List of monarchs III

Kings of France and Navarre
1289-1316: Louis X "The Quarrelsome" (House of Capet)
1316-1356: Jean I "The Posthumous" (House of Capet) [1]
1356-1395: Henri II "The Thunderbolt" (House of Capet) [2]
1395-1407: Philippe V "The Unremarkable" (House of Capet) [3]
1407-1431: Jean II "The Strong" (House of Capet) [4]
1431-1468: Henri III "The Wise" (House of Capet) [5]
1468-1500: Jean III (
House of Capet) [6]
1500-1515: François I (House of Capet) [7]
1515-1560: Jeanne I (House of Capet) [8]
1560-1587: Louis XI (House of Capet) [9]
1587-1592: Louis XII "the Brief" (House of Capet) [10]
1592-1639: Marie I (House of Capet) [11]
1639-1651: Henri IV (House of Capet) [12]
1651-1700: Jean Philippe "the Philosopher" (House of Capet) [13]
1702-1723: Louis XIII (House of Capet) [14]
1723-1775: Louis XIV “the Beloved and Benevolent(House of Capet) [15]
1775-1805: Louise "The Zealous" (House of Capet) [16]
1805-1816: Jean IV Albert (House of Capet-Courtenay) [17]
1816-1861: Henri V (House of Capet-Courtenay) [18]
1861-1866: François II "the Old" (House of Capet-Courtenay) [19]
1866-1879: The War of the Brothers/ War of the Four Louis/ War of the Five Kings [20]
1879-1882: Phillipe VI (House of Capet-Courtenay-Anjou) [20]


[1] Louis X "The Quarrelsome" died in 1316, leaving a four-year-old daughter and a pregnant wife behind. Jean was born in November 1316. The king would sleep soundly in his cradle as his relatives fought for power over him. His mother, Clementina and his great-uncle Charles of Valois had to contend with Jean's regent,his uncle Philippe the Tall, Count of Poitiers.

Unfortunately for them, Philip was well liked and a shrewd statesman, reforming the laws of France and even discontinuing some of the unpopular policies of his brother, Louis. To consolidate his control over the young king, he arranged a marriage between Jean and his eldest daughter, Joan (1308). Because they were first cousins, Philip would get a papal deposition. When he fell ill in 1322, he pushed for the wedding to happen straight away despite the groom only being six. He would die before it could happen.

With Philip's death, Jean needed a new regent. His remaining uncle, Charles de Le Marche took over. During this time, tensions with England were at an all time high despite Jean's aunt Isabella being married to the King of England. In 1325, Jean's great-uncle, Charles of Valois managed to take back the duchy of Aquitaine and regent Charles, declared that King Edward II's French titles were forfeit. It would be in 1327 when King Edward II was disposed would Aquitaine be returned to England in the hands, of Jean's cousin, Edward III, albeit a much reduced territory.

In 1328, Charles also died, leaving Jean as the only male left in the main branch of the House of Capets. Charles of Valois's son Philip would take over as regent. In 1330, at fourteen-years-old Jean would marry his cousin, Joan. She would birth a son in 1331, dying due to childbed fever, leaving Jean a teenage widower with a babe. It was imperative that he married as quickly as he could.

He would marry Bonne of Luxembourg (1315) in 1332. They had eleven children before her death in 1349 of bubonic plague. Despite having several sons, Jean would marry for a third and final time in 1350 to Eleanor of Sicily I1325), they would have three child before he died.

Shortly, after his second marriage, Jean was declared of age and allowed to rule, although he would forever rely on the advice and counsel of Philip of Valois.

However, Jean's relations with England and his cousin Edward would begin to deteriorate with Jean feeling that Aquitaine and the rest of the French lands that were under English control belonged to France. In 1337, Robert III of Artois, who had committed forgery to illegally obtain an intermittence, sought refuge in England. When Edward refused to hand him over, the twenty-one-year old king declared Aquitaine forfeit. In retaliation, Edward III accused Jean of being an imposter, saying that real Jean of France died after five days and a cockoo was placed in his stead. (This rumor has been debunked by modern DNA tests). Edward proclaimed himself the rightful King of France as the sole living grandson of King Philip IV.

King Jean fought alongside his friend and cousin, Philip of Valois who was give the Duchy of Aquitaine. The Battle of Crécy in 1546 would be a disaster for the French army with Philip injured and Jean barely escaping with his life. It was a catastrophe for the French and would feature the loss of Calais.

Three years later, Queen Bonne would die of the plague which would destroy one third of the population. It was an tragedy. Jean's third wedding was a somber event with the continued hostilities with England, the recovery from the plague and the death of Jean's friend Philip.

In 1555, the war with England would restart and Jean would lead his troops in Battle of Poitiers where in a miraculous moment, he manged to subdue and capture Edward, the Black Prince. Unfortunately, Jean would not have long to gloat for a year later, he would die of dysentery. His son, Henri, would take care of the negotiations with England.

[2] The second son of Jean the I, Henri was made Duke of Orleans at birth, for his father intended for him to be the strong right hand of his elder brother, Phillipe, when he came of age. Thus, Henri was given a thorough martial education, although the boy soon proved himself far too intelligent and talented to be limited to the sword and lance. Being given many tutors from places as close as Normandy and Languedoc, and as far as Bohemia and the Eastern Roman Empire, both Henri and his brothers, Phillipe, Charles and Hercules were brought in a growing cosmopolitan Paris, under the strict but benevolent watch of their father.

Thankfully for King Jean, his second son was growing to pay dividends - at the bare age of twelve, the young Henri was already defeating boys four and five years older in the tiltyard, and stayed at the side of his tutor, the Constable of France, during various military meetings of importance. As as young Knight and Duke, Henri would gain his spurs during the battles of Crecy and would fight in more battles, featuring in the defense of Calais where he led a small army that proved a great thorn for the English. He would make several friends at this stage, such as the Duke of Burgundy, the Count of Alençon and many others.

He would retire to Orleans then, where the Young Duke took upon himself the duty of ruling. His close watch, support for the artisans of the Duchy and his heavy involvement in the local economy made him a very beloved ruler, as Henri attracted Jewish, German and Italian glass-makers and Greek and Sicilian silk-weavers. Thus, Orleans became a famous commercial center, closely linked to both the Aquitaine and Champagne trade routes, the city becoming famous for it's glass and becoming the first and major center of what would come to be known as "Capetian Silk".

When the second war of King Jean's reign with England started, Henri faced a early loss which blackened his heart - his brother, leading a charge of French infantry-men during a battle against the Prince of Wales, was shot down by English Longbowmen. The fall of the Dauphin's standard almost broke the French army, but Henri, raging, took up the Orleans and Dauphine standards - and charged straight into the English lines, The sight of the Duke of Orleans, surrounded by no more than twenty retainers, charging alone at the thousand Englishmen raised the spirits of his army, who followed the new Crown Prince into the battle. The Battle of Puymartin is the first, and perhaps most famous victory of Henri.



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The heavy defeat handed to the Black Prince forced him to retreat North, where the English fell into the clutches of the army led by King Jean and Phillipe of Valois. His army tired and restless, Henri took upon himself to siege every single English occupied castle in Aquitaine, withdrawing the English poison root and stem. Just as he had finished the pacification of Aquitaine, and with his army reinforced by the locals, the news of the death of his father reached him. After a hasty trip to Reims, Henri was crowned, promising on God and France to forever expel the English from the continent. It was a promise Henri would make due on.

With Edward of Wales in his hands, the English were fighting with one hand behind their backs - Edward the III did not wish to risk his eldest and most favoured son, who was a captive in Paris, even if he was treated well and the French seemed to mostly ignore him, Henri was far too focused on his goal. Despite Edward calling for truces several times, Henri led his armies and a myriad of Free Companies northwards, intent on ending the Plantagenet stain on Capetian France. The battle of Hainaut (1358) and the Siege of Calais (1359) were both French victories, with Henri changing many of the tactics used by the French armies in the face of English innovations, such as the Longbow. The support of the Duke of Burgundy, and his wife, Margaret, Countess of Flanders, proved to be the tipping point that would see the English Crown finally expelled from France. The following Treaty of Chartres saw Edward the III renounce all of his rights to French territorry, including Calais and Aquitaine, in return for his son, who would be sent on a ship to England with the returning English diplomats.

Victory cemented Henri upon his throne - the young royal was, perhaps, the most powerful King of France since Louis IX, and his influence was felt everywhere. In some places, Henri was almost revered as a warrior Saint. But Henri proved to not only be a warrior. With the Black Plague still making making periodic returns, taking with it another one of Henri's brothers, Charles Duke of Berry, Henri turned to the sickness with the same ferocity he had faced the English. He and his advisors reinforced French hospitals, founding many in the many major municipalities of France, and they also correctly identified rats and such other vermin as the bringers of the plague, and the French people followed Henri's adoption of cats as pets - the Kingdom of France become henceforth known as the "Kingdom of Cats", for cats were found in every street of Paris during Henri's reign.

The death of so many serfs, peasants and nobles left a lot of land in the hands of the crown - and Henri was anything if not a greedy land grabber. Aquitaine was re-bought from the Valois, who were in deep crisis due to some shady investments, alongside the County of Anjou but a few years later. The Angevin Kings of Naples, who faced revolts in Provence, also sold the full rights to Provence to Henri in 1374, with the new French professional army, modeled and using as a base the many Free Companies that had sprouted in Gascony, Normandy and Burgundy during the English wars, was one of the most ferocious and effective armies in Europe at the time. His brother Hercules would receive the County of Nice as appanage after the seizure, alongside his other title of Count of Montpensier.

The death of the last Burgundian Duke, Phillipe the I, a great friend of Henri, would also see the Duchy of Burgundy, the Counties of Boulogne and Auvergne, reunited with the French Crown. Deep in grief for the death of his friend, the wifeless King was soon approached by Phillipe's widow, Margaret of Flanders. She too, needed a new husband, for she was heirless, and the marriage would be advantageous for them both. Both young and fertile, the young couple would grow to love each other. Margaret of Flanders brought along many rich lordships, such as Flanders, Rethel, Nevers, Artois and the County of Burgundy, in the Holy Roman Empire. It was the perfect marriage, and the couple soon grew to love each other deeply. As said before, Margaret would prove a dutiful wife and an excellent queen. She birthed the King no more than 11 healthy children at birth.

With so many lands in the hands of the monarchy, Henri's power was almost absolute. He cemented French laws, creating new taxes, reforming and modernizing old legal systems, reformed the army, as mentioned before, encourage commerce and would further increase the royal domain by seizing the lands of the House of Hainault, taking Hainaut for himself and delivering the County of Zeeland to his wife. He would make his brother Hercules, whom he trusted deeply, alongside his titles of Montpensier and Nice, Duke of Holland as well. With the royal coffers full, Henri would become famous for the love he and his wife shared of palace-building, with Henri building almost twenty palaces during his reign, many of which are tourist attractions today.

Deeply beloved, and surrounded by allies, due to the fact his army of sisters was married off to many European Princes and French nobles, a loyal and stateswoman of a wife and a large brood of children, Henri took to feasting and drinking heavily in his later years. He and his wife, would, literally, grow fat and old together, but the aged King would quickly become an alcoholic. While wintering in Navarre, Henri would catch a cold after walking in the Pyrenean snows while riding to his rural residence where his wife was staying. The simple cold, however, would be enough to topple a great King. Henri died in 1395, being succeeded by his son Philippe.

[3] Named for both his late uncle and his father's friend, Philippe was born in 1371. It was hard for Philippe growing up as he stood in the shadows of his grandfather and father. His grandfather had been born a king and against all odd lived and ruled for forty years and single-handedly saved the depleted main branch the Capet dynasty. Meanwhile his father had manged to successfully expel the English and the plague from his lands.

Both were figures of legends, leaving Philippe rather small in comparison. Because of this he had a massive inferiority complex with traces of paranoia.

In 1385, he would marry Isabeau of Bavaria. The marriage was suggested to make an alliance against the Holy Roman Emperor. The marriage at first seemed to blossoming into a love match. However, the early death of their son, Louis drove a wedge between the two. It would slowly get worse when Isabeau's next two children would die in the cradle.

They seemed to have reconciled in 1382, when their next son, also called Louis, was born. The couple became even closer when in 1495, when Henri died and Philippe would become king in a join coronation with his wife.

However, Isabeau proved herself an unpopular queen unlike her much beloved predecessor (who had retired to her native Flanders). She was haughty, quarrelsome and a spendthrift. There were also rumors circulating that she was unfaithful.

Although his wife had given him four more children, Philippe would distant himself from his wife, becoming distrustful of her. Things would come to a head when in 1401, their son, Louis died before his ninth birthday. This would be the tipping point. In June 1401, Isabeau would miscarry her baby (speculated to be because the stress she was under,although others wonder if there was a darker reason such as her husband beating her). In August, she would be arrested on the charges of adultery. If a queen being arrested wasn't scandalous enough, the king's distant cousin, Jean of Valois was accused of being her lover. Both were held in prison until their trial.

It was largely a farce of trial with half the witnesses being enemies of either the Duke of Valois or the queen and the other half spoke only hearsay. Unfortunately, the judges declared the Duke and the Queen guilty above the protests of their family.

Philippe would commute their punishment to life imprisonment despite being well in his rights to execute them both. Unfortunately, Jean would die just two years later of bad treatment at the hands of his jailers.

In 1407, Philipee would be found stabbed in his bed, with the words JUSTICE crudely carved in his forehead. His brother, Jean, would succeed him.

[4] Jean the II was the younger brother of Phillipe the V, having been given the title of Duke of Anjou and Count of Maine when he reached his majority, becoming an extremely influential figure in the reigns of his late father and brother. Known for his violent character and his enormous size (Jean was often compared to the Titans of Hellenic Myths), the young Duke of Anjou was promised at birth to Phillipa Plantagenet, daughter of Edward the IV (Edward the Black Prince)

Jean's first years as ruler of his duchy were ... special, in a way. Anjou had been for decades now one of the centers of the Anglo-French conflicts, but with the English exiled from the continent, it was prime time, at least in Jean's eyes, to renew Anjou and Maine as centers of French Chivalry and commerce, and this he did so. Tourneys, fairs and meeles became the glamour of Anjou during these times, and the immigration of Jews and various other french ethnicities to the land proved useful in making Anjou grow. It was during these times that Jean travelled to England to fetch his bride - despite English attempts at breaking the marriage, due to the fact that both of her brothers, Edward and Richard, were still childless, his arrival in London broke the reverie. Not much is known of whatever negotiations happened during Jean's two-month stay in England, but he did return to France with with the "Fair Maid of Kent".

King Jean has always been described as a zealous christian, due to his support for the crusader movements in the Balkans and Anatolia, and his attacks on the many Kingdoms and Emirates of North Africa, but he should also be remembered as a patron and protector of the Jewish people. Many jews worked in the growing bureaucracy and administration of France during this period, and Jean's head of health both as Duke and as King was a jew, whom he hired after Phillipa miscarried their first child. Of the six next children the couple would have, all would be taken to term.

Jean rose to the throne over his two nieces - whom he would raise and adopt at his own. Extremely furious at the way his brother died, Jean would hunt down the partisans of Isabeau of Bavaria, conducting a purge of much of the nobility. The House of Valois would survive through the mercy of Constance Capet, the young Countess of Angouleme and Valois, who protected her husband and children from the fury of her brother.

Afterwards, Jean's reign was mostly quiet, other than some interventions and support for Crusader missions in the Balkans and North Africa. Jean's Meditteranean navy would conquer the cities of Algiers and Bone, whom the young French army would defend. For this, Jean and all future King's of France would gain the title of his Most Christian majesty. He died in 1431, being succeeded by his eldest son, Henri.

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[5] Born in 1404, Henri was the first child born after the miscarriage, to Jean and Phillipa Plantagenet and although the parents were over the moon to have their first child in their arms, they were distressed at the birth defect which affected Henri, his left leg was missing from above the knee, apart from this his health was perfect.
Jean's Jewish head of health, stated that this was not a curse but a test from God and as Henri grew, his parents and tutors were able to see that, he was able to compensate his missing limb, by strengthening his upper body, as well as studying hard.
One of his Jewish tutors was also able to create a saddle that balanced him on the horse, so he was still able to train as much as his brother(s), uncles and cousins.

By the age of 16, in 1420, Henri was serving his father in the treasury as well as attending diplomatic meetings, during one such meeting his father and Henri would arrange the marriage of Henri to his cousin, Marie of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy (1381–1433) and Mary of France (1380-1436), herself daughter of Henri II and Margaret of Flanders, sister of Philippe and Jean.

