List of Alternate Presidents and PMs II

Presidents of Peru:
Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000) (Change 90/Popular Force)
Valentín Paniagua Corazao (2000-2001) (Popular Action)
Alejandro Toledo (2001-2006) (Possible Peru)
Alan García Pérez (2006-2011) (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance)
Keiko Fujimori (2011-2016) (Popular Force)
Martín Vizcarra (2016-Now) (Peruvians for Change)
So many distopic presidential lists I have made seemingly have come to bite me in the form of Keiko as a president XD
 
So many distopic presidential lists I have made seemingly have come to bite me in the form of Keiko as a president XD
in that scenario is where Bush or Clinton did a Second to Fifth Marshall Plan to Eastern Bloc Countries, Southern Europe, Latin America, Sub-Saharan Countries, ME-NA Countries, US States itself and etc. also Grigory Yavlinsky takes place as president instead of Yeltsin which would cause butterflies and Russia joined NATO and EU in 2004 in that Scenario. also Keiko Fujimori is a one term president since Peru forbids re-election after Alberto Fujimori was removed.
 
in that scenario is where Bush or Clinton did a Second to Fifth Marshall Plan to Eastern Bloc Countries, Southern Europe, Latin America, Sub-Saharan Countries, ME-NA Countries, US States itself and etc. also Grigory Yavlinsky takes place as president instead of Yeltsin which would cause butterflies and Russia joined NATO and EU in 2004 in that Scenario. also Keiko Fujimori is a one term president since Peru forbids re-election after Alberto Fujimori was removed.
Wait, Fujimori takes only one term? Scratch that, this isnt a dystopic AU, its a good one. (Fujimori is a controversial president, but most people I know agree that his first term wasnt so bad)
 
Keiko Yes, but Alberto elected more than one term.
Darn it XD Though to be fair its the realistic option, as she was a runner-up in OTL, considering the red scare, Humala (with Nadine playing with his strings) would have less chances of becoming president here, and Keiko´s corruption wouldnt likely be revealed until her sucesor´s term.
Out of curiosity though, why PPK didnt became president in this timeline?
 
Darn it XD Though to be fair its the realistic option, as she was a runner-up in OTL, considering the red scare, Humala (with Nadine playing with his strings) would have less chances of becoming president here, and Keiko´s corruption wouldnt likely be revealed until her sucesor´s term.
Out of curiosity though, why PPK didnt became president in this timeline?
They did become president in this Timline and it is Martín Vizcarra who is affiliated with the PPK in OTL and member of it in this timeline, PPK is Peruvians for change.
 
They did become president in this Timline and it is Martín Vizcarra who is affiliated with the PPK in OTL and member of it in this timeline, PPK is Peruvians for change.
Oh, well, you kind of forgot to add him, it would then have been
PPK(2016-2018) (Peruvians for Change)
Martín Vizcarra (2018-Now) (Peruvians for Change)
 
Bringing to the present day Dixie Dies in Depression or The Clay That Binds Us.....

Presidents of the Federation of American States, 1960-present:

Wayne L. Morse (People's)/Ralph W. Yarborough (People's) 1960-1968

def 1959: W. Chapman Revercomb (Republican)/James M. Lloyd (Republican); George A. Smathers (New Democratic)/Wilbur D. Mills (New Democratic)
def 1963: John W. Byrnes (Republican)/Howard H. Baker, Sr. (Republican); W. Stuart Symington (New Democratic)/J. Terry Sanford (New Democratic)

J. Bracken Lee (Republican)/Maxwell L. Rafferty Jr. (Republican) 1968-1976

def 1967: Harold E. Hughes (People's)/w. Ramsay Clark (People's); Warren E. Hearns (New Democratic)/J. Strom Thurmond, Sr. (New Democratic)
def 1971: Maynard E. "Jack" Sensenbrenner (People's)/Russell B. Long (People's); Samuel W. Yorty (New Democratic)/Cornelius C. Sale Jr. (New Democratic)

