cornel West / Tony Evers (Liberal) [4]
2013 - 2017: Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic)
2012 def. Sean Penn / Bernard Sanders (Liberal), Herman Cain / Rodney Davis (Republican) [3]
2017 - 2025: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal)

2016 def. Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis/ John Kasich (Republican) [2]
2020 def. Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican) [1]

[5]
While everybody had expected Powell to win the election, the biggest surprise came when the Republicans fell (just) into third party status. Publicly, this was put down to a mere protest vote, with the "EEC" (European Economic Collapse) beginning to have an impact on the American economic system. Some party insiders were concerned that if things didn’t change, it might spell their long term demise although others were confident that the growing Democrats tent wouldn’t stay up for long, although this was slightly undercut by the defection of their VP candidate to the Democrats shortly after the election.
[4] Question: How did the Democrats manage to keep their big tent from bursting for so long? Answer: Nominate a war hero. Not many people could unite the left and right wings of the Democratic party quite like Colin Powell did. For all the in-party bickering, neither the radical right, led by Tom Tancredo, nor the leftist and centrist factions, could doubt his skill, track record, or acumen. Powell ran the government with a steady hand, and served as a voice of reason abroad, as social unrest grew in Europe. Powell and Secretary of State Bill Richardson were hailed for their statesmanship as Brittany and Catalonia formally declared independence from France and Spain respectively.
[3] Al Gore is a Bore! Al Gore makes me Snore! were just some of the posters seen at Gore’s public appearances - and many of these from his supports, who thought that Gore’s moderate platform a fresh contrast to the turbulent 2000’s, though critics feared he was failing to keep a rise on the growing Democratic shift to the right.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.

OOC: I've left the ?? marks in place because even though I assume Colin Powell wouldn't be running for three elections in a row, I guess it is a perhaps a possibility in this world?
 
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BACK TO THE FUTURE?
A Reverse TL

???? - 2003: Patrick Buchanan / Elizabeth Dole
2000 def. Al Gore / Hillary Rodham (Democratic), Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
2003 - 2005: Elizabeth Dole / Vacant (Republican) [6]
2005 - 2013: Colin Powell / Al Gore (Democratic)

2004 def. Joseph Kennedy III / Al Sharpton (Liberal), Elizabeth Dole / Lincoln Chafee (Republican) [5]
2008 def.
Chuck Hagel / Cindy McCain (Republican), Cornel West / Tony Evers (Liberal) [4]
2013 - 2017: Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic)
2012 def. Sean Penn / Bernard Sanders (Liberal), Herman Cain / Rodney Davis (Republican) [3]
2017 - 2025: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal)

2016 def. Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis/ John Kasich (Republican) [2]
2020 def. Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican) [1]

[6]
After Buchanan easily defeated the divided center-left vote (most notable for the first of Al Gore's five nominations for either president or vice president), numerous late-night presenters joked; "His greatest success is keeping his campaign promises, his greatest failure is keeping his campaign promises. ” While Buchanan claimed that he kept America insulated from Europe's worst problems, 'Fortress America' was unable to keep its doors closed forever, a point that could not have been made more clearly as Buchanan, who claimed that the MERS pandemic was a hoax, succumbed to its impact. As VP Dole tried to unite the country, the writing was already on the wall for the GOP.
[5] While everybody had expected Powell to win the election, the biggest surprise came when the Republicans fell (just) into third party status. Publicly, this was put down to a mere protest vote, with the "EEC" (European Economic Collapse) beginning to have an impact on the American economic system. Some party insiders were concerned that if things didn’t change, it might spell their long term demise although others were confident that the growing Democrats tent wouldn’t stay up for long, although this was slightly undercut by the defection of their VP candidate to the Democrats shortly after the election.
[4] Question: How did the Democrats manage to keep their big tent from bursting for so long? Answer: Nominate a war hero. Not many people could unite the left and right wings of the Democratic party quite like Colin Powell did. For all the in-party bickering, neither the radical right, led by Tom Tancredo, nor the leftist and centrist factions, could doubt his skill, track record, or acumen. Powell ran the government with a steady hand, and served as a voice of reason abroad, as social unrest grew in Europe. Powell and Secretary of State Bill Richardson were hailed for their statesmanship as Brittany and Catalonia formally declared independence from France and Spain respectively.
[3] Al Gore is a Bore! Al Gore makes me Snore! were just some of the posters seen at Gore’s public appearances - and many of these from his supports, who thought that Gore’s moderate platform a fresh contrast to the turbulent 2000’s, though critics feared he was failing to keep a rise on the growing Democratic shift to the right.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
 
