List of monarchs III

Before I write it, though, I am wondering how it is that the first child of Lionel and Catherine was born in 1380? They married in 1366. In 1380 Lionel turned 42 and Catherine turned 38. How is that they started a family so late in life after being married 14 years? When they married Lionel was 27 or 28 and Catherine was 23 or 24.

It just doesn't make sense that if they could have four children they didn't have any at first and then that they had four so late in life.

I'd suggest that Percy actually was born in 1368 instead of 1380 and is 12 years older than in the previous post? @Records, what do you say?
 
Before I write it, though, I am wondering how it is that the first child of Lionel and Catherine was born in 1380? They married in 1366. In 1380 Lionel turned 42 and Catherine turned 38. How is that they started a family so late in life after being married 14 years? When they married Lionel was 27 or 28 and Catherine was 23 or 24.

It just doesn't make sense that if they could have four children they didn't have any at first and then that they had four so late in life.

I'd suggest that Percy actually was born in 1368 instead of 1380 and is 12 years older than in the previous post? @Records, what do you say?
That is fine, I changed it to that. But, I guess that is what happens to me when I do not wear my glasses.
 
Interesting to see no mention of a wife for Percy, was he that stubborn that he believe he would be Sovereign of England for eternity.
 
What If ... Edward the Black Prince dies in 1361

Kings of England

1327-1377: Edward III (House of Plantagenet)
1377-1399: Lionel I (House of Plantagenet) [1]
1399-1405: Percy I (House of Plantagenet) [2]
1405-1441: Edward IV (House of Plantagenet) [3]



[1] Lionel of Antwerp/Clarence was the second son of Edward III, married to Elizabeth, Countess of Ulster, and subsequently widowed in 1363. Upon his elder brothers death in 1361, he became Prince of Wales and Heir Apparent. Upon being widowed, he had only one child - a daughter who survived to adulthood - and his father looked for a new wife for him. In 1366, he was married to Catherine of Luxembourg, the widowed daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV and the pair had four more children.

His reign saw the Peasants Revolt and the end of the Fifty Years War which lasted for almost 50 years after starting in 1337. This ended because Lionel was concerned about further peasant rebellions and the ensuing difficulties he was facing with Ireland and Scotland. Edward III had attempted to conquer Scotland and place Lionels brother John on the Scottish throne, but this had ultimately failed and Lionel dispatched John to Ireland to put down unrest.

Lionel died in 1399 and was succeeded by his son, Percy I.

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A drawing of King Percy I of England
[2] Born in 1368, Percy was the first child and son of King Lionel I and Catherine of Luxembourg. A stubborn and prideful boy, who viewed that nearly all were beneath him, Percy showed great aspirations to become a military commander. He even once proclaimed to his father that he would be able to quash any revolt for him.

King Lionel I died in 1399, Percy became the new King of England. His style of governing was much more harsh and hotheaded than his father and frequently stamped down on those who opposed him. Percy soon adopted a new title, Sovereign of the English, as in the people of England, which he intended to become as synonymous as the title of King.

Three years after the Glyndŵr Rising had erupted in 1400, Percy personally led an army to the Welsh marches. Despite a cruel and long campaign of terror and death, the rebellion continued, however, the King was satisfied believing that the rebels would soon be defeated.

When he finally returned to the capital, he made plans to invade France. But, before he could set his plans into motion, Percy was found dead in his bed, most likely poisoned in his sleep. He was succeeded by his son, Edward.

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Kenneth Branagh as Edward IV in BBC's "The Plantagenets."
[3] Edward was the only son of Percy, born to him when he was still Prince of Wales in 1387. In 1386 Prince Percy married Joanna of Lorraine, daughter of John I, Duke of Lorraine. Joanna was the younger sister of Maria of Lorraine who was married to the Dauphin of France, who later would be Charles VIII of France. This marriage to the sister-in-law of the future king was an attempted rapprochement with France to build the peace at the end of the Fifty Year war by Edward's grandfather, King Lionel. Both Percy and Joanna were just 17 at their marriage.

Edward was born nine months later. His mother, the Princess of Wales doted on him. His father had little to do with him, in fact he had little to do with his wife also. The Prince and the Princess had separate apartments in the royal residence of Richmond Palace. The estrangement increased when Percy became King and many believed Queen Joanna was behind his poisoning in order to stop his intended invasion of her homeland.

Edward was 19 when he took the throne and he immediately ended the plans for his father's invasion of France. His mother, the Dowager Queen Joanna, was a main advisor during the first years of his reign. She was only 37 and soon remarried to Richard Mortimer, the 4th Earl of March (OOC: not OTL's Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl, as Philippa never married Edmund, the 3rd Earl in TTL.) Edward made Richard the Duke of March.

In 1407 Edward married Richard's cousin-once-removed on his mother's side, Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan of Arundel, who'd been fostered by Richard and his first wife, Claire of Kent, who'd been a lady-in-waiting to the Queen and died of the sweating sickness in 1401. (Duke Richard and Clair had had no children of their own.)

Edward was not like his father at all. His father's arrogance had assumed the rebellion in Wales was over after his personal intervention and cruelty. The truth was that it continued. King Edward now sent emissaries to meet with the Welsh rebels and listen to their grievances.

The solution offered by the King was that the Welsh would be given the same rights as the English, their lords seated in the House of Lords, and the burghers in the Commons, but Owain Glyndŵr must bend the knee. Owain refused. But the other Welsh lords were insistent that they take this victory and they forced him to accept. Edward was asked to let Owain continue his claim as the Prince of Wales if he submitted. Edward countered with offering him the title of the Duke of Powys. He reluctantly accepted after his Tudor relatives insisted.

From this point on, Edward's kingdom was at peace. Edward and Elizabeth had many children and England and Wales prospered in his reign. He died after a reign of near 36 years and was succeeded by ____________________.
 
What If ... Edward the Black Prince dies in 1361

Kings of England

1327-1377: Edward III (House of Plantagenet)
1377-1399: Lionel I (House of Plantagenet) [1]
1399-1405: Percy I (House of Plantagenet) [2]
1405-1441: Edward IV (House of Plantagenet) [3]
1441-1479: Richaed II (House of Plantagenet) [4]


[1] Lionel of Antwerp/Clarence was the second son of Edward III, married to Elizabeth, Countess of Ulster, and subsequently widowed in 1363. Upon his elder brothers death in 1361, he became Prince of Wales and Heir Apparent. Upon being widowed, he had only one child - a daughter who survived to adulthood - and his father looked for a new wife for him. In 1366, he was married to Catherine of Luxembourg, the widowed daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV and the pair had four more children.

His reign saw the Peasants Revolt and the end of the Fifty Years War which lasted for almost 50 years after starting in 1337. This ended because Lionel was concerned about further peasant rebellions and the ensuing difficulties he was facing with Ireland and Scotland. Edward III had attempted to conquer Scotland and place Lionels brother John on the Scottish throne, but this had ultimately failed and Lionel dispatched John to Ireland to put down unrest.

Lionel died in 1399 and was succeeded by his son, Percy I.

Jean de Touraine, dauphin of France.jpg

A drawing of King Percy I of England
[2] Born in 1368, Percy was the first child and son of King Lionel I and Catherine of Luxembourg. A stubborn and prideful boy, who viewed that nearly all were beneath him, Percy showed great aspirations to become a military commander. He even once proclaimed to his father that he would be able to quash any revolt for him.

King Lionel I died in 1399, Percy became the new King of England. His style of governing was much more harsh and hotheaded than his father and frequently stamped down on those who opposed him. Percy soon adopted a new title, Sovereign of the English, as in the people of England, which he intended to become as synonymous as the title of King.

Three years after the Glyndŵr Rising had erupted in 1400, Percy personally led an army to the Welsh marches. Despite a cruel and long campaign of terror and death, the rebellion continued, however, the King was satisfied believing that the rebels would soon be defeated.

When he finally returned to the capital, he made plans to invade France. But, before he could set his plans into motion, Percy was found dead in his bed, most likely poisoned in his sleep. He was succeeded by his son, Edward.


kenneth-branagh-signed-photo-henry_360_8c8712185b30b7b3942e3d228c48cf1a.jpg

Kenneth Branagh as Edward IV in BBC's "The Plantagenets."
[3] Edward was the only son of Percy, born to him when he was still Prince of Wales in 1387. In 1386 Prince Percy married Joanna of Lorraine, daughter of John I, Duke of Lorraine. Joanna was the younger sister of Maria of Lorraine who was married to the Dauphin of France, who later would be Charles VIII of France. This marriage to the sister-in-law of the future king was an attempted rapprochement with France to build the peace at the end of the Fifty Year war by Edward's grandfather, King Lionel. Both Percy and Joanna were just 17 at their marriage.

Edward was born nine months later. His mother, the Princess of Wales doted on him. His father had little to do with him, in fact he had little to do with his wife also. The Prince and the Princess had separate apartments in the royal residence of Richmond Palace. The estrangement increased when Percy became King and many believed Queen Joanna was behind his poisoning in order to stop his intended invasion of her homeland.

Edward was 19 when he took the throne and he immediately ended the plans for his father's invasion of France. His mother, the Dowager Queen Joanna, was a main advisor during the first years of his reign. She was only 37 and soon remarried to Richard Mortimer, the 4th Earl of March (OOC: not OTL's Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl, as Philippa never married Edmund, the 3rd Earl in TTL.) Edward made Richard the Duke of March.

In 1407 Edward married Richard's cousin-once-removed on his mother's side, Lady Elizabeth FitzAlan of Arundel, who'd been fostered by Richard and his first wife, Claire of Kent, who'd been a lady-in-waiting to the Queen and died of the sweating sickness in 1401. (Duke Richard and Clair had had no children of their own.)

Edward was not like his father at all. His father's arrogance had assumed the rebellion in Wales was over after his personal intervention and cruelty. The truth was that it continued. King Edward now sent emissaries to meet with the Welsh rebels and listen to their grievances.

The solution offered by the King was that the Welsh would be given the same rights as the English, their lords seated in the House of Lords, and the burghers in the Commons, but Owain Glyndŵr must bend the knee. Owain refused. But the other Welsh lords were insistent that they take this victory and they forced him to accept. Edward was asked to let Owain continue his claim as the Prince of Wales if he submitted. Edward countered with offering him the title of the Duke of Powys. He reluctantly accepted after his Tudor relatives insisted.

From this point on, Edward's kingdom was at peace. Edward and Elizabeth had many children and England and Wales prospered in his reign. He died after a reign of near 36 years and was succeeded by Richard, Prince of Wales.
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Hugh Bonneville and Sally Hawkins playing Richard II with his wife, Maria of France, in BBC’s series, “The Plantagenets”

[4] Born in 1410 and named after his godfather, Richard Mortimer, the 1st Duke of March, as a child, Richard, Prince of Wales, enjoyed a happy childhood, with his parents and siblings.

His father, had a strong bond with his children, many future psychiatrists, believe that Edward was compensating for his own relationship with his father.

His education was a mixture of administrative training, learning Latin, French and Welsh, set to be an inclusive of all his people as well as military, with Edward instilling in him that war was only to be used as a last option, stating that God does not wish for his Christian soldiers to kill one another.

In 1430, his father arranged double wedding, with a marriage for 20 year old Richard, with 19 year old, Maria of France, a granddaughter of Charles VIII of France and Maria of Lorraine, via their eldest son, Charles, Grand Dauphin of France, along with his elder sister, Princess Joanna, marrying Charles, Petit Dauphin of France.

The pair would be as fertile as their parents, resulting in seven births before the death of his father, when Richard became king at the age of thirty one.

For his children and other children of nobility, Richard, wanting the future generations to have an outstanding education, he would commission a number of education facilities including a college on a town on the outskirts of Richmond, known as Kew College (In otl Henry VI sets up Eton College near Windsor castle) and then later setting up another at Oxford, known as King’s College in his honour. (In otl Henry VI sets up Kings College at Cambridge)

Richard reign was one of prosperity, with no wars resulting in a basic tax rate being collected from a large populated country, meant the treasury had additional funds at its disposal.