The marriage would take place in 1426 and was a well attended event, with royalty from around Europe, followed by a tense bedding ceremony, which went without a problem.
The marriage would be a happy one and lead to the birth of many healthy children.

Like his father and grandfather, Henri, would arrange marriages to European Monarchs, forming stronger alliances, better trading deals and saw a long period of peace.

Internally, following years of working in the treasury, Henri, was able keep the royal purse ever growing, allowing him to finance projects, such as new cathedrals, one of which would be dedicated to his father, Jean the Most Christian Majesty, with Pope Eugene IV, beginning the process of awarding Jean a sainthood.
Not only were his policies beneficial to the nobility but they also brought great economic prosperity to his subjects, greatly increasing the population.
During the conclave of 1447, there were talks of new policies being brought in to support Christian monarchs to expel all Jews from their country, French cardinals were ordered by Henri to not vote for these policies, this would lead to French Cardinal, Guillaume d'Estouteville being voted in at the election, becoming Pope John XXIII, in honour of Henri’s father, Jean.

One of the most major acts of his rule was to bring about a constitution as at this point in French history, they lacked a formal constitution; the regime essentially relied on custom. The constitution was discussed by Henri, the high ranking nobles and the senior members from the Parliament of Paris.
The constitution, cemented the law of male succession only and the absolute monarchy role as God’s chosen voice in France, second only to the Pope.
Catholicism would be the state religion and Catholic Churches would be separate from taxes. Other religions would be tolerated in France as long as they are peaceful.

His death in 1468 aged 64 years old, would be felt heavily in his home nation and across Europe as his many letters of advice to monarchs had helped them deal with internal financial and constitutional crises.
He was succeeded by his son Jean.


[6] Born in 1431, he was the firstborn son of Henri II and Marie. He was born with all his limbs, but without his voice. Despite this, he was a very intelligent boy who was passionate about literature and the theater. He was trained from his childhood to one day be king, and he took to the job with aplomb. Soon he was attending state meetings alongside his father, and even was the one behind the idea of making peace with the house of Valois. His disinterest in marrying or siring children exasperated his advisors, but since he had many legitimate nephews, Jean ignored them the same way he ignored all potential betrothal contracts. He founded a dozen schools and wrote many books under his own name, and was a big fan of attending plays, being for his whole life a patron of the arts. He also promoted religious tolerance, but this was an unpopular policy with his Christian nobility. His court festivals, building projects and tapestries were all known for their rich colors, and he spent almost ruinous sums on them. But this accomplished his aim of bolstering royal prestige through lavish cultural display, and his reign is known today for the artistic flourishing simulated by his patronage as well as the frequent hosting of Europe's leading artists and writers. He also rewrote the constitution by his father, abolishing the law of only male succession in favor of male-preference primogeniture, and forced the church to pay taxes. He died after drinking some poisoned wine, having died single and childless.

[7] François of Anjou was born in 1469, the first born son of Louis, Duke of Anjou and Beatrice of Savoy. His father died when he was four years old and he raised by his mother and his older sister. He married Ippolita Viscounti, daughter of the Duke of Milian, in 1485. It was not a grand match, but one that brought coin and a link to a dynastic house of Italy. They would have nine children.

After the death of King Henri in 1500, François and his wife would be crowned in a grand ceremony. The new king would restlessly search for the man who had poisoned his uncle, determined to gain justice to his uncle. To his anger, he found out that the culprit was the Count of Bar, an old friend of his. Angered at such a personal betrayal, he had the man and his hired assassin boiled alive in oil as was the customary punishment in those days for poisoners.

For the next fifteen years, François was determined to bring the culture of France to new heights, using his wife's Italian connection to invite all sorts of artists. Upon hearing of Enrique of Castile's patronizing exploration of the new world, the king sponsored several explorers.

The king was a lover of fine food, fine wine and fine women. Unfortunetly, this would soon wear his body out. King François would die of gout in 1515, leaving the kingdom in the hands of Jeanne.

[8] Jeanne, born in 1486 was the oldest of eight daughters of François and Ippolita, her sole brother having died in his adolescence. Thanks to her grand-uncle, Jean III, whom she was named after, she was able to succeed to the throne. She was considered to be a graceful beauty, with a vivacious and lively personality and an affable nature. She regularly hosted masques and tournaments that thoroughly dazzled her contemporaries at her lavish court, and her patronage of the arts made a significant contribution to French culture. She was determined to show that she, as a woman ruling France, could maintain the prestige and magnificence established by her predecessors. However, she never married. She knew that marriage meant she had to lose power to her husband, and whichever man she selected could provoke political instability or even insurrection. Instead, she had a series of short-term favorites at court. Though her single status led to accusations of irresponsibility, her silence with regards to such matters, however, strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup. She performed her ceremonial role as queen in strict accordance with formal court etiquette, and regularly and punctually fulfilled all representational duties that the court life demanded of her. She was also an example of Catholic piety and was famed for her generosity to the poor and needy through her philanthropy, which made her very popular among the public her entire life as queen. Though she followed a largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised France's status abroad. Under Jeanne, the nation gained a new self-confidence and sense of sovereignty. She knew that a monarch ruled by popular consent, and therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth. She passed away due to illness, single and childless, but surrounded by dozens of her sisters' children and grandchildren.


[9} Born Monsieur le Prince, Louis was from birth the eldest of the Blood Princes and the highest of France's peers, holding titles such as the Duchy of Touraine, the Counties of Angouleme, Vexin, Forez, Perche and Boulougne. Being raised to a senior most position within French society and the class elites, Louis was given an extensive education of matters of war and statescraft. He was born after the death of his father, the previous Duke, to Princess Contansce Zephyrine of France, second eldest of King François' brood of girls. Thus, he was also raised in the belief that he might be heir to the French throne one day, a destination, that did come to prove itself true in the future.

Louis' adulthood was marked by a series of family compacts that the political war he would wage with his royal aunt when securing his majority unfold - in essence, Jeanne's refusal to name him successor, and her efforts to tamper with his efforts to succeed to the Duchy of Luxembourg, alongside Jeanne's refusal to grant him his desired titles of Governorship over French Flanders. Louis' would still manage to win over the widowed Agnes of Luxembourg as his wife - bringing the Duchy of Luxembourg, the County of Namur and the Duchy of Limburg into his possessions. This vast increase of land and Louis' exploits in the Netherlands made him an enemy of various of his aunt's favourites, and of his aunt herself, but Louis' purse alongside his savy knowledge of french politics saved his skin.



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Jeanne eventually gave away, and Louis and Agnes became King and Queen of France. The first decrees of Louis' reign where changing the rules of succession in France to Salic law, something that greatly pleased the Princes of the Blood. Had Louis' elder aunt, Margarite, had children, the throne of France would have passed outside the House of Capet for the first time in centuries, right onto the hands of the von Luxembourgs who ruled in Spain, or if Louis himself had never been born into the House that had taken the Luxembourgian lands in Central Europe, the von Habsburgs. It was a tense situation, none so because Louis derived legitimacy from his mother over his aunts, but Louis' rank as first prince of the blood made the situation clearer.

Luxembourgian (Technically, the House of Luxembourg-Avis) had ruled the whole of the Iberian Peninsula for two generations now, with the Kingdoms having been unified during the reigns of Manuel the I of all Spanish realms, but Spain, despite growing into the first colonial Empire, with vast conquests in America and many outspots in Africa, Arabia and India, had kept itself outside of continental affairs for some while now, too busy with it's overseas exploits and it's drive into Morocco. France and Spain had mostly kept the peace, other than a few disagreements here and there. But Louis would decidedly draw France into Spain's sights - he, seeing monarchs such as the English and Spanish Kings enriching themselves, sent vast fleets of exploration to the new world, setting up colonies firstly in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, where Breton (The Bretons were rather autonomous vassals of the French Kings, but still French nonetheless) and Norman fishermen were making a fortune, establishing contancts with the natives and forming settlements in Acadie (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) and Terre-Neuve (Newfoundland) but further south, other even more successful colonies were formed, eventually forming two sister colonies in the southern tip of Africa and South America. Taking inspirations from the Franks, the two forming colonies would be called Neustrie-Neuve (New Neustria, OTL La Plata) and Nouvelle Austrasie (New Austrasia, OTL Cape-colony).

Fascinated by the so called Columbian exchange, France was one of the first country to massively import American crops, which first became a delicacy but then a highly sought product that could easily supplement the volatile french diet. The sudden growth in population caused by this ammelioration of France's health standards during Louis' reign would create massive movements towards France's colonies but allow France the manpower to conquer more Algerian coastal cities and make war in Germany and Spain at the same time. France would annex the Duchy of Brabant and tribute from the Prince-Bisphoric of Liege during this time, alongside recognition of Lorraine as a French Peerage and thus, vassal. In Spain, the new King was not so successful, as he lost a few border towns with Spain and almost lost Navarre twice, but France's highly experienced army pulled through for the Kingdom. Louis dreamnt of forming a universalist monarchy that would cover the whole of Europe eventually.

He, clearly, did not succeed in all his goals. He died aged and old, surrounded by his various children. He was succeeded by his son Louis.

[10] Louis, the twelfth of his name was already a man in his sixties, sick with goat so it was almost certain he would not last long. Sometimes, he would be called the placeholder king, although none would dare say it to his face, as he had a ferocious temper. In the defense of Louis, he had spent must of his time as his father's heir, running his various lands with great skill. However, in just two years of his reign, he was already bedridden, thrusting his heir in the position of regent.

In 1592, he would finally pass on, allowing his daughter, Marie to succeed him.

[11] Marie was the only living child of Louis XII, her siblings all having died in infancy. She was trained to be queen from a young age and accepted as heir, since there had been a successful predecessor. Like Jeanne I, she also never married, being content with the possibility of being succeeded by her cousins or their children. However, unlike her ancestress she was not considered to be charming or feminine, and was physically unattractive, having suffered smallpox as a child. She was unyielding and authoritarian in her rule, unable to forgive or forget any slight made against her, with a worse temper than her father ever had. She maintained most of the ministers of her father, and exiled her mother from court after discovering that she was having an affair with one of Marie's servants. She was careful never to favor anybody over anyone else, knowing what happened if people thought the monarch was being monopolized. She ruled by council, and her mother was a key figure, although Marie only occasionally took her advice. She continued the tradition of importing American crops, and considered a colonial venture into Africa, but ultimately was talked out of that. She won a war against Germany and Spain, who wished to reclaim Brabant and Lorraine, and negotiated the purchase of French slaves afterwards. There is no evidence that she had expressed any romantic or sexual interest in anybody, despite contemporary speculations of the queen perhaps being a lesbian. She shared her father's love of the virginals, which had been one of her first instruments, and in her free time she often composed music. In the sphere of women's fashion, Marie introduced the wearing of thin black veils that fell in waves across the face. France emerged as the leading European power during her reign, and warfare had defined her foreign policy. She passed away of what is now known to be diabetes, but then was thought to be poison.


[12] Henri IV was the nephew of Louis XII, having been born as the oldest son of younger brother Charles in 1575. As a result, when Marie died in 1639 with Marie refusing to marry, Henri IV would become King at the age of 64, being already an elderly man. However, Henri IV, despite expectations that his reign would be a short one as a placeholder for one of his seven children with Sophia, Princess of Denmark, would prove to be a surprisingly competent and effective ruler, reigning for over a decade before his death in 1651 with his reign being largely a continuation of Marie's reign in its policies, even if Henri would prove to be more personable than his predecessor. When Henri IV died in 1651, he would be succeeded by his son Jean Philippe.


[13] Jean Philippe had an interest in philosophy and the classics during his childhood. During his tenure as the Dauphin, he began collecting the works of Greco-Roman philosophers of ancient and late antiquity.

Upon his ascension as King of France, he took it upon himself to build his personal Chateau at Versailles. There, he hosted banquets and debates with the great philosophers by the later half of the 17th Century.

Heavily distracted by his deep esoteric interest, he left the governance of the realm to his brothers. However he married Anne Claudia, a daughter of Honore V Auguste, Prince of Monaco for whom he was a great friend and fellow philosopher as well. Jean Philippe and Anne Claudia only had a son and daughter in their respectable marriage.

The King would pass away peacefully in his Chateau at Versailles in 1702, his heir succeed him as King Louis the Thirteenth.

[14] Louis was already in his thirties when he became king, having married Louisa of Iberia in 1688, he already had three children with her and would go on to have five more after he ascended the throne. Louis was a man who born in the wrong century, wishing everyone could go back to the time of knights and crusades. He had a rather romantic view of war and glory. He even petitioned the pope to fight launch a holy war against the Ottoman Empire.

Louis was a man who played hard, enjoying competive sports far more than what he called dusty old books. Unfortunately, that would be his downfall. In 1723, he had decided to try his hand at horse racing, viewing it as close as he would ever get to having a joust. The horse stumbled and fell, breaking its leg and Louis fell off his horse, hitting his head on a rock, dying almost instantly.

Despite his glory-seeking nature, the twenty years of his reign had been peaceful and without incident. He was succeeded by his son, Louis.

[15] Born in 1692, Louis was the second child and first born son of Prince Louis and Princess Louise, during the reign of his grandfather Jean Philippe. The king was going to name his grandson after himself, however once he held his new born grandchild, a tear of happiness rolled down his cheek and he would say to his own son, “he looks just like you, when you were born, another you, in appearance and now name, my darling grandson, Prince Louis.”

His education was conducted mainly by His Eminence Cardinal, Louis-Antoine de Noailles, Archbishop of Paris and Duke of Saint-Cloud, who taught with piety, zeal, and active lessons. He is noted for taking the Prince out into the kingdom to teach him to observe his people, Louis would help Noailles to raise money to feed famine victims in 1709, including selling of some of his own wears as well as guilt tripping other nobles to financially contribute.
This caring and compassionate traits would carry on into his own reign.

In 1716, 24 year old Louis would go on to marry Maria second daughter of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and his second wife, Theresa Sobieska, daughter of King John III Sobieski of Poland.
Maria wasn’t his planned wife, when negotiations started, Louis was planning on marrying her older sister, Theresa, however her father had other plans and Theresa would end up marrying Prince Frederick Augustus, son of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, who was later elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1712 to help strengthen his claim for the polish throne.

For the next seven years the young couple would have a strenuous relationship, Prince Louis would spend his times setting up charity organisation and orphanages, with money from his own pocket, while the Princess enjoyed socialising with members of the high nobility and wanting more money to spend on herself.

They would have two children during this time and only one more, once taking the throne. It was during one of his charity events at the Notre-Dame, when his former tutor, 72 year old, Cardinal Noailles, informed him of his fathers death. It is rumoured that upon hearing the news, the new king would comment “god can’t protect people against their own reckless actions.”

A few days later he would return to the Notre-Dame, for a short and simple coronation ceremony, as he did not wish to waste money on a flamboyant exhibition, much to the annoyance of his wife, the new Queen.

Even before becoming king, he was renowned in the land for his kindness and the people of France would dub him “le Bien-Aimé et le Bienveillant (the beloved and benevolent).

His continued support for charities and supporting progressive policies that benefitted the lower class of French, which he was able to do without upsetting the nobility too much.

At the death of his wife, in 1747, he allowed Maria, a grand funeral, stating it was the least he could do for his children’s mother.
He would not remarry instead enjoying the solitude and more time available to spend in Prayer as well as being a grandfather to his loving grandchildren.

His reign carried on his father’s peace, using his connection in the Catholic Church as well as Protestant alto keep any minor disputes in Europe contained diplomatically.

His death in 1775, came following a short illness weakened him down and suffered a heart attack, which took him from his mortal realm into the gracious presence of the lord in heaven. his death was mourned greatly by his people, he was succeeded by his oldest daughter, Louise.

[16] Louise was the oldest daughter of Louis XIV, with only two younger sisters she was seen as her father's heiress. After a war of succession, she rose to power by having all her male cousins either executed on trumped up charges of treason or declared ineligible, despite the Salic law theoretically preventing this. Once in power she quickly abolished Salic law, which she hated, and implemented male preference primogeniture. She is best known for her deeply devout nature, her persecution of Catholics and the mass exile of Catholics who had previously held powerful positions in her father's court. She married her sisters off to Protestant kings abroad, while she herself remained unmarried much like Jeanne I and Marie I. She repealed all of her father's religious edicts and passed through a strict law on heresy and witchcraft, which she saw as the cause for her parents' failed marriage. She crushed an uprising that had sprung up as a result of having her cousins executed, and for good measure, she had the internal organs of the ring-leaders force fed to their loved ones while their carefully preserved heads were strung up in her palace walls, a most macabre form of decoration. Despite this, she was an excellent military commander, winning two wars each against Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. She was also, like her father, greatly charitable, donating large amounts of money to charities and founding universities, and she managed to curb the nobility of their power with no bloodshed. She died in her sleep, apparently one of her maids had strangled her, but this is not proven.


