List of monarchs III

POD: Philip the Handsome dies in 1495.

Holy Roman Emperors
1452-1493: Friedrich III (Hapsburg)
1493-1519: Maximilian I (Hapsburg) [1]
1519-1550: Wilhelm I (Wittelsbach) [2]
1550-1564: Ludwig V (Wittelsbach) [3]
1564-1569: Franz I (Capet-Valois) [4]





[1] To say Philipp the Handsome's death was devastating would be an understatement. The Hapsburg legacy was resting on his shoulders. Although there was a chance his father could have a son with his third wife, it was still a tragedy. His death also meant the alliance with the Catholics monarchs was now defunct. Maximilian pushed for the new Duchess of Burgundy, Margarete of Austria to be married to the Crown Prince of Spain, but her council of advisors wanted a more domestic mach. She was married instead to Karl II, Duke of Guelders in 1497, ruling together over Burgundy. King Fernando and Queen Isabel would marry their son, Juan to Anne of Navarre, their daughter Juana would marry King Manuel of Portugal. With Burgundy wanting to remain independent, although Margarete would never forget being jilted by the late King Charles of France, they would make a tentive peace with France, staying out of the Italian wars in the first years of the 15th century.

With Philipp's death, Maximilian's oldest male relative, before the births of his grandsons, was his nephew, Wilhielm of Bavaria, son of his sister Kunigunde of Austria and her husband, Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria. Kunigunde immediately began pushing her son forward, believing that he was the obvious choice, despite only being three-years-old. Meanwhile the Duchess of Burgundy and Guelders soon blessed her husband with a son in 1498, who she named Charles. The two women would often makes excuses to visit Maximilian in Vienna, often bringing their sons along with them.

Maximilian tried to have a son with his third wife, Bianca Maria Sforza, despite finding her uneducated and childish. Unfortunately, their union would only produced a daughter, albeit healthy, named Maria for Maximilian's first wife. When Bianca died in 1510, Maximilian tried for a fourth wife, but by then his health had become worse and he decided instead to invest his time grooming the heir he had, giving his chosen successor the kingdom of the Romans. He then gave hefty bribes to the Prince-Electors to ensure his chosen heir's victory. He is famously recorded saying "Wilhelm may not be of my dynasty, but blood of blood and will carry out the Hapsburg legacy all the same." In 1519, he died, ending the Hapsburg rule.

[2] Wilhelm was born in 1493 to Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria and Kunigunde of Austria. Wilhelm would ascend to the Dukedom in 1508 after the death of his father and would share it with his younger brother as Co-Regent due to him not seeking a spiritual career.

Wilhelm would ascend to the Holy Roman Emperorship in 1519 after the death of Maximilian I who named him as his heir. Wilhelm would face some scrutiny in his early reign as he was not direct blood of the previous Emperor but these complaints would be thrown out due to the Holy Roman Emperor being elected and not a hereditary succession. Wilhelm’s main issue during his reign would be the claim of Charles, heir of the and later Duke of Guelders as Charles III who before Wilhelm became Emperor was the other most likely successor to the Holy Roman Throne and would be a thorn in his side for years to come. Wilhelm would deal with Charles claim in his late reign when he would betroth his daughter Mecthild to Charles’ son to make a temporary peace between the two.

Wilhelm would also deal with the Reformation during his reign as well having been supportive of it early in his life but would become opposed to it after seeing its spread across the empire and would eventually ban all and any works of Martin Luther across the empire.

Wilhelm would marry Marie Jakobaea of Baden-Sponheim in 1522 and they would have several children together of which his son, Ludwig would succeed him after his death in 1550.

View attachment 755102

[3] Ludwig, born in 1526, was named after the last Wittlebech Holy Roman Emperor. His father and his mother made sure that he had a strict Catholic upbringing. They also sought out a Spanish bride, in hopes of reinstating the alliance his great-uncle had been hoping to make. In 1546 he would marry Anna of Spain, granddaughter of King Juan. Together they would head the Counter Reformation in Germany, doing their best to subdue the Lutheran princes. Despite their conservative leanings, Ludwig and Anna were instrumental to bring the renaissance to the imperial courts, building grand places and being great patrons of the arts. They would have seven children of which, five would survive into adulthood.