As well as education, Richard would see stones laid for St. George Cathedral, in Gloucester as well as St. David Cathedral, in Powys.
Richard was able to invest in the Cinque Ports in the Kent coast, converting them from joint military and trade purposes, to solely trade. While in the north, he arranged for better fortifications along the Scottish border.

Richard also improved infrastructure across the nation including roads that connected all major cities and towns in England and Wales.

In 1479, 68 year old, Richard collapsed during a meeting with Parliament, he was rushed to nearby bed, however had been found to have succumbed to a heart attack. He was succeeded by ______________.
 
....you guys have said the HYW became 50 without specifying borders.

I have several questions.
A) Is Edward III's later reign still marked by domestic and international failure?
B) Is there still a mass Gascon alienation with the English? If so, why?
C) If the HYW is handwaved into being 50, what causes the peasant revolt?
D) Why does Edward go for a Luxembourg match as opposed to the OTL one which netted the English a whole load of money and lands, in addition to putting pressure on the Pope, simultaneously alienating his Bavarian allies?
E) Is there still a civil war in Castile? Does it become a proxy war between the French and the English as otl?
F) Why does Philippa not marry Mortimer and who does she marry?

I understand historical accuracy is not necessary for these lists but the happenings seem forced and vague af.
 
POD: Anne of Hungary born a boy

Monarchs of Hungary, Bohemia, and Croatia
1516-1547: Vladislaus III (House of Jagiellon) [1]
1547-1564: Louis I/II Vladislaus (House of Jagiellon) [2]
1564-1585: Matthias II Augustus (House of Jagiellon) [3]
1585-1605: Andrew IV (House of Jagiellon) [4]
1605-1651: Matthias III Vladislaus (House of Jagiellon) [5]
1651-1679: Otto II/I (House of Jagiellon) [6]
1679-1705: John I/II (House of Anjou) [7]
1705-1717: Sigismund II (House of Anjou-Jagielon) [8]
1717-1779: Charles III/II (House of Anjou-Jagiellon) [9]
1779-1803: Sigismund III Ferdinand (House of Anjou-Jagiellon)[10]

Monarch of Hungary, Bohemia, Poland and Croatia
1803-1822: Sigismund III Ferdinand (House of Anjou-Jagiellon) [10]
1822-1825: Louis II/III/I (House of Anjou-Jagiellon) [11]
1825-1873: Irene I (House of Anjou-Jagiellon) [12]
1873-1892: Bengt I (Dynastic: House of Jagiellon, Agnatic: House of Oxenstierna) [13]
1892-1916: Alexander I/II (Dynastic: House of Jagiellon, Agnatic: House of Oxenstierna) [14]
1916-1919: Sigismund IV (Dynastic: House of Jagiellon, Agnatic: House of Oxenstierna) [15]



[1] King Vladislaus III would be enthroned as King of Hungary and Bohemia at the age of 13 after his father's death with his reign marked by a war between the Ottomans and Hungary which would result in a defeat against the Ottomans where King Vladislaus III would barely make it out of the battlefield alive with half of his army and while the defeat was catastrophic, the Hungarians would be able to lick their wounds with King Vladislaus III's reign being marked by how he would try his best to unite the personal union of Hungary and Bohemia, with the Protestant Reformation and the Ottoman Empire both being something he would have to deal with in his 31-year reign, along with the powerful Hungarian nobility. In 1547, King Vladislaus would die and be succeeded by his nephew, Louis Vladislaus.

[2] Born 1526 to Louis of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia, only brother of Vladislaus III and son of the second (of only two) children of Vladislaus II. Vladislaus III never married, meaning that Louis became his brothers heir presumptive and married as such to Mary of Austria, Louis Vladislaus (born posthumously, named after his father and paternal uncle) was born in 1526.

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Louis Vladislaus is said to have born great resemblance to his maternal grandfather, Philip the Handsome, and would marry Eleonora Gonzaga, daughter of Federica II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, and they would have four children, one of whom died in infancy and another of whom died before reaching majority. Influenced by his wife, who like her father, was a patron of the arts, and he commissioned Giulio Romano to design a new residence for the Royal House of Jagiellon. However, he would not see the Székesfehérvár Palace completed as he would die of syphilis in 1564 at the age of 38 to be succeeded by Matthias, his brother.

Mary of Austria, (M'lady, the King's Mother) would be appointed Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands by her brother in 1531 and Louis Vladislaus spent much of his childhood there. Mary would not die until near eleven years into her son's reign and the pair forged great trade agreements, although an additional agreement with England was abandoned when Mary refused to marry Louis Vladislaus to Lady Mary Tudor who would later become Mary I in 1547 upon the death of her father, Henry VIII.

Mary was forced to suppress protestantism at the request of her brother, and Louis Vladislaus later did the same in his own domains to retain the alliance between the Habsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire and the Jagiellons.

[3] Born in 1553, Matthias Jagiellon was the second child (and son) of Louis Vladislaus and Eleonora Gonzaga, born in quick succession after the birth of his brother Charles Louis (1549), quickly followed by his sisters, Anna and Mary Jagiellon. His position as heir to Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia would only begin in 1559, at the date of the death of his brother, Charles Louis, before reaching majority. His mother Eleonora would prove vital in the raising of the man who would in the future earn the name "Augustus". Matthias would have a harsh childhood, speaking, writing and reading in seven languages before the age of 13, alongside many more, having many lessons in economics, administration, and the martial arts.

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The death of his father in 1564, just before he was 11, would see Hungary and Bohemia thrown into a regency lead by the Voivode of Transylvania, John Zapolya, in Hungary and the Bohemian Estates, in, well, Bohemia. The raucus abuses of power, delegitimization and dishonour inflicted upon the under-age Matthias would be many. In Bohemia, the Protestant-majority estates, would attempt many times to separate the crowns, with murders and purges against Catholics being too many to count, the regent of Hungary would many times shame Matthias in public, to the amusement of the many Hungarian Magnates, while cowering from the Ottoman menace in 1568, forcing Hungary into almost a decade of Tribute.

The end of his regency would only come in 1570, when he would organize a palace coup that would see the Transylvanian Voivode murdered in his bed, starting a civil conflict as Matthias immediately set him on the path of elimination, reconquest and reform. He would immediately seek to punish the disorganized Hungarian magnates, most of whom had abused their authority to limit the power of the Monarch before and during the regency of Matthias. It would be during Matthias the the "Black Army" of Hungary would revitalise, during the two-year conflict against the Magnates, which would see most of Hungary, and most of the lands, authority and titles in it return to the umbrella of the King. Using his revitalized, experienced and professional army, Matthias would fall upon Bohemia, where the Protestant and abusive Catholic nobles would suffer the same fate as those in Hungary. A class of young, able class of noblemen would arise during and after the war of the Magnates, but the majority of the land would remain in the hands of the King.

This vast increase of land in the hands of "His Apostolic Majesty, the King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia", the title that he would earn upon his great victory over the Ottomans in 1581-1583, would see Matthias establish a new system of "Governorates" over various regions of his Kingdoms, where young, but well trained and learned nobles would govern various regions of the Kingdom for and because of the King, with many well-off burghers increasingly reaching the post. The massive increase in revenue for the crown would allow Matthias to invest much in his lands, seeing a massive increase in foundries and roads, alongside the building of many churches, a very large investment in the bringing of techlogical experts to Hungary, instead of the more famed mass-hiring of artists of the epoch. All of this would lead to a massive population increase in both Hungary and Bohemia during his reign, alongside one of the more innovative, well-armed, well-trained and well-led armies of the age. Of particular importance would be the contribution of Jaroslav Talatzkov, a Bohemian noble who would be Matthias' most trusting general and constable to both realms. His realm would also see an increase in urbans areas, the construction of many universities and academies, particularly military, alongside the use for the first time of star-shaped forts in his wars against the Ottomans.

The greatest of Matthias' trouble in his reign would begin in 1577 - where he would hit a roadblock in his relations with the papacy, due to his personal friendship and support of Henry of Navarre, who would become King of France in the same year. After the brief reign of Henry the III, who would reign for but a few days, and the death of his brother Francis, duke of Anjou, in a "tragic accident", Henry of Bourbon and his wife Jeanne of Valois would send shockwaves through Europe. Despite Henri's conversion to Catholicism, many both in France and outside of it would not shed their doubts, and the "Black year" would start. Matthias had would be convinced to join the Catholic League, because, despite of his personal beliefs, with himself being a stauch Catholic reformist, believing the Church itself "archaic but true", his military competence would see the Pope appoint him as his sword in the restoration of the "true faith" to France. Invading France with 15000 in early 1578, Matthias would, however, not fulfil his mission. His derision with the Guises, the leading Catholic family in France, and the diplomatic talks he held with King Henri and his wife, would see Matthias end the French Wars of Religion in a swift stroke - crushing the Guises and the Condes in succession, forcing them to accept "le bon Roi Henri."

He would also be a cornerstone in the beginning of what would be French absolutism - has he would help Henry do what he himself had done to Hungary and Bohemia - the centralisation of both land and power to the crown. Under his umbrella of papal legitimacy, Henry would be crowned in Reims alongside his wife, and their first son, Francis, would be born that year, finally uniting the Bourbon-Valois branches of the Capetian dynasty, legitimizing their rule, the edict of Fontainebleu would be promulgated - establishing France as a "Catholic realm" with Christian liberties, legating tolerance for the French Huguenots and pacifying France for the first time in a generation. Matthias would leave France with his increased army of 18000 men for Rome and then Hungary - with French soldiers sent to help defend the border of Christendom.

In Rome, Matthias would perhaps suffer the great first defeat of his reign - the anger of the Papacy, who did not expect his actions in France. In his defense, France was now both Catholic and pacified, but Matthias would be forced by Gregory VIII, to marry Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain, in the same year, and marry his only surviving sister, Mary, to Infante Don Sebastian of Portugal, firstborn of King John IV Manuel of Portugal. Many would have perhaps seen this as a defeat - but not Matthias. He received a great sum of gold from Spain as dowry for his wife, and would manage to negotiate with Portugal for the access of Portuguese markets and spices by Bohemian and Croatian merchants. His own wife, Isabella, despite being a fanatic catholic, would adapt well to the conditions in the realms of her husband, and would swiftly provide the first of many children to the King of Hungary.

Matthias would try to settle down with his wife and children, but his decision to forgo paying the tribute promised by the Zapolyas during his regency would see the start of the Ottoman-Hungarian War of 1581-1583, with an invasion of Hungary proper by the armies of Murad III, which the well-experienced Black Armies of Hungary and Bohemia would trash, dragging the war onto Ottoman territory which would see the Romanian Principalities swearing allegiance to Matthias and the secession of Bosnia, Dalmatia, and parts of Northern Serbia to Hungary. Matthias would come out of the war with a grave wound, however, having lead his armies in the field for the better part of the two years spent fighting. The assistance of France, Spain and Portugal, with France being his ally and him being linked through marriage to both Iberian Monarchies, would see much of Ottoman-controlled Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia falling under the umbrella of these three powers.

Matthias' "grand crusade" would see much of Ottoman Europe chipped at - the Habsburg would see in the south the establishment of clients and vassal states in Morea, Epirus and Albania, while the Venetians would recover both Crete and Cyprus, and would given credence to a new epoch of Crusading and reconquista - this time of the Balkans. Matthias' influence would see the ending of at least, the political rift between Catholic and Orthodox churches, as even the Catholic Spanish would not enforce catholicism anywhere but Albania - as it had been during the reign of Skanderberg. Matthias would gain fame and adoration from Christian Europe, with the pope naming him Augustus (Which Matthias would adopt as a second name) and the title of Apostolic majesty.