???? - 2001: Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
1996 def. Joe Biden / Richard Lugar (Republican), George Wallace III / Robert Casey (Democratic), Larry Sanders / Ralph Nader (Independent Liberal) [7]
2001 - 2003: Patrick Buchanan† / Elizabeth Dole (Republican)
2000 def. Al Gore / Hillary Rodham (Democratic), Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
2003 - 2005: Elizabeth Dole / Vacant (Republican) [6]
2005 - 2013: Colin Powell / Al Gore (Democratic)

2004 def. Joseph Kennedy III / Al Sharpton (Liberal), Elizabeth Dole / Lincoln Chafee (Republican) [5]
2008 def. Chuck Hagel / Cindy McCain (Republican), Cornel West / Tony Evers (Liberal) [4]
2013 - 2017: Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic)

2012 def. Sean Penn / Bernard Sanders (Liberal), Herman Cain / Rodney Davis (Republican) [3]
2017 - 2025: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal)

2016 def. Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis / John Kasich (Republican) [2]
2020 def. Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican) [1]

[7]
Warren Beatty's nomination was a gamble. Everyone knew that. The fact that he had never held elected office would either prove to be a huge boost or the death knell for the party. Thankfully, it was the former. The Democratic and Republican nominees, Governor George Wallace III and Senate Majority Leader Joe Biden, only represented "more of the same" in the eyes of the electorate. The left wing of the Liberal Party even walked out and nominated New York City Mayor Larry Sanders, but he failed to catch on. Beatty's charisma and the powerful oration of his running mate, Paul Wellstone, captured the hearts and minds of the working class and beyond. Ultimately, however, the charm wore off quick. Beatty was ultimately unprepared for the presidency. He was able to charm his fellow world leaders, but when it came time to negotiate, he floundered. Secretary of State Norman Finkelstein would later describe his main job as "criss-crossing Europe, putting out Beatty's fires." It was no wonder, then, that he would come in third in 2000.
[6] After Buchanan easily defeated the divided center-left vote (most notable for the first of Al Gore's five nominations for either president or vice president), numerous late-night presenters joked; "His greatest success is keeping his campaign promises, his greatest failure is keeping his campaign promises. ” While Buchanan claimed that he kept America insulated from Europe's worst problems, 'Fortress America' was unable to keep its doors closed forever, a point that could not have been made more clearly as Buchanan, who claimed that the MERS pandemic was a hoax, succumbed to its impact. As VP Dole tried to unite the country, the writing was already on the wall for the GOP.
[5] While everybody had expected Powell to win the election, the biggest surprise came when the Republicans fell (just) into third party status. Publicly, this was put down to a mere protest vote, with the "EEC" (European Economic Collapse) beginning to have an impact on the American economic system. Some party insiders were concerned that if things didn’t change, it might spell their long term demise although others were confident that the growing Democrats tent wouldn’t stay up for long, although this was slightly undercut by the defection of their VP candidate to the Democrats shortly after the election.
[4] Question: How did the Democrats manage to keep their big tent from bursting for so long? Answer: Nominate a war hero. Not many people could unite the left and right wings of the Democratic party quite like Colin Powell did. For all the in-party bickering, neither the radical right, led by Tom Tancredo, nor the leftist and centrist factions, could doubt his skill, track record, or acumen. Powell ran the government with a steady hand, and served as a voice of reason abroad, as social unrest grew in Europe. Powell and Secretary of State Bill Richardson were hailed for their statesmanship as Brittany and Catalonia formally declared independence from France and Spain respectively.
[3] Al Gore is a Bore! Al Gore makes me Snore! were just some of the posters seen at Gore’s public appearances - and many of these from his supports, who thought that Gore’s moderate platform a fresh contrast to the turbulent 2000’s, though critics feared he was failing to keep a rise on the growing Democratic shift to the right.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
 