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[17] With the death of Louise, Queen-Regnant of France, the Royal Court was in turmoil. With her refusal to directly name an heir, and her changes to the succession law, chaos broke out, diplomatic shuffling began between her two nephews; Christopher IV of Scotland, and Ludvik I of Sweden, each attempting to be recognised their Aunts successor, but the royal Court was having naught of it, and established three laws of the succession, never to be broken; that the heir must be Catholic, that they must be male, and they must descend from High Capet along a male line, and in doing so, they came to the natural heir; Johann Albert von Kapet, Duke of Gorizia.

The Capet-Courtenay were one of the many distant Branches of the Capetians, minor in the extreme and oft neglected by Royal authority, and it was in the late 1400s, a member of this branch did migrate to the Holy Roman Empire, in service, and spawned a line that slowly went from Generals in service to Imperial Counts, and by the year 1800 owned the Duchy of Gorizia, the Margraviate of Istria, and held the Vogtship of the Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg. After the Louisian Purges, the Line of the Courtenay was possibly the sole extant line, and so the Duke of Gorizia was the King of France.

Only ruling for some eleven years, Jean IV Albert to right the wrongs of the Deceased Queen. He restored the rights of the Nobility, and reintroduced Salic law. He also brought his veritable brood of thirteen children, and his two brothers to France and gifted titles aplenty. He passed on 1816, and the throne went to his son, Henri.


[18] Henri was the oldest son of Jean IV Albert. Though he had approved of the reign of his father's aunt, and was what modern people would call an atheist, he wasn't about to openly support her after his father based his reign on being her polar opposite. He therefore deliberately never married, nor gave out titles to anybody. He preserved the laws of Louise I that his father did not repeal, such as the one on heresy and witchcraft, and kept the heads of her enemies strung up on the palace walls. His reign was peaceful, but the king himself was a bad-tempered and paranoid man who never forgot nor forgave a grudge. This was not surprising when you consider that he survived seventeen assassination attempts, one of them led by his own nephews whom he would later execute. A staggering spendthrift, he found himself depleting his entire treasury on his court festivals, clothes and parties. He would die of heart cancer in his sleep at a ripe old age.

[19] François was the third son of Jean Albert. He had married a minor French noblewoman named Antoinette and had twelve children with her. His brother, Jean died unmarried and when it soon became clear that Henri would not marry or have any heirs, François began to search for dynastic marriages for his children who would some day be sitting on twin thrones of France and Navarre.

Unfortunately, he would soon come into conflict with his eldest son_____ who did not want to marry his chosen bride, preferring the daughter of his tutor, a woman named Juliette Monet. The father and son were often at odds with François preferring his second son____. Things would come to a head when his heir eloped with Juliette.

François was so enraged, he disinherited his son and had him exiled to Navarre. in 1835, Juliette would die in childbed, giving birth to her only child. Antoniette would belive that the death "of the mistress" as she referred to her son's wife would mean ____and François would reconcile. She was wrong. François had no intention on reconciling with an ungrateful urchin while his son had no intention on reconciling with a family that had ridiculed and dismissed the woman he loved. He would later remarry Catherine d'Albert, a much more suitable bride, not only was she distantly related to the House Capet, she was also the niece of the Iberian king. Meanwhile the second son would marry Ursula of Poland, the granddaughter of the Holy Roman Emperor.

When Henri died, François became king. He was not only the throne for four years before trouble arose. He learned of a conspiricy to dethrone him, lead by his estranged son. He sent men to arrest his son, only for ____to rise up in rebellion, claiming his father had tried to kill him. François, already weakened by old age, could not take the stress and in 1866, his heart gave out, leaving the realm torn into twine, with _____and____fighting for the twin thrones.

[20] With the death of François II, outright conflict broke out between his sons, with
Louis, Duke of Burgundy claiming the throne as Louis XV, while the kings second son; Phillipe, Duke of Enjoy claimed the regal name of Phillipe VI. Louis was largely supported in the South and west, namely Navarre, Aquitaine, Bordeaux etc. WhIle Phillipe found his area of support in the North, for example Normandy, Flanders. For thirteen years, the border across much of France moved with the seasons, with Paris itself being captured and retake no less than fourteen times throughout the war, but even that paled in comparison to the Forty-Two Sieges of Toulouse. It appeared that the war would end in 1871, with the death of Louis, from tuberculosis, but the child of Louis and his first wife; now a thirty six year old man claimed to be the legal successor of his father, and so claimed the the throne as Louis-Claude I and for the next four years, fought at the head of a merciless Hussar and Dragoon band, frequently raiding and harassing the towns and villages which supported Phillipe. The Conflict was further complicated by the sons of Louis's second marriage, as the majority recognised Phillipe as long after their father's death, but the youngest son; Guillaume Louis, Duke of Touraine, instead cited his father's superiority in the line of Succession, and claimed the first marriage as illegitimate or Morganatic, and through his brother's recognition of Phillipe as King, he claimed that they had abandoned all claim, and so he was the legitimate monarch as Louis XVI Guillaume. The forces of Louis XVI Guilaume defeated the forces of Louis-Claude in 1875. The conflict finally came to a head in 1879, when at the Battle of Saint-Nazaire, where the forces of Phillipe VI defeated Louis XVI Guillaume, and the throne of France was Phillipe's. Some of the supporters of Louis XVI soon hailed the Deceased kings young son; Prince Louis Jean, as the next king; Louis XVII Jean, but the boys mother refused to allow it, and abdicated any claim for the boy, but he was still counted as one of the "Kings", and the boy and the mother, who had changed their names, fled to the United Kingdom of England and Ireland and began a new life.

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Louis XV, King of France and Navarre 1866-1871

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Louis-Claude I, King of France and Navarre 1871-1875

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Louis XVI Guillaume, King of France and Navarre 1871-1879

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Louis XVII Jean, King of France and Navarre 1879

Reconstruction of France began immediately, and sadly after a mere three years of a peaceful reign, Phillipe did pass, and so the throne passed to __________.


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Phillipe VI of France and Navarre 1866-1882
A multi faction War of secession in France, in the 1870s? And in a timeline with OTL technological and social progression? Honestly this definitely breaks rule 2 but someone already took the next turn so I digress
 
Kings of France and Navarre
1289-1316: Louis X "The Quarrelsome" (House of Capet)
1316-1356: Jean I "The Posthumous" (House of Capet) [1]
1356-1395: Henri II "The Thunderbolt" (House of Capet) [2]
1395-1407: Philippe V "The Unremarkable" (House of Capet) [3]
1407-1431: Jean II "The Strong" (House of Capet) [4]
1431-1468: Henri III "The Wise" (House of Capet) [5]
1468-1500: Jean III (
House of Capet) [6]
1500-1515: François I (House of Capet) [7]
1515-1560: Jeanne I (House of Capet) [8]
1560-1587: Louis XI (House of Capet) [9]
1587-1592: Louis XII "the Brief" (House of Capet) [10]
1592-1639: Marie I (House of Capet) [11]
1639-1651: Henri IV (House of Capet) [12]
1651-1700: Jean Philippe "the Philosopher" (House of Capet) [13]
1702-1723: Louis XIII (House of Capet) [14]
1723-1775: Louis XIV “the Beloved and Benevolent(House of Capet) [15]
1775-1805: Louise "The Zealous" (House of Capet) [16]
1805-1816: Jean IV Albert (House of Capet-Courtenay) [17]
1816-1861: Henri V (House of Capet-Courtenay) [18]
1861-1866: François II "the Old" (House of Capet-Courtenay) [19]
1866-1879: The War of the Brothers/ War of the Four Louis/ War of the Five Kings [20]
1879-1882: Phillipe VI (House of Capet-Courtenay-Anjou) [20]
1882-1944: Robert III (House of Capet-Courtenay-Anjou) [21]
1944-Present: Henri VI (House of Capet-Courtenay-Anjou) [22]



[1] Louis X "The Quarrelsome" died in 1316, leaving a four-year-old daughter and a pregnant wife behind. Jean was born in November 1316. The king would sleep soundly in his cradle as his relatives fought for power over him. His mother, Clementina and his great-uncle Charles of Valois had to contend with Jean's regent,his uncle Philippe the Tall, Count of Poitiers.

Unfortunately for them, Philip was well liked and a shrewd statesman, reforming the laws of France and even discontinuing some of the unpopular policies of his brother, Louis. To consolidate his control over the young king, he arranged a marriage between Jean and his eldest daughter, Joan (1308). Because they were first cousins, Philip would get a papal deposition. When he fell ill in 1322, he pushed for the wedding to happen straight away despite the groom only being six. He would die before it could happen.

With Philip's death, Jean needed a new regent. His remaining uncle, Charles de Le Marche took over. During this time, tensions with England were at an all time high despite Jean's aunt Isabella being married to the King of England. In 1325, Jean's great-uncle, Charles of Valois managed to take back the duchy of Aquitaine and regent Charles, declared that King Edward II's French titles were forfeit. It would be in 1327 when King Edward II was disposed would Aquitaine be returned to England in the hands, of Jean's cousin, Edward III, albeit a much reduced territory.

In 1328, Charles also died, leaving Jean as the only male left in the main branch of the House of Capets. Charles of Valois's son Philip would take over as regent. In 1330, at fourteen-years-old Jean would marry his cousin, Joan. She would birth a son in 1331, dying due to childbed fever, leaving Jean a teenage widower with a babe. It was imperative that he married as quickly as he could.

He would marry Bonne of Luxembourg (1315) in 1332. They had eleven children before her death in 1349 of bubonic plague. Despite having several sons, Jean would marry for a third and final time in 1350 to Eleanor of Sicily I1325), they would have three child before he died.

Shortly, after his second marriage, Jean was declared of age and allowed to rule, although he would forever rely on the advice and counsel of Philip of Valois.

However, Jean's relations with England and his cousin Edward would begin to deteriorate with Jean feeling that Aquitaine and the rest of the French lands that were under English control belonged to France. In 1337, Robert III of Artois, who had committed forgery to illegally obtain an intermittence, sought refuge in England. When Edward refused to hand him over, the twenty-one-year old king declared Aquitaine forfeit. In retaliation, Edward III accused Jean of being an imposter, saying that real Jean of France died after five days and a cockoo was placed in his stead. (This rumor has been debunked by modern DNA tests). Edward proclaimed himself the rightful King of France as the sole living grandson of King Philip IV.

King Jean fought alongside his friend and cousin, Philip of Valois who was give the Duchy of Aquitaine. The Battle of Crécy in 1546 would be a disaster for the French army with Philip injured and Jean barely escaping with his life. It was a catastrophe for the French and would feature the loss of Calais.

Three years later, Queen Bonne would die of the plague which would destroy one third of the population. It was an tragedy. Jean's third wedding was a somber event with the continued hostilities with England, the recovery from the plague and the death of Jean's friend Philip.

In 1555, the war with England would restart and Jean would lead his troops in Battle of Poitiers where in a miraculous moment, he manged to subdue and capture Edward, the Black Prince. Unfortunately, Jean would not have long to gloat for a year later, he would die of dysentery. His son, Henri, would take care of the negotiations with England.

[2] The second son of Jean the I, Henri was made Duke of Orleans at birth, for his father intended for him to be the strong right hand of his elder brother, Phillipe, when he came of age. Thus, Henri was given a thorough martial education, although the boy soon proved himself far too intelligent and talented to be limited to the sword and lance. Being given many tutors from places as close as Normandy and Languedoc, and as far as Bohemia and the Eastern Roman Empire, both Henri and his brothers, Phillipe, Charles and Hercules were brought in a growing cosmopolitan Paris, under the strict but benevolent watch of their father.

Thankfully for King Jean, his second son was growing to pay dividends - at the bare age of twelve, the young Henri was already defeating boys four and five years older in the tiltyard, and stayed at the side of his tutor, the Constable of France, during various military meetings of importance. As as young Knight and Duke, Henri would gain his spurs during the battles of Crecy and would fight in more battles, featuring in the defense of Calais where he led a small army that proved a great thorn for the English. He would make several friends at this stage, such as the Duke of Burgundy, the Count of Alençon and many others.

He would retire to Orleans then, where the Young Duke took upon himself the duty of ruling. His close watch, support for the artisans of the Duchy and his heavy involvement in the local economy made him a very beloved ruler, as Henri attracted Jewish, German and Italian glass-makers and Greek and Sicilian silk-weavers. Thus, Orleans became a famous commercial center, closely linked to both the Aquitaine and Champagne trade routes, the city becoming famous for it's glass and becoming the first and major center of what would come to be known as "Capetian Silk".

When the second war of King Jean's reign with England started, Henri faced a early loss which blackened his heart - his brother, leading a charge of French infantry-men during a battle against the Prince of Wales, was shot down by English Longbowmen. The fall of the Dauphin's standard almost broke the French army, but Henri, raging, took up the Orleans and Dauphine standards - and charged straight into the English lines, The sight of the Duke of Orleans, surrounded by no more than twenty retainers, charging alone at the thousand Englishmen raised the spirits of his army, who followed the new Crown Prince into the battle. The Battle of Puymartin is the first, and perhaps most famous victory of Henri.



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The heavy defeat handed to the Black Prince forced him to retreat North, where the English fell into the clutches of the army led by King Jean and Phillipe of Valois. His army tired and restless, Henri took upon himself to siege every single English occupied castle in Aquitaine, withdrawing the English poison root and stem. Just as he had finished the pacification of Aquitaine, and with his army reinforced by the locals, the news of the death of his father reached him. After a hasty trip to Reims, Henri was crowned, promising on God and France to forever expel the English from the continent. It was a promise Henri would make due on.

With Edward of Wales in his hands, the English were fighting with one hand behind their backs - Edward the III did not wish to risk his eldest and most favoured son, who was a captive in Paris, even if he was treated well and the French seemed to mostly ignore him, Henri was far too focused on his goal. Despite Edward calling for truces several times, Henri led his armies and a myriad of Free Companies northwards, intent on ending the Plantagenet stain on Capetian France. The battle of Hainaut (1358) and the Siege of Calais (1359) were both French victories, with Henri changing many of the tactics used by the French armies in the face of English innovations, such as the Longbow. The support of the Duke of Burgundy, and his wife, Margaret, Countess of Flanders, proved to be the tipping point that would see the English Crown finally expelled from France. The following Treaty of Chartres saw Edward the III renounce all of his rights to French territory, including Calais and Aquitaine, in return for his son, who would be sent on a ship to England with the returning English diplomats.

Victory cemented Henri upon his throne - the young royal was, perhaps, the most powerful King of France since Louis IX, and his influence was felt everywhere. In some places, Henri was almost revered as a warrior Saint. But Henri proved to not only be a warrior. With the Black Plague still making making periodic returns, taking with it another one of Henri's brothers, Charles Duke of Berry, Henri turned to the sickness with the same ferocity he had faced the English. He and his advisors reinforced French hospitals, founding many in the many major municipalities of France, and they also correctly identified rats and such other vermin as the bringers of the plague, and the French people followed Henri's adoption of cats as pets - the Kingdom of France become henceforth known as the "Kingdom of Cats", for cats were found in every street of Paris during Henri's reign.

The death of so many serfs, peasants and nobles left a lot of land in the hands of the crown - and Henri was anything if not a greedy land grabber. Aquitaine was re-bought from the Valois, who were in deep crisis due to some shady investments, alongside the County of Anjou but a few years later. The Angevin Kings of Naples, who faced revolts in Provence, also sold the full rights to Provence to Henri in 1374, with the new French professional army, modeled and using as a base the many Free Companies that had sprouted in Gascony, Normandy and Burgundy during the English wars, was one of the most ferocious and effective armies in Europe at the time. His brother Hercules would receive the County of Nice as appanage after the seizure, alongside his other title of Count of Montpensier.