Matthias would die in 1585 in extreme pain from the damage done to his spine during the war - leaving behind his Spanish wife and his four infant children by her, just at the age of 32, being mourned heavily in both of his realms, and outside of them. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Prince Andrew.

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King Andrew IV
[4]
Prince Andrew, born in 1579, was the first son and child of King Matthias II Augustus and Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain. Andrew was deeply loved by his parents, however, he would not grow to personally know his father. Upon the death of Mattias II Augustus, the prince became King at only six years old. His mother ruled as Regent for the young monarch. This regency period would be remembered for the many artistic developments that were encouraged by the Regent across the realms. Then, after twelve years, Andrew finally came of age in 1597.

Andrew was inspired by the tales of his father and wanted to be like him. So, in 1600, he launched another ''crusade'' against the weakened Ottoman Empire. With the aid of the Austrians and their other allies, the remainder of Ottoman-ruled Europe was liberated, even the city of Constantinople.

However, the King tragically died five years later, after he was accidentally crushed by a siege weapon while he was performing a military exercise with components of the Bohemian Army. He was succeeded by his brother, Prince Matthias.

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[5] Prince Matthias, born in 1584, was the second son and last child of King Matthias II Augustus and Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain.
He was only one when his father died and with his mother performing her role as Regent to his 6 year old brother, King Andrew III, Prince Matthias was raised mainly by his Catholic governess, Katherina Nádasdy and Protestant tutor, Professor József Báthory, from the Charles University, Prague. Matthias was given an education fit for an heir but also one that would set him well for a life as an administrator to his brother (and any nephews he may receive).

At 16, in 1600, along with his mother, Matthias served as Co-Regent while his brother, King Andrew III, went to war with the Ottoman Empire. Along with governing the daily running of the nation, Matthias was also arranging a list for brides to marry his brother.

Five years into the regency, news returned from the war, that his brother, King Andrew III had tragically during a military exercise with components of the Bohemian Army.
This left 21 year old, Matthias as the new king of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia. His first act was to marry the bride he had hoped to marry to his brother. In 1606, he married Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria, the youngest daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria, and his wife Maria Anna of Bavaria, her siblings were Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Margaret, Queen of Spain Leopold V, Archduke of Further Austria and Constance, Queen of Poland.
The marriage was also arranged to answers the tense question of dividing up the spoils of war. Matthias would gain the lands of Principalities of Moldavia, Transylvania and Wallachia, his wife Marie would be given Serbia as a dowry, while Habsburg Austria would claim the rest of the Balkan lands including Constantinople and Greece.

Matthias’s reign was a peaceful one with him forging strong trade alliances with his other neighbours of Poland and Russia.

With his knowledge of administration and diplomacy, his internal affairs were well managed from keeping the treasury, which had grown substantially from the spoils of war, working for the citizens by investing money into infrastructure while dealing with religious tension in his large kingdom by bringing about tolerance and no state religion, building a workable relationship by inviting a mixture of leaders from all the major religions to represent their views at meetings and debates.

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The couple lived a happy life and were blessed by having eleven children, although, three died in childhood.

Queen Marie died aged 42 in 1631, leaving Matthias heartbroken and he would never remarry, he was found dead, twenty years after Marie’s death, aged 67, slumped over in his bedroom chair, that sat in front of his wife’s portrait.

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An official portrait of King Otto I/II that was commissioned after his death

[6]
Prince Otto was born in 1628, the first son and child of Prince George and Conradine, Princess of Agárd. When he was born, his parents’ marriage was considered to be morganatic until his grandfather created the Principality of Agárd, which consisted of a few villages near Lake Velence, for Conradine to rule. For most of his life, Otto was sheltered from the pressures of the court, preferring to spend his time reading books, where he learned about ideas of reform.

A year before the death of the King, his father died and Otto suddenly became first in line to the throne. Despite this, the prince did not attempt to learn many of the skills that were required of a ruler. Though, after he ascended to the throne, the Prince surrounded himself with reform-minded nobles who shared his worldview. He encouraged the opening of universities across the realms and also supported that education be taught in the local regions’ languages.

Otto continued the economic prosperity that began under Matthias III Vladislaus. The King even began to warm relations with the Ottoman Kingdom and signed various trading treaties with the Sultan.

However, the King’s most notable accomplishment was the creation of an Imperial Diet.

Otto I/II died in 1679, at the age of 51. He was succeeded by his nephew, John, duke of Anjou.

[7] Prince Jean of France was born in 1651, third son of King Louis the XVI and the fourth of the Bourbon french monarchs. Unlike his two elder brothers, however, Jean was the first son of Louis' second queen, Mathilda of Hungary and Bohemia, whom would have plenty of other children after Jean. The House of Bourbon had proven a boon for france - the early centralization during the reign of Henri IV and his heir Francis had seen the power of the nobility and the local parliaments broken, and the French alliance with the revolutionary Kingdom of the Netherlands that had arisen in the once Spanish Netherlands had seen an influx of technology and new political ideas that had turned france into a notable power, alongside France's early colonial exploits in Canada, Louisiana and their protestant colonies in Artartique in the southern tip of the African continent. During the reign of King Louis XIII France, alongside the Netherlands, had broken the remnants of the once duchy of Burgundy, with the Netherlands taking Flanders while the French took Lille, Wallonia, Luxembourg and Imperial Burgundy, having inherited the Duchy of Lorraine previously.

This had seen the historical Capetian-Habsburg rivarly come to a flare, has Spain reorganized itself under Carlos the II and Maximilian of Austria and Bavaria asserted his power over the Principalities of the Empire. The main flare point would arise however, in Hungary and Bohemia. King Otto had no children, despite his long reign, and had no brothers as well - only sisters. The eldest, Mathilda, had married the King of France, while the youngest, Clotilde, had married Sigismund of Poland-Lithuania, an old man with plenty of sons from an earlier marriage, with Clotide giving birth to a single daughter, Anna Jagiellona.

Jean's mother would make sure he spent much of his time in Hungary and Bohemia, visiting his uncle who would make him his official heir shortly before his death. Still, however, John's arisal to the throne brought with it a whole lot of problems.

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Upon his coronation as King of Hungary and Bohemia the troubles immediatelly started. Austria-Bavaria, under the rule of Ernst von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor, would immediately press the claim of Anna Jagiellon, allying with Poland to do so. The war for the triple crown would begin in earnest. The Kingdoms of young John held were composed like this - Bohemia, which included over Bohemia proper, Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia, Hungary, which held Voivodina, Belgrade and Transylvania, to Croatia in the west, which held Dalmatia, Slavonia and Bosnia under it's crown, and even with all of this, John was also the recognized suzerain of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Principality of Montenegro and the Romanian Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia. Despite the extent and diversity of this realm, John managed to keep it unified under him, with his propagandists harkoning back to the golden age of Hungary and Croatia under the house of Capet-Anjou, and that now, under the house of Bourbon-Anjou, a new golden age would start. Golden perhaps it would be, but the start would be bloody.

Despite the lack of warring after King Andrew, the black armies of Hungary and Bohemia had not diminished in quality, but only augmented in quantity. Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia had been for years now a hub of innovation, and various advances in agriculture and medicine which were only slowly trickling into the rest of Europe had seen the peaceful realm explode in population. It was thus that despite fighting both the Holy Roman Empire and the Commonwealth on their own (France being preocuppied with not provoking and escalating the war, due to the hostility of the Spanish Habsburg and the British Seymours, who had unified the crowns of England, Ireland and Scotland under them).

The war would see a huge numbers of soldiers by the three Kingdoms being pulled to the fore, starting with the combined Polish-Austrian invasion of Bohemia in early 1680 and the battle of Reichstadt, an engament which the allies won decisively. The war, however, would not end, and would drag on for another four years, ending only in 1684. John would be forced to drop any claims to the inheritance to the Kingdom of France and drop the Bourbon in the name of his royal house, keeping only the "Anjou" and he would be forced to marry Anna Jagiellona during the peace celebrations. Moldavia would become shared under both Polish-Lithuanian and Bohemian-Hungarian authority. However, both allies would have to pay war reparations for the unjust defiance of John's claim.

The rest of John's life would be peaceful, to a degree. Despite the constant disagreements between the cousin royals, Queen Anne and King John would manage to pump out a few children, but the two would only ever truly come to an understanding in their old age. The Triple-Monarchy would continue to prosper, with John's only warring after the succession war being done when he intervened in the "Greek" problem - the constant warring between the Despotate of Greece, the Kingdom of Thrace and Bulgaria and the Empire of Anatolia and Pontus, three greek states which constantly allied and warred against each other in an attempts to unify the "Rhomans" in the Anatolia, Thrace and Greece.

After the death of Casimir, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, last of the Jaggielons, Jean was preparing to invade and install his wife as queen of the two realms, but a fall from his horse in early 1701 would see the King become paralised. His last four years were spent in the company of his wife, who become his chief caretaker despite their rocky relationship, with the Imperial diet, which had developed quietly under his reign - John being a strange mixture of an absolutist monarch who listened to the council of the diet. He would finally give up on life in 1705, being succeded by his eldest son, Sigismund.

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[8] Born in 1688, Sigismund was the second born child, but eldest born son of King John and Princess Anna Jagiellona of Poland-Lithuania, and was named after his maternal grandfather, Sigismund, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Following his father’s fall from a horse in early 1701, Sigismund became regent in all but name, attending Imperial diet meetings and military ceremonies, while his paralysed father was bed bound.
He did not wish to start a war to his mother’s claim to the throne, especially while her other older half nephews and brothers still had a strong presence in the kingdom.
After four years as de facto regency, Sigismund was by his father’s bedside at the time of his death, while coronation was held a year later, he merged his mother’s surname with his father’s to give his family a more Hungarian sentiment.

In 1710, Sigismund married Princess Karolina Jagiellona of Poland-Lithuania, the youngest daughter of his half uncle Casimir, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania and his wife, Catherine of Sweden, born in 1690.
This marriage was arranged with a non-aggression agreement being signed by the two kings, along with an alliance of mutuel defence, Poland fearing an attack from Prussia or Russia, while the Triple Kingdoms needed support should the Austrians or Ottomans strike.

As king he supported having reforms to the army and the government, holding at least one meeting a week with members of the Imperial Diet, and things were looking promising for this young King, however no one expected when he contracted smallpox in 1717, the 29 year old would pass away, with many mourned the king that could have been if he survived this illness. He was succeeded by his son Charles.
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Charles III/II of Hungary, Bohemia, and Croatia
[9]
Prince Charles was born in 1712 as the first child of Sigismund II and Karolina of Poland-Lithuania. He became King of Hungary at the age of 5 following the death of his father and would be under an regency of his mother and uncle Louis. Louis was an big francophile and would sign an non-aggression agreement with France and the Netherlands, along with an alliance of defence. This was also arranged with the marriage of Charles to Joan of France, daugher of Francis III of France, upon the former's 18th birthday.

Upon turing 18 in 1730, Charles had both his coronation and wedding happen at the same time. The marriage of Charles and Joan was quite rocky and although both parters took mistresses, they had many children.

Charles' reign saw the War of the Austrian Succession start in 1748 when Maximilian VI of Austria and Bavaria died without any male heirs, with only daughters. The eldest, Maria Josephine, was supported by Poland-Lithuania, France, and the Netherlands, while her younger sister Maria Maximiliane was supported by Great Britain, Russia, and Prussia.

Hungary was on the side that supported Maria Josephine, and by the end of the war in 1755, Maria Josephine had won and banished her sister from coming back to Austria. The Treaty of Stockholm that was signed at the war's conclusion would included the crowning of Maria Josephine's husbund Henri (an member of the House of Bourbon) becoming Holy Roman Emperor as Henry VII, Britain cede some of thier colonies to France, and Charles becoming the new suzerain of Albania and Hungary the new backer of Greece in the Rhomani conficts against Thrace and Anatolia (Austria was Greece's previous backer before the War of the Austrian Succession).