19?? - 1997: Robert Dole / Patrick Buchanan (Republican)
1992 def. Daniel Graham / W. Jefferson Clinton (Democratic), Tom Harkin / Lyndon LaRouche (Liberal) [8]
1997 - 2001: Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
1996 def. Joe Biden / Richard Lugar (Republican), George Wallace III / Robert Casey (Democratic), Larry Sanders / Ralph Nader (Independent Liberal) [7]
2001 - 2003: Patrick Buchanan† / Elizabeth Dole (Republican)
2000 def. Al Gore / Hillary Rodham (Democratic), Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
2003 - 2005: Elizabeth Dole / Vacant (Republican) [6]
2005 - 2013: Colin Powell / Al Gore (Democratic)

2004 def. Joseph Kennedy III / Al Sharpton (Liberal), Elizabeth Dole / Lincoln Chafee (Republican) [5]
2008 def. Chuck Hagel / Cindy McCain (Republican), Cornel West / Tony Evers (Liberal) [4]
2013 - 2017: Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic)

2012 def. Sean Penn / Bernard Sanders (Liberal), Herman Cain / Rodney Davis (Republican) [3]
2017 - 2025: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal)

2016 def. Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis / John Kasich (Republican) [2]
2020 def. Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican) [1]

[8]
The GOP were a house divided. The pairing of moderate Dole and “new Conservative” Buchanan had even inspired Democrats to attempt to widen their base, however, the growing animosity over tax changes brewed into something more serious as Buchanan began to publicly voice his opposition to both the NAEA (North American Economic Alliance) and the continued presence of American troops in the Third Middle Eastern War (which many on both the left and right saw as the last gasp of Europe’s neo-colonial efforts). While Dole managed to rein in his VP (not before the politicized resignation of Colin Powell as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff), the damage was done as the Republican looked for a more uniting leader to take them into the next election. Dole and Buchanan would never fully repair their relationship even after Elizabeth Dole brokered a public rapprochement.
[7] Warren Beatty's nomination was a gamble. Everyone knew that. The fact that he had never held elected office would either prove to be a huge boost or the death knell for the party. Thankfully, it was the former. The Democratic and Republican nominees, Governor George Wallace III and Senate Majority Leader Joe Biden, only represented "more of the same" in the eyes of the electorate. The left wing of the Liberal Party even walked out and nominated New York City Mayor Larry Sanders, but he failed to catch on. Beatty's charisma and the powerful oration of his running mate, Paul Wellstone, captured the hearts and minds of the working class and beyond. Ultimately, however, the charm wore off quick. Beatty was ultimately unprepared for the presidency. He was able to charm his fellow world leaders, but when it came time to negotiate, he floundered. Secretary of State Norman Finkelstein would later describe his main job as "criss-crossing Europe, putting out Beatty's fires." It was no wonder, then, that he would come in third in 2000.
[6] After Buchanan easily defeated the divided center-left vote (most notable for the first of Al Gore's five nominations for either president or vice president), numerous late-night presenters joked; "His greatest success is keeping his campaign promises, his greatest failure is keeping his campaign promises. ” While Buchanan claimed that he kept America insulated from Europe's worst problems, 'Fortress America' was unable to keep its doors closed forever, a point that could not have been made more clearly as Buchanan, who claimed that the MERS pandemic was a hoax, succumbed to its impact. As VP Dole tried to unite the country, the writing was already on the wall for the GOP.
[5] While everybody had expected Powell to win the election, the biggest surprise came when the Republicans fell (just) into third party status. Publicly, this was put down to a mere protest vote, with the "EEC" (European Economic Collapse) beginning to have an impact on the American economic system. Some party insiders were concerned that if things didn’t change, it might spell their long term demise although others were confident that the growing Democrats tent wouldn’t stay up for long, although this was slightly undercut by the defection of their VP candidate to the Democrats shortly after the election.
[4] Question: How did the Democrats manage to keep their big tent from bursting for so long? Answer: Nominate a war hero. Not many people could unite the left and right wings of the Democratic party quite like Colin Powell did. For all the in-party bickering, neither the radical right, led by Tom Tancredo, nor the leftist and centrist factions, could doubt his skill, track record, or acumen. Powell ran the government with a steady hand, and served as a voice of reason abroad, as social unrest grew in Europe. Powell and Secretary of State Bill Richardson were hailed for their statesmanship as Brittany and Catalonia formally declared independence from France and Spain respectively.
[3] Al Gore is a Bore! Al Gore makes me Snore! were just some of the posters seen at Gore’s public appearances - and many of these from his supports, who thought that Gore’s moderate platform a fresh contrast to the turbulent 2000’s, though critics feared he was failing to keep a rise on the growing Democratic shift to the right.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
 