Hugh L. Carey (People's)/Ellis Arnall (People's) 1976-1984

def 1975: Maxwell L. Rafferty (Republican)/Roger MacBride (Republican); Daniel P. Moynihan (New Democratic)/Thomas Jefferson Anderson (New Democratic)
def 1979: James A. Rhodes (Republican)/James E. Holshauser Jr. (Republican); Jesse A. Helms Jr. (New Democratic)/Kevin H. White (New Democratic)

William C. Westmoreland (Republican)/James L. Buckley (Republican) 1984-1992

def 1983: George W. Romney (Independent)/Morris K. "Mo" Udall (Independent); Abner J. Mikva (People's)/Leonidas "Leon" Jaworski (People's); John R. Rarick (New Democratic)/Ernest F. "Fritz" Hollings (New Democratic)
def 1987: Joseph Lane Kirkland (People's)/Robert E. Richards (People's); Robert P. Casey, Sr. (New Democratic)/William B. Spong, Jr. (New Democratic)

James B. Stockdale (People's)/Andre Marrou (People's) 1992-2000

def 1991: James L. Buckley (Republican)/H. Ross Perot (Republican); James D. "Jimmy" Griffin (New Democratic)/Albion W. Knight. Jr. (New Democratic)
def 1995: John N. Dalton (Independent)/Gordon J. Humphrey (Independent); Timothy J. Penny (New Democratic)/Richard D. Lamm (New Democratic); Montel B. Williams (Republican)/J. Charles Evers (Republican)

Oliver L. North (Republican)/Robert C. Smith (Republican) 2000-2008

def 1999: Andre Marrou (People's)/Bernard "Bernie" Sanders (People's); Rudolph W. Giuliani (New Democratic)/Charles E. "Buddy" Roemer
def 2003: James Trafficant (Free People's)/Howard Philips (Free People's); William W. Bradley (Working People's)/Jesse L. Burns Sr. (Working People's); Steven L. Beshear (New Democratic)/Richard A. "Dick" Gephardt (New Democratic)

Wesley K. Clark Sr. (Democratic People's)/Richard C. Shelby (Democratic People's) 2008-2016

def 2007: Robert C. Smith (Republican)/Lynn C. Swann (Republican); Bernard "Bernie" Sanders (Working People's)/David K. Cobb (Working People's)
def 2011: James S. Gilmore III (Republican)/Randy Daniels (Republican); Warren Wilhelm Jr. (Working People's)/Henry C. "Hank" Johnson Jr. (Working People's)

Carter W. Page (Republican)/Artur G. Davis (Republican) 2016-

def 2015: Robert G. Torricelli (Democratic People's)/Harold Ford Jr. (Democratic People's); W, Mitt Romney (Independent)/Harry M. Reid (Independent); Richard B. Spencer (National People's)/Stephen K. Bannon (National People's); Ross C. "Rocky" Anderson (Working People's)/Bobby Lee Rush (Working People's)
def 2019: John Bel Edwards (Democratic People's)/Jefferson H. "Jeff" Van Drew (Democratic People's); Richard N. Ojeda (Working People's)/William C."Bill" Campbell (Working People's)
 
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The Return of Camelot

37. Robert F. Kennedy/Ralph Yarborough (Democratic) 1969-1977

1968: Richard Nixon/Spiro Agnew (Republican) George Wallace/Curtis LeMay (American Independent)
1972: Richard Nixon/John Connally (Republican)
38. Ronald Reagan/George H.W. Bush (Republican) 1977-1981

1976: Ralph Yarborough/George McGovern (Democratic)
39. Ted Kennedy/Lloyd Bentsen (Democratic) 1981-1989

1980: Ronald Reagan/George H.W. Bush (Republican)
1984: George H.W. Bush/Paul Laxalt (Republican)
40. Jack Kemp/Larry Pressler (Republican) 1989-1997
1988: Walter Mondale/Al Gore (Democratic)
1992: Jerry Brown/Paul Simon (Democratic)
41. Andrew Young Jr./Joe Biden (Democratic) 1997-2005