The death of the last Burgundian Duke, Phillipe the I, a great friend of Henri, would also see the Duchy of Burgundy, the Counties of Boulogne and Auvergne, reunited with the French Crown. Deep in grief for the death of his friend, the wifeless King was soon approached by Phillipe's widow, Margaret of Flanders. She too, needed a new husband, for she was heirless, and the marriage would be advantageous for them both. Both young and fertile, the young couple would grow to love each other. Margaret of Flanders brought along many rich lordships, such as Flanders, Rethel, Nevers, Artois and the County of Burgundy, in the Holy Roman Empire. It was the perfect marriage, and the couple soon grew to love each other deeply. As said before, Margaret would prove a dutiful wife and an excellent queen. She birthed the King no more than 11 healthy children at birth.

With so many lands in the hands of the monarchy, Henri's power was almost absolute. He cemented French laws, creating new taxes, reforming and modernizing old legal systems, reformed the army, as mentioned before, encourage commerce and would further increase the royal domain by seizing the lands of the House of Hainault, taking Hainaut for himself and delivering the County of Zeeland to his wife. He would make his brother Hercules, whom he trusted deeply, alongside his titles of Montpensier and Nice, Duke of Holland as well. With the royal coffers full, Henri would become famous for the love he and his wife shared of palace-building, with Henri building almost twenty palaces during his reign, many of which are tourist attractions today.

Deeply beloved, and surrounded by allies, due to the fact his army of sisters was married off to many European Princes and French nobles, a loyal and stateswoman of a wife and a large brood of children, Henri took to feasting and drinking heavily in his later years. He and his wife, would, literally, grow fat and old together, but the aged King would quickly become an alcoholic. While wintering in Navarre, Henri would catch a cold after walking in the Pyrenean snows while riding to his rural residence where his wife was staying. The simple cold, however, would be enough to topple a great King. Henri died in 1395, being succeeded by his son Philippe.

[3] Named for both his late uncle and his father's friend, Philippe was born in 1371. It was hard for Philippe growing up as he stood in the shadows of his grandfather and father. His grandfather had been born a king and against all odd lived and ruled for forty years and single-handedly saved the depleted main branch the Capet dynasty. Meanwhile his father had manged to successfully expel the English and the plague from his lands.

Both were figures of legends, leaving Philippe rather small in comparison. Because of this he had a massive inferiority complex with traces of paranoia.

In 1385, he would marry Isabeau of Bavaria. The marriage was suggested to make an alliance against the Holy Roman Emperor. The marriage at first seemed to blossoming into a love match. However, the early death of their son, Louis drove a wedge between the two. It would slowly get worse when Isabeau's next two children would die in the cradle.

They seemed to have reconciled in 1382, when their next son, also called Louis, was born. The couple became even closer when in 1495, when Henri died and Philippe would become king in a join coronation with his wife.

However, Isabeau proved herself an unpopular queen unlike her much beloved predecessor (who had retired to her native Flanders). She was haughty, quarrelsome and a spendthrift. There were also rumors circulating that she was unfaithful.

Although his wife had given him four more children, Philippe would distant himself from his wife, becoming distrustful of her. Things would come to a head when in 1401, their son, Louis died before his ninth birthday. This would be the tipping point. In June 1401, Isabeau would miscarry her baby (speculated to be because the stress she was under,although others wonder if there was a darker reason such as her husband beating her). In August, she would be arrested on the charges of adultery. If a queen being arrested wasn't scandalous enough, the king's distant cousin, Jean of Valois was accused of being her lover. Both were held in prison until their trial.

It was largely a farce of trial with half the witnesses being enemies of either the Duke of Valois or the queen and the other half spoke only hearsay. Unfortunately, the judges declared the Duke and the Queen guilty above the protests of their family.

Philippe would commute their punishment to life imprisonment despite being well in his rights to execute them both. Unfortunately, Jean would die just two years later of bad treatment at the hands of his jailers.

In 1407, Philipee would be found stabbed in his bed, with the words JUSTICE crudely carved in his forehead. His brother, Jean, would succeed him.

[4] Jean the II was the younger brother of Phillipe the V, having been given the title of Duke of Anjou and Count of Maine when he reached his majority, becoming an extremely influential figure in the reigns of his late father and brother. Known for his violent character and his enormous size (Jean was often compared to the Titans of Hellenic Myths), the young Duke of Anjou was promised at birth to Phillipa Plantagenet, daughter of Edward the IV (Edward the Black Prince)

Jean's first years as ruler of his duchy were ... special, in a way. Anjou had been for decades now one of the centers of the Anglo-French conflicts, but with the English exiled from the continent, it was prime time, at least in Jean's eyes, to renew Anjou and Maine as centers of French Chivalry and commerce, and this he did so. Tourneys, fairs and meeles became the glamour of Anjou during these times, and the immigration of Jews and various other french ethnicities to the land proved useful in making Anjou grow. It was during these times that Jean travelled to England to fetch his bride - despite English attempts at breaking the marriage, due to the fact that both of her brothers, Edward and Richard, were still childless, his arrival in London broke the reverie. Not much is known of whatever negotiations happened during Jean's two-month stay in England, but he did return to France with with the "Fair Maid of Kent".

King Jean has always been described as a zealous christian, due to his support for the crusader movements in the Balkans and Anatolia, and his attacks on the many Kingdoms and Emirates of North Africa, but he should also be remembered as a patron and protector of the Jewish people. Many jews worked in the growing bureaucracy and administration of France during this period, and Jean's head of health both as Duke and as King was a jew, whom he hired after Phillipa miscarried their first child. Of the six next children the couple would have, all would be taken to term.

Jean rose to the throne over his two nieces - whom he would raise and adopt at his own. Extremely furious at the way his brother died, Jean would hunt down the partisans of Isabeau of Bavaria, conducting a purge of much of the nobility. The House of Valois would survive through the mercy of Constance Capet, the young Countess of Angouleme and Valois, who protected her husband and children from the fury of her brother.

Afterwards, Jean's reign was mostly quiet, other than some interventions and support for Crusader missions in the Balkans and North Africa. Jean's Meditteranean navy would conquer the cities of Algiers and Bone, whom the young French army would defend. For this, Jean and all future King's of France would gain the title of his Most Christian majesty. He died in 1431, being succeeded by his eldest son, Henri.

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[5] Born in 1404, Henri was the first child born after the miscarriage, to Jean and Phillipa Plantagenet and although the parents were over the moon to have their first child in their arms, they were distressed at the birth defect which affected Henri, his left leg was missing from above the knee, apart from this his health was perfect.
Jean's Jewish head of health, stated that this was not a curse but a test from God and as Henri grew, his parents and tutors were able to see that, he was able to compensate his missing limb, by strengthening his upper body, as well as studying hard.
One of his Jewish tutors was also able to create a saddle that balanced him on the horse, so he was still able to train as much as his brother(s), uncles and cousins.

By the age of 16, in 1420, Henri was serving his father in the treasury as well as attending diplomatic meetings, during one such meeting his father and Henri would arrange the marriage of Henri to his cousin, Marie of Savoy, daughter of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy (1381–1433) and Mary of France (1380-1436), herself daughter of Henri II and Margaret of Flanders, sister of Philippe and Jean.

The marriage would take place in 1426 and was a well attended event, with royalty from around Europe, followed by a tense bedding ceremony, which went without a problem.
The marriage would be a happy one and lead to the birth of many healthy children.

Like his father and grandfather, Henri, would arrange marriages to European Monarchs, forming stronger alliances, better trading deals and saw a long period of peace.

Internally, following years of working in the treasury, Henri, was able keep the royal purse ever growing, allowing him to finance projects, such as new cathedrals, one of which would be dedicated to his father, Jean the Most Christian Majesty, with Pope Eugene IV, beginning the process of awarding Jean a sainthood.
Not only were his policies beneficial to the nobility but they also brought great economic prosperity to his subjects, greatly increasing the population.
During the conclave of 1447, there were talks of new policies being brought in to support Christian monarchs to expel all Jews from their country, French cardinals were ordered by Henri to not vote for these policies, this would lead to French Cardinal, Guillaume d'Estouteville being voted in at the election, becoming Pope John XXIII, in honour of Henri’s father, Jean.

One of the most major acts of his rule was to bring about a constitution as at this point in French history, they lacked a formal constitution; the regime essentially relied on custom. The constitution was discussed by Henri, the high ranking nobles and the senior members from the Parliament of Paris.
The constitution, cemented the law of male succession only and the absolute monarchy role as God’s chosen voice in France, second only to the Pope.
Catholicism would be the state religion and Catholic Churches would be separate from taxes. Other religions would be tolerated in France as long as they are peaceful.

His death in 1468 aged 64 years old, would be felt heavily in his home nation and across Europe as his many letters of advice to monarchs had helped them deal with internal financial and constitutional crises.
He was succeeded by his son Jean.


[6] Born in 1431, he was the firstborn son of Henri II and Marie. He was born with all his limbs, but without his voice. Despite this, he was a very intelligent boy who was passionate about literature and the theater. He was trained from his childhood to one day be king, and he took to the job with aplomb. Soon he was attending state meetings alongside his father, and even was the one behind the idea of making peace with the house of Valois. His disinterest in marrying or siring children exasperated his advisors, but since he had many legitimate nephews, Jean ignored them the same way he ignored all potential betrothal contracts. He founded a dozen schools and wrote many books under his own name, and was a big fan of attending plays, being for his whole life a patron of the arts. He also promoted religious tolerance, but this was an unpopular policy with his Christian nobility. His court festivals, building projects and tapestries were all known for their rich colors, and he spent almost ruinous sums on them. But this accomplished his aim of bolstering royal prestige through lavish cultural display, and his reign is known today for the artistic flourishing simulated by his patronage as well as the frequent hosting of Europe's leading artists and writers. He also rewrote the constitution by his father, abolishing the law of only male succession in favor of male-preference primogeniture, and forced the church to pay taxes. He died after drinking some poisoned wine, having died single and childless.

[7] François of Anjou was born in 1469, the first born son of Louis, Duke of Anjou and Beatrice of Savoy. His father died when he was four years old and he raised by his mother and his older sister. He married Ippolita Viscounti, daughter of the Duke of Milian, in 1485. It was not a grand match, but one that brought coin and a link to a dynastic house of Italy. They would have nine children.

After the death of King Henri in 1500, François and his wife would be crowned in a grand ceremony. The new king would restlessly search for the man who had poisoned his uncle, determined to gain justice to his uncle. To his anger, he found out that the culprit was the Count of Bar, an old friend of his. Angered at such a personal betrayal, he had the man and his hired assassin boiled alive in oil as was the customary punishment in those days for poisoners.

For the next fifteen years, François was determined to bring the culture of France to new heights, using his wife's Italian connection to invite all sorts of artists. Upon hearing of Enrique of Castile's patronizing exploration of the new world, the king sponsored several explorers.

The king was a lover of fine food, fine wine and fine women. Unfortunately, this would soon wear his body out. King François would die of gout in 1515, leaving the kingdom in the hands of Jeanne.

[8] Jeanne, born in 1486 was the oldest of eight daughters of François and Ippolita, her sole brother having died in his adolescence. Thanks to her grand-uncle, Jean III, whom she was named after, she was able to succeed to the throne. She was considered to be a graceful beauty, with a vivacious and lively personality and an affable nature. She regularly hosted masques and tournaments that thoroughly dazzled her contemporaries at her lavish court, and her patronage of the arts made a significant contribution to French culture. She was determined to show that she, as a woman ruling France, could maintain the prestige and magnificence established by her predecessors. However, she never married. She knew that marriage meant she had to lose power to her husband, and whichever man she selected could provoke political instability or even insurrection. Instead, she had a series of short-term favorites at court. Though her single status led to accusations of irresponsibility, her silence with regards to such matters, however, strengthened her own political security: she knew that if she named an heir, her throne would be vulnerable to a coup. She performed her ceremonial role as queen in strict accordance with formal court etiquette, and regularly and punctually fulfilled all representational duties that the court life demanded of her. She was also an example of Catholic piety and was famed for her generosity to the poor and needy through her philanthropy, which made her very popular among the public her entire life as queen. Though she followed a largely defensive foreign policy, her reign raised France's status abroad. Under Jeanne, the nation gained a new self-confidence and sense of sovereignty. She knew that a monarch ruled by popular consent, and therefore always worked with parliament and advisers she could trust to tell her the truth. She passed away due to illness, single and childless, but surrounded by dozens of her sisters' children and grandchildren.


[9} Born Monsieur le Prince, Louis was from birth the eldest of the Blood Princes and the highest of France's peers, holding titles such as the Duchy of Touraine, the Counties of Angouleme, Vexin, Forez, Perche and Boulougne. Being raised to a senior most position within French society and the class elites, Louis was given an extensive education of matters of war and statescraft. He was born after the death of his father, the previous Duke, to Princess Contansce Zephyrine of France, second eldest of King François' brood of girls. Thus, he was also raised in the belief that he might be heir to the French throne one day, a destination, that did come to prove itself true in the future.

Louis' adulthood was marked by a series of family compacts that the political war he would wage with his royal aunt when securing his majority unfold - in essence, Jeanne's refusal to name him successor, and her efforts to tamper with his efforts to succeed to the Duchy of Luxembourg, alongside Jeanne's refusal to grant him his desired titles of Governorship over French Flanders. Louis' would still manage to win over the widowed Agnes of Luxembourg as his wife - bringing the Duchy of Luxembourg, the County of Namur and the Duchy of Limburg into his possessions. This vast increase of land and Louis' exploits in the Netherlands made him an enemy of various of his aunt's favourites, and of his aunt herself, but Louis' purse alongside his savy knowledge of french politics saved his skin.



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Jeanne eventually gave away, and Louis and Agnes became King and Queen of France. The first decrees of Louis' reign where changing the rules of succession in France to Salic law, something that greatly pleased the Princes of the Blood. Had Louis' elder aunt, Margarite, had children, the throne of France would have passed outside the House of Capet for the first time in centuries, right onto the hands of the von Luxembourgs who ruled in Spain, or if Louis himself had never been born into the House that had taken the Luxembourgian lands in Central Europe, the von Habsburgs. It was a tense situation, none so because Louis derived legitimacy from his mother over his aunts, but Louis' rank as first prince of the blood made the situation clearer.

Luxembourgian (Technically, the House of Luxembourg-Avis) had ruled the whole of the Iberian Peninsula for two generations now, with the Kingdoms having been unified during the reigns of Manuel the I of all Spanish realms, but Spain, despite growing into the first colonial Empire, with vast conquests in America and many outspots in Africa, Arabia and India, had kept itself outside of continental affairs for some while now, too busy with it's overseas exploits and it's drive into Morocco. France and Spain had mostly kept the peace, other than a few disagreements here and there. But Louis would decidedly draw France into Spain's sights - he, seeing monarchs such as the English and Spanish Kings enriching themselves, sent vast fleets of exploration to the new world, setting up colonies firstly in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, where Breton (The Bretons were rather autonomous vassals of the French Kings, but still French nonetheless) and Norman fishermen were making a fortune, establishing contancts with the natives and forming settlements in Acadie (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) and Terre-Neuve (Newfoundland) but further south, other even more successful colonies were formed, eventually forming two sister colonies in the southern tip of Africa and South America. Taking inspirations from the Franks, the two forming colonies would be called Neustrie-Neuve (New Neustria, OTL La Plata) and Nouvelle Austrasie (New Austrasia, OTL Cape-colony).

Fascinated by the so called Columbian exchange, France was one of the first country to massively import American crops, which first became a delicacy but then a highly sought product that could easily supplement the volatile french diet. The sudden growth in population caused by this ammelioration of France's health standards during Louis' reign would create massive movements towards France's colonies but allow France the manpower to conquer more Algerian coastal cities and make war in Germany and Spain at the same time. France would annex the Duchy of Brabant and tribute from the Prince-Bisphoric of Liege during this time, alongside recognition of Lorraine as a French Peerage and thus, vassal. In Spain, the new King was not so successful, as he lost a few border towns with Spain and almost lost Navarre twice, but France's highly experienced army pulled through for the Kingdom. Louis dreamnt of forming a universalist monarchy that would cover the whole of Europe eventually.

He, clearly, did not succeed in all his goals. He died aged and old, surrounded by his various children. He was succeeded by his son Louis.

[10] Louis, the twelfth of his name was already a man in his sixties, sick with goat so it was almost certain he would not last long. Sometimes, he would be called the placeholder king, although none would dare say it to his face, as he had a ferocious temper. In the defense of Louis, he had spent must of his time as his father's heir, running his various lands with great skill. However, in just two years of his reign, he was already bedridden, thrusting his heir in the position of regent.

In 1592, he would finally pass on, allowing his daughter, Marie to succeed him.