19?? - 1997: Robert Dole / Patrick Buchanan (Republican)
1988 def. Jesse Jackson / Paul Simon (Liberal), Lloyd Bentsen / Richard Gephardt (Democratic) [9]
1992 def. Daniel Graham / W. Jefferson Clinton (Democratic), Tom Harkin / Lyndon LaRouche (Liberal) [8]
1997 - 2001: Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
1996 def. Joe Biden / Richard Lugar (Republican), George Wallace III / Robert Casey (Democratic), Larry Sanders / Ralph Nader (Independent Liberal) [7]
2001 - 2003: Patrick Buchanan† / Elizabeth Dole (Republican)
2000 def. Al Gore / Hillary Rodham (Democratic), Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
2003 - 2005: Elizabeth Dole / Vacant (Republican) [6]
2005 - 2013: Colin Powell / Al Gore (Democratic)

2004 def. Joseph Kennedy III / Al Sharpton (Liberal), Elizabeth Dole / Lincoln Chafee (Republican) [5]
2008 def. Chuck Hagel / Cindy McCain (Republican), Cornel West / Tony Evers (Liberal) [4]
2013 - 2017: Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic)

2012 def. Sean Penn / Bernard Sanders (Liberal), Herman Cain / Rodney Davis (Republican) [3]
2017 - 2025: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal)

2016 def. Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis / John Kasich (Republican) [2]
2020 def. Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican) [1]

[9]
With the collapse of the Soviet Union (overwhelmed by its commitment to the "world revolution") a new day dawned in politics. Dole and Buchanan's "Conservative Dream Team" won a convincing victory, but were immediately beset by both national and international problems. With US troops finally able to return home from the African Peacekeeping Mission, the public was in no mood to engage forces in another conflict as Europe entered the Middle East power vacuum. While Dole was understanding and engaged American troops in humanitarian missions, he was still paralyzed by the promise of no new taxes that struggled to cover the cost of both military spending and a social service that was the envy of the Western world.
[8] The GOP were a house divided. The pairing of moderate Dole and “new Conservative” Buchanan had even inspired Democrats to attempt to widen their base, however, the growing animosity over tax changes brewed into something more serious as Buchanan began to publicly voice his opposition to both the NAEA (North American Economic Alliance) and the continued presence of American troops in the Third Middle Eastern War (which many on both the left and right saw as the last gasp of Europe’s neo-colonial efforts). While Dole managed to rein in his VP (not before the politicized resignation of Colin Powell as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff), the damage was done as the Republican looked for a more uniting leader to take them into the next election. Dole and Buchanan would never fully repair their relationship even after Elizabeth Dole brokered a public rapprochement.
[7] Warren Beatty's nomination was a gamble. Everyone knew that. The fact that he had never held elected office would either prove to be a huge boost or the death knell for the party. Thankfully, it was the former. The Democratic and Republican nominees, Governor George Wallace III and Senate Majority Leader Joe Biden, only represented "more of the same" in the eyes of the electorate. The left wing of the Liberal Party even walked out and nominated New York City Mayor Larry Sanders, but he failed to catch on. Beatty's charisma and the powerful oration of his running mate, Paul Wellstone, captured the hearts and minds of the working class and beyond. Ultimately, however, the charm wore off quick. Beatty was ultimately unprepared for the presidency. He was able to charm his fellow world leaders, but when it came time to negotiate, he floundered. Secretary of State Norman Finkelstein would later describe his main job as "criss-crossing Europe, putting out Beatty's fires." It was no wonder, then, that he would come in third in 2000.
[6] After Buchanan easily defeated the divided center-left vote (most notable for the first of Al Gore's five nominations for either president or vice president), numerous late-night presenters joked; "His greatest success is keeping his campaign promises, his greatest failure is keeping his campaign promises. ” While Buchanan claimed that he kept America insulated from Europe's worst problems, 'Fortress America' was unable to keep its doors closed forever, a point that could not have been made more clearly as Buchanan, who claimed that the MERS pandemic was a hoax, succumbed to its impact. As VP Dole tried to unite the country, the writing was already on the wall for the GOP.
[5] While everybody had expected Powell to win the election, the biggest surprise came when the Republicans fell (just) into third party status. Publicly, this was put down to a mere protest vote, with the "EEC" (European Economic Collapse) beginning to have an impact on the American economic system. Some party insiders were concerned that if things didn’t change, it might spell their long term demise although others were confident that the growing Democrats tent wouldn’t stay up for long, although this was slightly undercut by the defection of their VP candidate to the Democrats shortly after the election.
[4] Question: How did the Democrats manage to keep their big tent from bursting for so long? Answer: Nominate a war hero. Not many people could unite the left and right wings of the Democratic party quite like Colin Powell did. For all the in-party bickering, neither the radical right, led by Tom Tancredo, nor the leftist and centrist factions, could doubt his skill, track record, or acumen. Powell ran the government with a steady hand, and served as a voice of reason abroad, as social unrest grew in Europe. Powell and Secretary of State Bill Richardson were hailed for their statesmanship as Brittany and Catalonia formally declared independence from France and Spain respectively.
[3] Al Gore is a Bore! Al Gore makes me Snore! were just some of the posters seen at Gore’s public appearances - and many of these from his supports, who thought that Gore’s moderate platform a fresh contrast to the turbulent 2000’s, though critics feared he was failing to keep a rise on the growing Democratic shift to the right.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
 