Albrecht_V_Bayern_Jugendbild.jpg


Religious tension finally came to a head in 1560 when the Schmalkaldic War broke out. The Duke of Burgundy and Guelders, now calling himself the King of Lotharingia,threw his support behind the Schmalkaldic league, both in hopes of gaining the imperial crown himself and because despite of the religious Charles III, the Low Countries had been converting to the reformed faith, leading Philippe to convert as well in spite his Catholic upbringing (how genuine his conversion is up for debate as he only did so when it became convenient).

While Louis did manage to score a decisive vistory agianst the Schmalkaldic league in the Battle of Mühlberg, capturing Elector John Fredrick the Second, he recived an injury that would become infected. He would die in 1564, leaving another election to decide whom should succeed him.

images

[4] with the election upon the death of Ludwig V, a most strange occurrence did happen, with the three ecclesiastical Electors and the Elector Palatine voting in unison for a single individual; François, Duke of Orleans, the second son of François I of France and younger brother of the current King; Henri II.
Rumours of bribery and coercion resounded immediately, but with the four votes in hand, none could oppose the legality of his election.
Taking the throne as Franz I, the Emperor was tasked with finally defeating the Schmalkaldic League, and did so at the Battle of Schmalkalden in 1565.
With these victories, his throne seemed secure, and to secure himself further, he did marry Susanna of Brandenburg-Ansbach, the daughter of the loyal commander Albert Alcibiades, and in a few short years of marriage, had three children.
All well was not to last, for the nature of his birth (being French, that is) was not forgotten, and in 1569, Franz I was assassinated in Cologne by a protestant rhinelander. After his death, the electors did choose ________.
 
Holy Roman Emperors
1452-1493: Friedrich III (Hapsburg)
1493-1519: Maximilian I (Hapsburg) [1]
1519-1550: Wilhelm I (Wittelsbach) [2]
1550-1564: Ludwig V (Wittelsbach) [3]
1564-1569: Franz I (Capet-Valois) [4]
1569-1604: Wilhelm II (van Egmond) [5] - Also King of Frisia.




[1] To say Philipp the Handsome's death was devastating would be an understatement. The Hapsburg legacy was resting on his shoulders. Although there was a chance his father could have a son with his third wife, it was still a tragedy. His death also meant the alliance with the Catholics monarchs was now defunct. Maximilian pushed for the new Duchess of Burgundy, Margarete of Austria to be married to the Crown Prince of Spain, but her council of advisors wanted a more domestic mach. She was married instead to Karl II, Duke of Guelders in 1497, ruling together over Burgundy. King Fernando and Queen Isabel would marry their son, Juan to Anne of Navarre, their daughter Juana would marry King Manuel of Portugal. With Burgundy wanting to remain independent, although Margarete would never forget being jilted by the late King Charles of France, they would make a tentive peace with France, staying out of the Italian wars in the first years of the 15th century.

With Philipp's death, Maximilian's oldest male relative, before the births of his grandsons, was his nephew, Wilhielm of Bavaria, son of his sister Kunigunde of Austria and her husband, Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria. Kunigunde immediately began pushing her son forward, believing that he was the obvious choice, despite only being three-years-old. Meanwhile the Duchess of Burgundy and Guelders soon blessed her husband with a son in 1498, who she named Charles. The two women would often makes excuses to visit Maximilian in Vienna, often bringing their sons along with them.

Maximilian tried to have a son with his third wife, Bianca Maria Sforza, despite finding her uneducated and childish. Unfortunately, their union would only produced a daughter, albeit healthy, named Maria for Maximilian's first wife. When Bianca died in 1510, Maximilian tried for a fourth wife, but by then his health had become worse and he decided instead to invest his time grooming the heir he had, giving his chosen successor the kingdom of the Romans. He then gave hefty bribes to the Prince-Electors to ensure his chosen heir's victory. He is famously recorded saying "Wilhelm may not be of my dynasty, but blood of blood and will carry out the Hapsburg legacy all the same." In 1519, he died, ending the Hapsburg rule.

[2] Wilhelm was born in 1493 to Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria and Kunigunde of Austria. Wilhelm would ascend to the Dukedom in 1508 after the death of his father and would share it with his younger brother as Co-Regent due to him not seeking a spiritual career.

Wilhelm would ascend to the Holy Roman Emperorship in 1519 after the death of Maximilian I who named him as his heir. Wilhelm would face some scrutiny in his early reign as he was not direct blood of the previous Emperor but these complaints would be thrown out due to the Holy Roman Emperor being elected and not a hereditary succession. Wilhelm’s main issue during his reign would be the claim of Charles, heir of the and later Duke of Guelders as Charles III who before Wilhelm became Emperor was the other most likely successor to the Holy Roman Throne and would be a thorn in his side for years to come. Wilhelm would deal with Charles claim in his late reign when he would betroth his daughter Mecthild to Charles’ son to make a temporary peace between the two.