1996: Larry Pressler/Pete Wilson (Republican) Ross Perot/Pat Choate (Reform)
2000 (went to house): Orrin Hatch/Connie Mack III (Republican) Donald Trump/Jesse Ventura (Independence)
42. George Allen/J.C. Watts (Republican) 2005-2009
2004: Joe Biden/Howard Dean (Democratic)
43. Mickey Leland/Blanche Lincoln (Democratic) 2009-2017

2008: George Allen/J.C Watts (Republican)
2012: Rick Santorum/Allen West (Republican) Bernie Sanders/Rocky Anderson (Progressive)
 
A modest collection of Alternate Presidents made up of fictional names
29. John Sharp (Democratic-Mississippi)
(March 4,1917-March 4,1921)

A southern politician, John Sharp's presidency was dominated with war against the British Empire, which continued to drag on through the end of his presidency. In terms of domestic affairs, he would pass rudimentary civil rights legislation, forced by the hand of liberal republicans and a combination of democrats from the north that was able to narrowly outvote the conservative democratic coalition that he had relied on to keep the left wing of both parties at bay. In the legislation was a vauge pledge to fully desegregate hospitals and schools within the southern united states by the 1950s. He found himself at odds with his cabinet members, with various members forcing to resign and general chaos throughout the democratic administration.

The nail in his possible political career was when he fired his entire cabinet overnight, attempting to stock them with allies. This was blocked by Congress which resulted in his impeachment, which narrowly passed in the house but failed to gain the needed 67 votes for conviction within the senate. Still in office as a lame duck, he continued the speeches against the British, decrying them as "scared of something". His political legacy is one of an old fashioned senator which quarreled frequently with his political allies, demonized the foreign relations of the country and failed to pass meaningful civil rights legislation. Refusing to resign or step aside, he narrowly gained the democratic nomination in Richmond, Virginia only to go down to a massive electoral college defeat against a former farm state governor and professor of politics in Chicago. He is generally ranked in the bottom tier of modern American Presidents.

30. Benjamin Hillerson (Republican-North Dakota)
(March 4,1921-March 4,1925)

Swept into an electoral college landslide of everywhere except the south against Williams, he utilized the political headwind of his victory to begin an implementation of his plans. Negotiations, previously stalled under Sharp, increased in speed and discussion until he was able to secure, in his words "a peace which neither whips John Bull or kicks Uncle Sam, but one that merely scratches both sides a tad." Despite loosing the Sandwich Islands and the state of Maine, Hillerson still felt optimistic he would lead the country into a better era. He became focused on the efforts of the farmers, working closely with the state governors to several agreements that would assist them out.

However, his personal life came crashing into the headlines, with true rumors of his numerous infidelities towards the first lady, enough to have Hillerson become the first president to be divorced while in the White House. He was also known to be a rather heavy drinker and would fill cabinet positions with influential friends that lacked knowledge of their political offices. A well publicized account of this was when Secretary of State Bartlet Winters offered to sell to the Japanese the American Outpost of Formosa. Before any deal was in the works Winters was recalled to Washington, but the embarrassment leaked into the papers. The disgraced Secretary would promptly be kicked out of office, eventually ending up as the Japanese appointed military governor of Manchukuo during the Second World War. His Presidency is only slightly higher than that of Sharp, as he managed to end a world war rather than to almost get himself impeached.

31. Sebastian Hayes (Republican-Indiana)
(March 4,1925-March 4,1933)

Running on a promise of Dignity to the Presidency, Hayes was able to carry the nomination among a contested Cincinnati convention. The Hayes Administration was one of heavy focus on tariffs, though most modern school children (any 8 out of every 10 adults) would fail to even name him as a president. This is tantamount to his overall forgetability once leaving office. The few things some high school student might learn about him from five minutes off of Wikipedia would be his focus on overhauling the presidential cabinet with the assistance in congress, often known as the second time government jobs would be prioritized for those with ability rather than political connections. One of the small trivial things he did was a visit to the american colony of Egypt that was filmed. Other than a few minor naval builds and some diplomatic handshakes with the communist Italian states, he's that forgettable and bland a presidency. If there was one criticism that those who had studied the twentith century would make, it would be his rapid acceptance of antisemitism within the mainstream of american politics and the overall ignorance he had to events within europe that would spiral over into another world war.