[11] Marie was the only living child of Louis XII, her siblings all having died in infancy. She was trained to be queen from a young age and accepted as heir, since there had been a successful predecessor. Like Jeanne I, she also never married, being content with the possibility of being succeeded by her cousins or their children. However, unlike her ancestress she was not considered to be charming or feminine, and was physically unattractive, having suffered smallpox as a child. She was unyielding and authoritarian in her rule, unable to forgive or forget any slight made against her, with a worse temper than her father ever had. She maintained most of the ministers of her father, and exiled her mother from court after discovering that she was having an affair with one of Marie's servants. She was careful never to favor anybody over anyone else, knowing what happened if people thought the monarch was being monopolized. She ruled by council, and her mother was a key figure, although Marie only occasionally took her advice. She continued the tradition of importing American crops, and considered a colonial venture into Africa, but ultimately was talked out of that. She won a war against Germany and Spain, who wished to reclaim Brabant and Lorraine, and negotiated the purchase of French slaves afterwards. There is no evidence that she had expressed any romantic or sexual interest in anybody, despite contemporary speculations of the queen perhaps being a lesbian. She shared her father's love of the virginals, which had been one of her first instruments, and in her free time she often composed music. In the sphere of women's fashion, Marie introduced the wearing of thin black veils that fell in waves across the face. France emerged as the leading European power during her reign, and warfare had defined her foreign policy. She passed away of what is now known to be diabetes, but then was thought to be poison.


[12] Henri IV was the nephew of Louis XII, having been born as the oldest son of younger brother Charles in 1575. As a result, when Marie died in 1639 with Marie refusing to marry, Henri IV would become King at the age of 64, being already an elderly man. However, Henri IV, despite expectations that his reign would be a short one as a placeholder for one of his seven children with Sophia, Princess of Denmark, would prove to be a surprisingly competent and effective ruler, reigning for over a decade before his death in 1651 with his reign being largely a continuation of Marie's reign in its policies, even if Henri would prove to be more personable than his predecessor. When Henri IV died in 1651, he would be succeeded by his son Jean Philippe.


[13] Jean Philippe had an interest in philosophy and the classics during his childhood. During his tenure as the Dauphin, he began collecting the works of Greco-Roman philosophers of ancient and late antiquity.

Upon his ascension as King of France, he took it upon himself to build his personal Chateau at Versailles. There, he hosted banquets and debates with the great philosophers by the later half of the 17th Century.

Heavily distracted by his deep esoteric interest, he left the governance of the realm to his brothers. However he married Anne Claudia, a daughter of Honore V Auguste, Prince of Monaco for whom he was a great friend and fellow philosopher as well. Jean Philippe and Anne Claudia only had a son and daughter in their respectable marriage.

The King would pass away peacefully in his Chateau at Versailles in 1702, his heir succeed him as King Louis the Thirteenth.

[14] Louis was already in his thirties when he became king, having married Louisa of Iberia in 1688, he already had three children with her and would go on to have five more after he ascended the throne. Louis was a man who born in the wrong century, wishing everyone could go back to the time of knights and crusades. He had a rather romantic view of war and glory. He even petitioned the pope to fight launch a holy war against the Ottoman Empire.

Louis was a man who played hard, enjoying competive sports far more than what he called dusty old books. Unfortunately, that would be his downfall. In 1723, he had decided to try his hand at horse racing, viewing it as close as he would ever get to having a joust. The horse stumbled and fell, breaking its leg and Louis fell off his horse, hitting his head on a rock, dying almost instantly.

Despite his glory-seeking nature, the twenty years of his reign had been peaceful and without incident. He was succeeded by his son, Louis.

[15] Born in 1692, Louis was the second child and first born son of Prince Louis and Princess Louise, during the reign of his grandfather Jean Philippe. The king was going to name his grandson after himself, however once he held his new born grandchild, a tear of happiness rolled down his cheek and he would say to his own son, “he looks just like you, when you were born, another you, in appearance and now name, my darling grandson, Prince Louis.”

His education was conducted mainly by His Eminence Cardinal, Louis-Antoine de Noailles, Archbishop of Paris and Duke of Saint-Cloud, who taught with piety, zeal, and active lessons. He is noted for taking the Prince out into the kingdom to teach him to observe his people, Louis would help Noailles to raise money to feed famine victims in 1709, including selling of some of his own wears as well as guilt tripping other nobles to financially contribute.
This caring and compassionate traits would carry on into his own reign.

In 1716, 24 year old Louis would go on to marry Maria second daughter of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and his second wife, Theresa Sobieska, daughter of King John III Sobieski of Poland.
Maria wasn’t his planned wife, when negotiations started, Louis was planning on marrying her older sister, Theresa, however her father had other plans and Theresa would end up marrying Prince Frederick Augustus, son of Augustus the Strong, Elector of Saxony, who was later elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, in 1712 to help strengthen his claim for the polish throne.

For the next seven years the young couple would have a strenuous relationship, Prince Louis would spend his times setting up charity organisation and orphanages, with money from his own pocket, while the Princess enjoyed socialising with members of the high nobility and wanting more money to spend on herself.

They would have two children during this time and only one more, once taking the throne. It was during one of his charity events at the Notre-Dame, when his former tutor, 72 year old, Cardinal Noailles, informed him of his fathers death. It is rumoured that upon hearing the news, the new king would comment “god can’t protect people against their own reckless actions.”

A few days later he would return to the Notre-Dame, for a short and simple coronation ceremony, as he did not wish to waste money on a flamboyant exhibition, much to the annoyance of his wife, the new Queen.

Even before becoming king, he was renowned in the land for his kindness and the people of France would dub him “le Bien-Aimé et le Bienveillant (the beloved and benevolent).

His continued support for charities and supporting progressive policies that benefitted the lower class of French, which he was able to do without upsetting the nobility too much.

At the death of his wife, in 1747, he allowed Maria, a grand funeral, stating it was the least he could do for his children’s mother.
He would not remarry instead enjoying the solitude and more time available to spend in Prayer as well as being a grandfather to his loving grandchildren.

His reign carried on his father’s peace, using his connection in the Catholic Church as well as Protestant alto keep any minor disputes in Europe contained diplomatically.

His death in 1775, came following a short illness weakened him down and suffered a heart attack, which took him from his mortal realm into the gracious presence of the lord in heaven. his death was mourned greatly by his people, he was succeeded by his oldest daughter, Louise.

[16] Louise was the oldest daughter of Louis XIV, with only two younger sisters she was seen as her father's heiress. After a war of succession, she rose to power by having all her male cousins either executed on trumped up charges of treason or declared ineligible, despite the Salic law theoretically preventing this. Once in power she quickly abolished Salic law, which she hated, and implemented male preference primogeniture. She is best known for her deeply devout nature, her persecution of Catholics and the mass exile of Catholics who had previously held powerful positions in her father's court. She married her sisters off to Protestant kings abroad, while she herself remained unmarried much like Jeanne I and Marie I. She repealed all of her father's religious edicts and passed through a strict law on heresy and witchcraft, which she saw as the cause for her parents' failed marriage. She crushed an uprising that had sprung up as a result of having her cousins executed, and for good measure, she had the internal organs of the ring-leaders force fed to their loved ones while their carefully preserved heads were strung up in her palace walls, a most macabre form of decoration. Despite this, she was an excellent military commander, winning two wars each against Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. She was also, like her father, greatly charitable, donating large amounts of money to charities and founding universities, and she managed to curb the nobility of their power with no bloodshed. She died in her sleep, apparently one of her maids had strangled her, but this is not proven.


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[17] With the death of Louise, Queen-Regnant of France, the Royal Court was in turmoil. With her refusal to directly name an heir, and her changes to the succession law, chaos broke out, diplomatic shuffling began between her two nephews; Christopher IV of Scotland, and Ludvik I of Sweden, each attempting to be recognised their Aunts successor, but the royal Court was having naught of it, and established three laws of the succession, never to be broken; that the heir must be Catholic, that they must be male, and they must descend from High Capet along a male line, and in doing so, they came to the natural heir; Johann Albert von Kapet, Duke of Gorizia.

The Capet-Courtenay were one of the many distant Branches of the Capetians, minor in the extreme and oft neglected by Royal authority, and it was in the late 1400s, a member of this branch did migrate to the Holy Roman Empire, in service, and spawned a line that slowly went from Generals in service to Imperial Counts, and by the year 1800 owned the Duchy of Gorizia, the Margraviate of Istria, and held the Vogtship of the Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg. After the Louisian Purges, the Line of the Courtenay was possibly the sole extant line, and so the Duke of Gorizia was the King of France.

Only ruling for some eleven years, Jean IV Albert to right the wrongs of the Deceased Queen. He restored the rights of the Nobility, and reintroduced Salic law. He also brought his veritable brood of thirteen children, and his two brothers to France and gifted titles aplenty. He passed on 1816, and the throne went to his son, Henri.


[18] Henri was the oldest son of Jean IV Albert. Though he had approved of the reign of his father's aunt, and was what modern people would call an atheist, he wasn't about to openly support her after his father based his reign on being her polar opposite. He therefore deliberately never married, nor gave out titles to anybody. He preserved the laws of Louise I that his father did not repeal, such as the one on heresy and witchcraft, and kept the heads of her enemies strung up on the palace walls. His reign was peaceful, but the king himself was a bad-tempered and paranoid man who never forgot nor forgave a grudge. This was not surprising when you consider that he survived seventeen assassination attempts, one of them led by his own nephews whom he would later execute. A staggering spendthrift, he found himself depleting his entire treasury on his court festivals, clothes and parties. He would die of heart cancer in his sleep at a ripe old age.

[19] François was the third son of Jean Albert. He had married a minor French noblewoman named Antoinette and had twelve children with her. His brother, Jean died unmarried and when it soon became clear that Henri would not marry or have any heirs, François began to search for dynastic marriages for his children who would some day be sitting on twin thrones of France and Navarre.

Unfortunately, he would soon come into conflict with his eldest son Louis who did not want to marry his chosen bride, preferring the daughter of his tutor, a woman named Juliette Monet. The father and son were often at odds with François preferring his second son Philippe. Things would come to a head when his heir eloped with Juliette.

François was so enraged, he disinherited his son and had him exiled to Navarre. in 1835, Juliette would die in childbed, giving birth to her only child. Antoniette would believe that the death "of the mistress" as she referred to her son's wife would mean Louis and François would reconcile. She was wrong. François had no intention on reconciling with an ungrateful urchin while his son had no intention on reconciling with a family that had ridiculed and dismissed the woman he loved. He would later remarry Catherine d'Albert, a much more suitable bride, not only was she distantly related to the House Capet, she was also the niece of the Iberian king. Meanwhile the second son would marry Ursula of Poland, the granddaughter of the Holy Roman Emperor.

When Henri died, François became king. He was not only the throne for four years before trouble arose. He learned of a conspiracy to dethrone him, lead by his estranged son. He sent men to arrest his son, only for Louis to rise up in rebellion, claiming his father had tried to kill him. François, already weakened by old age, could not take the stress and in 1866, his heart gave out, leaving the realm torn into twine, with Louis and Philippe fighting for the twin thrones.


[20] With the death of François II, outright conflict broke out between his sons, with Louis, Duke of Burgundy claiming the throne as Louis XV, while the kings second son; Phillipe, Duke of Anjou claimed the regal name of Phillipe VI. Louis was largely supported in the South and west, namely Navarre, Aquitaine, Bordeaux etc. While Phillipe found his area of support in the North, for example Normandy, Flanders. For thirteen years, the border across much of France moved with the seasons, with Paris itself being captured and retake no less than fourteen times throughout the war, but even that paled in comparison to the Forty-Two Sieges of Toulouse. It appeared that the war would end in 1871, with the death of Louis, from tuberculosis, but the child of Louis and his first wife; now a thirty six year old man claimed to be the legal successor of his father, and so claimed the the throne as Louis-Claude I and for the next four years, fought at the head of a merciless Hussar and Dragoon band, frequently raiding and harassing the towns and villages which supported Phillipe. The Conflict was further complicated by the sons of Louis's second marriage, as the majority recognized Phillipe as long after their father's death, but the youngest son; Guillaume Louis, Duke of Touraine, instead cited his father's superiority in the line of Succession, and claimed the first marriage as illegitimate or Morganatic, and through his brother's recognition of Phillipe as King, he claimed that they had abandoned all claim, and so he was the legitimate monarch as Louis XVI Guillaume. The forces of Louis XVI Guilaume defeated the forces of Louis-Claude in 1875. The conflict finally came to a head in 1879, when at the Battle of Saint-Nazaire, where the forces of Phillipe VI defeated Louis XVI Guillaume, and the throne of France was Phillipe's. Some of the supporters of Louis XVI soon hailed the Deceased kings young son; Prince Louis Jean, as the next king; Louis XVII Jean, but the boy's mother refused to allow it, and abdicated any claim for the boy, but he was still counted as one of the "Kings", and the boy and the mother, who had changed their names, fled to the United Kingdom of England and Ireland and began a new life.

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Louis XV, King of France and Navarre 1866-1871

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Louis-Claude I, King of France and Navarre 1871-1875

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Louis XVI Guillaume, King of France and Navarre 1871-1879

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Louis XVII Jean, King of France and Navarre 1879


Reconstruction of France began immediately, and sadly after a mere three years of a peaceful reign, Philippe did pass, and so the throne passed to his grandson, Robert.


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Phillipe VI of France and Navarre 1866-1882


[21] King Philippe named his first born son Robert Hercules, as a way of highlighting his strength (or rather the strength he would have when he grew older). Robert would grow to be the apple of his father's eyes. And when the civil war broke out, Robert would be his father's greatest general in battle. Sadly tragedy would strike and the twenty-seven-year old dauphin would die in the Battle of Saint-Nazaire. It was a cruel twist of fate, that he would die while his father's armies were victorious, making Philippe's victory bittersweet. The loss of his son was said to have taken a terrible toll on Philippe's health.

Robert had been married to Ursula of Scandinavia, who had given him four children (with the last one born posthumous), Robert (1871), Antoinette (1874), Claude (1877) and Philippe (1880).

Three years after his father's death, nine-year-old Robert would be crowned king after his grandfather passed. In fear that a boy-king would cause another civil war, the regency council sought as many alliances as they could find. Betrothing young Antoinette to the Prince of Wales and Claude to the Prince of Orange. They also searched for brides for the young king and his brother. They decided to marry Robert to Princess Kristina of Russia and Prince Philippe would marry Sofia of Sicily.

The regency council would also work to replenish the depleted coffers. Unfortunately, they way they did that was decidedly unpopular as it involved raising the taxes of the already starving and impoverished subjects. Consequently, this would lead to the revolution of 1887.

It was a bloody war that last for five years. Now twenty-one, Robert had his regency council arrested before calling for a parley with the leaders of the revolution. It took some back and forth, but eventually they managed to hash out an agreement that would suit both parties. The men of the regency council were to be handed over so the people they abused and exploited could decide their fate. Secondly, France was to have a governmental branch like English parliaments where men not of the old aristocracy were to have a voice. Thirdly, there would a series of social reforms laws that would be passed.

It was essentially a list of demands. However, one Robert felt he could work with for despite the limits of his power, the fact that they still wanted him in power at all showed that at the very least they were willing to be reasonable. In the end he signed it and this day would go down in history as the Day of the Humbled Lion.

Robert would marry Kristina in 1895, and they would have eight children. The king would continue his work trying to reform his kingdom and bring it back to its former glory, investing in trade and inventions with hopes of seeing a new world.

In 1919, another war would break out, this time on a much bigger scale. The Holy Roman Empire had been on a decline for years with the loss of the Italian states, then Austria, it was renamed the German Empire. In 1915, the new King of Italy got it in his head to restore the Roman Empire, why will remain a mystery. Somehow, he manged to get the Duke of Austria onboard with his plan and declared war on the German Emperor. This would lead to the enemies of the German Empire to ally themselves with the King of Italy which lead to the German reaching out to Burgundy and the Netherlands who in turn reached out to France.

The war of Europe was perhaps the most chaotic war in history, that boiled down to one king getting delusions of grander and roping the other monarchs into it. The war would last until 1925 when Italy would become a republic.

Having dealt with two big wars in his long years of reign, Robert was growing tired. However, he kept working hard on restoring France and Navarre to their former glories. Despite his busy work load, Robert was still a devoted father and doting grandfather.

Finally after a grand total of sixty-two years on the throne, Robert would pass away in his sleep. His heir, Henri VI, would take the throne after him.