Wilhelm would also deal with the Reformation during his reign as well having been supportive of it early in his life but would become opposed to it after seeing its spread across the empire and would eventually ban all and any works of Martin Luther across the empire.

Wilhelm would marry Marie Jakobaea of Baden-Sponheim in 1522 and they would have several children together of which his son, Ludwig would succeed him after his death in 1550.

View attachment 755102

[3] Ludwig, born in 1526, was named after the last Wittlebech Holy Roman Emperor. His father and his mother made sure that he had a strict Catholic upbringing. They also sought out a Spanish bride, in hopes of reinstating the alliance his great-uncle had been hoping to make. In 1546 he would marry Anna of Spain, granddaughter of King Juan. Together they would head the Counter Reformation in Germany, doing their best to subdue the Lutheran princes. Despite their conservative leanings, Ludwig and Anna were instrumental to bring the renaissance to the imperial courts, building grand places and being great patrons of the arts. They would have seven children of which, five would survive into adulthood.

Albrecht_V_Bayern_Jugendbild.jpg


Religious tension finally came to a head in 1560 when the Schmalkaldic War broke out. The Duke of Burgundy and Guelders, now calling himself the King of Lotharingia,threw his support behind the Schmalkaldic league, both in hopes of gaining the imperial crown himself and because despite of the religious Charles III, the Low Countries had been converting to the reformed faith, leading Philippe to convert as well in spite his Catholic upbringing (how genuine his conversion is up for debate as he only did so when it became convenient).

While Louis did manage to score a decisive vistory agianst the Schmalkaldic league in the Battle of Mühlberg, capturing Elector John Fredrick the Second, he recived an injury that would become infected. He would die in 1564, leaving another election to decide whom should succeed him.

images


[4] with the election upon the death of Ludwig V, a most strange occurrence did happen, with the three ecclesiastical Electors and the Elector Palatine voting in unison for a single individual; François, Duke of Orleans, the second son of François I of France and younger brother of the current King; Henri II.
Rumours of bribery and coercion resounded immediately, but with the four votes in hand, none could oppose the legality of his election.
Taking the throne as Franz I, the Emperor was tasked with finally defeating the Schmalkaldic League, and did so at the Battle of Schmalkalden in 1565.
With these victories, his throne seemed secure, and to secure himself further, he did marry Susanna of Brandenburg-Ansbach, the daughter of the loyal commander Albert Alcibiades, and in a few short years of marriage, had three children.
All well was not to last, for the nature of his birth (being French, that is) was not forgotten, and in 1569, Franz I was assassinated in Cologne by a protestant rhinelander. After his death, the electors did choose Charles of Frisia as Holy Roman Emperor.

[5] The Richest man in the rest of Europe, as King John of Portugal would famously coin him, or the Demon of the Rhine, as he would be called by Catholics Dutch, German and French alike, William of Egmont, Prince of Lotharingia and the Netherlands was born on a tempestuous night in Ghent, capital of the County of Flanders. Raised at the start of the great conflict between the inheritors of the House of Habsburg - the Dutch Egmonts and the Bavarian Wittelbachs, William would grow to become one of if not the most important member of the House of Egmont in this great conflict over the fate of Germany.

330px-Willem_Lodewijk_van_Nassau_1560-1620.jpg


Unlike his father, whom was essentially a crypto-catholic his whole life, William was raised a stalwart protestant, being educated in calvinist theology from the young age of 6 onwards. Complementing this religious education was the fact that William was, essentially, the bridge between the so called "Dutch Renaissance" and the "Frisian Age", or as some call it, the "Dutch Golden Age". Heavily inspired by the works of the likes of Erasmus and Botch, a frequent client and patron of Gerardus Mercator and his pupils, William would sponsor the beginnings of what would become "Dutch Baroque" and "Frisian Cartographing".

Made a commander in the Lotharigian armies of his father that served in the Schmalkaldic League, William would see conflict in Lorraine, the Rhineland and even in France, where he was handed his first big defeat at the hands of Duke Charles of Lorraine, who captured William and made him a hostage. The capture of William and his subsequent release came at a heavy price - the Dutch Kings would need to stop claiming, as such as prerogative already belonged to the Dukes of Lorraine, but would also not be able to claim the Duchy of Burgundy, which Charles of Guelders had earlier lost to the French already. In Exchange, the French would recognize the House of Egmont as "Kings of Frisia" in exchange for Dutch support in the election of Emperor Franz. Such support would not last for long.