32. Richard Roofer (Democratic-Alabama)
(March 4,1933-March 4,1949)

How can you not forget about "Dinosaur" Roofer? Hayes was just the bland news show that would come on before Saturday morning cartoons. Roofer had a very interesting political career. Initially fighting hard against possible civil rights, he would opportunely switch to defending a black client that had stolen a bible from a church. Throughout his rise in local Alabaman politics, he would put on two faces of holding out helping hands for the camera while he disparaged blacks once the cameras were off. Still, his efforts to initially assist African Americans was genuine, with the forced abolition of any and all segregated buses and bus stops within the state of Alabama. Ironically, he still fought tooth and nail for segregated movie theaters, hospitals and nursing homes. His reasoning was this: "I don't mind them on buses, but I'm not about to let this become a slippery slope. Just some red meat for them, possibly make them a little happier so they can stop moving away."

He would also become a fierce proponent of another world war, pushing for intervention waaay earlier than the nation was ready for, almost costing him re-election, save for a last minute counting in Pennsylvania and Illinois that salvaged his chance for a third term. While his health increasingly began to fail, he nevertheless lead the nation against the revengeful armies of the Soviet Union and the British threat. He would easily win a fourth term, mostly summed up to "presidents at war don't lose elections". He has raised historical eyebrows at his constant meddling within the war effort, with the Icelandic and Scottish campaigns. By far his most controversial decision was the atomic bombings of London and Leningrad, which has forced more debate about whether or not he deserves to be ranked among presidents Washington and Andrew Johnson. He has also undergone more scrutiny for his anti-Semitic political policies, which restricted the opportunities of Jews throughout the united states, controversially upheld by the Supreme Court in Joseph v. Board of Employment Omaha Nebraska.

33. Gordon Peterson (Republican-California)
(March 4,1949-January 20,1953)

Who better to succeed Roofer than famous naval war hero Gordon Peterson? While disagreeing a lot with Roofer, he soon rallied anti-communist and increasing fears from imperialism from the rising german empire. Loosing a leg during a carrier operation, he became the first president with a peg leg, though he would be careful to hide it from the press in staged photos. In terms of foreign policy, he deployed american forces to the civil wars that waged in South Africa and France, managing to peacefully separate the European nation into two states, where it remains to this day. In terms of the former, well he just left that complete clusterfuck to the next poor sap in office, not his problem.

34. Larry Silvermilk † (Republican-Texas)
(January 20,1953- July 18, 1953)

The poster child for the modern conservative lurch that the republican party found itself doing during the late 1940s to early 1950s, he became increasingly combative of communists, though voting to censure rabid anti communist senator and former pastor Daniel McSweetny from Michigan. During the 1952 election, he managed to turn his Rhode Island opponent Jackson F. Cassidy's voting base of protestants off with an army of rumors about his purported affairs, these worked wonders within the rust belt, handing him Ohio, and the needed 270 to win the presidency. Once in office, he opted to deal with South Africa the Silvermilk way, lots of nuclear weapons. Once the results of fourteen nuclear detonations cleared a path for "negotiations", he inadvertently also might of started World War III within a matter of hours to minutes., so whoops.

35. Ellison Albrecht (Republican-Iowa)
(July 18,1953-January 20,1957)

The Secretary of Commerce just so happened to have a particular ritual about brushing his teeth, which required him to fly home to do it. Did it cost tax payers thousands of dollars, and was it inconvenient? yes. Did it happen to save his life during the several atomic missiles that said hello to Washington DC? yes. Bizarre and unorthodox morning rituals aside, Albrecht found himself president whether he was prepared for it or not. He wasn't really prepared for it. Upon hearing the news, he flew into an massive panic and crying fit before being talked down by his mother. He reluctantly got dressed out from his pajamas and into his church clothes.

