List of monarchs III

Edited in a second marriage and a final child.

And yes, this does mean Manuel II father's his last daughter aged 69, but I was watching a YT video that explained how President John Tyler, b. 1790, has a living grandchild. He had his last child aged 63, and that child, Lyon Tyler, had Lyon had a son in 1928 when he was 75.
 
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Edited in a second marriage and a final child.

And yes, this does mean Manuel II father's his last daughter aged 69, but I was watching a YT video that explained how President John Tyler, b. 1790, has a living grandchild. He had his last child aged 63, and that child, Lyon Tyler, had Lyon had a son in 1928 when he was 75.
Manuel de Cràto. The House of Crato is one of my favourite Bastard houses, topped only.by the Battenberg. Loving it.
 
What if Duarte, Duke of Guimarães didn't die?

Kings of Portugal and the Algarve;
Henrique I, r. 1578 to 1580
(House of Avis)
Duarte II, r. 1580 to 1598 (House of Avis) [1]
Manuel II, r. 1598 to 1640
(House of Crato) [2]
Duarte III, r.1640 to 1651 (House of Crato) [3]


[1] With the Death of the Cardinal-King in 1580, the.successor was without a doubt; the Last Avis; Duarte, Duke of Guimarães. Born posthumously in 1541, Duarte had many men in front of him in the line of succession, but with the death of king Sebastian in 1578 left just the Cardinal-Infante and Duarte himself.

During his uncle's reign, the marriage between Duarte and Lady Mary Grey, a great-Grandchild of Henry VII of England, occurred. Rumours abounded that Elizabeth I of England suggested the marriage herself. The marriage was struck with the condition that Mary forfeit all claim for the English throne. The marriage was fruitful, with their first child, a Daughter, born in 1579 and a further five children over the next decade. While bringing some discontent due to her Protestantism, upon her arrival in Portugal, she did convert, and those upset were appeased.

The Portuguese Empire under Duarte II was said to be a merchants paradise,.with spices from India, Africa, and Brazil available in every Portuguese port. Duarte II would pass in 1598, and the throne would pass to the son of his legitimized cousin, Antonio of Crato
.


(2) Despite Duarte, King of Portugal marrying and being given six children by his wife, Mary, only one child was male, and only 3 survived infancy. Even though his son, Duarte, had survived infancy, he died in 1595 aged 12, leaving Duarte with only two surviving children - his eldest Beatrice and his youngest Maria. As such, male succession would need to be traced back several generations - but instead, Duarte legitimized the until-then illegitimate line of Luis, Duke of Beja, starting with Antonio, Prior of Crato. Antonio died shortly after receiving news of his legitimisation, making his eldest son, Manuel, the heir of King Duarte.

Duarte invited Manuel to the royal palace and arranged for him to marry Beatrice of Portugal, then 16. By the time her father passed three years later, Beatrice would have provided her father with a son, and would provide several more so

In 1598, Manuel II was crowned, not of the House of Aviz as he was entitled, but as the first monarch of the House of Crato. In 1609, Manuels first major act was to offer the Moriscos who had been expelled from Spain safe harbour in Portugal. This lead to some friction between Spain and Portugal, leading to the brief Peninsula War from 1612 to 1618. In the end, Philip of Spain allowed Portugal to take onboard the Moriscos, rather more recognising the drain on the Spanish exchequer than the admission of Portugal being in the right.

With the influx of the Moriscos, who had also been given the option of settling in Tunisia and Morocco, to the Faro and Beja regions in the south of Portugal, created a distinct cultural variance between the north and south.

After the death of Beatrice of Portugal, he would marry the much younger Antwerpiana of Zweibrucken-Landsberg in 1635 when she was eighteen. Only a single daughter was born from this second marriage and it was from all accounts a happy marriage.

By the time of his death in 1640, Manuel was a grandfather and had taken to spending one month each year in the Faro region which lead to his increased popularity with the Moriscos and their descendants.

He was succeeded by Duarte of Portugal, his second son.



[3] Duarte, Duke of Beja was the second son of Manuel II, and Beatrice of Portugal and thus the second Grandson of Duarte II. When his elder brother; João, Prince of Portugal passed in 1610, young Duarte became the heir to the throne. His brother had been betrothed to Maria-Clementine of Austria, niece of the Spanish King, and so upon his death, Duarte effectively inherited the betrothal, and so in 1615 the pair would marry, a single son; Duarte of Portugal, was born the year after. Sadly in 1619, while at the Faro Palace with his father, Maria-Clememtina would pass after a sweating sickness, lehaving the Prince heartbroken.

In 1627, Duarte.would marry secondly the English princess; Mary, the daughter of James I and VI, and the Anglo-Portuguese marriage would produce two sons and seven daughters. This marriage was happy, said to be happier than his first marriage, and when his father died in 1640, she would be his first queen.

When his father died in 1640, the forty one year old Duarte became king, and his eldest son from his first marriage was announced as his heir. During his reign, he would work to expand Portugal's mercantile influence in Europe, primarily in the Baltic region, bringing the spices of the Empire to those of Sweden, Denmark, and the North German Principalities. In 1643, Portugal was struck by a plague of sickness believed by some to have brought West by levantine merchants. While ultimately few would from the illness, merely laid sick for some two to three weeks, two members of the royal.household.would die; The kings heir; Duarte, and Queen Mary would pass, and once again the King was distraught and.without a wife but still had male heirs. In 1647, He would marry Isabella of Mantua and Montferrat, a marriage which was more diplomatic than love-driven, but still the union produced a princess in 1648.

In 1651, the King was struck by what was claimed to be a fire throughout his skull, and over a single day; the fourteenth of November, the King died. Portugal fell into mourning for "Duarte the Merchant" and the throne passed to _______.

Manuel, King of Portugal, b. 1469, r. 1495 to 1521
a) John III, King of Portugal, b. 1502, r. 1521 to 1557​
1) Joao Manuel, Prince of Portugal (1537 to 1554)​
a) Sebastian, King of Portugal, b. 1554, r. 1557 to 1578
b) Luis, Duke of Beja (1506 to 1555)​
1) Antonio, Prior of Crato, (1531 to 1595)​
a) Manuel II, King of Portugal, b. 1568, r. 1598 to 1640, m. (1) Beatrice of Portugal (1579 to 1629), m. (2) Antwerpiana of Zweibrucken-Landsberg (1617 to 1677)​
1) João, Prince of Portigal, b. 1597 D.1610​
2) Duarte III, King of Portugal b.1599, r.1640 to 1651, m1. Maria-Clementina of Austria (1600 to 1619, m2. Princess Mary of England and Scotland (1605 to 1644), m3. Isabella of Mantua and Montferrat (1623 to 1689)​
A) Duarte, Prince of Portugal b.1616 D.1643​
B) two other sons, including heir.
C) eight daughters
3) Three other sons
4) Antwerpiana Brabantia of Portugal, b. 1637​
c) Henry, King of Portugal, b. 1512, r. 1578 to 1580​
d) Duarte, Duke of Guimaraes (1515 to 1540)​
1) Duarte, King of Portugal, b. 1541, r. 1580 to 1598, m. (1578) Lady Mary Grey of England​
a) Beatrice of Portugal, (1579 to 1629), m. Manuel, King of Portugal​
1) see line of Manuel II
b) Isabel of Portugal, b. 1581, d. 1584​
c) Duarte, Prince of Portugal, b. 1583, d. 1595​
d) Catherine of Portugal, b. 1585, d. 1587​
e) Eleanor of Portugal, b. 1586, d. 1590​
f) Maria of Portugal, b 1588​
 
I noticed a couple of different monarch lists: The Kings of Hispania (@Asharella) and Kings of Portugal (@wwbgdiaslt).
Well, I thought that the future posts should both lists.
The standard practice has always been to keep separate lists in separate posts. It could be confusing when they are totally different alternate timelines. Now when one list splits into two different dynasties in the same continuity in different countries it makes sense to have them in the same update, but even then it's not necessary.