Following the war Charles' reign was quite peaceful, and he would die in 1779 at the age of 67. He was succeeded by his grandson, Sigismund Ferdinand.

[10] Born to Charles the third's oldest son, Matthias Ferdinand and lady Donika Kastrioti, princess of Hungary's albanian vassal, in early 1772, he would be a peaceful boy who would be hit hard by the death of both his father and mother in quick succession after his birth. The death of his uncles beforehand had seen the young child put in the position of heir to the throne. The death of King Charles in 1779 would see the triple-monarchy throw into regency under the Imperial diet. Despite not having many talents, he was a vigorous speaker and lover.

He would only reach his majority many years later, well into 1792, when he was already in his twenties. It would be Sigismund, heeding the many enlightenment and reformist voices in his Kingdom that would the official transition into a constitutional monarchy. It would be, perhaps, the greatest personal achievement of his reign.

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The start of the Revolutionary era, would, however, bring a seismic shift to the European landscape. Europe had all been, slow or fast, to the march of the enlightenment. France, under Charles X's father, Henri the V, had reformed it's government deeply in the last halves of the 18' century, seeing the young Charles the X famously adopt the persona which the famous french General, Marshall Lannes, would call "A constitutionalist Autocrat". The United Kingdom of Spain, ruled by Luis II Aviz, had also transitioned slowly into this, morphing into a transcontinental empire with various metropolitan settings. Russia, Britain and to a lesser degree the statelets of the Italian Peninsula had followed as well.

However, the 1790's would bring forward a multitude of changes that would completely change the face of Europe. The Kingdom of Prussia and the Austria-Bavaria had both been dominating the German political landscape for decades and centuries, respectivelly, but the humiliation repeatedly faced by both powers had brought a surge forward of German Nationalism. Before the fall of the House of Habsburg to the "inheritors" in the House of Bourbon, the Hohenzollerns and Habsburg had intermarried, and despite the King of Prussia having a claim to the Austro-Bavarian throne, he had never pulled it.

That was not the case for the young Heinrich I Friederich, a young man of immense military talent and a fascination with both Liberalism that would throw Germany into a cataclysm. The Unification war would be the first war which would shake the image of Europe, when in less than a year, Heinrich of Prussia become Heinrich, King of Prussia and Bavaria and Archduke-of-Austria. The birth of the German Empire would follow suit.

In the lands of the once Eastern Roman Empire, Anatolia had fallen to the revolutionary whims of General Andronikos Bonotaites, whom had unified all three kingdoms into a new single Rhoman Empire.

It would be the start of a huge 20 years war that would forever change human history. Poland Lithuania, enticed by Germany with returns of it's lands in the east, would declare war on Russia and it's ally, Hungary. After the war, the Polish Lithuanian commonwealth would be divided, with the Hungaro-Bohemian King pressing his claim to be King of Poland. The reformist powers - instead of the revolutionary ones, would come out victorious, with Germany dis-united and the General-Emperor of the Rhomans deposed, Poland annexed and Britain and Sweden-Finland humbled.

Sigismund Ferdinand, a famous for his many lovers and his many "illegitimate" children, would be forced to marry by the diet the Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, a pretty but shy girl of 20 years compared to Sigismund's 38 in 1810. Despite this, the King would fall over his heels for her - with the young queen quickly asserting herself. However, the new queen would have one major impediment - infertility of the womb. Despite this, Sigismund Ferdinand would refuse to divorce her and dishonor his wife and Russian ally and would thus die with no legitimate children whatsoever. He would die in 1822, an extremely popular old man.

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Louis II/III/I of Hungary, Bohemia, Poland and Croatia
[11] Prince Louis was born in 1799 as the first child of Prince Matthias, who was the brother of Sigismund III Ferdinand, and his wife Sophie of the Netherlands, and would become the heir to his after the death of his father in 1806 of tuberculosis. Louis was an widely and popular figure like his uncle, who he succeeded in 1822 at the age of 23. He worked on reforming his vast Kingdom, and would start to use the concept of plurinationalism.

His reign was expected to be a time of peace of prosperity, as well to be long. However this was not meant to be as on October 8, 1825 while taking an stroll, Louis was stabbed in the back by an German nationalist. Louis would die a coulpe of days later on October 11, 1825, and as he hadn't married he was succeeded by his sister Irene.


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[12]

Queen Irene I was born on September 6, 1801 as the second of four children (and the oldest of three daughters) of Prince Matthias and as such would ascend to the throne of Hungary after the death of her older brother by a German nationalist assassin.

As ruler, Queen Irene would continue to promote her older brother's ideas of plurinationalism to unite the Empire, promoting a sort of "Jagiellonianism" as a unifying ideology to bind the Empire together. In addition to this, she would grant a limited degree of constitutionalism during her reign, even if her reign was still relatively authoritarian with the Royal Parliament being a largely advisory body at first during her reign. Her reign would also see the abolition of serfdom and the start of the industrial revolution during her reign with the Quadruple Monarchy becoming an industrial power during her reign.

In terms of foreign policy, Irene would make an alliance with France to "maintain the balance of power" and would seek to prevent Germany from becoming a power at any cost during her reign.

Queen Irene would marry Prince Alexander of Denmark in 1827 with the two having three children. Irene would die on October 1, 1873 after suddenly collapsing while walking in the royal gardens the previous night. She was succeeded by her son Bengt.

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(13) Prince Bengt Minik Alexander was born in 1830 as the second child but eldest son of Queen Anne and her husband Alexander of Denmark. His father was a member of the Danish Royal House of Oxenstierna, and he he held a valid claim on the Danish throne as well as his mother's domains. He would succeed to the latter in 1873 whilst his position in the Danish line of succession would fluctuate as his cousins and their children were born, eventually sitting at about fifteenth for the duration of his reign.

He married a distant cousin, Helene of Anjou, in 1855 when he was 25 and she was 19, as part of his mother's plan to ally with France, and they had only two children before she passed in 1865. Bengt would remain a widow for the rest of his life and focus his attention on his nations and his children. Although officially from the House or Oxenstierna, Bengt continued his mother's prob at of Jagellionism and introduced a Royal edict that his Royal House would be dynastically the House of Jagiellon.

In contrast to his mother, however, be undertook great influence from the French and their constitutional monarchy, and encouraged further reforms in multiple areas of society but his great passion was agricultural reform which probably saved his nations from the famines of the 1870s in many countries, decimating the German food supply and causing riots. Germany would be provided with some surplus supplies by Bengt but it would be only the first step towards mending their antagonism.

Bengt died in 1892 and was succeeded by his son Alexander.

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Alexander I/II of Hungary, Bohemia, Poland and Croatia



[14]
Born in 1856, Prince Louis was the first child of Bengt I and Helene of Anjou. He grew up with an interest in the many cultures of his large country, and married an Bohemian noblewoman in 1871, and by the time he became King of Hungary in 1892, Alexander and his wife had five children.



The most important event of Alexander's reign was the Great War, which started in 1913 when the heir to Austria, Otto, was assassinated by an Bavarian nationalist. This lead to a civil war to happen with Bavaria claiming independence from Austria, with different countries supporting either side (Hungary was on the side of Bavaria). It then turned into a global war when Prussia invaded Bavaria, which Britain objected to and so declared war on Prussia.



Alexander would not see the end of the war as he died in 1916 at the age of 60, and was succeeded by ________, his _________.
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[15] King Sigismund IV would be the last monarch of the Quadruple Monarchy, being born on September 3, 1874 as the oldest child of King Alexander and his wife Elizabeth and would acceed to the throne in 1916 after his father's death.

While Sigismund IV was a well-intentioned and personally decent person, he would prove to be the last monarch of the Quadruple Monarchy for Prussia would win the Global War, with the Grand War being a conflict which saw the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership and the general defeat of Hungary and its allies. The last months of the Global War would see the Quadruple Monarchy collapse into its component countries with Sigismund IV being forced to abdicate by the Military Council of the Republic of Hungary on February 3, 1919.

Sigismund IV would spend the rest of his life in Portugal until his death in 1940.
 
POD: Anne of Hungary born a boy

Monarchs of Hungary, Bohemia, and Croatia
1516-1547: Vladislaus III (House of Jagiellon) [1]
1547-1564: Louis I/II Vladislaus (House of Jagiellon) [2]
1564-1585: Matthias II Augustus (House of Jagiellon) [3]
1585-1605: Andrew IV (House of Jagiellon) [4]
1605-1651: Matthias III Vladislaus (House of Jagiellon) [5]
1651-1679: Otto II/I (House of Jagiellon) [6]
1679-1705: John I/II (House of Anjou) [7]
1705-1717: Sigismund II (House of Anjou-Jagielon) [8]
1717-1779: Charles III/II (House of Anjou-Jagiellon) [9]
1779-1803: Sigismund III Ferdinand (House of Anjou-Jagiellon)[10]

Monarch of Hungary, Bohemia, Poland and Croatia
1803-1822: Sigismund III Ferdinand (House of Anjou-Jagiellon) [10]
1822-1825: Louis II/III/I (House of Anjou-Jagiellon) [11]
1825-1873: Irene I (House of Anjou-Jagiellon) [12]
1873-1892: Bengt I (Dynastic: House of Jagiellon, Agnatic: House of Oxenstierna) [13]
1892-1916: Alexander I/II (Dynastic: House of Jagiellon, Agnatic: House of Oxenstierna) [14]
1916-1919: Sigismund IV (Dynastic: House of Jagiellon, Agnatic: House of Oxenstierna) [15]



[1] King Vladislaus III would be enthroned as King of Hungary and Bohemia at the age of 13 after his father's death with his reign marked by a war between the Ottomans and Hungary which would result in a defeat against the Ottomans where King Vladislaus III would barely make it out of the battlefield alive with half of his army and while the defeat was catastrophic, the Hungarians would be able to lick their wounds with King Vladislaus III's reign being marked by how he would try his best to unite the personal union of Hungary and Bohemia, with the Protestant Reformation and the Ottoman Empire both being something he would have to deal with in his 31-year reign, along with the powerful Hungarian nobility. In 1547, King Vladislaus would die and be succeeded by his nephew, Louis Vladislaus.

[2] Born 1526 to Louis of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia, only brother of Vladislaus III and son of the second (of only two) children of Vladislaus II. Vladislaus III never married, meaning that Louis became his brothers heir presumptive and married as such to Mary of Austria, Louis Vladislaus (born posthumously, named after his father and paternal uncle) was born in 1526.

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Louis Vladislaus is said to have born great resemblance to his maternal grandfather, Philip the Handsome, and would marry Eleonora Gonzaga, daughter of Federica II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, and they would have four children, one of whom died in infancy and another of whom died before reaching majority. Influenced by his wife, who like her father, was a patron of the arts, and he commissioned Giulio Romano to design a new residence for the Royal House of Jagiellon. However, he would not see the Székesfehérvár Palace completed as he would die of syphilis in 1564 at the age of 38 to be succeeded by Matthias, his brother.

Mary of Austria, (M'lady, the King's Mother) would be appointed Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands by her brother in 1531 and Louis Vladislaus spent much of his childhood there. Mary would not die until near eleven years into her son's reign and the pair forged great trade agreements, although an additional agreement with England was abandoned when Mary refused to marry Louis Vladislaus to Lady Mary Tudor who would later become Mary I in 1547 upon the death of her father, Henry VIII.

Mary was forced to suppress protestantism at the request of her brother, and Louis Vladislaus later did the same in his own domains to retain the alliance between the Habsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire and the Jagiellons.

[3] Born in 1553, Matthias Jagiellon was the second child (and son) of Louis Vladislaus and Eleonora Gonzaga, born in quick succession after the birth of his brother Charles Louis (1549), quickly followed by his sisters, Anna and Mary Jagiellon. His position as heir to Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia would only begin in 1559, at the date of the death of his brother, Charles Louis, before reaching majority. His mother Eleonora would prove vital in the raising of the man who would in the future earn the name "Augustus". Matthias would have a harsh childhood, speaking, writing and reading in seven languages before the age of 13, alongside many more, having many lessons in economics, administration, and the martial arts.