19?? - 1997: Robert Dole / Patrick Buchanan (Republican)
1988 def. Jesse Jackson / Paul Simon (Liberal), Lloyd Bentsen / Richard Gephardt (Democratic) [9]
1992 def. Daniel Graham / W. Jefferson Clinton (Democratic), Tom Harkin / Lyndon LaRouche (Liberal) [8]
1997 - 2001: Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
1996 def. Joe Biden / Richard Lugar (Republican), George Wallace III / Robert Casey (Democratic), Larry Sanders / Ralph Nader (Independent Liberal) [7]
2001 - 2003: Patrick Buchanan† / Elizabeth Dole (Republican)
2000 def. Al Gore / Hillary Rodham (Democratic), Warren Beatty / Paul Wellstone (Liberal)
2003 - 2005: Elizabeth Dole / Vacant (Republican) [6]
2005 - 2013: Colin Powell / Al Gore (Democratic)

2004 def. Joseph Kennedy III / Al Sharpton (Liberal), Elizabeth Dole / Lincoln Chafee (Republican) [5]
2008 def. Chuck Hagel / Cindy McCain (Republican), Cornel West / Tony Evers (Liberal) [4]
2013 - 2017: Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic)

2012 def. Sean Penn / Bernard Sanders (Liberal), Herman Cain / Rodney Davis (Republican) [3]
2017 - 2025: John F. Kennedy Jr./ Veronica Escobar (Liberal)

2016 def. Al Gore / Howard Dean (Democratic), Rodney Davis / John Kasich (Republican) [2]
2020 def. Tom Tancredo / Brian Dahle (Democratic), John Kasich / Barbara Bollier (Republican) [1]