There's always a risk with two timelines that only one will get interest, but that's okay. We've got two more days to see if any are interested enough in Hispania to update it. If not, well, that's what happens. Having to put updates for both in one post means those not interested in my Hispania list but are interested in the Portuguese one are either forced to do what they don't like and update Hispania or somewhat pressured to not post about the one they do have interest in.
 
Why would Duarte need to specifically make Manuel II leigitimate so he could succeed him? Portuguese succession was cognatic
 
In the same respect, there were more senior candidates when Phillip of Spain was made King of Portugal (the Duke of Parma, her sister, the Duchess of Mantua, Oddoardo Farnese, the Duchess of Braganza and her children), so feudal succession doesn't always run smoothly.
 
What if Duarte, Duke of Guimarães didn't die?

Kings of Portugal and the Algarve;
Henrique I, r.1578 to 1580
(House of Avis)
Duarte II, r.1580 to 1598 (House of Avis) [1]
Manuel II, r.1598 to 1640
(House of Crato) [2]
Duarte III, r.1640 to 1651 (House of Crato) [3]
Beatriz I "The Matchmaker" , r.1651 to 1709 (House of Crato) [4]

King jure uxoris: Pedro II, r.1651 to 1698 (House of Crato) [4]


[1] With the Death of the Cardinal-King in 1580, the successor was, without a doubt, the Last Avis: Duarte, Duke of Guimarães. Born posthumously in 1541, Duarte had many men in front of him in the line of succession, but with the death of king Sebastian in 1578 left just the Cardinal-Infante and Duarte himself.

During his uncle's reign, the marriage between Duarte and Lady Mary Grey, a great-Grandchild of Henry VII of England, occurred. Rumors abounded that Elizabeth I of England suggested the marriage herself. The marriage was struck with the condition that Mary forfeit all claim for the English throne. The marriage was fruitful, with their first child, a Daughter, born in 1579 and a further five children over the next decade. While bringing some discontent due to her Protestantism, upon her arrival in Portugal, she did convert, and those upset were appeased.

The Portuguese Empire under Duarte II was said to be a merchants paradise,.with spices from India, Africa, and Brazil available in every Portuguese port. Duarte II would pass in 1598, and the throne would pass to the son of his legitimized cousin, Antonio of Crato.



(2) Despite Duarte, King of Portugal marrying and being given six children by his wife, Mary, only one child was male, and only 3 survived infancy. Even though his son, Duarte, had survived infancy, he died in 1595 aged 12, leaving Duarte with only two surviving children - his eldest Beatrice and his youngest Maria. As such, male succession would need to be traced back several generations - but instead, Duarte legitimized the until-then illegitimate line of Luis, Duke of Beja, starting with Antonio, Prior of Crato. Antonio died shortly after receiving news of his legitimization, making his eldest son, Manuel, the heir of King Duarte.

Duarte invited Manuel to the royal palace and arranged for him to marry Beatrice of Portugal, then 16. By the time her father passed three years later, Beatrice would have provided her father with a son, and would provide several more so
In 1598, Manuel II was crowned, not of the House of Aviz as he was entitled, but as the first monarch of the House of Crato. In 1609, Manuel's first major act was to offer the Moriscos who had been expelled from Spain safe harbor in Portugal. This lead to some friction between Spain and Portugal, leading to the brief Peninsula War from 1612 to 1618. In the end, Philip of Spain allowed Portugal to take onboard the Moriscos, rather more recognizing the drain on the Spanish exchequer than the admission of Portugal being in the right.

With the influx of the Moriscos, who had also been given the option of settling in Tunisia and Morocco, to the Faro and Beja regions in the south of Portugal, created a distinct cultural variance between the north and south.

After the death of Beatrice of Portugal, he would marry the much younger Antwerpiana of Zweibrucken-Landsberg in 1635 when she was eighteen. Only a single daughter was born from this second marriage and it was from all accounts a happy marriage.

By the time of his death in 1640, Manuel was a grandfather and had taken to spending one month each year in the Faro region which lead to his increased popularity with the Moriscos and their descendants.

He was succeeded by Duarte of Portugal, his second son.



[3] Duarte, Duke of Beja was the second son of Manuel II, and Beatrice of Portugal and thus the second Grandson of Duarte II. When his elder brother; João, Prince of Portugal passed in 1610, young Duarte became the heir to the throne. His brother had been betrothed to Maria-Clementine of Austria, niece of the Spanish King, and so upon his death, Duarte effectively inherited the betrothal, and so in 1615 the pair would marry, a single son; Duarte of Portugal, was born the year after. Sadly in 1619, while at the Faro Palace with his father, Maria-Clementina would pass after a sweating sickness, leaving the Prince heartbroken.

In 1627, Duarte would marry secondly the English princess; Mary, the daughter of James I and VI, and the Anglo-Portuguese marriage would produce two sons and seven daughters. This marriage was happy, said to be happier than his first marriage, and when his father died in 1640, she would be his first queen.

When his father died in 1640, the forty one year old Duarte became king, and his eldest son from his first marriage was announced as his heir. During his reign, he would work to expand Portugal's mercantile influence in Europe, primarily in the Baltic region, bringing the spices of the Empire to those of Sweden, Denmark, and the North German Principalities. In 1643, Portugal was struck by a plague of sickness believed by some to have brought West by Levantine merchants. While ultimately few would from the illness, merely laid sick for some two to three weeks, two members of the royal family would die; The kings heir; Duarte, and Queen Mary would pass, and once again the King was distraught and without a wife but still had heirs. In 1647, He would marry Isabella of Mantua and Montferrat, a marriage which was more diplomatic than love-driven, but still the union produced a princess in 1648.

In 1651, the King was struck by what was claimed to be a fire throughout his skull, and over a single day; the fourteenth of November, the King died. Portugal fell into mourning for "Duarte the Merchant" and the throne passed to his granddaughter, Beatriz.
[4] Born in 1634 as the daughter and only surviving child of Duarte, Prince of Portugal (eldest son and heir of Duarte III) and his wife, Dona Maria Carla of Braganza, Beatriz became the heiress to the Portuguese throne in 1645, when her younger brother, 6-year-old Manuel, died from scarlet fever. At the time, there were many who questioned her inheritance (seeing as her great-grandfather had been made king due to his gender while his wife had been his predecessor's daughter), but with the backing of Spain and her mother's powerful family (the Braganzas being the most powerful nobles of Portugal, Maria Carla's mother being in fact Princess Maria of Portugal, who would die only 3 weeks into her granddaughter's reign), Beatriz was declared Hereditary Princess of Portugal at the age of 12 in 1646, being at the same time engaged to her half-uncle, Don Pedro, Duke of Viseu, who was 15 at the time.

They would marry in 1650, Beatriz being 16 at the time, and while rocky in the start, their relationship proved fruitful (with Beatriz being pregnant ten times and having four surviving children, equally divided) and happy. When his wife ascended to the Portuguese throne in 1651 as its first undisputed queen regnant, he would be made King Pedro II jure uxoris, following Iberian tradition

The beginning of Beatriz's reign was during one of Europe's most violent eras, as while Portugal remained peaceful, the rest of the continent was embroiled in wars over religion, from the Forty Years War in the Holy Roman Empire (which would end with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1655) to the English Civil War, which would end in 1652 with the puritans taking over the British Isles while the Stuarts, headed by King Henry IX (then a 12-year-old who inherited the throne following the execution of his father and brothers), fled first to France (where his sister Elizabeth would be married to the Duke of Orléans) and, in 1654, to Portugal, where Beatriz received them with open arms, housing the royals on Ribeira Palace (The Stuarts would become close to the Portuguese court, with Henry marrying Dona Maria Pia, youngest daughter of Duarte III by his second wife, while his sister Henrietta would marry Don Afonso, Duke of Coimbra, the queen's brother-in-law)

Beatriz was, in fact, rather fond of marriages, being known for her love for pairing friends and relatives wherever she could, which would gain her the nickname "The Matchmaker" (A Casamenteira). Some of the unions she would make among her relatives were the marriages of her unwed aunts, marrying in 1656 Dona Antwerpina Brabantia to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and later her aunt Maria Leticia (b.1648) to King Eric XV of Sweden, to more closely tie the Swedes to Portugal. Both marriages produced issue