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The death of his father in 1564, just before he was 11, would see Hungary and Bohemia thrown into a regency lead by the Voivode of Transylvania, John Zapolya, in Hungary and the Bohemian Estates, in, well, Bohemia. The raucus abuses of power, delegitimization and dishonour inflicted upon the under-age Matthias would be many. In Bohemia, the Protestant-majority estates, would attempt many times to separate the crowns, with murders and purges against Catholics being too many to count, the regent of Hungary would many times shame Matthias in public, to the amusement of the many Hungarian Magnates, while cowering from the Ottoman menace in 1568, forcing Hungary into almost a decade of Tribute.

The end of his regency would only come in 1570, when he would organize a palace coup that would see the Transylvanian Voivode murdered in his bed, starting a civil conflict as Matthias immediately set him on the path of elimination, reconquest and reform. He would immediately seek to punish the disorganized Hungarian magnates, most of whom had abused their authority to limit the power of the Monarch before and during the regency of Matthias. It would be during Matthias the the "Black Army" of Hungary would revitalise, during the two-year conflict against the Magnates, which would see most of Hungary, and most of the lands, authority and titles in it return to the umbrella of the King. Using his revitalized, experienced and professional army, Matthias would fall upon Bohemia, where the Protestant and abusive Catholic nobles would suffer the same fate as those in Hungary. A class of young, able class of noblemen would arise during and after the war of the Magnates, but the majority of the land would remain in the hands of the King.

This vast increase of land in the hands of "His Apostolic Majesty, the King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia", the title that he would earn upon his great victory over the Ottomans in 1581-1583, would see Matthias establish a new system of "Governorates" over various regions of his Kingdoms, where young, but well trained and learned nobles would govern various regions of the Kingdom for and because of the King, with many well-off burghers increasingly reaching the post. The massive increase in revenue for the crown would allow Matthias to invest much in his lands, seeing a massive increase in foundries and roads, alongside the building of many churches, a very large investment in the bringing of techlogical experts to Hungary, instead of the more famed mass-hiring of artists of the epoch. All of this would lead to a massive population increase in both Hungary and Bohemia during his reign, alongside one of the more innovative, well-armed, well-trained and well-led armies of the age. Of particular importance would be the contribution of Jaroslav Talatzkov, a Bohemian noble who would be Matthias' most trusting general and constable to both realms. His realm would also see an increase in urbans areas, the construction of many universities and academies, particularly military, alongside the use for the first time of star-shaped forts in his wars against the Ottomans.

The greatest of Matthias' trouble in his reign would begin in 1577 - where he would hit a roadblock in his relations with the papacy, due to his personal friendship and support of Henry of Navarre, who would become King of France in the same year. After the brief reign of Henry the III, who would reign for but a few days, and the death of his brother Francis, duke of Anjou, in a "tragic accident", Henry of Bourbon and his wife Jeanne of Valois would send shockwaves through Europe. Despite Henri's conversion to Catholicism, many both in France and outside of it would not shed their doubts, and the "Black year" would start. Matthias had would be convinced to join the Catholic League, because, despite of his personal beliefs, with himself being a stauch Catholic reformist, believing the Church itself "archaic but true", his military competence would see the Pope appoint him as his sword in the restoration of the "true faith" to France. Invading France with 15000 in early 1578, Matthias would, however, not fulfil his mission. His derision with the Guises, the leading Catholic family in France, and the diplomatic talks he held with King Henri and his wife, would see Matthias end the French Wars of Religion in a swift stroke - crushing the Guises and the Condes in succession, forcing them to accept "le bon Roi Henri."

He would also be a cornerstone in the beginning of what would be French absolutism - has he would help Henry do what he himself had done to Hungary and Bohemia - the centralisation of both land and power to the crown. Under his umbrella of papal legitimacy, Henry would be crowned in Reims alongside his wife, and their first son, Francis, would be born that year, finally uniting the Bourbon-Valois branches of the Capetian dynasty, legitimizing their rule, the edict of Fontainebleu would be promulgated - establishing France as a "Catholic realm" with Christian liberties, legating tolerance for the French Huguenots and pacifying France for the first time in a generation. Matthias would leave France with his increased army of 18000 men for Rome and then Hungary - with French soldiers sent to help defend the border of Christendom.

In Rome, Matthias would perhaps suffer the great first defeat of his reign - the anger of the Papacy, who did not expect his actions in France. In his defense, France was now both Catholic and pacified, but Matthias would be forced by Gregory VIII, to marry Isabella Clara Eugenia, Infanta of Spain, in the same year, and marry his only surviving sister, Mary, to Infante Don Sebastian of Portugal, firstborn of King John IV Manuel of Portugal. Many would have perhaps seen this as a defeat - but not Matthias. He received a great sum of gold from Spain as dowry for his wife, and would manage to negotiate with Portugal for the access of Portuguese markets and spices by Bohemian and Croatian merchants. His own wife, Isabella, despite being a fanatic catholic, would adapt well to the conditions in the realms of her husband, and would swiftly provide the first of many children to the King of Hungary.

Matthias would try to settle down with his wife and children, but his decision to forgo paying the tribute promised by the Zapolyas during his regency would see the start of the Ottoman-Hungarian War of 1581-1583, with an invasion of Hungary proper by the armies of Murad III, which the well-experienced Black Armies of Hungary and Bohemia would trash, dragging the war onto Ottoman territory which would see the Romanian Principalities swearing allegiance to Matthias and the secession of Bosnia, Dalmatia, and parts of Northern Serbia to Hungary. Matthias would come out of the war with a grave wound, however, having lead his armies in the field for the better part of the two years spent fighting. The assistance of France, Spain and Portugal, with France being his ally and him being linked through marriage to both Iberian Monarchies, would see much of Ottoman-controlled Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia falling under the umbrella of these three powers.

Matthias' "grand crusade" would see much of Ottoman Europe chipped at - the Habsburg would see in the south the establishment of clients and vassal states in Morea, Epirus and Albania, while the Venetians would recover both Crete and Cyprus, and would given credence to a new epoch of Crusading and reconquista - this time of the Balkans. Matthias' influence would see the ending of at least, the political rift between Catholic and Orthodox churches, as even the Catholic Spanish would not enforce catholicism anywhere but Albania - as it had been during the reign of Skanderberg. Matthias would gain fame and adoration from Christian Europe, with the pope naming him Augustus (Which Matthias would adopt as a second name) and the title of Apostolic majesty.

Matthias would die in 1585 in extreme pain from the damage done to his spine during the war - leaving behind his Spanish wife and his four infant children by her, just at the age of 32, being mourned heavily in both of his realms, and outside of them. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Prince Andrew.

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King Andrew IV
[4]
Prince Andrew, born in 1579, was the first son and child of King Matthias II Augustus and Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain. Andrew was deeply loved by his parents, however, he would not grow to personally know his father. Upon the death of Mattias II Augustus, the prince became King at only six years old. His mother ruled as Regent for the young monarch. This regency period would be remembered for the many artistic developments that were encouraged by the Regent across the realms. Then, after twelve years, Andrew finally came of age in 1597.

Andrew was inspired by the tales of his father and wanted to be like him. So, in 1600, he launched another ''crusade'' against the weakened Ottoman Empire. With the aid of the Austrians and their other allies, the remainder of Ottoman-ruled Europe was liberated, even the city of Constantinople.

However, the King tragically died five years later, after he was accidentally crushed by a siege weapon while he was performing a military exercise with components of the Bohemian Army. He was succeeded by his brother, Prince Matthias.

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[5] Prince Matthias, born in 1584, was the second son and last child of King Matthias II Augustus and Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain.
He was only one when his father died and with his mother performing her role as Regent to his 6 year old brother, King Andrew III, Prince Matthias was raised mainly by his Catholic governess, Katherina Nádasdy and Protestant tutor, Professor József Báthory, from the Charles University, Prague. Matthias was given an education fit for an heir but also one that would set him well for a life as an administrator to his brother (and any nephews he may receive).

At 16, in 1600, along with his mother, Matthias served as Co-Regent while his brother, King Andrew III, went to war with the Ottoman Empire. Along with governing the daily running of the nation, Matthias was also arranging a list for brides to marry his brother.

Five years into the regency, news returned from the war, that his brother, King Andrew III had tragically during a military exercise with components of the Bohemian Army.
This left 21 year old, Matthias as the new king of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia. His first act was to marry the bride he had hoped to marry to his brother. In 1606, he married Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria, the youngest daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria, and his wife Maria Anna of Bavaria, her siblings were Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Margaret, Queen of Spain Leopold V, Archduke of Further Austria and Constance, Queen of Poland.
The marriage was also arranged to answers the tense question of dividing up the spoils of war. Matthias would gain the lands of Principalities of Moldavia, Transylvania and Wallachia, his wife Marie would be given Serbia as a dowry, while Habsburg Austria would claim the rest of the Balkan lands including Constantinople and Greece.

Matthias’s reign was a peaceful one with him forging strong trade alliances with his other neighbours of Poland and Russia.

With his knowledge of administration and diplomacy, his internal affairs were well managed from keeping the treasury, which had grown substantially from the spoils of war, working for the citizens by investing money into infrastructure while dealing with religious tension in his large kingdom by bringing about tolerance and no state religion, building a workable relationship by inviting a mixture of leaders from all the major religions to represent their views at meetings and debates.

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The couple lived a happy life and were blessed by having eleven children, although, three died in childhood.

Queen Marie died aged 42 in 1631, leaving Matthias heartbroken and he would never remarry, he was found dead, twenty years after Marie’s death, aged 67, slumped over in his bedroom chair, that sat in front of his wife’s portrait.

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An official portrait of King Otto I/II that was commissioned after his death

[6]
Prince Otto was born in 1628, the first son and child of Prince George and Conradine, Princess of Agárd. When he was born, his parents’ marriage was considered to be morganatic until his grandfather created the Principality of Agárd, which consisted of a few villages near Lake Velence, for Conradine to rule. For most of his life, Otto was sheltered from the pressures of the court, preferring to spend his time reading books, where he learned about ideas of reform.

A year before the death of the King, his father died and Otto suddenly became first in line to the throne. Despite this, the prince did not attempt to learn many of the skills that were required of a ruler. Though, after he ascended to the throne, the Prince surrounded himself with reform-minded nobles who shared his worldview. He encouraged the opening of universities across the realms and also supported that education be taught in the local regions’ languages.

Otto continued the economic prosperity that began under Matthias III Vladislaus. The King even began to warm relations with the Ottoman Kingdom and signed various trading treaties with the Sultan.

However, the King’s most notable accomplishment was the creation of an Imperial Diet.

Otto I/II died in 1679, at the age of 51. He was succeeded by his nephew, John, duke of Anjou.

[7] Prince Jean of France was born in 1651, third son of King Louis the XVI and the fourth of the Bourbon french monarchs. Unlike his two elder brothers, however, Jean was the first son of Louis' second queen, Mathilda of Hungary and Bohemia, whom would have plenty of other children after Jean. The House of Bourbon had proven a boon for france - the early centralization during the reign of Henri IV and his heir Francis had seen the power of the nobility and the local parliaments broken, and the French alliance with the revolutionary Kingdom of the Netherlands that had arisen in the once Spanish Netherlands had seen an influx of technology and new political ideas that had turned france into a notable power, alongside France's early colonial exploits in Canada, Louisiana and their protestant colonies in Artartique in the southern tip of the African continent. During the reign of King Louis XIII France, alongside the Netherlands, had broken the remnants of the once duchy of Burgundy, with the Netherlands taking Flanders while the French took Lille, Wallonia, Luxembourg and Imperial Burgundy, having inherited the Duchy of Lorraine previously.