Becoming King of Frisia in 1566, after the death of his father and the defeat of the Schmalkaldic League, William quickly become the center of "Protestant" allegiance in Germany. Marrying Christine of Hesse, William once more sought to connect the disunited Protestant Princes into an alliance that could shake Germany, and so on he succedeed. William's vast amounts of lands and riches made him confident enough to bid on his election after the assassination of Emperor Franz, (which has often been atributed to him), which he would be able to win through the protestant princes, bribery and military pressure apllied on the eclesiastic princes of the Rhineland.

Although there is a lot to talk about during his large reign, such as the birth of the first Frisian colony in the New World - New Holland in Manhattan island, whose capital become the small colonial outpost of New Amsterdam, alongside some islands in the caribbean - most importantly Jamaica. William would also try to prey on the Portuguese Empire, but the Portuguese navy would destroy his efforts. The Dutch East India Company would be founded with his blessing with the mission of finding another way of getting Indian goods without having to pay the Portuguese for it.

His religious driven cause, such as his scourging of many monasteries in Lorraine and the Netherlands was opposed by the French on one side and William's arch-rival, the self-proclaimed King Maximilian of Bavaria and Bohemia, also ruler of Austria. Maximilian and William would be the heads of the conflict now known as the "Nine Years War", a large stalemate that brought innumerable human suffering and economic devastation to Germany. William's famed lack of empathy for Catholics saw him attempt quasi-genocide against many Catholic populations, with his most infamous acts being in Wallonia and the Lower Rhineland. It was from these acts that he gained the nickname "the Demon of the Rhine" and became a rather infamous ruler for the time. William and Maximilian would finally come to the negotiating table and would essentially divide the Holy Roman Empire between Catholic and Protestant leagues led by each other, and the two would grow old without further conflict, although the deep hostility would remain for the rest of their life times. William would exhaust more resources in propping up and securing protestantism outside the Holy Roman Empire, such as in England or Scandinavia, and would lose the important cities of Lille, Tournai and Ypres to France in 1594, the last war of his reign. Afterwards, an aged and sick William would focus mainly on modernizing the governmental structure of his Kingdom and sponsoring the growing population of artists and masons that sprung up in the various urban centers of his realm.

He would die quietly into the night in 1604, just a few hours after his greatest rival.. He was succeded as Holy Roman Emperor by ____________.
 
POD: The First Mongol Invasion of Poland leads to a decisive victory that sees the installation of Qadan Khan as the Khan of the proposed Silver Horde as vassal to the Mongol Empire

Khans and Khatuns of the Silver Horde (Khaganate of Poland)
(1241 - 1279) Qadar Khan (Ögedeids) [1]


1657253165242.png

Qadar Khan as Khan of the Silver Horde and Khagan of Poland

Born sometime in the early 1200s as the son of Ögedei Khan, the Great Khagan of the Mongol Empire, and a concubine, Qadar Khan was afforded the best childhood a Mongol Prince was entitled to. Much of his early life is unattested, as the Mongols had scarce resources at the time devoted to the solitary prince, but he was known to be militarily adept at the very least. When the time came for the Mongol Invasion of Hungary, Qadar Khan was chosen alongside Baidar Khan and Orda Khan to lead a diversionary force into Poland at the age of 25. The Invasion of Poland went swimmingly, surprisingly and what was originally intended to be the sideshow became the main show as the forces of Henry II were not only defeated, but they completely fell apart, leading the interior of Poland to fall to the Mongols by 1241 after some protracted sieges.

Qadar Khan drove his armies all the way to Kraków which he captured and made the seat of the Khaganate of Poland, with himself as Khagan and with the city renamed Krakov, which was more in line with Mongol phonology. Though the Mongol Invasion of Hungary had failed, the invasion of Poland was a rousing success, and Qadar Khan settled down as his cousins returned to Mongolia to administer his new realm. The immediate problem was that the Polish subjects he now ruled over were envious of their new overlords and not very accepting of the Mongols, and the Mongol cavalry he commanded had a problem raiding any settlement they found heightening local resistance against his rule. From Silesia, Hungary, and the Holy Roman Empire, raids against his new nation continued frequently. Until 1245 he remained generally peaceful, administering his realm and slowly removing dissent against his rule in Poland. At the same time he was called back to Mongolia to elect a new Khagan of Mongolia, and during that time, his realm was attacked. He returned in 1246 to find his realm on the brink of collapsing with Bohemian and Silesian forces nearing Krakov. Qadar Khan rode to the outskirts of the city and with his detachment, encircled the incoming army and defeated the invasion, restoring the territorial sovereignty of the Khaganate of Poland.