A patron of the arts and architecture, ruling over one of Europe's wealthiest states from the trade with the Indies and the sugar from Brazil, under her rule Beatriz's court was remarked as one of great splendor only shadowed by the French at Versailles, and she would order the building of various palaces and residences, her most famous being the Palace of Faro, built from the residence Manuel II used when on the Algarve, and the Queluz Palace, built to serve as a summer retreat to her husband on the eponymous city near Lisbon. Beatriz also loved music, and during her reign she was the patron of various famous composers, like the morisco José da Silveira Lima, who would be the one responsible for composing the Portuguese National Anthem, "The Navigator"

1602624879897.png

Queen Beatriz and her two youngest children, Dona Maria Imaculada (b.1661) and Don José, Duke of Aveiro jure uxoris (b.1663). painting made by 1670 by Maria Joaquina Pereira de Aquila​

A capable ruler who disliked war (but was not one to shy away from it), during her reign Portugal was involved in three conflicts, the English Restoration (1665 to 1668), although in that case it was only monetary support given to the royalists following Cromwell's death; the Cane Wars (1672 to 1690), a series of wars between the Portuguese and the Dutch after the establishment of the Royal Sugar Company in 1671, which cut the Dutch middle-man in the refining of Brazilian sugar and saw much fighting in Northern Brazil as the Dutch tried to wrestle the region's sugar production from the Portuguese; and the War of Spanish Succession (1700 to 1708), a conflict for the inheritance of Spain following the death of Carlos II without legitimate heirs which saw spillover on Portugal (causing Beatriz to ally herself with the forces of Juana II, originally the Duchess of Alba and a legitimized daughter of Philip IV, whose son would marry Dona Maria Imaculada), following the war's end, there was also a redrawing of the countries' colonial borders in South America, with Spain recognizing Portugal's direct control over many lands claimed until then by her

In 1684, Beatriz would send her heir, __________, to Brazil leading a punitive force after the Governor General was convinced to switch sides by the Dutch, and they would live there for nearly a decade as Governor General, being responsible for the building of the Palácio da Barra (Barra Palace) in Salvador, which would serve as the residence of the Governor General of Brazil until the 1760s, when the capital moved to Rio de Janeiro. Following their return, Beatriz would also make them "Prince/Princess of Brazil", which would from them on become the main title of the heir apparent of Portugal

A long-lived woman, Beatriz's later years were marked by sorrow following her husband's death from gout in 1698 the same year as her mother (from the flu), and she would in her later five years leave most of the ruling to her children, having an enclosed life mostly on Queluz until her death at the age of 75 from what is believed to have been a stroke. She was suceeded by her ____, ___________.

Manuel, King of Portugal, b. 1469, r. 1495 to 1521
a) John III, King of Portugal, b. 1502, r. 1521 to 1557​
1) Joao Manuel, Prince of Portugal (1537 to 1554)​
a) Sebastian, King of Portugal, b. 1554, r. 1557 to 1578
b) Luis, Duke of Beja (1506 to 1555)​
1) Antonio, Prior of Crato, (1531 to 1595)​
a) Manuel II, King of Portugal, b. 1568, r. 1598 to 1640, m. (1) Beatrice of Portugal (1579 to 1629), m. (2) Antwerpiana of Zweibrucken-Landsberg (1617 to 1677)​
1) João, Prince of Portugal, b. 1597 D.1610​
2) Duarte III, King of Portugal b.1599, r.1640 to 1651, m1. Maria-Clementina of Austria (1600 to 1619, m2. Princess Mary of England and Scotland (1605 to 1644), m3. Isabella of Mantua and Montferrat (1623 to 1689)​
A) Duarte, Prince of Portugal b.1616 D.1643 m. Maria Carla of Braganza b.1616, d. 1698​
1) Beatriz I, Queen of Portugal (b.1634 d. 1709) m. Pedro II, King jure uxoris of Portugal (b.1631 d.1698)​
a) Heir​
b) eldest daughter​
c) Maria Imaculada of Brazil, Queen of Spain (b.1661) m. King of Spain, son of Juana II​
d) José of Portugal (b.1663) m. Duchess of Aveiro​
2) Manuel, Prince of Portugal (b.1639 d.1645)​
B) See Pedro II, married his niece above
C) Alfonso, Duke of Coimbra (b.1634) m. Henrietta of England (b.1644)​
D) Maria Pia of Portugal (b.1642) m. Henry IX, King of England, Scotland and Ireland (b.1640)​
E) Maria Leticia of Portugal (b.1648) m. Eric XV, King of Sweden​
F) six other daughter
3) Three other sons
4) Antwerpiana Brabantia of Portugal, (b. 1637) m. Grand Duke of Tuscany​
c) Henry, King of Portugal, b. 1512, r. 1578 to 1580​
d) Duarte, Duke of Guimaraes (1515 to 1540)​
1) Duarte, King of Portugal, b. 1541, r. 1580 to 1598, m. (1578) Lady Mary Grey of England​
a) Beatrice of Portugal, (1579 to 1629), m. Manuel, King of Portugal​
1) see line of Manuel II
b) Isabel of Portugal, b. 1581, d. 1584​
c) Duarte, Prince of Portugal, b. 1583, d. 1595​
d) Catherine of Portugal, b. 1585, d. 1587​
e) Eleanor of Portugal, b. 1586, d. 1590​
f) Maria of Portugal, b . 1588, d.1651 m. the Duke of Braganza (probably Teodósio II)​
1) other children
2) D. Maria Carla of Braganza, b. 1616, d. 1698 m. Duarte, Prince of Portugal​
A) see line of Duarte, Prince of Portugal
 
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What if Duarte, Duke of Guimarães didn't die?

Kings of Portugal and the Algarve;
Henrique I, r.1578 to 1580
(House of Avis)
Duarte II, r.1580 to 1598 (House of Avis) [1]
Manuel II, r.1598 to 1640
(House of Crato) [2]
Duarte III, r.1640 to 1651 (House of Crato) [3]
Beatriz I "The Matchmaker" , r.1651 to 1709 (House of Crato) [4]

King jure uxoris: Pedro II, r.1651 to 1698 (House of Crato) [4]
Remígio I "The Cardinal", r.1709 to 1731 (House of Crato) [5]



[1] With the Death of the Cardinal-King in 1580, the successor was, without a doubt, the Last Avis: Duarte, Duke of Guimarães. Born posthumously in 1541, Duarte had many men in front of him in the line of succession, but with the death of king Sebastian in 1578 left just the Cardinal-Infante and Duarte himself.

During his uncle's reign, the marriage between Duarte and Lady Mary Grey, a great-Grandchild of Henry VII of England, occurred. Rumors abounded that Elizabeth I of England suggested the marriage herself. The marriage was struck with the condition that Mary forfeit all claim for the English throne. The marriage was fruitful, with their first child, a Daughter, born in 1579 and a further five children over the next decade. While bringing some discontent due to her Protestantism, upon her arrival in Portugal, she did convert, and those upset were appeased.

The Portuguese Empire under Duarte II was said to be a merchants paradise,.with spices from India, Africa, and Brazil available in every Portuguese port. Duarte II would pass in 1598, and the throne would pass to the son of his legitimized cousin, Antonio of Crato.



(2) Despite Duarte, King of Portugal marrying and being given six children by his wife, Mary, only one child was male, and only 3 survived infancy. Even though his son, Duarte, had survived infancy, he died in 1595 aged 12, leaving Duarte with only two surviving children - his eldest Beatrice and his youngest Maria. As such, male succession would need to be traced back several generations - but instead, Duarte legitimized the until-then illegitimate line of Luis, Duke of Beja, starting with Antonio, Prior of Crato. Antonio died shortly after receiving news of his legitimization, making his eldest son, Manuel, the heir of King Duarte.