This had seen the historical Capetian-Habsburg rivarly come to a flare, has Spain reorganized itself under Carlos the II and Maximilian of Austria and Bavaria asserted his power over the Principalities of the Empire. The main flare point would arise however, in Hungary and Bohemia. King Otto had no children, despite his long reign, and had no brothers as well - only sisters. The eldest, Mathilda, had married the King of France, while the youngest, Clotilde, had married Sigismund of Poland-Lithuania, an old man with plenty of sons from an earlier marriage, with Clotide giving birth to a single daughter, Anna Jagiellona.

Jean's mother would make sure he spent much of his time in Hungary and Bohemia, visiting his uncle who would make him his official heir shortly before his death. Still, however, John's arisal to the throne brought with it a whole lot of problems.

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Upon his coronation as King of Hungary and Bohemia the troubles immediatelly started. Austria-Bavaria, under the rule of Ernst von Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor, would immediately press the claim of Anna Jagiellon, allying with Poland to do so. The war for the triple crown would begin in earnest. The Kingdoms of young John held were composed like this - Bohemia, which included over Bohemia proper, Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia, Hungary, which held Voivodina, Belgrade and Transylvania, to Croatia in the west, which held Dalmatia, Slavonia and Bosnia under it's crown, and even with all of this, John was also the recognized suzerain of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Principality of Montenegro and the Romanian Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia. Despite the extent and diversity of this realm, John managed to keep it unified under him, with his propagandists harkoning back to the golden age of Hungary and Croatia under the house of Capet-Anjou, and that now, under the house of Bourbon-Anjou, a new golden age would start. Golden perhaps it would be, but the start would be bloody.

Despite the lack of warring after King Andrew, the black armies of Hungary and Bohemia had not diminished in quality, but only augmented in quantity. Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia had been for years now a hub of innovation, and various advances in agriculture and medicine which were only slowly trickling into the rest of Europe had seen the peaceful realm explode in population. It was thus that despite fighting both the Holy Roman Empire and the Commonwealth on their own (France being preocuppied with not provoking and escalating the war, due to the hostility of the Spanish Habsburg and the British Seymours, who had unified the crowns of England, Ireland and Scotland under them).

The war would see a huge numbers of soldiers by the three Kingdoms being pulled to the fore, starting with the combined Polish-Austrian invasion of Bohemia in early 1680 and the battle of Reichstadt, an engament which the allies won decisively. The war, however, would not end, and would drag on for another four years, ending only in 1684. John would be forced to drop any claims to the inheritance to the Kingdom of France and drop the Bourbon in the name of his royal house, keeping only the "Anjou" and he would be forced to marry Anna Jagiellona during the peace celebrations. Moldavia would become shared under both Polish-Lithuanian and Bohemian-Hungarian authority. However, both allies would have to pay war reparations for the unjust defiance of John's claim.

The rest of John's life would be peaceful, to a degree. Despite the constant disagreements between the cousin royals, Queen Anne and King John would manage to pump out a few children, but the two would only ever truly come to an understanding in their old age. The Triple-Monarchy would continue to prosper, with John's only warring after the succession war being done when he intervened in the "Greek" problem - the constant warring between the Despotate of Greece, the Kingdom of Thrace and Bulgaria and the Empire of Anatolia and Pontus, three greek states which constantly allied and warred against each other in an attempts to unify the "Rhomans" in the Anatolia, Thrace and Greece.

After the death of Casimir, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, last of the Jaggielons, Jean was preparing to invade and install his wife as queen of the two realms, but a fall from his horse in early 1701 would see the King become paralised. His last four years were spent in the company of his wife, who become his chief caretaker despite their rocky relationship, with the Imperial diet, which had developed quietly under his reign - John being a strange mixture of an absolutist monarch who listened to the council of the diet. He would finally give up on life in 1705, being succeded by his eldest son, Sigismund.

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[8] Born in 1688, Sigismund was the second born child, but eldest born son of King John and Princess Anna Jagiellona of Poland-Lithuania, and was named after his maternal grandfather, Sigismund, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Following his father’s fall from a horse in early 1701, Sigismund became regent in all but name, attending Imperial diet meetings and military ceremonies, while his paralysed father was bed bound.
He did not wish to start a war to his mother’s claim to the throne, especially while her other older half nephews and brothers still had a strong presence in the kingdom.
After four years as de facto regency, Sigismund was by his father’s bedside at the time of his death, while coronation was held a year later, he merged his mother’s surname with his father’s to give his family a more Hungarian sentiment.

In 1710, Sigismund married Princess Karolina Jagiellona of Poland-Lithuania, the youngest daughter of his half uncle Casimir, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania and his wife, Catherine of Sweden, born in 1690.
This marriage was arranged with a non-aggression agreement being signed by the two kings, along with an alliance of mutuel defence, Poland fearing an attack from Prussia or Russia, while the Triple Kingdoms needed support should the Austrians or Ottomans strike.

As king he supported having reforms to the army and the government, holding at least one meeting a week with members of the Imperial Diet, and things were looking promising for this young King, however no one expected when he contracted smallpox in 1717, the 29 year old would pass away, with many mourned the king that could have been if he survived this illness. He was succeeded by his son Charles.
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Charles III/II of Hungary, Bohemia, and Croatia
[9]
Prince Charles was born in 1712 as the first child of Sigismund II and Karolina of Poland-Lithuania. He became King of Hungary at the age of 5 following the death of his father and would be under an regency of his mother and uncle Louis. Louis was an big francophile and would sign an non-aggression agreement with France and the Netherlands, along with an alliance of defence. This was also arranged with the marriage of Charles to Joan of France, daugher of Francis III of France, upon the former's 18th birthday.

Upon turing 18 in 1730, Charles had both his coronation and wedding happen at the same time. The marriage of Charles and Joan was quite rocky and although both parters took mistresses, they had many children.

Charles' reign saw the War of the Austrian Succession start in 1748 when Maximilian VI of Austria and Bavaria died without any male heirs, with only daughters. The eldest, Maria Josephine, was supported by Poland-Lithuania, France, and the Netherlands, while her younger sister Maria Maximiliane was supported by Great Britain, Russia, and Prussia.

Hungary was on the side that supported Maria Josephine, and by the end of the war in 1755, Maria Josephine had won and banished her sister from coming back to Austria. The Treaty of Stockholm that was signed at the war's conclusion would included the crowning of Maria Josephine's husbund Henri (an member of the House of Bourbon) becoming Holy Roman Emperor as Henry VII, Britain cede some of thier colonies to France, and Charles becoming the new suzerain of Albania and Hungary the new backer of Greece in the Rhomani conficts against Thrace and Anatolia (Austria was Greece's previous backer before the War of the Austrian Succession).

Following the war Charles' reign was quite peaceful, and he would die in 1779 at the age of 67. He was succeeded by his grandson, Sigismund Ferdinand.

[10] Born to Charles the third's oldest son, Matthias Ferdinand and lady Donika Kastrioti, princess of Hungary's albanian vassal, in early 1772, he would be a peaceful boy who would be hit hard by the death of both his father and mother in quick succession after his birth. The death of his uncles beforehand had seen the young child put in the position of heir to the throne. The death of King Charles in 1779 would see the triple-monarchy throw into regency under the Imperial diet. Despite not having many talents, he was a vigorous speaker and lover.

He would only reach his majority many years later, well into 1792, when he was already in his twenties. It would be Sigismund, heeding the many enlightenment and reformist voices in his Kingdom that would the official transition into a constitutional monarchy. It would be, perhaps, the greatest personal achievement of his reign.

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The start of the Revolutionary era, would, however, bring a seismic shift to the European landscape. Europe had all been, slow or fast, to the march of the enlightenment. France, under Charles X's father, Henri the V, had reformed it's government deeply in the last halves of the 18' century, seeing the young Charles the X famously adopt the persona which the famous french General, Marshall Lannes, would call "A constitutionalist Autocrat". The United Kingdom of Spain, ruled by Luis II Aviz, had also transitioned slowly into this, morphing into a transcontinental empire with various metropolitan settings. Russia, Britain and to a lesser degree the statelets of the Italian Peninsula had followed as well.

However, the 1790's would bring forward a multitude of changes that would completely change the face of Europe. The Kingdom of Prussia and the Austria-Bavaria had both been dominating the German political landscape for decades and centuries, respectivelly, but the humiliation repeatedly faced by both powers had brought a surge forward of German Nationalism. Before the fall of the House of Habsburg to the "inheritors" in the House of Bourbon, the Hohenzollerns and Habsburg had intermarried, and despite the King of Prussia having a claim to the Austro-Bavarian throne, he had never pulled it.

That was not the case for the young Heinrich I Friederich, a young man of immense military talent and a fascination with both Liberalism that would throw Germany into a cataclysm. The Unification war would be the first war which would shake the image of Europe, when in less than a year, Heinrich of Prussia become Heinrich, King of Prussia and Bavaria and Archduke-of-Austria. The birth of the German Empire would follow suit.

In the lands of the once Eastern Roman Empire, Anatolia had fallen to the revolutionary whims of General Andronikos Bonotaites, whom had unified all three kingdoms into a new single Rhoman Empire.

It would be the start of a huge 20 years war that would forever change human history. Poland Lithuania, enticed by Germany with returns of it's lands in the east, would declare war on Russia and it's ally, Hungary. After the war, the Polish Lithuanian commonwealth would be divided, with the Hungaro-Bohemian King pressing his claim to be King of Poland. The reformist powers - instead of the revolutionary ones, would come out victorious, with Germany dis-united and the General-Emperor of the Rhomans deposed, Poland annexed and Britain and Sweden-Finland humbled.

Sigismund Ferdinand, a famous for his many lovers and his many "illegitimate" children, would be forced to marry by the diet the Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna of Russia, a pretty but shy girl of 20 years compared to Sigismund's 38 in 1810. Despite this, the King would fall over his heels for her - with the young queen quickly asserting herself. However, the new queen would have one major impediment - infertility of the womb. Despite this, Sigismund Ferdinand would refuse to divorce her and dishonor his wife and Russian ally and would thus die with no legitimate children whatsoever. He would die in 1822, an extremely popular old man.

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Louis II/III/I of Hungary, Bohemia, Poland and Croatia
[11] Prince Louis was born in 1799 as the first child of Prince Matthias, who was the brother of Sigismund III Ferdinand, and his wife Sophie of the Netherlands, and would become the heir to his after the death of his father in 1806 of tuberculosis. Louis was an widely and popular figure like his uncle, who he succeeded in 1822 at the age of 23. He worked on reforming his vast Kingdom, and would start to use the concept of plurinationalism.

His reign was expected to be a time of peace of prosperity, as well to be long. However this was not meant to be as on October 8, 1825 while taking an stroll, Louis was stabbed in the back by an German nationalist. Louis would die a coulpe of days later on October 11, 1825, and as he hadn't married he was succeeded by his sister Irene.


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[12]

Queen Irene I was born on September 6, 1801 as the second of four children (and the oldest of three daughters) of Prince Matthias and as such would ascend to the throne of Hungary after the death of her older brother by a German nationalist assassin.

As ruler, Queen Irene would continue to promote her older brother's ideas of plurinationalism to unite the Empire, promoting a sort of "Jagiellonianism" as a unifying ideology to bind the Empire together. In addition to this, she would grant a limited degree of constitutionalism during her reign, even if her reign was still relatively authoritarian with the Royal Parliament being a largely advisory body at first during her reign. Her reign would also see the abolition of serfdom and the start of the industrial revolution during her reign with the Quadruple Monarchy becoming an industrial power during her reign.

In terms of foreign policy, Irene would make an alliance with France to "maintain the balance of power" and would seek to prevent Germany from becoming a power at any cost during her reign.

Queen Irene would marry Prince Alexander of Denmark in 1827 with the two having three children. Irene would die on October 1, 1873 after suddenly collapsing while walking in the royal gardens the previous night. She was succeeded by her son Bengt.