[9]
With the collapse of the Soviet Union (overwhelmed by its commitment to the "world revolution") a new day dawned in politics. Dole and Buchanan's "Conservative Dream Team" won a convincing victory, but were immediately beset by both national and international problems. With US troops finally able to return home from the African Peacekeeping Mission, the public was in no mood to engage forces in another conflict as Europe entered the Middle East power vacuum. While Dole was understanding and engaged American troops in humanitarian missions, he was still paralyzed by the promise of no new taxes that struggled to cover the cost of both military spending and a social service that was the envy of the Western world.
[8] The GOP were a house divided. The pairing of moderate Dole and “new Conservative” Buchanan had even inspired Democrats to attempt to widen their base, however, the growing animosity over tax changes brewed into something more serious as Buchanan began to publicly voice his opposition to both the NAEA (North American Economic Alliance) and the continued presence of American troops in the Third Middle Eastern War (which many on both the left and right saw as the last gasp of Europe’s neo-colonial efforts). While Dole managed to rein in his VP (not before the politicized resignation of Colin Powell as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff), the damage was done as the Republican looked for a more uniting leader to take them into the next election. Dole and Buchanan would never fully repair their relationship even after Elizabeth Dole brokered a public rapprochement.
[7] Warren Beatty's nomination was a gamble. Everyone knew that. The fact that he had never held elected office would either prove to be a huge boost or the death knell for the party. Thankfully, it was the former. The Democratic and Republican nominees, Governor George Wallace III and Senate Majority Leader Joe Biden, only represented "more of the same" in the eyes of the electorate. The left wing of the Liberal Party even walked out and nominated New York City Mayor Larry Sanders, but he failed to catch on. Beatty's charisma and the powerful oration of his running mate, Paul Wellstone, captured the hearts and minds of the working class and beyond. Ultimately, however, the charm wore off quick. Beatty was ultimately unprepared for the presidency. He was able to charm his fellow world leaders, but when it came time to negotiate, he floundered. Secretary of State Norman Finkelstein would later describe his main job as "criss-crossing Europe, putting out Beatty's fires." It was no wonder, then, that he would come in third in 2000.
[6] After Buchanan easily defeated the divided center-left vote (most notable for the first of Al Gore's five nominations for either president or vice president), numerous late-night presenters joked; "His greatest success is keeping his campaign promises, his greatest failure is keeping his campaign promises. ” While Buchanan claimed that he kept America insulated from Europe's worst problems, 'Fortress America' was unable to keep its doors closed forever, a point that could not have been made more clearly as Buchanan, who claimed that the MERS pandemic was a hoax, succumbed to its impact. As VP Dole tried to unite the country, the writing was already on the wall for the GOP.
[5] While everybody had expected Powell to win the election, the biggest surprise came when the Republicans fell (just) into third party status. Publicly, this was put down to a mere protest vote, with the "EEC" (European Economic Collapse) beginning to have an impact on the American economic system. Some party insiders were concerned that if things didn’t change, it might spell their long term demise although others were confident that the growing Democrats tent wouldn’t stay up for long, although this was slightly undercut by the defection of their VP candidate to the Democrats shortly after the election.
[4] Question: How did the Democrats manage to keep their big tent from bursting for so long? Answer: Nominate a war hero. Not many people could unite the left and right wings of the Democratic party quite like Colin Powell did. For all the in-party bickering, neither the radical right, led by Tom Tancredo, nor the leftist and centrist factions, could doubt his skill, track record, or acumen. Powell ran the government with a steady hand, and served as a voice of reason abroad, as social unrest grew in Europe. Powell and Secretary of State Bill Richardson were hailed for their statesmanship as Brittany and Catalonia formally declared independence from France and Spain respectively.
[3] Al Gore is a Bore! Al Gore makes me Snore! were just some of the posters seen at Gore’s public appearances - and many of these from his supports, who thought that Gore’s moderate platform a fresh contrast to the turbulent 2000’s, though critics feared he was failing to keep a rise on the growing Democratic shift to the right.
[2] In a narrow election, JFK Jr. came out on top with 270 electoral votes, beating the incumbent Al Gore.
[1] With the Liberals' popularity soaring as the Democrats pushed further and further to the right, it was no surprise that President John F. Kennedy Jr. would cruise to a second term in office.
A non-update response to the this thread 1) to give it a quick bump 2) to cross promote it with the similar List of UK Prime Prime Ministers, but most importantly 3) to discuss some of the ideas it's presenting.

@aaa @Miguel Angel @EbolaMan131

I think its shaping up to be quite an interesting list already with a few twists and turns, though fairly logically so. I especially liked how the Dole/Buchanan ticket turned from being the “Conservative Dream Team” to basically the death knell of the party (as they seem to have fallen into a relatively minor position). I’m very intrigued by the Liberal - Democrats split; I’m imaging that the POD will be back with a much stronger Dixiecrat element of the Democrats, although whether that will be as a result of the Liberal Party or a cause of its founding will remain to be seen. The only question I have is over Presidential elections themselves, with three fairly strong parties (all having held the White House for a number of years) I wonder how the elections themselves would work in practise?
 
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