Duarte invited Manuel to the royal palace and arranged for him to marry Beatrice of Portugal, then 16. By the time her father passed three years later, Beatrice would have provided her father with a son, and would provide several more so
In 1598, Manuel II was crowned, not of the House of Aviz as he was entitled, but as the first monarch of the House of Crato. In 1609, Manuel's first major act was to offer the Moriscos who had been expelled from Spain safe harbor in Portugal. This lead to some friction between Spain and Portugal, leading to the brief Peninsula War from 1612 to 1618. In the end, Philip of Spain allowed Portugal to take onboard the Moriscos, rather more recognizing the drain on the Spanish exchequer than the admission of Portugal being in the right.

With the influx of the Moriscos, who had also been given the option of settling in Tunisia and Morocco, to the Faro and Beja regions in the south of Portugal, created a distinct cultural variance between the north and south.

After the death of Beatrice of Portugal, he would marry the much younger Antwerpiana of Zweibrucken-Landsberg in 1635 when she was eighteen. Only a single daughter was born from this second marriage and it was from all accounts a happy marriage.

By the time of his death in 1640, Manuel was a grandfather and had taken to spending one month each year in the Faro region which lead to his increased popularity with the Moriscos and their descendants.

He was succeeded by Duarte of Portugal, his second son.




[3] Duarte, Duke of Beja was the second son of Manuel II, and Beatrice of Portugal and thus the second Grandson of Duarte II. When his elder brother; João, Prince of Portugal passed in 1610, young Duarte became the heir to the throne. His brother had been betrothed to Maria-Clementine of Austria, niece of the Spanish King, and so upon his death, Duarte effectively inherited the betrothal, and so in 1615 the pair would marry, a single son; Duarte of Portugal, was born the year after. Sadly in 1619, while at the Faro Palace with his father, Maria-Clementina would pass after a sweating sickness, leaving the Prince heartbroken.

In 1627, Duarte would marry secondly the English princess; Mary, the daughter of James I and VI, and the Anglo-Portuguese marriage would produce two sons and seven daughters. This marriage was happy, said to be happier than his first marriage, and when his father died in 1640, she would be his first queen.

When his father died in 1640, the forty one year old Duarte became king, and his eldest son from his first marriage was announced as his heir. During his reign, he would work to expand Portugal's mercantile influence in Europe, primarily in the Baltic region, bringing the spices of the Empire to those of Sweden, Denmark, and the North German Principalities. In 1643, Portugal was struck by a plague of sickness believed by some to have brought West by Levantine merchants. While ultimately few would from the illness, merely laid sick for some two to three weeks, two members of the royal family would die; The kings heir; Duarte, and Queen Mary would pass, and once again the King was distraught and without a wife but still had heirs. In 1647, He would marry Isabella of Mantua and Montferrat, a marriage which was more diplomatic than love-driven, but still the union produced a princess in 1648.

In 1651, the King was struck by what was claimed to be a fire throughout his skull, and over a single day; the fourteenth of November, the King died. Portugal fell into mourning for "Duarte the Merchant" and the throne passed to his granddaughter, Beatriz.


[4] Born in 1634 as the daughter and only surviving child of Duarte, Prince of Portugal (eldest son and heir of Duarte III) and his wife, Dona Maria Carla of Braganza, Beatriz became the heiress to the Portuguese throne in 1645, when her younger brother, 6-year-old Manuel, died from scarlet fever. At the time, there were many who questioned her inheritance (seeing as her great-grandfather had been made king due to his gender while his wife had been his predecessor's daughter), but with the backing of Spain and her mother's powerful family (the Braganzas being the most powerful nobles of Portugal, Maria Carla's mother being in fact Princess Maria of Portugal, who would die only 3 weeks into her granddaughter's reign), Beatriz was declared Hereditary Princess of Portugal at the age of 12 in 1646, being at the same time engaged to her half-uncle, Don Pedro, Duke of Viseu, who was 15 at the time.

They would marry in 1650, Beatriz being 16 at the time, and while rocky in the start, their relationship proved fruitful (with Beatriz being pregnant ten times and having four surviving children, equally divided) and happy. When his wife ascended to the Portuguese throne in 1651 as its first undisputed queen regnant, he would be made King Pedro II jure uxoris, following Iberian tradition

The beginning of Beatriz's reign was during one of Europe's most violent eras, as while Portugal remained peaceful, the rest of the continent was embroiled in wars over religion, from the Forty Years War in the Holy Roman Empire (which would end with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1655) to the English Civil War, which would end in 1652 with the puritans taking over the British Isles while the Stuarts, headed by King Henry IX (then a 12-year-old who inherited the throne following the execution of his father and brothers), fled first to France (where his sister Elizabeth would be married to the Duke of Orléans) and, in 1654, to Portugal, where Beatriz received them with open arms, housing the royals on Ribeira Palace (The Stuarts would become close to the Portuguese court, with Henry marrying Dona Maria Pia, youngest daughter of Duarte III by his second wife, while his sister Henrietta would marry Don Afonso, Duke of Coimbra, the queen's brother-in-law)

Beatriz was, in fact, rather fond of marriages, being known for her love for pairing friends and relatives wherever she could, which would gain her the nickname "The Matchmaker" (A Casamenteira). Some of the unions she would make among her relatives were the marriages of her unwed aunts, marrying in 1656 Dona Antwerpina Brabantia to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and later her aunt Maria Leticia (b.1648) to King Eric XV of Sweden, to more closely tie the Swedes to Portugal. Both marriages produced issue

A patron of the arts and architecture, ruling over one of Europe's wealthiest states from the trade with the Indies and the sugar from Brazil, under her rule Beatriz's court was remarked as one of great splendor only shadowed by the French at Versailles, and she would order the building of various palaces and residences, her most famous being the Palace of Faro, built from the residence Manuel II used when on the Algarve, and the Queluz Palace, built to serve as a summer retreat to her husband on the eponymous city near Lisbon. Beatriz also loved music, and during her reign she was the patron of various famous composers, like the morisco José da Silveira Lima, who would be the one responsible for composing the Portuguese National Anthem, "The Navigator"

View attachment 590440
Queen Beatriz and her two youngest children, Dona Maria Imaculada (b.1661) and Don José, Duke of Aveiro jure uxoris (b.1663). painting made by 1670 by Maria Joaquina Pereira de Aquila​

A capable ruler who disliked war (but was not one to shy away from it), during her reign Portugal was involved in three conflicts, the English Restoration (1665 to 1668), although in that case it was only monetary support given to the royalists following Cromwell's death; the Cane Wars (1672 to 1690), a series of wars between the Portuguese and the Dutch after the establishment of the Royal Sugar Company in 1671, which cut the Dutch middle-man in the refining of Brazilian sugar and saw much fighting in Northern Brazil as the Dutch tried to wrestle the region's sugar production from the Portuguese; and the War of Spanish Succession (1700 to 1708), a conflict for the inheritance of Spain following the death of Carlos II without legitimate heirs which saw spillover on Portugal (causing Beatriz to ally herself with the forces of Juana II, originally the Duchess of Alba and a legitimized daughter of Philip IV, whose son would marry Dona Maria Imaculada), following the war's end, there was also a redrawing of the countries' colonial borders in South America, with Spain recognizing Portugal's direct control over many lands claimed until then by her

In 1684, Beatriz would send her heir, Pedro of Portugal, to Brazil leading a punitive force after the Governor General was convinced to switch sides by the Dutch, and they would live there for nearly a decade as Governor General, being responsible for the building of the Palácio da Barra (Barra Palace) in Salvador, which would serve as the residence of the Governor General of Brazil until the 1760s, when the capital moved to Rio de Janeiro. Following their return, Beatriz would also make them "Prince/Princess of Brazil", which would from them on become the main title of the heir apparent of Portugal

A long-lived woman, Beatriz's later years were marked by sorrow following her husband's death from gout in 1698 the same year as her mother (from the flu), and she would in her later five years leave most of the ruling to her children, having an enclosed life mostly on Queluz until her death at the age of 75 from what is believed to have been a stroke. She was succeeded by her second grandson, Remígio, Prince of Brazil.