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(13) Prince Bengt Minik Alexander was born in 1830 as the second child but eldest son of Queen Anne and her husband Alexander of Denmark. His father was a member of the Danish Royal House of Oxenstierna, and he he held a valid claim on the Danish throne as well as his mother's domains. He would succeed to the latter in 1873 whilst his position in the Danish line of succession would fluctuate as his cousins and their children were born, eventually sitting at about fifteenth for the duration of his reign.

He married a distant cousin, Helene of Anjou, in 1855 when he was 25 and she was 19, as part of his mother's plan to ally with France, and they had only two children before she passed in 1865. Bengt would remain a widow for the rest of his life and focus his attention on his nations and his children. Although officially from the House or Oxenstierna, Bengt continued his mother's prob at of Jagellionism and introduced a Royal edict that his Royal House would be dynastically the House of Jagiellon.

In contrast to his mother, however, be undertook great influence from the French and their constitutional monarchy, and encouraged further reforms in multiple areas of society but his great passion was agricultural reform which probably saved his nations from the famines of the 1870s in many countries, decimating the German food supply and causing riots. Germany would be provided with some surplus supplies by Bengt but it would be only the first step towards mending their antagonism.

Bengt died in 1892 and was succeeded by his son Alexander.

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Alexander I/II of Hungary, Bohemia, Poland and Croatia



[14]
Born in 1856, Prince Louis was the first child of Bengt I and Helene of Anjou. He grew up with an interest in the many cultures of his large country, and married an Bohemian noblewoman in 1871, and by the time he became King of Hungary in 1892, Alexander and his wife had five children.



The most important event of Alexander's reign was the Great War, which started in 1913 when the heir to Austria, Otto, was assassinated by an Bavarian nationalist. This lead to a civil war to happen with Bavaria claiming independence from Austria, with different countries supporting either side (Hungary was on the side of Bavaria). It then turned into a global war when Prussia invaded Bavaria, which Britain objected to and so declared war on Prussia.



Alexander would not see the end of the war as he died in 1916 at the age of 60, and was succeeded by ________, his _________.
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[15] King Sigismund IV would be the last monarch of the Quadruple Monarchy, being born on September 3, 1874 as the oldest child of King Alexander and his wife Elizabeth and would acceed to the throne in 1916 after his father's death.

While Sigismund IV was a well-intentioned and personally decent person, he would prove to be the last monarch of the Quadruple Monarchy for Prussia would win the Global War, with the Grand War being a conflict which saw the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership and the general defeat of Hungary and its allies. The last months of the Global War would see the Quadruple Monarchy collapse into its component countries with Sigismund IV being forced to abdicate by the Military Council of the Republic of Hungary on February 3, 1919.

Sigismund IV would spend the rest of his life in Portugal until his death in 1940.

As someone replied to you. This line expired and was not open to continue.
 
....you guys have said the HYW became 50 without specifying borders.

I have several questions.
A) Is Edward III's later reign still marked by domestic and international failure?
B) Is there still a mass Gascon alienation with the English? If so, why?
C) If the HYW is handwaved into being 50, what causes the peasant revolt?
D) Why does Edward go for a Luxembourg match as opposed to the OTL one which netted the English a whole load of money and lands, in addition to putting pressure on the Pope, simultaneously alienating his Bavarian allies?
E) Is there still a civil war in Castile? Does it become a proxy war between the French and the English as otl?
F) Why does Philippa not marry Mortimer and who does she marry?

I understand historical accuracy is not necessary for these lists but the happenings seem forced and vague af.

A = Yes
B = I didn't decide
C = The Fifty Years War starts in 1337 as IOTL, and end in about 1387. The Peasants Revolt takes place on schedule in 1381, so the cause hasn't changed.
D = Edward may have married one of his younger sons to Violante (born 1355) but needed heirs and fast, Catherine of Luxembourg was born in 1342 and widowed in 1365, so more swiftly avaliable.
E = John of Gaunt still gets drawn into Castile I would imagine even after his failed proposal to be King of Scotland, but Constance is born in 1354 so this could also be delegated to Edmund or Thomas.
F = see the TL. I didn't specify in case the future poster picked Philippa to crown.
 
POD: Alexios Philanthropenos successfully overthrows Andronicus II

Emperors and Autocrats of the Romans
1282-1295: Andronicus II (House of Palaeologus)
1295-1341: Alexios VI (House of Tarchaneiotes) [1]
1341-1345: Alexios VII (House of Tarchaneiotes) [2]
1345-1374: Basil III (House of Laskaris) [3]
1374-1392: Oshin I (House of Lambron) [4]
1392-1402: Constantine XI (House of Lambron) [5]
1402-1432: Justinian III (House of Lambron) [6]
1432-1457: Maria I and Peter I (House of Lambron/House of Venatrovsky) [7]
1457-1481: Alexander II "The Conqueror" (House of Osmanos) [8]


[1] Alexios VI's reign would mark a "Second Alexiad" as he, after overthrowing the weak and incompetent leadership of Emperor Andronicus II, would spend his 46-year long reign as Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans trying his best to ensure that Rhomania, weakened by the Fourth Crusade, would regain a position as a major power in a long reign where the Emperor was largely on horseback, campaigning against Latin, Slav, rebel, or Turk. Amongst his greatest achievements as Emperor would be the conquest of the Despotate of Epirus and his crushing of the nascent Osmanli beylik, even if Rhomania by his death, while having recovered from the disaster of the Fourth Crusade, was a mere regional power.

Alexios VI would die in 1341 from ill health and would be succeeded by his son Alexios.

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A 16th-century depiction of Emperor and Autocrat Alexios VII
[2]
Born in 1300, Alexios was the first born son of Emperor Alexios VI’s second marriage. He was possibly made co-emperor in 1328, reigning alongside his father before being demoted once more, most probably to a defeat in battle against the Epirotes.

When his father died, Alexios succeeded him, though he had to put down a rebellion that was instigated by one of his younger brothers.

In early 1345, Alexios VII launched a campaign against the independent southern Greek states, however, due to his incompetence his army would soon be routed by a combined Greek army. A few days later succumbed to his injuries and was succeeded by his nephew-in-law, Basil Laskaris.

[3] Born in 1321, Basil Laskaris would be one of the last scions of the ancient Nicene house of the Laskarids, which had once ruled the Nicene Empire in Anatolia. Despite their fall to the Palaeologus, the recent rising of the Tarchaneiotes would see the Laskarids rise quickly in opportunity. The Laskarids had been famous for their deeds in Anatolia, beating back the turk often, and it was in this area that the Laskarids would expand and create a new base of power for themselves. The conquest of many Turkic beylics would see the Laskarids adquire many new lands in Bukellarion and Phlagonia. It would be through this that Ioannes Laskaris, strategos of Anatolikon, would see his son Basil married to the niece of Emperor Alexios VII.

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Basil and his wife, Irene, would have a fruitful companionship, marked by Irene's intelligence and Basil's respect for her. Despite being more of a friendly "relationship", Basil and Irene would have 7 recorded children. It would be through Irene's claim that Basil would rise to the throne, and this would show during his reign, with Irene being far more than a mere consort during the rule of her husband.

Basil would prove himself up to the task of generalship and emperor-ship. Appealing to Dynastic continuation, Basil would take up the wars of his predecessor and would advance deeply into Southern Greece, restoring it back to the Empire, but an intervention by Venice would see an almost decade of on and off warfare between both states, which the Rhomans would eventually win, restoring their rule to all Greek islands, including Crete, although Cyprus remained in Crusader hands. His warfare-orientated reign would see the rise of a new class of Rhoman soldiery, based on conscription and professional service, mainly rewarded through promises of land in the depopulated Anatolia. Basil would also be the first Emperor to force the Turkish populations of the Empire to pay a blood tax - by giving at least one of their male children in service to the Empire.

Basil's never ending martial energy would see much of Anatolia recovered - with the Empire for the first time in generations reaching the Taurus mountains, with the Rhomans once more asserting dominance over the black sea. Many missionaries were sent into Circassia to Transcausia, and to Tartaria in the Golden horde by him. Basil would transplant many Greeks, Bulgarian and Latin mercenaries, as well as converted fleeing tribes from the North and the Steppes into Anatolia, giving the land a new appeal to the Rhoman state.

Despite his many victories against the westerners and the muslims, Basil would fail in his grandest campaign - the reconquest of Trebizond. The smashing of his army on the Pontic Mountains would see the aged Emperor enter a depression that would eventually take him to his grave. He would be succeeded by his son-in-law, Oshin
.
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[4] Oshin, a Prince of Armenia, was son-in-law to Emperor Basil III by his eldest daughter, Rita. Having deemed all of his legitimate sons as lunatics and simpletons, systematically managing them off stage, Basil set Oshin up as defacto heir jure uxoris.

Born in 1341, married in 1369 and had already given Basil three grandchildren by the time he died in 1374. Despite some opposition to his rule from his brothers-in-law and nephews, collectively known as the Basilian Pretenders, Oshin had effectively secured his reign by 1380 which left the remaining decade of his rule for him to focus on civic improvements including reinforcing the defenses of Thessalonica and effectively moving the imperial seat from Constantinople to Thessalonica.

In 1390, Oshin would inherit the Kingdom of Armenian Cilicia from his elder brother and this claim, which could be inherited by a woman, would pass to his children even if they did not become Byzantine Emperor.

Empress Rita outlived her husband, to see him succeeded by their son, Constantine

[5] Constantine XI was born in 1370 as the oldest of Oshin's sons and would become Emperor in 1393 as a result of his father Oshin's death.

As Emperor, Constantine XI's reign, while short, would be one marked by the effective governance of the Empire, especially after returning the capital of the Empire to Constantinople during the first few years of his reign. His reign would also be marked by effective and competent administration, especially with the defeat of the Bulgarians and Serbs in the Haemus and continuation of the consolidation of the Rhoman presence in Anatolia.

While many have speculated about what would have happened had he had more time to be Emperor, it was not to be as he would be killed in Timur's invasion of Anatolia, leaving behind his brother, Justinian, as the new Emperor.

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[6] Justinian was the youngest child of Oshin and third son, born in 1384. When his older brothers, Emperor Constantine and Dux Augustine, (b. 1372,) were both killed in the Battle of Aydin in 1402, Justinian took the throne with the support of his mother, the Dowager Empress, Rita. He was not quite 18 years old.

His two older sisters, however, did not support him. Theodora, born in 1369, was the oldest child of Oshrin, and had been married to Empress Rita's nephew, _________________, the Dux of Epirus, in 1380, at that time the senior claimant of the Basilian Pretenders. This had confirmed their support for Oshrin's reign. But with the defeat of Constantine to Timur and the loss of Anatolia and Armenia to the Empire, Theodora and the Dux now proclaimed he was the rightful Emperor. Alexandria, born in 1379, was married to the Bulgarian Emperor, Ivan Umor. They threw their support to Epirus in exchange for a return of the Haemus to the Bulgarians.

The war with Timur was still occurring as the Amir was now battling for the northwest provinces of Asia Minor and the Black Sea coast and was besieging Nicaea. With a two-front war occurring with the Turco-Mongols to the east and south and the Epirus/Bulgaria alliance to the west and north, The Empire was not able to secure Crete, the Peloponnese, and up through the former Duchy of Athens and Venice swept in and swiftly conquered it.

Justinian saw his only hope for the Empire was to sue for peace with Timur. Surprisingly, the Amir was generous in his terms, as he wished to finish in the west and turn east to face China. He agreed to allow Christian pilgrims to visit the Holy Land, now part of the Timurid Empire, to cede the territory in northwest Asia Minor he was occupying in return for the Empire giving up its claims to the former Turkish Beyliks except the ones that bordered the Aegean or the Black Sea, yielding the interior of Anatolia again to Timur's Turkish vassals. (Timur championed the Ghuzz Turks of Mentese who now reformed the Sultanate of Rum in the interior of Anatolia and the southern Mediterranean coast.)