To find temporary peace at least, Qadar Khan married Constance of Wrocław as his only wife - who was left widowed after her husband died in the fighting the year prior. Qadar Khan had indirectly also adopted monogamous marriage, slowly adopting some of the customs of the land that he now ruled over. Constance and Qadar found it hard to have affection with one another during the first years of their marriage - largely due to communication problems and differences in religion. Qadar Khan was a committed Tengri-Buddhist whilst Constance was a committed Christian. Nevertheless, they did come to have respect for one another in due time, and the couple would have five children in total, all of whom lived to adulthood. As Infighting befell the Mongols in the Steppe, Qadar turned his back on the homeland and finally adopted Poland as his home by 1250. Nevertheless, that didn't mean that he left all semblances of Mongol life behind. He invited Tengri-Buddhist missionaries from Mongolia, China, and Central Asia and settled them in Poland. Though he was tolerant of Christianity for the sake of administration and having no rebellions, his focus on Tengri-Buddhism did lead to a good amount of conversions in Poland under his rule, and by the time of his death, all major noble families in Poland had adopted Buddhism to varying degrees, and syncretism between Buddhism and Christianity had become rife by the end of his reign. Mongol loanwords began to enter Polish as well over time.

Of course, Qadar Khan did have a hard time ruling despite his tolerant views that ensured his reign survived. Daniel of Galicia's Rebellion from 1256 - 1263 nearly captured Krakov and the Invasion of Poland by Bohemia from 1267 - 1274 nearly dethroned Qadar both times, but both times Qadar managed to win using military wit and using his charisma to at least instill some values of loyalty to him in the populace. He had also reined in his Mongol troops who had settled down in Poland, making sacking and raiding much more controlled than before. When he died in 1279 with his wife and children by his side, he died a peaceful man having achieved a long-lasting legacy at least within Europe.
 
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Considering Lithuania was still pagan during this period, what would be interesting would be them adopting the Buddhist-Christian syncretism the Mongols brought about.
 
POD: The First Mongol Invasion of Poland leads to a decisive victory that sees the installation of Qadan Khan as the Khan of the proposed Silver Horde as vassal to the Mongol Empire

Khans and Khatuns of the Silver Horde (Khaganate of Poland)
(1241 - 1279) Qadan Khan (Ögedeids) [1]
(1279 - 1313) Baidar Khan (Ögedeids) [2]


1657253165242.png


Qadar Khan as Khan of the Silver Horde and Khagan of Poland
[1] Born sometime in the early 1200s as the son of Ögedei Khan, the Great Khagan of the Mongol Empire, and a concubine, Qadar Khan was afforded the best childhood a Mongol Prince was entitled to. Much of his early life is unattested, as the Mongols had scarce resources at the time devoted to the solitary prince, but he was known to be militarily adept at the very least. When the time came for the Mongol Invasion of Hungary, Qadar Khan was chosen alongside Baidar Khan and Orda Khan to lead a diversionary force into Poland at the age of 25. The Invasion of Poland went swimmingly, surprisingly and what was originally intended to be the sideshow became the main show as the forces of Henry II were not only defeated, but they completely fell apart, leading the interior of Poland to fall to the Mongols by 1241 after some protracted sieges.

Qadar Khan drove his armies all the way to Kraków which he captured and made the seat of the Khaganate of Poland, with himself as Khagan and with the city renamed Krakov, which was more in line with Mongol phonology. Though the Mongol Invasion of Hungary had failed, the invasion of Poland was a rousing success, and Qadar Khan settled down as his cousins returned to Mongolia to administer his new realm. The immediate problem was that the Polish subjects he now ruled over were envious of their new overlords and not very accepting of the Mongols, and the Mongol cavalry he commanded had a problem raiding any settlement they found heightening local resistance against his rule. From Silesia, Hungary, and the Holy Roman Empire, raids against his new nation continued frequently. Until 1245 he remained generally peaceful, administering his realm and slowly removing dissent against his rule in Poland. At the same time he was called back to Mongolia to elect a new Khagan of Mongolia, and during that time, his realm was attacked. He returned in 1246 to find his realm on the brink of collapsing with Bohemian and Silesian forces nearing Krakov. Qadar Khan rode to the outskirts of the city and with his detachment, encircled the incoming army and defeated the invasion, restoring the territorial sovereignty of the Khaganate of Poland.