[5] When the Princess of Brazil; Immaculeta of Tuscany, eldest daughter of Amtwerpiana, announced her pregnancy in 1690, her husband was so overjoyed and exuberant that a night of raucous drinking and partying did follow, and it was on that fateful night where the Prince of Brazil would fall to his death, thrusting their firstborn son; Duarte into the limelight as Prince of Brazil. The second child was born in October, after the Prince of Brazil and his mother returned to Lisbon. Born on the first of that month, he was named for Saint Remigius of France, and was destined for an ecclesiastical career, being created a cardinal at the age of two. The death of his elder brother a year later swiftly ended that scheme however, and then until his grandmother's death he was the Prince of Brazil.

When Beatriz I died in 1709, he was crowned Remígio I of Portugal, and his first goals would be to secure the South American territories recently taken from the spanish empire, and the settlement of those areas was afforded to German migrants from the Rhineland, bringing an influx of dialects to the Amazon, which by the 1850s would amalgamate and form the tongue known as Amazondeutstch. In 1711, He would marry a Spanish Princess, and between the Years 1715 and 1725, a total of eight children born.

With the death of Pope Innocent XIV in 1714, as per the usual the College of Cardinals did gather, and there was one unexpected cardinal; Remígio of Portugal. The king presented papers from Pope Alexander IX in 1693 where Remígio was granted the right to marry as King of Portugal but the rights of the cardinal were not explicitly removed, and so the King argued that he was by rights still a cardinal. After two months of deliberation by papal lawyers, the decision was made, and Remígio would retain the rights of the cardinal despite his marriage. Remígio would vote for Cardinal Curzio Barberini who would become Pope Alexander X. He would also take part in the election of his successor; Gian Consetti, otherwise known as Urban IX in 1726.

Remígio would reign for a total of twenty one years, from unknown causes, and the Portuguese throne would pass to _______




a) Manuel II, King of Portugal, b. 1568, r. 1598 to 1640, m. (1) Beatrice of Portugal (1579 to 1629), m. (2) Antwerpiana of Zweibrucken-Landsberg (1617 to 1677)​
1) João, Prince of Portugal, b. 1597 D.1610​
2) Duarte III, King of Portugal b.1599, r.1640 to 1651, m1. Maria-Clementina of Austria (1600 to 1619, m2. Princess Mary of England and Scotland (1605 to 1644), m3. Isabella of Mantua and Montferrat (1623 to 1689)​
A) Duarte, Prince of Portugal b.1616 D.1643 m. Maria Carla of Braganza b.1616, d. 1698​
1) Beatriz I, Queen of Portugal (b.1634 d. 1709) m. Pedro II, King jure uxoris of Portugal (b.1631 d.1698)​
a) Pedro, Prince of Brazil b.1657 d.1690 m. Immaculeta of Tuscany b.1660 d.1731​
1) Duarte, Prince of Brazil b.1688 D.1693​
2. Remígio I, King of Portugal b. 1690 D.1731 m. Alfonsina of Spain b.1695 D.1769​
A) three sons
B) five daughters
b) eldest daughter​
c) Maria Imaculada of Brazil, Queen of Spain (b.1661) m. King of Spain, son of Juana II​
d) José of Portugal (b.1663) m. Duchess of Aveiro​
2) Manuel, Prince of Portugal (b.1639 d.1645)​
B) See Pedro II, married his niece above
C) Alfonso, Duke of Coimbra (b.1634) m. Henrietta of England (b.1644)​
D) Maria Pia of Portugal (b.1642) m. Henry IX, King of England, Scotland and Ireland (b.1640)​
E) Maria Leticia of Portugal (b.1648) m. Eric XV, King of Sweden​
F) six other daughter
3) Three other sons
4) Antwerpiana Brabantia of Portugal, (b. 1637) m. Grand Duke of Tuscany​
 
Well, it's been three days since the last post, so I'll try again with a new list to see if it flies. You know there's no reason you can't continue Portugal just because I've started (or tried to start) a new list, as there can still be two.
 

Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland
What if Prince Rupert had a legitimate son to be the heir of the Stuart line?

Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland


Frederick I, r. 1714-1718 (House of Cumberland) [1]


[1] Frederick was the son of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, and Luise von Degenfeld of Strasbourg. The couple married in 1656 when Luise was the lady in waiting to the wife of Rupert's brother, Charles I Louis, Elector of Palantine. Charles was not happy in his marriage and was pressuring Luise to be his mistress, which she refused. Rupert was visiting his brother, even though he'd thought of England as his home where he'd served his uncle, Charles I, in the Civil War. Rupert and Luise fell in love and against his brother's wishes, the couple married and moved to England to make their home after the Restoration of his cousin, Charles II.

Frederick was born in 1662 after two failed pregnancies and the birth of his older sister, Elizabeth, in 1659. He was named after his paternal grandfather, Frederick of the Palatine, and his sister was named after their paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Stuart the Winter Queen, daugher of James I Stuart. His father died in 1682 when Frederick was 20 and he went from being the Earl of Cumberland to being the Duke of Cumberland.

He was raised a devout Anglican and was a soldier and statesman, serving diplomatically for his second cousins, William and Mary, and then later Anne. When Anne's son died, Parliament passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or of his sister, Sophia of Hanover. By the time he inherited the throne at the age of 52, the Act of Union had united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one United Kingdom.

Frederick had married Landgravine Elisabeth Henriëtte of Hesse-Kassel (1661-1730), his second cousin. They had numerous children, many surviving to adulthood, before he became King.

Frederick's reign was short lived as he died in 1718 from what we now believe was lung cancer.
 
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What if Prince Rupert had a legitimate son to be the heir of the Stuart line?

Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland
1714-1718: Frederick I (House of Cumberland) [1]
1718-1764: William IV (House of Cumberland) [2]


[1] Frederick was the son of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, and Luise von Degenfeld of Strasbourg. The couple married in 1656 when Luise was the lady in waiting to the wife of Rupert's brother, Charles I Louis, Elector of Palantine. Charles was not happy in his marriage and was pressuring Luise to be his mistress, which she refused. Rupert was visiting his brother, even though he'd thought of England as his home where he'd served his uncle, Charles I, in the Civil War. Rupert and Luise fell in love and against his brother's wishes, the couple married and moved to England to make their home after the Restoration of his cousin, Charles II.

Frederick was born in 1662 after two failed pregnancies and the birth of his older sister, Elizabeth, in 1659. He was named after his paternal grandfather, Frederick of the Palatine, and his sister was named after their paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Stuart the Winter Queen, daugher of James I Stuart. His father died in 1682 when Frederick was 20 and he went from being the Earl of Cumberland to being the Duke of Cumberland.

He was raised a devout Anglican and was a soldier and statesman, serving diplomatically for his second cousins, William and Mary, and then later Anne. When Anne's son died, Parliament passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or of his sister, Sophia of Hanover. By the time he inherited the throne at the age of 52, the Act of Union had united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one United Kingdom.

Frederick had married Landgravine Elisabeth Henriëtte of Hesse-Kassel (1661-1730), his second cousin. They had numerous children, many surviving to adulthood, before he became King.

Frederick's reign was short lived as he died in 1718 from what we now believe was lung cancer.
1602978950504.jpeg

[2] Born 11th May 1689, the eldest son of Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, was named after his third cousin and godfather, William III of England, baptised three days later as William Rupert Frederick by Henry Compton, Bishop of London.
The accession of William and Mary, were enshrined in the Bill of Rights 1689, with their heir presumptive as Anne, Duchess of York and Albany {a}. William, Earl of Cumberland was fourth in line, with Anne still childbearing age and her own son William, Duke of Gloucester, doing well.

His father arranger for Thomas Smith (1615–1702) Bishop of Carlisle, since 1684, graduate of The Queen's College, Oxford and chaplain to King Charles II, to be William’s tutor until Thomas death, when 13 year old William received the final years of tutoring under Nathaniel Crew, 3rd Baron Crew (1633-1721) Bishop of Durham from 1674, graduate of Lincoln College, Oxford and former Clerk of the Closet to Charles II.

In 1693, five year old William joined the "Horse Guards", a miniature army, under the command of his five year old distant cousin, Duke of Gloucester, which started off with 22 boys and ended with 90.
This gave his nickname “Cumberland Will” as well as his love for military, like his father and grandfather.