This allowed Justinian to invade the Haemus in 1403. Ivan Umor did not meet Justinian in battle but instead sent Alexandria to negotiate a peace. The Bulgarians sued for peace if they submitted to Constantinople, recognized Justinian as their Emperor, gave up the title Emperor for themselves but took the title of King of the Bulgarians. In return, Justinian recognized the Haemus Mountains as part of the Bulgarian Kingdom but as a vassal of Constantinople.

Now Justinian could turn his full attention to Epirus. Unlike Alexandria, Theodora did not encourage her husband to make peace. A bloody war followed from 1404 through 1408. A peace never was formed with a treaty, like with Timur or Bulgaria, but a ceasefire and truce ended hostilities in the late summer of 1408. All the territory that Epirus had taken from the Empire was restored, but a rump Epirus remained and was now de facto independent, although both sides claimed Epirus was part of the Roman Empire, they just disagreed which government was the legitimate government of the entire Empire.

All through this war, negotiations had occurred with Venice. They were formalized in the Treaty of Athens in 1410. The Greek Isles, except for Crete, were now under the direct control of Constantinople. The Duchy of Athens was restored to independence but formally a vassal of Constantinople, as was the new formed Duchy of the Peloponnese, but Venice was given full rights to trade and establish bases. In reality, the Duchies were under the control of Venice but officially were vassals of Rome. Crete itself was part of the Venetian Empire.

Finally, Justinian had peace on all borders and the Empire was secure, although much smaller than previously.

This was when the Dowager Empress died.

Justinian now knew he needed to marry. He was now 25 and expected many more years to reign. His bride was Anna Vasilievna of Moscow, daughter of Vasily I, the Grand Prince of Moscow. She was now 17 and Muscovy had been one of the only neighboring states to actually declare for Justinian when he took the throne. But now that all surrounding states did, it was to his first ally he turned for a marriage. (Even though that support had been nothing more than declaring a position.)

The Emperor and Empress started a family immediately and had a number of children.

Although it was humiliating that the Greek vassal states were only nominally vassals, the reality of peace with Venice and the presence of Venetian trade in them led to increase prosperity for the Empire. Also peace with the new Sultanate of Rum and the Timurid Empire, meant the Silk Road was re-opened and trade from there added to the Empire's prosperity.

However, the peace and prosperity of Justinian's reign was doomed to fail in 1432 on the death of the heir and grandson of Timur, Muhammad Sultan Mizra, who'd held all of Timur's empire together from Timur's death in 1405. The western portions of the Timurid Empire fell into chaos, the Silk Road closed again, the Ghuzz attacked the Empire's province of Trezibond, and a new threat demolished the Empire- the Black Plague.

Justinian died of the Plague in 1432 just as the Ghuzz attacked the Empire.

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Empress and Autocratess Maria I and Emperor and Autocrat Peter I

[7]
Born a sickly child in 1412, Maria was the first daughter and child of Emperor Justinian III and Princess Anna Vasilievna of Moscow. For most of Maria’s early life, she was confined indoors due to an unknown affliction that rendered her physically weak and nearly bald. Maria would often be the target of frequent insults by courtiers, which greatly affected the young girl. In 1428, she met Peter Venatrovsky, the son of one of the royal guards of Grand Prince Vasily I, who had previously visited Constantinople. They both fell in love, and Maria’s health rapidly improved, even though this is most probably a coincidence, and she remained near-bald for the rest of her life. At the age of 20, she and Peter finally married.

By the time of Justinian III’s death, Maria and her younger brother, John, were their father’s only surviving children. Briefly, it seemed that there was a possibility of a civil war between Maria and John. However, John, recognizing that he would hold many disadvantages if he waged war, struck a deal with Maria and Peter. John would relinquish his claim to the Roman throne, but, in exchange, he would become the King of Macedonia (roughly OTL Western Macedonia region in Greece and some parts of Central Macedonia).

The newly crowned imperial couple had to deal with the depopulation of the city of Constantinople and other surrounding areas caused by the Black Death. However, many lives were saved by the royal policy which was put in place which forced many inhabitants of cities to relocate to sparsely populated areas of the empire. A few years later, the Roman Empress and Emperor helped command a combined Roman-Macedonian-Timurid force which resulted in the Ghuzz being pushed out of the Roman Empire and the majority of the Timurid Empire’s eastern territories.

The remainder of their joint reign was relatively peaceful and prosperous, as Maria and Peter had implemented many policies that facilitated easier trade with the Venetians and other Italian maritime powers. During this time, Peter also introduced much Muscovite culture to the empire, especially in the imperial capital.

In 1457, Maria and Peter both died in their sleep together on the same day. They were succeeded by their nephew-in-law, Ioannes of the House of Osmanos.

[8] Alexandros of the Osmanoi would be the first-born son of Ioannes Dragases Osmanos, a famous governor of the Peleponese, born in early 1432. His family was of Turkish origin, as his family was itself descendant the defeated Ottoman Beylic two centuries before. His ancestors had entered Byzantine service and had rise steadly through the ranks, becoming great land-owners during the Anatolian reconquista. Alexandros himself had led his first contingent of troops by 1451 by the age of 19, defeating a raiding party of the Karamanid Sultanate of Syria in the battle of Adana, and led a contigent of christian troops - a mixture of Greeks, Cilicians, Armenians and Turks all the way down to Antioch, city which he would swear to reconquer as a general one day. He would reconquer, not as a general, but as an Emperor.

Alexandros would rise to steady fame after this, joining the upper echelons of the Imperial military which would lead him to meet and marry Eudokia of Macedonia, only child of John of Macedon. It was Alexandro's first real thrust into the upper hierarchy of Imperial politics, and it would one in which he would not fail. The death of his father-in-law would have by all rights seen him rise to the ocasion as King of Macedon, but Alexandros, a firm Imperialist, would refuse to take a title and land that "would disturb the law and power of the Empire". For many it was seen as a moment of stupidity, as Macedonia held both Thessalonika and an immense spread of territtory. But it was Alexandros' introduction to the Imperial family, who would grow to respect him. Maria and Peter's never had children, and they would eventually decide to co-adopt Alexandros into their family and make him their successor, alongside their niece. Their deaths in 1457 would see Alexandros, perhaps the most important ruler of 15 century Byzantium, arise to the ocasion. Alexandros, who would come to be known in the future as the Conqueror, had just arisen to the purple.

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Alexandros was a firm unificacionists, the party of the Byzantine Empire which believed that the many "statelets" Byzantine noblemen had successfully carved for themselves within the Imperial frontiers be ended, and it had been this with this party of talented, loyal and young "new blood" that Alexandros had allied himself with, and truly, they would become one of the pillars of his reign.

Alexandros was, however, not the only one who was paying attention. In Epirus, the old age Laskarid Despots of the region had laid in wait, content with slowly expanding their rule over Thessaly, Attica and Southern Albania and Macedonia, but they were not foolish. Manuel Laskaris, the old and wise Despot of Epirus, knew that Alexandros would end up coming for him, and declared himself Emperor with support of many European and Anatolian magnates. It would lead to a two-year civil war, in which Alexandros' military talent would come to the fore. Alexandros would first see action in Anatolia, soundly defeating the Rhoman magnates in Pontus and in the Lycian themes of Kybyrrhaotai and Opsikion, while his brother Michael held off the Epirotes in Macedonia. Michael had plenty of military talent of his own, and would hold off the numerically superior Epirotes for months before the arrival of his brother over the Hellespont. At this point, Manuel and Simeon of Bulgaria entered into an alliance, but it would be too late for Epirus. Alexandros would lead his professional army of over 50000 men into Macedonia, defeating Manuel at every turn, quickly subduing his territorries. Venice's attempt to harbor Manuel in their Aegean cities would see the Emperor conquer them - but this would start the Roman-Veneto-Bulgarian war, which would last for one more year.

Michael ambushed the Bulgarian army in the Rhodopes, however, and this would see the Byzantines imprison over 20000 Bulgarian soldiers. It was a military victory the likes of Basil the III and that of Caesar, and it would see the fall of Bulgaria once more to the Rhoman Empire. The venetian counter invasion of Epirus would also end in disaster - Alexandros handing them a handy victory in the battle of Naufpakos, which would see Venice lose it's holdings in the Roman Empire - including Crete.

The annexation of Bulgaria and the re-incorporation of the Venetian concessions would see a surge of popularity for Alexandros, making him one of the most popular and powerful Autocrats since Alexios the I, and it would give Alexandros the space to introduce his greatest ambitions - reform at all levels, which would be seen blessed by God as he and the Basilissa, Eudokia, would have their first child that year.

The Codex Osmanoi - the greatest code of law since the Codex of Justinian almost a millenia prior, would be one of the greatest books of law of the time, and is considered by most of historians as the Roman Empire's first constitution, as it sodified very well the role each official would have in their servitude to the Emperor. The Roman laws of Succession - turning the Roman Autocracy into a primogeniture, male preference based succession, with usurpation - made "illegal" and co-emperorship as well. It would also reform much of Byzantine bureaucracy, making it clear and consise for the first time in forever. It would also make Sebastos the title of the Crown Prince of the Empire.

His military reforms, however, are also famous. The birth of the Byzantine armies (Imagine a less corrupt, more gun-based and less raiding prone Ottoman army) of the 15th century, known as the Scholarii, as each Rhoman soldier was given a firm education in any art of his choosing and in Greek. It was to be the birth of one of the most professional forces of the age.

On other fronts, though, Alexandros after his reforms would quickly move to end the subdued Turkic beylics, as they had become rather powerless since many turks and turcomans had converted to christianity and integrated into the Imperial system, becoming one of the greatest sources of soldiers for the Empire. The swift integration of Bulgaria into the Empire would also be of great use to Rome - as the Bulgarians would quickly come to enjoy the rule of Rome - as the Tsardom of Bulgaria had been decentralized and in constant internal warfare between nobles - and it quickly became a source of both soldiers and officials for Constantinople.

The next few years of Alexandros' reign would be peaceful - with much coin flowing into the Imperial treasury due to his reforms after the increased spending of the civil war, but it was a time for personal growth for Alexandros - in the peace established after 1462, he and his wife would become the parents to seven more children, all the way into 1472, the year the Empire would go to war once more. One must denote, however, Alexandros and his wife roles as patrons of the arts - to them is often attributed the start of the Renaissance, as during their reign, Constantinople (Which had extensivelly recovered and expanded since the fourth crusade) would become a center of art and culture, reuniting several latin, slavic, arab, persian and roman artists, historians, architects, musicians, inventors and more in the city. But Alexandros' greatest passion would definetly be architecture - the Emperor would be the patron of over one hundred architecture projects, but the most famous would be the restoration of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, the Parthenon of Athens and the Colossus of Rhodes, his greatest and most beloved project. He would build many new monuments, however, such as the Grand Mausoleum of Eudokia, named after his wife, which would become the resting ground of future Roman Emperors, the Grand Harbour of Thessalonika and Smyrna,the Cathedral of Saint Peter in Antioch and many statues of himself all over the Empire.

The following ten years of constant campaigning by Alexandros, which would earn him the title of the Conqueror, could be better explained, but the majesty and greatness of so many deeds would take much to explain. In less than 10 years, the Empire would expand into all directions, with the Emperor conquering deep into Serbia and Bosnia, winning the loyalty of the Danubian princes of Wallachia and Moldavia, the homage of the King of Hungary, while in the East, King David of Georgia would enter into Alexander's patronage, recognizing him as his sovereign, while the full extent of lower Caucasia and the Armenian lands would be integrated into the Empire. In the south, Basil would storm over the Cilician gates in 1476, while the Turkish Karamanid rulers of Syria were busy invading the remnants of the Mamluk caliphate in Egypt and Hejaz, bringing the whole of Syria under his control. The Emperor would have perhaps conquered further, but a bout of plague would take him, seeing him succedeed by ______________.
 
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