To find temporary peace at least, Qadar Khan married Constance of Wrocław as his only wife - who was left widowed after her husband died in the fighting the year prior. Qadar Khan had indirectly also adopted monogamous marriage, slowly adopting some of the customs of the land that he now ruled over. Constance and Qadar found it hard to have affection with one another during the first years of their marriage - largely due to communication problems and differences in religion. Qadar Khan was a committed Tengri-Buddhist whilst Constance was a committed Christian. Nevertheless, they did come to have respect for one another in due time, and the couple would have five children in total, all of whom lived to adulthood. As Infighting befell the Mongols in the Steppe, Qadar turned his back on the homeland and finally adopted Poland as his home by 1250. Nevertheless, that didn't mean that he left all semblances of Mongol life behind. He invited Tengri-Buddhist missionaries from Mongolia, China, and Central Asia and settled them in Poland. Though he was tolerant of Christianity for the sake of administration and having no rebellions, his focus on Tengri-Buddhism did lead to a good amount of conversions in Poland under his rule, and by the time of his death, all major noble families in Poland had adopted Buddhism to varying degrees, and syncretism between Buddhism and Christianity had become rife by the end of his reign. Mongol loanwords began to enter Polish as well over time.

Of course, Qadar Khan did have a hard time ruling despite his tolerant views that ensured his reign survived. Daniel of Galicia's Rebellion from 1256 - 1263 nearly captured Krakov and the Invasion of Poland by Bohemia from 1267 - 1274 nearly dethroned Qadar both times, but both times Qadar managed to win using military wit and using his charisma to at least instill some values of loyalty to him in the populace. He had also reined in his Mongol troops who had settled down in Poland, making sacking and raiding much more controlled than before. When he died in 1279 with his wife and children by his side, he died a peaceful man having achieved a long-lasting legacy at least within Europe.

[2] The eldest son of Qadar Khan and Constance of Wroclaw, Baidar Khan was raised more by his father than his mother, and became a devoted Buddhist, though paying some lip service to the faith of his mother for the sake of legitimacy, getting himself baptized and crowned by Christian priests as Piotr I, King of Poland. Despite this, Baidar's main claims to fame are the patronage of Buddhist monasteries established all across the lands of the Silver Horde, the migration and patronage of Jewish communities in the region, and the conversion of Lithuania and the Baltic regions, which he would take over from the German knightly orders in the first years of his reign. Under Baidar's rule, the Lithuanians and Baltic peoples would begin to rapidly convert to Buddhism and form a major loyalist faction to the khan, even as Christian heresies proliferated in the Silver Horde's lands thanks to the khan's tolerance of all religions.

In the middle of the khan's reign, the Silver Horde raided deep into the Holy Roman Empire in a preemptive strike against an incipient crusade, and it was during this time that the Silver Horde first started bringing in Ashkenazi Jews to settle some of the emptied cities of the region (or perhaps, more accurately, this period first saw Ashkenazi Jews flee into the lands of the Silver Horde as German peasants started committing pogroms against them).

To secure his rule over the northern lands, Baidar Khan married a Buddhist-converted daughter of the pagan Lithuanian Grand Duke Mindaugas, who had sworn fealty to the khan, in 1283, and the couple had many children. By 1313, the khan passed, leaving the khanate in the hands of ____.
 
POD: The First Mongol Invasion of Poland leads to a decisive victory that sees the installation of Qadan Khan as the Khan of the proposed Silver Horde as vassal to the Mongol Empire

Khans and Khatuns of the Silver Horde (Khaganate of Poland)
(1241 - 1279) Qadan Khan (Ögedeids) [1]
(1279 - 1313) Baidar Khan (Ögedeids) [2]
(1313 - 1335) Altan Khan 'The Dragon' (Ögedeids) [3]

Khagans and Khatuns of the Khaganate of Poland
(1313 - 1335) Altan Khan 'The Dragon' (Ögedeids) [3]


1657253165242.png



Qadar Khan as Khan of the Silver Horde and Khagan of Poland
[1] Born sometime in the early 1200s as the son of Ögedei Khan, the Great Khagan of the Mongol Empire, and a concubine, Qadar Khan was afforded the best childhood a Mongol Prince was entitled to. Much of his early life is unattested, as the Mongols had scarce resources at the time devoted to the solitary prince, but he was known to be militarily adept at the very least. When the time came for the Mongol Invasion of Hungary, Qadar Khan was chosen alongside Baidar Khan and Orda Khan to lead a diversionary force into Poland at the age of 25. The Invasion of Poland went swimmingly, surprisingly and what was originally intended to be the sideshow became the main show as the forces of Henry II were not only defeated, but they completely fell apart, leading the interior of Poland to fall to the Mongols by 1241 after some protracted sieges.