On the 30 July 1700, 6 days after his cousins birthday party in Windsor Earl William awoke to the news of the Duke of Cumberland’s death and met the coming months in mourning and self reflecting on his own mortality, now he was third in line to the throne with only, aging childless Anne and his father ahead of him.

Two months after the duke of Gloucester’s death, September 1700, Sophia of Hanover, sister of Rupert; met her cousin King William III of England at Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. Sophia had heard that Parliament had passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or herself. Knowing that England would prefer Frederick over her, Sophia persuaded that to stop her son, Georg Ludwig of Hanover contesting the throne, a compromise could be arranged where Frederick’s heir marries her granddaughter, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.
The proposal was supported by William III and Parliament, as well as his father.

The wedding took place on William, Earl of Cumberland’s 16th birthday in 1705, with 18 year old, Sophia said to be the happiest woman in all of Europe.
Their marriage was an extremely happy one and produced sixteen children.

On 1 August 1714, William was awoken to the news of Queen Anne’s death and the accession of his father to the throne. His wife Sophia and he, were investitured as the new Prince and Princess of Wales.
Although they didn’t hold this title for long, as two years later, his father died and 25 year old, William, became the fourth king of his name.
His reign was only just in its first year when he would see the Jacobite rising in 1715, commanded by the Catholic claimants, James Francis Edward Stuart.
The rising was quickly squashed, with minor English casualties, however it wasn’t the last. Three more attempts would be made during William’s nearly 44 year reign, all failing with the final one seeing the last descendant of James II killed in battle. These were the only military skirmishes that the United Kingdom would see under William’s reign.
In British domestic politics, William was heavily involved, holding regular meetings with parliament, discussing taxes, bills, foreign policy and military appointments openly with members on both side of the country’s two main parties, Torys and Whigs.
Personally William kept no mistresses, preferring the love and company of his wife. Having exercised regularly, ate healthily and drunk little alcohol, William was a figure of good living.
Losing his wife in 1757, came as a hard blow to the king, who slowly began showing his age, physically, while mentally being fine.
His death in February 1764, at the age of 74, came after a short illness during the cold winter storm. Mourned by all he was succeeded by

{a} With Rupert’s family keeping the title of “Cumberland”, otl Prince George, Duke of Cumberland, is titled York and Albany instead.
 
What if Prince Rupert had a legitimate son to be the heir of the Stuart line?

Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland
1714-1718: Frederick I (House of Cumberland) [1]
1718-1764: William IV (House of Cumberland) [2]
1764-1780: William V (House of Wittelsbach-Palatine) [3]


[1] Frederick was the son of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, and Luise von Degenfeld of Strasbourg. The couple married in 1656 when Luise was the lady in waiting to the wife of Rupert's brother, Charles I Louis, Elector of Palantine. Charles was not happy in his marriage and was pressuring Luise to be his mistress, which she refused. Rupert was visiting his brother, even though he'd thought of England as his home where he'd served his uncle, Charles I, in the Civil War. Rupert and Luise fell in love and against his brother's wishes, the couple married and moved to England to make their home after the Restoration of his cousin, Charles II.

Frederick was born in 1662 after two failed pregnancies and the birth of his older sister, Elizabeth, in 1659. He was named after his paternal grandfather, Frederick of the Palatine, and his sister was named after their paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Stuart the Winter Queen, daugher of James I Stuart. His father died in 1682 when Frederick was 20 and he went from being the Earl of Cumberland to being the Duke of Cumberland.

He was raised a devout Anglican and was a soldier and statesman, serving diplomatically for his second cousins, William and Mary, and then later Anne. When Anne's son died, Parliament passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or of his sister, Sophia of Hanover. By the time he inherited the throne at the age of 52, the Act of Union had united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one United Kingdom.

Frederick had married Landgravine Elisabeth Henriëtte of Hesse-Kassel (1661-1730), his second cousin. They had numerous children, many surviving to adulthood, before he became King.

Frederick's reign was short lived as he died in 1718 from what we now believe was lung cancer.
[2] Born 11th May 1689, the eldest son of Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, was named after his third cousin and godfather, William III of England, baptised three days later as William Rupert Frederick by Henry Compton, Bishop of London.
The accession of William and Mary, were enshrined in the Bill of Rights 1689, with their heir presumptive as Anne, Duchess of York and Albany {a}. William, Earl of Cumberland was fourth in line, with Anne still childbearing age and her own son William, Duke of Gloucester, doing well.

His father arranger for Thomas Smith (1615–1702) Bishop of Carlisle, since 1684, graduate of The Queen's College, Oxford and chaplain to King Charles II, to be William’s tutor until Thomas death, when 13 year old William received the final years of tutoring under Nathaniel Crew, 3rd Baron Crew (1633-1721) Bishop of Durham from 1674, graduate of Lincoln College, Oxford and former Clerk of the Closet to Charles II.

In 1693, five year old William joined the "Horse Guards", a miniature army, under the command of his five year old distant cousin, Duke of Gloucester, which started off with 22 boys and ended with 90.
This gave his nickname “Cumberland Will” as well as his love for military, like his father and grandfather.

On the 30 July 1700, 6 days after his cousins birthday party in Windsor Earl William awoke to the news of the Duke of Cumberland’s death and met the coming months in mourning and self reflecting on his own mortality, now he was third in line to the throne with only, aging childless Anne and his father ahead of him.

Two months after the duke of Gloucester’s death, September 1700, Sophia of Hanover, sister of Rupert; met her cousin King William III of England at Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. Sophia had heard that Parliament had passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or herself. Knowing that England would prefer Frederick over her, Sophia persuaded that to stop her son, Georg Ludwig of Hanover contesting the throne, a compromise could be arranged where Frederick’s heir marries her granddaughter, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.
The proposal was supported by William III and Parliament, as well as his father.

The wedding took place on William, Earl of Cumberland’s 16th birthday in 1705, with 18 year old, Sophia said to be the happiest woman in all of Europe.
Their marriage was an extremely happy one and produced sixteen children.

On 1 August 1714, William was awoken to the news of Queen Anne’s death and the accession of his father to the throne. His wife Sophia and he, were investitured as the new Prince and Princess of Wales.
Although they didn’t hold this title for long, as two years later, his father died and 25 year old, William, became the fourth king of his name.
His reign was only just in its first year when he would see the Jacobite rising in 1715, commanded by the Catholic claimants, James Francis Edward Stuart.
The rising was quickly squashed, with minor English casualties, however it wasn’t the last. Three more attempts would be made during William’s nearly 44 year reign, all failing with the final one seeing the last descendant of James II killed in battle. These were the only military skirmishes that the United Kingdom would see under William’s reign.
In British domestic politics, William was heavily involved, holding regular meetings with parliament, discussing taxes, bills, foreign policy and military appointments openly with members on both side of the country’s two main parties, Torys and Whigs.
Personally William kept no mistresses, preferring the love and company of his wife. Having exercised regularly, ate healthily and drunk little alcohol, William was a figure of good living.
Losing his wife in 1757, came as a hard blow to the king, who slowly began showing his age, physically, while mentally being fine.
His death in February 1764, at the age of 74, came after a short illness during the cold winter storm. Mourned by all he was succeeded by his eldest son; William, Prince of Wales.


[3] William was the third born child of William IV and his wife, but the first to survive infancy. His elder brothers; Robert of Wales (b.&d. 1710) and George William of Wales (b. & d. 1712) both lasted little over a month, and so when William made his first year, it was believed great things were to come.

A different man to his two predecessors, while they embraced English traditions and form, William Louis would embrace his ancestral Palatinate, travelling frequently to the Electorate during his years as Prince of Wales, becoming close to his cousin; Charles III who had ruled the Electorate since the death of his father; Charles II in 1699. it was in 1741 where the sixty year old Charles III named William as his heir, and five years later when William would inherit the Electoral Palatine as Wilhelm I. Following this inheritance, William would argue that the true name of their royal house was Wittelsbach-Palatine, stating that Cumberland was a mere titular duchy as opposed to a family name, and when his grandfather took the throne, the title was absorbed back into the monarchy, bringing an end to it, and so he used the Dynastic name of Wittelsbach-Palatine for the remainder of his life.