[22] Henri VI was born in 1929 to the Dauphin, Prince Charles, as the youngest of his five children (and only son) and few expected him to become King at the age that he would be but fate would intervene as Prince Charles would die in 1940 from leukemia at the age of 41, leaving the 11-year old Prince Henri as the new Dauphin/heir to the throne, which he would become King at the age of 15 after his grandfather's death.

As King, Henri VI would initially be under a regency until 1947 under his elderly grandmother Kristina, who, despite being in her 70s during the Regency, would still be a potent force in French politics until her death in 1954 at the age of 80. Henri VI's reign would be marked by a gradual decolonization of the French Colonial Empire and the transformation into an Francophone Union with the White Viceroyalties with an equal status with the metropole. While a constitutional monarch, Henri VI retains sizable powers for himself and is considered a major force in French politics with his views seen by many as a "moderate conservative".

In his personal life, Henri VI married Princess Victoria of Poland in 1952 with the two having six children with the oldest, Prince Louis, being the presumptive heir to the throne, especially as Henri is 93 and is reportedly in poor health.
 
POD: Prince William of Glouchester is born a strong and healthy Prince and succeeds Queen Anne after his death

Kings and Queens of Great Britain
1714-1740: William IV (House of Oldenberg) [1]


220px-Prince_William_of_Denmark.jpg

Portrait of King William IV as a young boy

[1] King William IV was born on July 24, 1689 as the son of the then-Princess Anne and Prince George of Denmark with Prince William, despite initial fears about his health, growing up into an intelligent and capable young Prince, a worthy successor to his mother when she died in 1714 when William IV was 25.

As King, William IV would prove to be an effective and capable ruler during his 26-year reign, being a ruler who was actively involved in politics of the realm, especially in dealing with the various Jacobite rebellions that would plague his reign. In many ways, his rule was marked by a consolidation of the political order that the Glorious Revolution had established and the securing of a new constitutional order for Britain.

William IV would marrie Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George, the Elector of Hanover, in 1706 with the two having eight children. William IV would die on December 2, 1740 from a stroke with ____________ the new King.
 
POD: Prince William of Glouchester is born a strong and healthy Prince and succeeds Queen Anne after his death

Kings and Queens of Great Britain
1714-1740: William IV (House of Oldenberg) [1]
1740-1752: George I (House of Oldenberg) [2]



220px-Prince_William_of_Denmark.jpg


Portrait of King William IV as a young boy

[1] King William IV was born on July 24, 1689 as the son of the then-Princess Anne and Prince George of Denmark with Prince William, despite initial fears about his health, growing up into an intelligent and capable young Prince, a worthy successor to his mother when she died in 1714 when William IV was 25.

As King, William IV would prove to be an effective and capable ruler during his 26-year reign, being a ruler who was actively involved in politics of the realm, especially in dealing with the various Jacobite rebellions that would plague his reign. In many ways, his rule was marked by a consolidation of the political order that the Glorious Revolution had established and the securing of a new constitutional order for Britain.

William IV would marry Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George, the Elector of Hanover, in 1706 with the two having eight children. William IV would die on December 2, 1740 from a stroke with his son, George as the new King.

[2] George was named after both of his grandfathers, born in 1712. An energetic and playful boy grew up to a man who loved life. Drinking, hunting, partying. He loved it all and had many companions both male and female. His father and his mother were shocked when he was linked with Kitty Clive, with rumors suggesting that she was pregnant. Although nothing came of those gossip, William and Sophia tried to impress on their son the importance of propriety and keeping away from scandal.

George would take their words to heart. However, Kitty Clive would continue to rise high in stardom and the prince/future king was always the first one to buy a ticket for her show. If they were romantically linked, they kept very well hidden and there was no illegitimate children (aside from a few pretenders long after both had died).

In 1731, George would marry Wilhelmine of Prussia, a woman three years older than him. The marriage was not unhappy, but it was far from fruitful as they had only one living child.

Despite having different views on how a prince should act, George was very close to his father and was deeply saddened when died. He had been arranging a trip to America before he received the news and hurried back to England as fast as he could to comfort his mother and siblings. During the feast for his coronation, he toasted his father as the first King of Great Britain.

A Jacobite uprising sprung forth in 1745 and George lead the army to crush it, he manged to capture Bonnie Prince Charlie before he could flee Scotland. Deciding that having him locked in the Tower of London might to some people wrongly comparing him to Richard III, he instead put the boy under house arrest, deciding it would be good to keep him alive and captive as then his brother Henry, could not claim the throne.

Just seven years after his grand victory, George would die of dysentery at only forty-years-old. His last word were reportedly, "Take care of Kitty and Wilma." His heir____would succeed the throne of Great Britain.
 
POD: Prince William of Glouchester is born a strong and healthy Prince and succeeds Queen Anne after his death

Kings and Queens of Great Britain
1714-1740: William IV (House of Oldenberg) [1]
1740-1752: George I (House of Oldenberg) [2]
1752-1790: Anne II (House of Oldenberg) [3]


220px-Prince_William_of_Denmark.jpg


Portrait of King William IV as a young boy

[1] King William IV was born on July 24, 1689 as the son of the then-Princess Anne and Prince George of Denmark with Prince William, despite initial fears about his health, growing up into an intelligent and capable young Prince, a worthy successor to his mother when she died in 1714 when William IV was 25.

As King, William IV would prove to be an effective and capable ruler during his 26-year reign, being a ruler who was actively involved in politics of the realm, especially in dealing with the various Jacobite rebellions that would plague his reign. In many ways, his rule was marked by a consolidation of the political order that the Glorious Revolution had established and the securing of a new constitutional order for Britain.

William IV would marry Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George, the Elector of Hanover, in 1706 with the two having eight children. William IV would die on December 2, 1740 from a stroke with his son, George as the new King.

[2] George was named after both of his grandfathers, born in 1712. An energetic and playful boy grew up to a man who loved life. Drinking, hunting, partying. He loved it all and had many companions both male and female. His father and his mother were shocked when he was linked with Kitty Clive, with rumors suggesting that she was pregnant. Although nothing came of those gossip, William and Sophia tried to impress on their son the importance of propriety and keeping away from scandal.

George would take their words to heart. However, Kitty Clive would continue to rise high in stardom and the prince/future king was always the first one to buy a ticket for her show. If they were romantically linked, they kept very well hidden and there was no illegitimate children (aside from a few pretenders long after both had died).

In 1731, George would marry Wilhelmine of Prussia, a woman three years older than him. The marriage was not unhappy, but it was far from fruitful as they had only one living child.

Despite having different views on how a prince should act, George was very close to his father and was deeply saddened when died. He had been arranging a trip to America before he received the news and hurried back to England as fast as he could to comfort his mother and siblings. During the feast for his coronation, he toasted his father as the first King of Great Britain.

A Jacobite uprising sprung forth in 1745 and George lead the army to crush it, he manged to capture Bonnie Prince Charlie before he could flee Scotland. Deciding that having him locked in the Tower of London might to some people wrongly comparing him to Richard III, he instead put the boy under house arrest, deciding it would be good to keep him alive and captive as then his brother Henry, could not claim the throne.

Just seven years after his grand victory, George would die of dysentery at only forty-years-old. His last word were reportedly, "Take care of Kitty and Wilma." His heir____would succeed the throne of Great Britain.

[3] When Anne was born in 1733, many still hoped for the then Prince George and Princess Wilhelmine to have more children. But after three miscarriages, many acknowledged that Anne was likely to be Queen of Great Britain.

After her father’s coronation, the now King George turned to choosing a groom for his heir. But, protective of his only child, George was exceedingly picky. Prince Edward, Duke of York, would push forward his son William of York as a contender, but Edward’s death in the Jacobite uprising, would see William’s candidacy dropped.

This resulted in Anne not only being unwed, but unbetrothed when her father died suddenly in 1752. Using mourning as an excuse, Anne would remain unencumbered maritally speaking, for the first two years of yer reign.

It was in 1756, that Anne announced that she would be marriage, Charles Stuart, the pretender to the English throne.

Many speeches were given about the healing of rifts, and the reunification of claims, but truthfully speaking, since her teen years, Anne had viewed Charles as a great romantic figure. And since his placement in the Tower of London, Anne had been sneaking into visit him regularly.

Additionally, Charles was uniquely suited, in Anne’s mind, to be consort. His breeding was good (it was basically hers) but he had no true power or connections that could give him power over her.

There were early grumblings, but Anne put in place several official limits on Charles’s authority as consort and ensured that their children would be raised Anglican. In some ways Charles was still under arrest: he was always accompanied by several guards in public. Also, besides the title of Prince Consort, Charles had no titles of his own and didn’t have an income from any estates, instead receiving an allowance from Anne. Anyone who watched the two knew the power in that relationship was with Anne.

Their first son would be born in 1758, and he would be followed by three brothers and two sisters.

Using Charles as an excuse, Anne would relax several of the burdens placed on Catholics in Britain. This endeared her to the Scottish highlanders, and the Irish, but rumors of her being a secret Catholic would grow through the second decade of her reign.

To combat this, Anne arranged the marriage of her eldest son, ________, to Sophia Albertina, Princess of Sweden. This helped smooth the ruffled feathers of the British Anglicans.

Anne spent much of the last part of her reign working to integrate England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales into one true country. One method she used was marrying her two youngest sons, to Scottish and Irish ladies respectively. (Anne pointed out they were unlikely to inherit as their elder brothers were wed with issue, so they didn’t need dynamic marriages and might as well be useful). This started the trend of younger British princes marrying British nobles.

In the mid 1780s, Anne’s health began to deteriorate, and _______ was appointed Prince Regent. After several years of difficult health, Anne passed way in bed surrounded by her children and grandchildren.



1) Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, b. 1662, d. 1694 m. William III, King of England, b. 1650, d. 1702
No Issue​
2) Anne I Stuart, Queen of England, b. 1665, d. 1714 m. George Oldenburg, Prince of Denmark, b. 1653, d. 1708
1. William IV Oldenburg, King of England, b. 1689, d. 1740 m. Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, b. 1687​
1) George I Oldenburg, King of England, b. 1712, d. 1752 m. Wilhelmine of Prussia, b. 1709​
1. Anne II Oldenburg, Queen of England, b. 1733, d. 1792 m. Charles Stuart, b. 1720, d. 1780​
1. ______ Stuart, Prince of Wales, b. 1758 m. Sophia Albertina, Princess of Sweden, b. 1753​
x) some children​
a. one other son who lived to marry and have children​
b. two daughters​
c. George, Duke of Sussex, b. 1767 m. Lady Mary Murray, b 1769​
d. Charles, Duke of Cambridge, b. 1769 m. Lady Anne Wellesley, b. 1768​
x) Edward Oldenburg, Duke of York, b. 17??, d. 1745 m. ?​
a. William Oldenburg, Duke of York, b. 1728​
y) six other children​

3) James Stuart, Pretender to the English Throne, b. 1688, d. 1766 m. Maria Clementina Sobieska, b. 1702, d. 1735
1. Charles Stuart, Pretender to the English Throne, b. 1720, d. 1780 m. Anne II Oldenburg, b. 1723, d. 1787​
See Anne II for issue​
2. Henry Stuart, b. 1725​
 
Dropping claim as I doubt England would support Charles as husband especially with Prince Edward being killed defending against the Jacobite army.
 
I have to ask: isn't it against the rules to state the next monarch's gender? And while I don't think Anne marrying Charles is too out there, there definitely should have had more opposition. Not to mention, I can't see Charles agreeing to being prince consort at all.
 
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I have to ask: isn't it against the rules to state the next monarch's gender? And while I don't think Anne marrying Charles is too out there, there definitely should have had more opposition. Not to mention, I can't see Charles agreeing to being prince consort at all.

Technically Cate hasn't stated the gender of the heir. She stated a Primce Regent was appointed, but this could have easily been the Duke of York, another uncle, or cousin, or even a grandson.
 
I have to ask: isn't it against the rules to state the next monarch's gender?
As @wwbgdiaslt said: the Prince Regent doesn’t have to be the heir.

And while I don't think Anne marrying Charles is too out there, there definitely should have had more opposition. Not to mention, I can't see Charles agreeing to being prince consort at all.
I wasn’t sure how much opposition there’d be, which is why I was vague. If you have any thoughts on specifics I’d be happy to add them in.

And for Charles agreeing, what I wrote could be interpreted two ways, either he didn’t and was basically forced into the match, or several years of the Tower of London humbled him a bit.
 
Prince William of Glouchester is born a strong and healthy Prince and succeeds Queen Anne after his death

Kings and Queens of Great Britain
1714-1740: William IV (House of Oldenberg) [1]
1740-1752: George I (House of Oldenberg) [2]
1752-1790: Anne II (House of Oldenberg) [3]
1790- 1813: William V (House of Oldenburg) [4]


220px-Prince_William_of_Denmark.jpg


Portrait of King William IV as a young boy

[1] King William IV was born on July 24, 1689 as the son of the then-Princess Anne and Prince George of Denmark with Prince William, despite initial fears about his health, growing up into an intelligent and capable young Prince, a worthy successor to his mother when she died in 1714 when William IV was 25.

As King, William IV would prove to be an effective and capable ruler during his 26-year reign, being a ruler who was actively involved in politics of the realm, especially in dealing with the various Jacobite rebellions that would plague his reign. In many ways, his rule was marked by a consolidation of the political order that the Glorious Revolution had established and the securing of a new constitutional order for Britain.

William IV would marry Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George, the Elector of Hanover, in 1706 with the two having eight children. William IV would die on December 2, 1740 from a stroke with his son, George as the new King.

[2] George was named after both of his grandfathers, born in 1712. An energetic and playful boy grew up to a man who loved life. Drinking, hunting, partying. He loved it all and had many companions both male and female. His father and his mother were shocked when he was linked with Kitty Clive, with rumors suggesting that she was pregnant. Although nothing came of those gossip, William and Sophia tried to impress on their son the importance of propriety and keeping away from scandal.

George would take their words to heart. However, Kitty Clive would continue to rise high in stardom and the prince/future king was always the first one to buy a ticket for her show. If they were romantically linked, they kept very well hidden and there was no illegitimate children (aside from a few pretenders long after both had died).

In 1731, George would marry Wilhelmine of Prussia, a woman three years older than him. The marriage was not unhappy, but it was far from fruitful as they had only one living child.

Despite having different views on how a prince should act, George was very close to his father and was deeply saddened when died. He had been arranging a trip to America before he received the news and hurried back to England as fast as he could to comfort his mother and siblings. During the feast for his coronation, he toasted his father as the first King of Great Britain.

A Jacobite uprising sprung forth in 1745 and George lead the army to crush it, he manged to capture Bonnie Prince Charlie before he could flee Scotland. Deciding that having him locked in the Tower of London might to some people wrongly comparing him to Richard III, he instead put the boy under house arrest, deciding it would be good to keep him alive and captive as then his brother Henry, could not claim the throne.

Just seven years after his grand victory, George would die of dysentery at only forty-years-old. His last word were reportedly, "Take care of Kitty and Wilma." His heir____would succeed the throne of Great Britain.

[3] When Anne was born in 1733, many still hoped for the then Prince George and Princess Wilhelmine to have more children. But after three miscarriages, many acknowledged that Anne was likely to be Queen of Great Britain.

After her father’s coronation, the now King George turned to choosing a groom for his heir. But, protective of his only child, George was exceedingly picky. Prince Edward, Duke of York, would push forward his son William of York as a contender, but Edward’s death in the Jacobite uprising, would see William’s candidacy dropped.

This resulted in Anne not only being unwed, but unbetrothed when her father died suddenly in 1752. Using mourning as an excuse, Anne would remain unencumbered maritally speaking, for the first two years of yer reign.

It was in 1756, that Anne announced that she would be marriage, Charles Stuart, the pretender to the English throne.

Many speeches were given about the healing of rifts, and the reunification of claims, but truthfully speaking, since her teen years, Anne had viewed Charles as a great romantic figure. And since his placement in the Tower of London, Anne had been sneaking into visit him regularly.

Additionally, Charles was uniquely suited, in Anne’s mind, to be consort. His breeding was good (it was basically hers) but he had no true power or connections that could give him power over her.

There were early grumblings, but Anne put in place several official limits on Charles’s authority as consort and ensured that their children would be raised Anglican. In some ways Charles was still under arrest: he was always accompanied by several guards in public. Also, besides the title of Prince Consort, Charles had no titles of his own and didn’t have an income from any estates, instead receiving an allowance from Anne. Anyone who watched the two knew the power in that relationship was with Anne.

Their first son would be born in 1758, and he would be followed by three brothers and two sisters.