Qadar Khan drove his armies all the way to Kraków which he captured and made the seat of the Khaganate of Poland, with himself as Khagan and with the city renamed Krakov, which was more in line with Mongol phonology. Though the Mongol Invasion of Hungary had failed, the invasion of Poland was a rousing success, and Qadar Khan settled down as his cousins returned to Mongolia to administer his new realm. The immediate problem was that the Polish subjects he now ruled over were envious of their new overlords and not very accepting of the Mongols, and the Mongol cavalry he commanded had a problem raiding any settlement they found heightening local resistance against his rule. From Silesia, Hungary, and the Holy Roman Empire, raids against his new nation continued frequently. Until 1245 he remained generally peaceful, administering his realm and slowly removing dissent against his rule in Poland. At the same time he was called back to Mongolia to elect a new Khagan of Mongolia, and during that time, his realm was attacked. He returned in 1246 to find his realm on the brink of collapsing with Bohemian and Silesian forces nearing Krakov. Qadar Khan rode to the outskirts of the city and with his detachment, encircled the incoming army and defeated the invasion, restoring the territorial sovereignty of the Khaganate of Poland.

To find temporary peace at least, Qadar Khan married Constance of Wrocław as his only wife - who was left widowed after her husband died in the fighting the year prior. Qadar Khan had indirectly also adopted monogamous marriage, slowly adopting some of the customs of the land that he now ruled over. Constance and Qadar found it hard to have affection with one another during the first years of their marriage - largely due to communication problems and differences in religion. Qadar Khan was a committed Tengri-Buddhist whilst Constance was a committed Christian. Nevertheless, they did come to have respect for one another in due time, and the couple would have five children in total, all of whom lived to adulthood. As Infighting befell the Mongols in the Steppe, Qadar turned his back on the homeland and finally adopted Poland as his home by 1250. Nevertheless, that didn't mean that he left all semblances of Mongol life behind. He invited Tengri-Buddhist missionaries from Mongolia, China, and Central Asia and settled them in Poland. Though he was tolerant of Christianity for the sake of administration and having no rebellions, his focus on Tengri-Buddhism did lead to a good amount of conversions in Poland under his rule, and by the time of his death, all major noble families in Poland had adopted Buddhism to varying degrees, and syncretism between Buddhism and Christianity had become rife by the end of his reign. Mongol loanwords began to enter Polish as well over time.

Of course, Qadar Khan did have a hard time ruling despite his tolerant views that ensured his reign survived. Daniel of Galicia's Rebellion from 1256 - 1263 nearly captured Krakov and the Invasion of Poland by Bohemia from 1267 - 1274 nearly dethroned Qadar both times, but both times Qadar managed to win using military wit and using his charisma to at least instill some values of loyalty to him in the populace. He had also reined in his Mongol troops who had settled down in Poland, making sacking and raiding much more controlled than before. When he died in 1279 with his wife and children by his side, he died a peaceful man having achieved a long-lasting legacy at least within Europe.

[2] The eldest son of Qadar Khan and Constance of Wroclaw, Baidar Khan was raised more by his father than his mother, and became a devoted Buddhist, though paying some lip service to the faith of his mother for the sake of legitimacy, getting himself baptized and crowned by Christian priests as Piotr I, King of Poland. Despite this, Baidar's main claims to fame are the patronage of Buddhist monasteries established all across the lands of the Silver Horde, the migration and patronage of Jewish communities in the region, and the conversion of Lithuania and the Baltic regions, which he would take over from the German knightly orders in the first years of his reign. Under Baidar's rule, the Lithuanians and Baltic peoples would begin to rapidly convert to Buddhism and form a major loyalist faction to the khan, even as Christian heresies proliferated in the Silver Horde's lands thanks to the khan's tolerance of all religions.