With his fathers permission, William IV would marry Maria Ana Francisca of Portugal in 1751, and they would produce four sons and two daughters. Maria Ana would convert.to Anglicanism in 1752, after the birth of their first child. William would rule for sixteen years, and at the age of 65 would pass in his sleep, and the Throne would pass to_________
 
What if Prince Rupert had a legitimate son to be the heir of the Stuart line?

Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland
1714-1718: Frederick I (House of Cumberland) [1]
1718-1764: William IV (House of Cumberland) [2]
1764-1780: William V (House of Wittelsbach-Palatine) [3]


[1] Frederick was the son of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, and Luise von Degenfeld of Strasbourg. The couple married in 1656 when Luise was the lady in waiting to the wife of Rupert's brother, Charles I Louis, Elector of Palantine. Charles was not happy in his marriage and was pressuring Luise to be his mistress, which she refused. Rupert was visiting his brother, even though he'd thought of England as his home where he'd served his uncle, Charles I, in the Civil War. Rupert and Luise fell in love and against his brother's wishes, the couple married and moved to England to make their home after the Restoration of his cousin, Charles II.

Frederick was born in 1662 after two failed pregnancies and the birth of his older sister, Elizabeth, in 1659. He was named after his paternal grandfather, Frederick of the Palatine, and his sister was named after their paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Stuart the Winter Queen, daugher of James I Stuart. His father died in 1682 when Frederick was 20 and he went from being the Earl of Cumberland to being the Duke of Cumberland.

He was raised a devout Anglican and was a soldier and statesman, serving diplomatically for his second cousins, William and Mary, and then later Anne. When Anne's son died, Parliament passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or of his sister, Sophia of Hanover. By the time he inherited the throne at the age of 52, the Act of Union had united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one United Kingdom.

Frederick had married Landgravine Elisabeth Henriëtte of Hesse-Kassel (1661-1730), his second cousin. They had numerous children, many surviving to adulthood, before he became King.

Frederick's reign was short lived as he died in 1718 from what we now believe was lung cancer.
[2] Born 11th May 1689, the eldest son of Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, was named after his third cousin and godfather, William III of England, baptised three days later as William Rupert Frederick by Henry Compton, Bishop of London.
The accession of William and Mary, were enshrined in the Bill of Rights 1689, with their heir presumptive as Anne, Duchess of York and Albany {a}. William, Earl of Cumberland was fourth in line, with Anne still childbearing age and her own son William, Duke of Gloucester, doing well.

His father arranger for Thomas Smith (1615–1702) Bishop of Carlisle, since 1684, graduate of The Queen's College, Oxford and chaplain to King Charles II, to be William’s tutor until Thomas death, when 13 year old William received the final years of tutoring under Nathaniel Crew, 3rd Baron Crew (1633-1721) Bishop of Durham from 1674, graduate of Lincoln College, Oxford and former Clerk of the Closet to Charles II.

In 1693, five year old William joined the "Horse Guards", a miniature army, under the command of his five year old distant cousin, Duke of Gloucester, which started off with 22 boys and ended with 90.
This gave his nickname “Cumberland Will” as well as his love for military, like his father and grandfather.

On the 30 July 1700, 6 days after his cousins birthday party in Windsor Earl William awoke to the news of the Duke of Cumberland’s death and met the coming months in mourning and self reflecting on his own mortality, now he was third in line to the throne with only, aging childless Anne and his father ahead of him.

Two months after the duke of Gloucester’s death, September 1700, Sophia of Hanover, sister of Rupert; met her cousin King William III of England at Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. Sophia had heard that Parliament had passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or herself. Knowing that England would prefer Frederick over her, Sophia persuaded that to stop her son, Georg Ludwig of Hanover contesting the throne, a compromise could be arranged where Frederick’s heir marries her granddaughter, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.
The proposal was supported by William III and Parliament, as well as his father.

The wedding took place on William, Earl of Cumberland’s 16th birthday in 1705, with 18 year old, Sophia said to be the happiest woman in all of Europe.
Their marriage was an extremely happy one and produced sixteen children.

On 1 August 1714, William was awoken to the news of Queen Anne’s death and the accession of his father to the throne. His wife Sophia and he, were investitured as the new Prince and Princess of Wales.
Although they didn’t hold this title for long, as two years later, his father died and 25 year old, William, became the fourth king of his name.
His reign was only just in its first year when he would see the Jacobite rising in 1715, commanded by the Catholic claimants, James Francis Edward Stuart.
The rising was quickly squashed, with minor English casualties, however it wasn’t the last. Three more attempts would be made during William’s nearly 44 year reign, all failing with the final one seeing the last descendant of James II killed in battle. These were the only military skirmishes that the United Kingdom would see under William’s reign.
In British domestic politics, William was heavily involved, holding regular meetings with parliament, discussing taxes, bills, foreign policy and military appointments openly with members on both side of the country’s two main parties, Torys and Whigs.
Personally William kept no mistresses, preferring the love and company of his wife. Having exercised regularly, ate healthily and drunk little alcohol, William was a figure of good living.
Losing his wife in 1757, came as a hard blow to the king, who slowly began showing his age, physically, while mentally being fine.
His death in February 1764, at the age of 74, came after a short illness during the cold winter storm. Mourned by all he was succeeded by his eldest son; William, Prince of Wales.


[3] William was the third born child of William IV and his wife, but the first to survive infancy. His elder brothers; Robert of Wales (b.&d. 1710) and George William of Wales (b. & d. 1712) both lasted little over a month, and so when William made his first year, it was believed great things were to come.

A different man to his two predecessors, while they embraced English traditions and form, William Louis would embrace his ancestral Palatinate, travelling frequently to the Electorate during his years as Prince of Wales, becoming close to his cousin; Charles III who had ruled the Electorate since the death of his father; Charles II in 1699. it was in 1741 where the sixty year old Charles III named William as his heir, and five years later when William would inherit the Electoral Palatine as Wilhelm I. Following this inheritance, William would argue that the true name of their royal house was Wittelsbach-Palatine, stating that Cumberland was a mere titular duchy as opposed to a family name, and when his grandfather took the throne, the title was absorbed back into the monarchy, bringing an end to it, and so he used the Dynastic name of Wittelsbach-Palatine for the remainder of his life.

With his fathers permission, William IV would marry Maria Ana Francisca of Portugal in 1751, and they would produce four sons and two daughters. Maria Ana would convert.to Anglicanism in 1752, after the birth of their first child. William would rule for sixteen years, and at the age of 65 would pass in his sleep, and the Throne would pass to_________
What if Prince Rupert had a legitimate son to be the heir of the Stuart line?

Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland
1714-1718: Frederick I (House of Cumberland) [1]
1718-1764: William IV (House of Cumberland) [2]
1764-1780: William V (House of Wittelsbach-Palatine) [3]


[1] Frederick was the son of Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland, and Luise von Degenfeld of Strasbourg. The couple married in 1656 when Luise was the lady in waiting to the wife of Rupert's brother, Charles I Louis, Elector of Palantine. Charles was not happy in his marriage and was pressuring Luise to be his mistress, which she refused. Rupert was visiting his brother, even though he'd thought of England as his home where he'd served his uncle, Charles I, in the Civil War. Rupert and Luise fell in love and against his brother's wishes, the couple married and moved to England to make their home after the Restoration of his cousin, Charles II.

Frederick was born in 1662 after two failed pregnancies and the birth of his older sister, Elizabeth, in 1659. He was named after his paternal grandfather, Frederick of the Palatine, and his sister was named after their paternal grandmother, Elizabeth Stuart the Winter Queen, daugher of James I Stuart. His father died in 1682 when Frederick was 20 and he went from being the Earl of Cumberland to being the Duke of Cumberland.

He was raised a devout Anglican and was a soldier and statesman, serving diplomatically for his second cousins, William and Mary, and then later Anne. When Anne's son died, Parliament passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or of his sister, Sophia of Hanover. By the time he inherited the throne at the age of 52, the Act of Union had united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one United Kingdom.