Using Charles as an excuse, Anne would relax several of the burdens placed on Catholics in Britain. This endeared her to the Scottish highlanders, and the Irish, but rumors of her being a secret Catholic would grow through the second decade of her reign.

To combat this, Anne arranged the marriage of her eldest son, ________, to Sophia Albertina, Princess of Sweden. This helped smooth the ruffled feathers of the British Anglicans.

Anne spent much of the last part of her reign working to integrate England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales into one true country. One method she used was marrying her two youngest sons, to Scottish and Irish ladies respectively. (Anne pointed out they were unlikely to inherit as their elder brothers were wed with issue, so they didn’t need dynamic marriages and might as well be useful). This started the trend of younger British princes marrying British nobles.

In the mid 1780s, Anne’s health began to deteriorate, and _______ was appointed Prince Regent. After several years of difficult health, Anne passed way in bed surrounded by her children and grandchildren.

1280px-Charpentier_-_The_Prince_of_Lamballe_%28cropped_and_edited%29.png


(4) William V like his famous predecessor and namesake, William III, came to the throne on the heels of a revolution to depose his second cousin, the Prince of Wales. After the marriage of Anne II to the Young Pretender, there had been murmurings of discontent and frustration in the corridors of Parliament. As Anne's children were born, and thereafter her grandchildren, people became complacent - the future of the monarchy appeared to sit with the Oldenburg-Stuart claim, and at least, it unified the rival Jacobite claim with the Oldenburg one. But when Anne begun to suffer ill health, the Duke of York was appointed Prince Regent rather than her son, and this allowed the Duke to put his own son into a favourable marriage with Elizabeth of Hanover, another distant cousin, which brought the Electorate into the Duke's circle as an ally.

When Anne continued to suffer ill health, the Duke of York marshalled his allies to remove the Oldenburg-Stuarts from the line of succession. They may be the legitimate claimants, both Jacobite and Oldenburg lines, but the Act of Settlement clarified the position on the succession to the throne of ... well nobody quite believed that Charles had forsaken his religion, nor that he had agreed to raise his children as Anglicans. This was a smear campaign by the Yorkist allies in Westminster, but it was later clarified, many years later, as untrue, the Prince Consort had agreed to both.

When the Anne died, the now elderly York summoned the Privy Council who, stacked by those loyal to him, refused to recognise the children of the Prince Consort as the legitimate heirs, which meant that the Duke of York himself would become King. But the Duke was elderly and abdicated his own claim to the throne, allowing his son, William, to succeed as William V.

This did not make the Oldenburg-Yorks popular as the Oldenburg-Stuarts were summarily exiled, fleeing to Sardinia and claiming sanctuary with the Savoy-Stuarts.

After moderate upheaval in the two years following his dramatic succession, the people of England and the other home nations accepted the new normal, resigned to the great game of succession that the Duke of York had played. Whilst William V and his father did not rescind the freedom that Anne had given Catholics, the rights were not expanded and the laws of succession with regarding conversion to and from, and marriage to a Catholic, were tied up in a seemingly inescapable knot of No Way and No How.

William and Elizabeth produced three children (one boy, two girls) who had all reached adulthood by the time their father passed in 1813 of a suspected heart attack. The Duke of York had died years earlier and the title had been reabsorbed by the Crown.

He was succeeded by __________



1) Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, b. 1662, d. 1694 m. William III, King of England, b. 1650, d. 1702
No Issue​
2) Anne I Stuart, Queen of England, b. 1665, d. 1714 m. George Oldenburg, Prince of Denmark, b. 1653, d. 1708
1. William IV Oldenburg, King of England, b. 1689, d. 1740 m. Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, b. 1687​
1) George I Oldenburg, King of England, b. 1712, d. 1752 m. Wilhelmine of Prussia, b. 1709​
1. Anne II Oldenburg, Queen of England, b. 1733, d. 1790 m. Charles Stuart, b. 1720, d. 1780​
1. James Stuart, Prince of Wales, b. 1758 m. Sophia Albertina, Princess of Sweden, b. 1753​
x) some children​
a. one other son who lived to marry and have children​
b. two daughters​
c. George, Duke of Sussex, b. 1767 m. Lady Mary Murray, b 1769​
d. Charles, Duke of Cambridge, b. 1769 m. Lady Anne Wellesley, b. 1768​
2) Edward Oldenburg, Duke of York, b. 17??, d. 1745 m. ?​
a) William Oldenburg, Duke of York, Prince Regent 1786 to 1792, b. 1728, d. 1802​
1) William V Oldenburg, King of England, prev. Duke of York, b. 1768, r. 1790 to 1813, m. Elizabeth of Hanover​
x) three children from 1790
x) six other children​
3) James Stuart, Pretender to the English Throne, b. 1688, d. 1766 m. Maria Clementina Sobieska, b. 1702, d. 1735
1. Charles Stuart, Pretender to the English Throne, b. 1720, d. 1780 m. Anne II Oldenburg, b. 1723, d. 1787​
See Anne II for issue​
2. Henry Stuart, b. 1725​
 
Prince William of Glouchester is born a strong and healthy Prince and succeeds Queen Anne after his death

Kings and Queens of Great Britain
1714-1740: William IV (House of Oldenberg) [1]
1740-1752: George I (House of Oldenberg) [2]
1752-1790: Anne II (House of Oldenberg) [3]
1790- 1813: William V (House of Oldenburg) [4]
1813-1860: Elizabeth II (House of Oldenburg) [5]


220px-Prince_William_of_Denmark.jpg


Portrait of King William IV as a young boy

[1] King William IV was born on July 24, 1689 as the son of the then-Princess Anne and Prince George of Denmark with Prince William, despite initial fears about his health, growing up into an intelligent and capable young Prince, a worthy successor to his mother when she died in 1714 when William IV was 25.

As King, William IV would prove to be an effective and capable ruler during his 26-year reign, being a ruler who was actively involved in politics of the realm, especially in dealing with the various Jacobite rebellions that would plague his reign. In many ways, his rule was marked by a consolidation of the political order that the Glorious Revolution had established and the securing of a new constitutional order for Britain.

William IV would marry Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George, the Elector of Hanover, in 1706 with the two having eight children. William IV would die on December 2, 1740 from a stroke with his son, George as the new King.

[2] George was named after both of his grandfathers, born in 1712. An energetic and playful boy grew up to a man who loved life. Drinking, hunting, partying. He loved it all and had many companions both male and female. His father and his mother were shocked when he was linked with Kitty Clive, with rumors suggesting that she was pregnant. Although nothing came of those gossip, William and Sophia tried to impress on their son the importance of propriety and keeping away from scandal.

George would take their words to heart. However, Kitty Clive would continue to rise high in stardom and the prince/future king was always the first one to buy a ticket for her show. If they were romantically linked, they kept very well hidden and there was no illegitimate children (aside from a few pretenders long after both had died).

In 1731, George would marry Wilhelmine of Prussia, a woman three years older than him. The marriage was not unhappy, but it was far from fruitful as they had only one living child.

Despite having different views on how a prince should act, George was very close to his father and was deeply saddened when died. He had been arranging a trip to America before he received the news and hurried back to England as fast as he could to comfort his mother and siblings. During the feast for his coronation, he toasted his father as the first King of Great Britain.

A Jacobite uprising sprung forth in 1745 and George lead the army to crush it, he manged to capture Bonnie Prince Charlie before he could flee Scotland. Deciding that having him locked in the Tower of London might to some people wrongly comparing him to Richard III, he instead put the boy under house arrest, deciding it would be good to keep him alive and captive as then his brother Henry, could not claim the throne.

Just seven years after his grand victory, George would die of dysentery at only forty-years-old. His last word were reportedly, "Take care of Kitty and Wilma." His heir____would succeed the throne of Great Britain.

[3] When Anne was born in 1733, many still hoped for the then Prince George and Princess Wilhelmine to have more children. But after three miscarriages, many acknowledged that Anne was likely to be Queen of Great Britain.

After her father’s coronation, the now King George turned to choosing a groom for his heir. But, protective of his only child, George was exceedingly picky. Prince Edward, Duke of York, would push forward his son William of York as a contender, but Edward’s death in the Jacobite uprising, would see William’s candidacy dropped.

This resulted in Anne not only being unwed, but unbetrothed when her father died suddenly in 1752. Using mourning as an excuse, Anne would remain unencumbered maritally speaking, for the first two years of yer reign.

It was in 1756, that Anne announced that she would be marriage, Charles Stuart, the pretender to the English throne.

Many speeches were given about the healing of rifts, and the reunification of claims, but truthfully speaking, since her teen years, Anne had viewed Charles as a great romantic figure. And since his placement in the Tower of London, Anne had been sneaking into visit him regularly.

Additionally, Charles was uniquely suited, in Anne’s mind, to be consort. His breeding was good (it was basically hers) but he had no true power or connections that could give him power over her.

There were early grumblings, but Anne put in place several official limits on Charles’s authority as consort and ensured that their children would be raised Anglican. In some ways Charles was still under arrest: he was always accompanied by several guards in public. Also, besides the title of Prince Consort, Charles had no titles of his own and didn’t have an income from any estates, instead receiving an allowance from Anne. Anyone who watched the two knew the power in that relationship was with Anne.

Their first son would be born in 1758, and he would be followed by three brothers and two sisters.

Using Charles as an excuse, Anne would relax several of the burdens placed on Catholics in Britain. This endeared her to the Scottish highlanders, and the Irish, but rumors of her being a secret Catholic would grow through the second decade of her reign.

To combat this, Anne arranged the marriage of her eldest son, ________, to Sophia Albertina, Princess of Sweden. This helped smooth the ruffled feathers of the British Anglicans.

Anne spent much of the last part of her reign working to integrate England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales into one true country. One method she used was marrying her two youngest sons, to Scottish and Irish ladies respectively. (Anne pointed out they were unlikely to inherit as their elder brothers were wed with issue, so they didn’t need dynamic marriages and might as well be useful). This started the trend of younger British princes marrying British nobles.

In the mid 1780s, Anne’s health began to deteriorate, and _______ was appointed Prince Regent. After several years of difficult health, Anne passed way in bed surrounded by her children and grandchildren.

1280px-Charpentier_-_The_Prince_of_Lamballe_%28cropped_and_edited%29.png


(4) William V like his famous predecessor and namesake, William III, came to the throne on the heels of a revolution to depose his second cousin, the Prince of Wales. After the marriage of Anne II to the Young Pretender, there had been murmurings of discontent and frustration in the corridors of Parliament. As Anne's children were born, and thereafter her grandchildren, people became complacent - the future of the monarchy appeared to sit with the Oldenburg-Stuart claim, and at least, it unified the rival Jacobite claim with the Oldenburg one. But when Anne begun to suffer ill health, the Duke of York was appointed Prince Regent rather than her son, and this allowed the Duke to put his own son into a favourable marriage with Elizabeth of Hanover, another distant cousin, which brought the Electorate into the Duke's circle as an ally.

When Anne continued to suffer ill health, the Duke of York marshalled his allies to remove the Oldenburg-Stuarts from the line of succession. They may be the legitimate claimants, both Jacobite and Oldenburg lines, but the Act of Settlement clarified the position on the succession to the throne of ... well nobody quite believed that Charles had forsaken his religion, nor that he had agreed to raise his children as Anglicans. This was a smear campaign by the Yorkist allies in Westminster, but it was later clarified, many years later, as untrue, the Prince Consort had agreed to both.

When the Anne died, the now elderly York summoned the Privy Council who, stacked by those loyal to him, refused to recognise the children of the Prince Consort as the legitimate heirs, which meant that the Duke of York himself would become King. But the Duke was elderly and abdicated his own claim to the throne, allowing his son, William, to succeed as William V.

This did not make the Oldenburg-Yorks popular as the Oldenburg-Stuarts were summarily exiled, fleeing to Sardinia and claiming sanctuary with the Savoy-Stuarts.

After moderate upheaval in the two years following his dramatic succession, the people of England and the other home nations accepted the new normal, resigned to the great game of succession that the Duke of York had played. Whilst William V and his father did not rescind the freedom that Anne had given Catholics, the rights were not expanded and the laws of succession with regarding conversion to and from, and marriage to a Catholic, were tied up in a seemingly inescapable knot of No Way and No How.

William and Elizabeth produced three children (one boy, two girls) who had all reached adulthood by the time their father passed in 1813 of a suspected heart attack. The Duke of York had died years earlier and the title had been reabsorbed by the Crown.

He was succeeded by his daughter, Elizabeth.



1) Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, b. 1662, d. 1694 m. William III, King of England, b. 1650, d. 1702
No Issue
2) Anne I Stuart, Queen of England, b. 1665, d. 1714 m. George Oldenburg, Prince of Denmark, b. 1653, d. 1708
1. William IV Oldenburg, King of England, b. 1689, d. 1740 m. Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, b. 1687
1) George I Oldenburg, King of England, b. 1712, d. 1752 m. Wilhelmine of Prussia, b. 1709
1. Anne II Oldenburg, Queen of England, b. 1733, d. 1790 m. Charles Stuart, b. 1720, d. 1780
1. James Stuart, Prince of Wales, b. 1758 m. Sophia Albertina, Princess of Sweden, b. 1753
x) some children
a. one other son who lived to marry and have children
b. two daughters
c. George, Duke of Sussex, b. 1767 m. Lady Mary Murray, b 1769
d. Charles, Duke of Cambridge, b. 1769 m. Lady Anne Wellesley, b. 1768
2) Edward Oldenburg, Duke of York, b. 17??, d. 1745 m. ?
a) William Oldenburg, Duke of York, Prince Regent 1786 to 1792, b. 1728, d. 1802
1) William V Oldenburg, King of England, prev. Duke of York, b. 1768, r. 1790 to 1813, m. Elizabeth of Hanover
x) three children from 1790
1. Elizabeth II, Queen of England (b. 1790, d. 1860) never married, no issue
x) six other children
3) James Stuart, Pretender to the English Throne, b. 1688, d. 1766 m. Maria Clementina Sobieska, b. 1702, d. 1735
1. Charles Stuart, Pretender to the English Throne, b. 1720, d. 1780 m. Anne II Oldenburg, b. 1723, d. 1787
See Anne II for issue
2. Henry Stuart, b. 1725

[5] Elizabeth succeeded to the throne as queen after her sickly brother predeceased their father. She was a flirtatious beauty as a young girl and this did not stop once she was crowned. Her coronation was unique in that she was crowned by a Catholic bishop. Like Elizabeth I, who she sought to model herself after, she entertained many suitors but never married. She also had many female favorites which leads to lots of modern rumors about her true sexuality. She brought back the Oldenburg-Stuarts, gave them titles and land, and married them off in advantageous alliances so that she herself did not need to, a clever move that earned her their loyalty. She expanded the rights and freedom of Catholics that Queen Anne had given. During her reign, Britain became a major military power on land, and the economic and political base for the golden age of the 18th century was established. She attended more cabinet meetings than any of her predecessors, and presided over an age of artistic, literary, scientific, economic and political advancement that was made possible by the stability and prosperity of her reign, which also produced an unsurpassed literary flowering due to her patronage of the arts.
 
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So the Duke of York deposes the Oldenburg-Stuarts, exiles them (to Sardinia, the home of the next Jacobite claimant line) and then Elizabeth invites them back in, marries a load of them off in advantageous marriages?

How does this make any sense? I'm not sure how simply arranging a marriage would ensure their loyalty? How a Catholic Archbishop could crown the head of the Church of England, am also not sure.

And my post certainly implied the Prince of Wales was alive at his father's death, and had not died sometime prior.

Also the Union of Great Britain occurred sometime prior to the reign of Elizabeth, so she can't have overseen it.
 
How a Catholic Archbishop could crown the head of the Church of England, am also not sure.
Well, did a Marian Bishop not crown Elizabeth I? I think it could be muddled through as a sign of unity, as long as they don't take Communion as part of the coronation...
Also the Union of Great Britain occurred sometime prior to the reign of Elizabeth, so she can't have overseen it.
Agreed.
So the Duke of York deposes the Oldenburg-Stuarts, exiles them (to Sardinia, the home of the next Jacobite claimant line) and then Elizabeth invites them back in, marries a load of them off in advantageous marriages?

How does this make any sense? I'm not sure how simply arranging a marriage would ensure their loyalty?
Well, they're likely to get the throne anyway, since she hasn't got an heir of her own, so she might as well try and control/influence them... Marrying them off to supporters of hers would help with that.
 
Well, did a Marian Bishop not crown Elizabeth I? I think it could be muddled through as a sign of unity, as long as they don't take Communion as part of the coronation...

Agreed.