In the middle of the khan's reign, the Silver Horde raided deep into the Holy Roman Empire in a preemptive strike against an incipient crusade, and it was during this time that the Silver Horde first started bringing in Ashkenazi Jews to settle some of the emptied cities of the region (or perhaps, more accurately, this period first saw Ashkenazi Jews flee into the lands of the Silver Horde as German peasants started committing pogroms against them).

To secure his rule over the northern lands, Baidar Khan married a Buddhist-converted daughter of the pagan Lithuanian Grand Duke Mindaugas, who had sworn fealty to the khan, in 1283, and the couple had many children. By 1313, the khan passed, leaving the khanate in the hands of Adai Khan.

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Altan Khan's official portrait upon ascension
Born in 1285 to Baidar Khan, Altan ascended to the throne of the Khaganate of Poland and Khanate of the Silver Horde at the age of 28. Where his father had been more of an administrative guy, Altan Khan took after his Lithuanian heritage and their more warlike tendencies. After he reached his majority, he was the leading commander of the Silver Horde's military forces against any external foe that would try to fight against the might of the Silver Horde. Upon his ascension as Khan and Khagan, he immediately came into conflict with the Golden Horde in the East, with their Khan - Altan Khan's sixth cousin once removed - trying to assert a claim to the Polish Throne as well. Seeing that this was being scrutinized greatly by the European Powers with ideas of the conquest of Polish territory, Altan Khan quickly made a move, allying himself with the unlikely candidate - the Bohemians and marrying Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia, securing his western flank. With the Habsburgs on the rise in Vienna, the Bohemians had now decided to make peace with the Silver Horde to focus on things close to home. Altan and Elizabeth would have three children who would grow into adulthood.

The War between the Golden Horde and the Silver Horde from 1313 - 1319 ended in a military stalemate for the most part, as while Altan had better tactics, the Golden Horde had more numbers in Russia. The war ended with the Silver Horde annexing Ruthenian Galicia from the Golden Horde instead, and not much else. While the Silver Horde Succession War hadn't been a rousing success for Altan Khan's military career, his exploits afterward would prove him worthy of his nickname 'the Dragon'. As Hungary warred itself between King Charles I of Hungary and the nation's powerful oligarchs, Stefan Uroš II Milutin of Belgrade officially asked for Polish support in 1320. Altan Khan was eager for more conquest and answered the call. His troops - an amalgamation of fast and hard cavalry tactics inherited from their Mongol heritage and the heavily armored heritage of Europe clashed down on the Pannonian plains in support of Stefan and the Vovoide of Transylvania against Charles I of Hungary. For two years, the Hungarians and the Poles would fight against each other indecisively but in 1323, when the two lead armies met with one another on the fields of Miskolc, Charles I miscalculated, and he was captured by Altan Khan whilst his army was routed. Altan Khan entered Buda without a fight afterward. To prevent their realms from entering the Mongol realm in Europe, even allied Stefan declared the independence of the Banate of Vojvodina and the Transylvanians declared their duchy to be independent. Viceroy of Croatia, John, Duke of Durrazo, and Charles I's cousin was declared King of Croatia. Altan was not ruffled and instead annexed Hungary proper and Slovakia into the Silver Horde. At the same time, to his north, the Teutons had started to raid into Northern Poland once again.

Deciding to end the Teuton threat once and for all, in 1325, the great Khan invaded Teutonic Prussia, and by 1328 was besieging Konigsberg at the head of a massive army. The next year, Konigsberg fell, and the Teutonic Order fled to Hamburg where the Hanseatic League gave them refuge. Nevertheless, Prussia had fallen to Altan Khan and was annexed into the Silver Horde as well. After 1329, Altan Khan mostly settled down to a peaceful life and administered the realm. In 1330 Buddhism was officially declared to be the State Religion after nearly a century of growing Buddhist influence in Polish society. Old Polish transitioned into Middle Polish with many Mongol loanwords and the language started to be written in the Mongol Script for official business as well. Altan Khan also shed most of the other hanging on of Mongolia and was the first Silver Horde Khan to call himself Polish declaring the Khaganate of Poland to be the primary title of the Horde. In 1331, after years of military jurisdiction, Hungary, Slovakia, and Prussia were directly integrated into the Silver Horde. In 1333, the Silesian Succession Crisis saw both Bohemia and the Silver Horde dividing the Duchy of Silesia in half, partitioning it with one another.

In 1335, at the age of 50, Altan Khan died, having expanded the Silver Horde to become twice as large. Upon his death, for his military prowess, he gained the moniker 'the Dragon'. He was succeeded to the Khaganate by_________.
 
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