Frederick had married Landgravine Elisabeth Henriëtte of Hesse-Kassel (1661-1730), his second cousin. They had numerous children, many surviving to adulthood, before he became King.

Frederick's reign was short lived as he died in 1718 from what we now believe was lung cancer.
[2] Born 11th May 1689, the eldest son of Frederick, Duke of Cumberland, was named after his third cousin and godfather, William III of England, baptised three days later as William Rupert Frederick by Henry Compton, Bishop of London.
The accession of William and Mary, were enshrined in the Bill of Rights 1689, with their heir presumptive as Anne, Duchess of York and Albany {a}. William, Earl of Cumberland was fourth in line, with Anne still childbearing age and her own son William, Duke of Gloucester, doing well.

His father arranger for Thomas Smith (1615–1702) Bishop of Carlisle, since 1684, graduate of The Queen's College, Oxford and chaplain to King Charles II, to be William’s tutor until Thomas death, when 13 year old William received the final years of tutoring under Nathaniel Crew, 3rd Baron Crew (1633-1721) Bishop of Durham from 1674, graduate of Lincoln College, Oxford and former Clerk of the Closet to Charles II.

In 1693, five year old William joined the "Horse Guards", a miniature army, under the command of his five year old distant cousin, Duke of Gloucester, which started off with 22 boys and ended with 90.
This gave his nickname “Cumberland Will” as well as his love for military, like his father and grandfather.

On the 30 July 1700, 6 days after his cousins birthday party in Windsor Earl William awoke to the news of the Duke of Cumberland’s death and met the coming months in mourning and self reflecting on his own mortality, now he was third in line to the throne with only, aging childless Anne and his father ahead of him.

Two months after the duke of Gloucester’s death, September 1700, Sophia of Hanover, sister of Rupert; met her cousin King William III of England at Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. Sophia had heard that Parliament had passed a law that only Protestants could be heirs to the throne and that meant only the issue of Prince Rupert or herself. Knowing that England would prefer Frederick over her, Sophia persuaded that to stop her son, Georg Ludwig of Hanover contesting the throne, a compromise could be arranged where Frederick’s heir marries her granddaughter, Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.
The proposal was supported by William III and Parliament, as well as his father.

The wedding took place on William, Earl of Cumberland’s 16th birthday in 1705, with 18 year old, Sophia said to be the happiest woman in all of Europe.
Their marriage was an extremely happy one and produced sixteen children.

On 1 August 1714, William was awoken to the news of Queen Anne’s death and the accession of his father to the throne. His wife Sophia and he, were investitured as the new Prince and Princess of Wales.
Although they didn’t hold this title for long, as two years later, his father died and 25 year old, William, became the fourth king of his name.
His reign was only just in its first year when he would see the Jacobite rising in 1715, commanded by the Catholic claimants, James Francis Edward Stuart.
The rising was quickly squashed, with minor English casualties, however it wasn’t the last. Three more attempts would be made during William’s nearly 44 year reign, all failing with the final one seeing the last descendant of James II killed in battle. These were the only military skirmishes that the United Kingdom would see under William’s reign.
In British domestic politics, William was heavily involved, holding regular meetings with parliament, discussing taxes, bills, foreign policy and military appointments openly with members on both side of the country’s two main parties, Torys and Whigs.
Personally William kept no mistresses, preferring the love and company of his wife. Having exercised regularly, ate healthily and drunk little alcohol, William was a figure of good living.
Losing his wife in 1757, came as a hard blow to the king, who slowly began showing his age, physically, while mentally being fine.
His death in February 1764, at the age of 74, came after a short illness during the cold winter storm. Mourned by all he was succeeded by his eldest son; William, Prince of Wales.


[3] William was the third born child of William IV and his wife, but the first to survive infancy. His elder brothers; Robert of Wales (b.&d. 1710) and George William of Wales (b. & d. 1712) both lasted little over a month, and so when William made his first year, it was believed great things were to come.

A different man to his two predecessors, while they embraced English traditions and form, William Louis would embrace his ancestral Palatinate, travelling frequently to the Electorate during his years as Prince of Wales, becoming close to his cousin; Charles III who had ruled the Electorate since the death of his father; Charles II in 1699. it was in 1741 where the sixty year old Charles III named William as his heir, and five years later when William would inherit the Electoral Palatine as Wilhelm I. Following this inheritance, William would argue that the true name of their royal house was Wittelsbach-Palatine, stating that Cumberland was a mere titular duchy as opposed to a family name, and when his grandfather took the throne, the title was absorbed back into the monarchy, bringing an end to it, and so he used the Dynastic name of Wittelsbach-Palatine for the remainder of his life.

With his fathers permission, William IV would marry Maria Ana Francisca of Portugal in 1751, and they would produce four sons and two daughters. Maria Ana would convert.to Anglicanism in 1752, after the birth of their first child. William would rule for sixteen years, and at the age of 65 would pass in his sleep, and the Throne would pass to_________
Cool monarch, but "Wittelsbach-Palatine" isn't a bit redundant (and even somewhat anachronistic)?

As far as I understand (and most royal families in general didn't care for the specific surname they had), the Palatine branches of the House of Wittelsbach had long since not used the original family surname (which is more connected to the Bavarian/Main Catholic branch), with the Rhinnish branches normally using the "Palatinate-original duchy" system (Prince Rupert of the Rhine, for example, was considered of the house of "Palatinate-Simmern", which was the branch holding the electoral title). While the change is understandable, wouldn't it be better to just use "Palatinate"?

EDIT: Also, @Asharella (now this is just a nitpick so you don't need to care too much), why is the title of the line "Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland?", since (A) the name of the kingdom was "Britain" following the union of crowns (not even an "united kingdom", just "kingdom") and (B) they also held the title of "Kings of Ireland". Although the one can simply be explained by the butterfly effect causing the name of the kingdom to be different (possibly the union being in more equal terms between the two kingdoms)
 
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Cool monarch, but "Wittelsbach-Palatine" isn't a bit redundant (and even somewhat anachronistic)?

As far as I understand (and most royal families in general didn't care for the specific surname they had), the Palatine branches of the House of Wittelsbach had long since not used the original family surname (which is more connected to the Bavarian/Main Catholic branch), with the Rhinnish branches normally using the "Palatinate-original duchy" system (Prince Rupert of the Rhine, for example, was considered of the house of "Palatinate-Simmern", which was the branch holding the electoral title). While the change is understandable, wouldn't it be better to just use "Palatinate"?
The Palatines still considered themselves the seniority branch of the Wittelsbach so it's not hard to imagine a scion of that house using it. And Palatine isn't a place. It's a titular connection, being attached to the region through the prevalence for the title of Count-Palatine being granted. Using Palatine as the sole name for your house would be the same as someone making their royal house "Duke".
 
The Palatines still considered themselves the seniority branch of the Wittelsbach so it's not hard to imagine a scion of that house using it. And Palatine isn't a place. It's a titular connection, being attached to the region through the prevalence for the title of Count-Palatine being granted. Using Palatine as the sole name for your house would be the same as someone making their royal house "Duke".
While it started from the title of "Count palatine", by the late 17th century the "Palatinate" was considered a region of the Rhineland, and most people (as far as I understand) indentified that branch of the Wittelsbach as "of the Palatinate". For example, the wife of Philip, the Duke of Orléans, Liselotte, was called in the french court "The Madame Palatine"

Although since it was William himself who chose that house name it can simply be explained in universe as "he decided it would be that way" and so I should probably just go with it
 
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EDIT: Also, @Asharella (now this is just a nitpick so you don't need to care too much), why is the title of the line "Kings of the United Kingdom of England and Scotland?", since (A) the name of the kingdom was "Britain" following the union of crowns (not even an "united kingdom", just "kingdom") and (B) they also held the title of "Kings of Ireland". Although the one can simply be explained by the butterfly effect causing the name of the kingdom to be different (possibly the union
In TTL the Kingdom of England includes Ireland and the formal name is UKofE&S
 
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