Well, they're likely to get the throne anyway, since she hasn't got an heir of her own, so she might as well try and control/influence them... Marrying them off to supporters of hers would help with that.
That was a very different ocasion honestly and the two cases have nothing to do with each other. Elizabeth was crowned by a catholic because there were barely another kind of bishops around, plus, during Elizabeth's time, catholics still represented enough of a powerful part of the population to matter, here, they don't, and haven't for hundreds of years. There's a reason nobody was crowned by a Catholic after Elizabeth the I.
 
Well, did a Marian Bishop not crown Elizabeth I? I think it could be muddled through as a sign of unity, as long as they don't take Communion as part of the coronation...

Agreed.

Well, they're likely to get the throne anyway, since she hasn't got an heir of her own, so she might as well try and control/influence them... Marrying them off to supporters of hers would help with that.
Right, I'd forgotten when the union was. That bit is edited out
 
Well, they're likely to get the throne anyway, since she hasn't got an heir of her own, so she might as well try and control/influence them... Marrying them off to supporters of hers would help with that.

Elizabeth has at least one sister, and William IV had six other children, aside from George I and Edward, First Duke of York. Only the descendents from James Stuart were exiled, so she definitely has heirs - just not issue
 
Kings and Queens of Great Britain
1714-1740: William IV (House of Oldenberg) [1]
1740-1752: George I (House of Oldenberg) [2]
1752-1790: Anne II (House of Oldenberg) [3]
1790- 1813: William V (House of Oldenburg) [4]
1813-1860: Elizabeth II (House of Oldenburg) [5]
1860-1906: Edward VII (House of Oldenburg) [6]


220px-Prince_William_of_Denmark.jpg


Portrait of King William IV as a young boy

[1] King William IV was born on July 24, 1689 as the son of the then-Princess Anne and Prince George of Denmark with Prince William, despite initial fears about his health, growing up into an intelligent and capable young Prince, a worthy successor to his mother when she died in 1714 when William IV was 25.

As King, William IV would prove to be an effective and capable ruler during his 26-year reign, being a ruler who was actively involved in politics of the realm, especially in dealing with the various Jacobite rebellions that would plague his reign. In many ways, his rule was marked by a consolidation of the political order that the Glorious Revolution had established and the securing of a new constitutional order for Britain.

William IV would marry Sophia Dorothea, daughter of George, the Elector of Hanover, in 1706 with the two having eight children. William IV would die on December 2, 1740 from a stroke with his son, George as the new King.

[2] George was named after both of his grandfathers, born in 1712. An energetic and playful boy grew up to a man who loved life. Drinking, hunting, partying. He loved it all and had many companions both male and female. His father and his mother were shocked when he was linked with Kitty Clive, with rumors suggesting that she was pregnant. Although nothing came of those gossip, William and Sophia tried to impress on their son the importance of propriety and keeping away from scandal.

George would take their words to heart. However, Kitty Clive would continue to rise high in stardom and the prince/future king was always the first one to buy a ticket for her show. If they were romantically linked, they kept very well hidden and there was no illegitimate children (aside from a few pretenders long after both had died).

In 1731, George would marry Wilhelmine of Prussia, a woman three years older than him. The marriage was not unhappy, but it was far from fruitful as they had only one living child.

Despite having different views on how a prince should act, George was very close to his father and was deeply saddened when died. He had been arranging a trip to America before he received the news and hurried back to England as fast as he could to comfort his mother and siblings. During the feast for his coronation, he toasted his father as the first King of Great Britain.

A Jacobite uprising sprung forth in 1745 and George lead the army to crush it, he manged to capture Bonnie Prince Charlie before he could flee Scotland. Deciding that having him locked in the Tower of London might to some people wrongly comparing him to Richard III, he instead put the boy under house arrest, deciding it would be good to keep him alive and captive as then his brother Henry, could not claim the throne.

Just seven years after his grand victory, George would die of dysentery at only forty-years-old. His last word were reportedly, "Take care of Kitty and Wilma." His heir____would succeed the throne of Great Britain.

[3] When Anne was born in 1733, many still hoped for the then Prince George and Princess Wilhelmine to have more children. But after three miscarriages, many acknowledged that Anne was likely to be Queen of Great Britain.

After her father’s coronation, the now King George turned to choosing a groom for his heir. But, protective of his only child, George was exceedingly picky. Prince Edward, Duke of York, would push forward his son William of York as a contender, but Edward’s death in the Jacobite uprising, would see William’s candidacy dropped.

This resulted in Anne not only being unwed, but unbetrothed when her father died suddenly in 1752. Using mourning as an excuse, Anne would remain unencumbered maritally speaking, for the first two years of yer reign.

It was in 1756, that Anne announced that she would be marriage, Charles Stuart, the pretender to the English throne.

Many speeches were given about the healing of rifts, and the reunification of claims, but truthfully speaking, since her teen years, Anne had viewed Charles as a great romantic figure. And since his placement in the Tower of London, Anne had been sneaking into visit him regularly.

Additionally, Charles was uniquely suited, in Anne’s mind, to be consort. His breeding was good (it was basically hers) but he had no true power or connections that could give him power over her.

There were early grumblings, but Anne put in place several official limits on Charles’s authority as consort and ensured that their children would be raised Anglican. In some ways Charles was still under arrest: he was always accompanied by several guards in public. Also, besides the title of Prince Consort, Charles had no titles of his own and didn’t have an income from any estates, instead receiving an allowance from Anne. Anyone who watched the two knew the power in that relationship was with Anne.

Their first son would be born in 1758, and he would be followed by three brothers and two sisters.

Using Charles as an excuse, Anne would relax several of the burdens placed on Catholics in Britain. This endeared her to the Scottish highlanders, and the Irish, but rumors of her being a secret Catholic would grow through the second decade of her reign.

To combat this, Anne arranged the marriage of her eldest son, ________, to Sophia Albertina, Princess of Sweden. This helped smooth the ruffled feathers of the British Anglicans.

Anne spent much of the last part of her reign working to integrate England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales into one true country. One method she used was marrying her two youngest sons, to Scottish and Irish ladies respectively. (Anne pointed out they were unlikely to inherit as their elder brothers were wed with issue, so they didn’t need dynamic marriages and might as well be useful). This started the trend of younger British princes marrying British nobles.

In the mid 1780s, Anne’s health began to deteriorate, and _______ was appointed Prince Regent. After several years of difficult health, Anne passed way in bed surrounded by her children and grandchildren.

1280px-Charpentier_-_The_Prince_of_Lamballe_%28cropped_and_edited%29.png


(4) William V like his famous predecessor and namesake, William III, came to the throne on the heels of a revolution to depose his second cousin, the Prince of Wales. After the marriage of Anne II to the Young Pretender, there had been murmurings of discontent and frustration in the corridors of Parliament. As Anne's children were born, and thereafter her grandchildren, people became complacent - the future of the monarchy appeared to sit with the Oldenburg-Stuart claim, and at least, it unified the rival Jacobite claim with the Oldenburg one. But when Anne begun to suffer ill health, the Duke of York was appointed Prince Regent rather than her son, and this allowed the Duke to put his own son into a favourable marriage with Elizabeth of Hanover, another distant cousin, which brought the Electorate into the Duke's circle as an ally.

When Anne continued to suffer ill health, the Duke of York marshalled his allies to remove the Oldenburg-Stuarts from the line of succession. They may be the legitimate claimants, both Jacobite and Oldenburg lines, but the Act of Settlement clarified the position on the succession to the throne of ... well nobody quite believed that Charles had forsaken his religion, nor that he had agreed to raise his children as Anglicans. This was a smear campaign by the Yorkist allies in Westminster, but it was later clarified, many years later, as untrue, the Prince Consort had agreed to both.

When the Anne died, the now elderly York summoned the Privy Council who, stacked by those loyal to him, refused to recognise the children of the Prince Consort as the legitimate heirs, which meant that the Duke of York himself would become King. But the Duke was elderly and abdicated his own claim to the throne, allowing his son, William, to succeed as William V.

This did not make the Oldenburg-Yorks popular as the Oldenburg-Stuarts were summarily exiled, fleeing to Sardinia and claiming sanctuary with the Savoy-Stuarts.

After moderate upheaval in the two years following his dramatic succession, the people of England and the other home nations accepted the new normal, resigned to the great game of succession that the Duke of York had played. Whilst William V and his father did not rescind the freedom that Anne had given Catholics, the rights were not expanded and the laws of succession with regarding conversion to and from, and marriage to a Catholic, were tied up in a seemingly inescapable knot of No Way and No How.

William and Elizabeth produced three children (one boy, two girls) who had all reached adulthood by the time their father passed in 1813 of a suspected heart attack. The Duke of York had died years earlier and the title had been reabsorbed by the Crown.

He was succeeded by his daughter, Elizabeth.



1) Mary II Stuart, Queen of England, b. 1662, d. 1694 m. William III, King of England, b. 1650, d. 1702
No Issue
2) Anne I Stuart, Queen of England, b. 1665, d. 1714 m. George Oldenburg, Prince of Denmark, b. 1653, d. 1708
1. William IV Oldenburg, King of England, b. 1689, d. 1740 m. Sophia Dorothea of Hanover, b. 1687
1) George I Oldenburg, King of England, b. 1712, d. 1752 m. Wilhelmine of Prussia, b. 1709
1. Anne II Oldenburg, Queen of England, b. 1733, d. 1790 m. Charles Stuart, b. 1720, d. 1780
1. James Stuart, Prince of Wales, b. 1758 m. Sophia Albertina, Princess of Sweden, b. 1753
x) some children
a. one other son who lived to marry and have children
b. two daughters
c. George, Duke of Sussex, b. 1767 m. Lady Mary Murray, b 1769
d. Charles, Duke of Cambridge, b. 1769 m. Lady Anne Wellesley, b. 1768
2) Edward Oldenburg, Duke of York, b. 17??, d. 1745 m. ?
a) William Oldenburg, Duke of York, Prince Regent 1786 to 1792, b. 1728, d. 1802
1) William V Oldenburg, King of England, prev. Duke of York, b. 1768, r. 1790 to 1813, m. Elizabeth of Hanover
x) three children from 1790
1. Elizabeth II, Queen of England (b. 1790, d. 1860) never married, no issue
x) six other children
3) James Stuart, Pretender to the English Throne, b. 1688, d. 1766 m. Maria Clementina Sobieska, b. 1702, d. 1735
1. Charles Stuart, Pretender to the English Throne, b. 1720, d. 1780 m. Anne II Oldenburg, b. 1723, d. 1787
See Anne II for issue
2. Henry Stuart, b. 1725

[5] Elizabeth succeeded to the throne as queen after her sickly brother predeceased their father. She was a flirtatious beauty as a young girl and this did not stop once she was crowned. Her coronation was unique in that she was crowned by a Catholic bishop. Like Elizabeth I, who she sought to model herself after, she entertained many suitors but never married. She also had many female favorites which leads to lots of modern rumors about her true sexuality. She brought back the Oldenburg-Stuarts, gave them titles and land, and married them off in advantageous alliances so that she herself did not need to, a clever move that earned her their loyalty. She expanded the rights and freedom of Catholics that Queen Anne had given. During her reign, Britain became a major military power on land, the union of England and Scotland created a united kingdom of Great Britain, and the economic and political base for the golden age of the 18th century was established. She attended more cabinet meetings than any of her predecessors, and presided over an age of artistic, literary, scientific, economic and political advancement that was made possible by the stability and prosperity of her reign, which also produced an unsurpassed literary flowering due to her patronage of the arts.

[6] A cousin of Elizabeth II descended from George, Duke of Ulster and brother of William the V, Edward was raised from a young age with the knowledge that his Queen and cousin, Elizabeth, would refuse to have children, and thus, he was brought to London early by Elizabeth and her ministers to be raised as a King would. Thus, his education was defined by Elizabeth's patronage of the arts - he was raised by by lawmakers, artists, economists, officers, historians and diplomats,and all of this resulted in a extremely knowleageable young man but with an extreme shyness and a quietedness that seemed alien to the usually outspoken and outgoing Oldenburg dynasts of current and previous times.

This was exactly what the British Parliament and Government wanted - Edward was a much more controlled figure than his cousin, or any Oldenburg person until then, and thus was celebrated as the perfect heir for the British throne. This quickly changed the attitude of Elizabeth towards him, however - the fact that Edward was such a praised person and, with her aging and losing popularity, she discussed with her cabinet the possibility of re-legitimizing the Oldenburg-Stuars, but to no avail. Elizabeth and Edward would reconcile, however, before he rose to the throne in 1860 after her death.

A young man of 24, Edward settled in London with a positive spin on things. Now, he would no longer be forced to meddle with tiring courtiers, hear unnecessary praises. He was reaching a compromise with parliament, following the example of the Portuguese Monarchy in adopting a moderator's stance to the monarchy - a reform to the electoral laws and the way parliament worked ensued by royal decree, increasing the percentage of the population able to elect MP's to the whole male population above 18, and Edward contented himself with a ceremonial monarchy, unless in cases where he felt the need to intervene and wield his considerable royal power.

330px-Henri_d%27Orl%C3%A9ans%2C_Duc_D%27Aumale%2C_Studio_of_Franz-Xaver_Winterhalter.jpg


Unfortunetly for Edward, it wouldn't take long for him to be forced to exert his royal power. In 1872, the Franco-German war broke out. After the peaceful dismemberment of the Austrian Empire in 1854, being substituted by the "Habsburg Monarchies of the Danube", a loose association of states ruled by the wider Habsburg families, (Austria-Bohemia, whom also owned Slovenia and Trieste, Croatia, Hungary, whom also owned Slovakia and Galicia), the elites of the Holy Roman Empire started a long period of discussion on the unity of the German peoples - the Reformation wars between France and much of the rest of Central and Western Europe had seen the reformed Kingdom of France beat the rest, increasing their influence in the Kingdom of Piedmonte, in the Republic of Switzerland and saw France annex the Austrian Netherlands and Luxembourg. While there had been a long period of peace since then, the Bourbon Compact, as it was called, grew economically and militarily, with France and it's colony in Louisiana and Spain and it's American colonies being only comparable to the British Empire and the Russians in the East, with the Bourbon Compact also including countries such as the Kingdom of Two Sicilies, an industrializing power in the South of Italy, whose King, Ferdinand the II, held ambitions of uniting the whole of the Peninsula. However, in Central Europe, a new power was rising. The rise of German Nationalism had been a long process, with the creation of the Parliament of the Holy Roman German Nation in 1843, which included delegates from all the states inside of it, but in 1870, the Agreement of Frankfurt saw the creation of the German Empire, with all German states agreeing to form one "Great Germany" in the face of the menace in the west, north, south and east. France's reaction to the union was war, but the new German Empire would prove it's worth, fighting the French to a standstill that saw France recognize the new Empire under the leadership of the Habsburgs.

Britain's splendid isolation was giving the British no favours, as the next two decades saw the Rumelian Revolutions break much of the Ottoman Empire, with Britain only gaining a foothold in the nascent Kingdom of Greece, which chose Edward's brother Frederick as a monarch. Despite these setbacks, the growing power imbalance in the world would stir the British lion to wake from its slumber, and thus, the British intervention in the Rumelian civil war stirred other powers such as Germany to intervene in favour of Bulgaria, whom adopted a German Prince as their monarch, and the Russians in favour of the autonomous Principality of Serbia. Britain would leave the war victorious, with a strong new ally in Greece which from Constantinople ruled much of the Coastal southern Balkans and Western Anatolia. The following collapse of the Ottoman state would see Britain gain new protectorates in the form of the Sultanates of Egypt and Iraq, gaining Britain control over both the Red sea and the Persian gulf. It was a victory upon which the foundations of a world-spanning Empire would be set.

The decree of Dominion would give autonomy to various British colonies, with Columbia and Canada in North America being some, with others such as South Africa and Australasia being others. The nationalization of the British East India company would see the Dominion of India be formed, although with a lesser degree of autonomy than the White dominions. Britain would expand immenselly in Africa and Asia following this, beating other competition.

Britain needed allies, however, and despite initial disagreements over whom it would be, the marriage of King Edward with Maria Alexandrovna of Russia would cement a strange British-Russo alliance keen on restoring the balance of power to the European continent, which the Bourbon compact would immediatelly react too, negativelly, of course. Germany remained the strange neutral country right in the middle, with the policy of Imperial Chancelor Bismarck being of playing the various other powers against each other.

Edward and Queen Mary would have nine children, whom would marry into much of Europe's royalty. He would die in 1906, being suceeded by _____________.
 
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