His administration dealt with the massive retaliation that was ordered by military generals, resulting in yet more death until he finally mustered enough courage to call a nuclear ceasefire with the dying remnants of the German Government. The resulting Peace of Marion (named after his home city) was one of the best actions of his presidency, with the unlikely president being ranked high in the top 10 to 15 Presidents of the United States for him spearheading reconstruction efforts for America.

36. Simpson Cox (Democratic-West Virginia)
(January 20,1957-January 20,1965)

Although Albrecht could have easily won a second term, he opted to fully retire from politics. Up steps former Cottonwood Actor Simpson Cox, who was able to easily dispatch the stiff and stern looking Republican Tyrone Ulysses II during the debates and at the ballot box. The First Democratic President since the colorful Roofer, Cox was a man of comedic talent. With his addresses to the nation, he would pepper them with jabs at political opponents and deflating humor aimed at himself, along with general jokes for the masses. With foreign affairs, he waved the nuclear bomb at the exhausted Germans, who had come out of the Silvermilk begun nuclear exchange worse than the Americans. Threatening with it a bit more, he was able to convince a few settlements out of them, though he also begun the slow dismantling of both sides vast nuclear arsenals for the betterment of world peace.
Besides from starting a trade war with the Australians and Incan Empires, Cox was also known as a keen womanizer that would make even Cassidy blush. The southerner actually forced through civil rights reforms, dragging what remained of the South kicking and screaming into desegregation. Easily beating Businessmen turned one term governor of California Bobby Noxin, Cox would be stonewalled by the newly elected members of Congress, considering their meeting place kind of evaporated, and the minor fact that 70% of the members were fatalities during the nuclear exchange.

37. Bobby Noxin (Republican-California) R
(January 20,1965-September 4,1970)

Stinging from his defeat in 1960, he opted to pull a William Jennings Bryan, but with elephants instead of donkeys. Winning the nomination a second time and the presidency a first, Bobby would begin to chip away against the traditional democratic southern backing. Seeing a pair of republican senators emerge from the south for the first time since reconstruction, Noxin felt pleased with the limited cracks the republican party was making on the south. However, he proved to be increasingly paranoid within office.

Bugging the oval office and ordering the planting of cameras and recording equipment in the Libertarian National Convention hallway in 1968, he would have still won without the illegal campaign espionage in a landslide victory against the resurgent Libertarian hopes of the son of the man that started World War III. The subject of investigations throughout 1969 and 1970, the House voted to impeach the president, with the senate preparing to vote within a few hours when he gave a telivised address and resigned from the office effective immediately. Noxin is not ranked high at all, owing to his espionage, impeachment, general parnoia, though is given points for opening up Britain to American foreign marketplace in what is known as the English Thaw.

38. Lee Chevrolet (Republican-Minnesota)
(September 4,1970-January 20,1977)

Lee Chevrolet remains the only president the american people nor the electoral college voted for, being selected by Noxin upon the resignation of Sam Allenberg. To put it bluntly, effigies were made in his mockery almost every day outside the white house, which he jokingly referred to as his cult. This off hand remark would also lead to the rise of Chevrolet Christianity by known transgender religious pastor Jack-Jill, who would commit ritual suicide on the white house lawn after attempting to take President Chevorlet hostage during the November Crisis of 1972.

Such a last minute brazen attempt actually salvaged his political campaign, resulting in a mediocre if forgettable second term complete with run of the mill national debt and the continued reconstruction of america after Silvermilk's big whoopsie. His second term saw the Ottoman Empire undergo various revolts, including one in Iraq which saw the rise of President Saddam Hussein. He would court these regimes with metric shit tons of capitalism and cash, which also served to bolster their position against the british Somalia and Yemen in the region.


36. Fiona Cox (Democratic-Michigan)
(January 20,1977-January 20,1981)
A member of the prominent Cox family dynasty, the former first lady became the first female president with the narrow beating of staunch texan (and the first republican from that state in over a hundred years) Julian Fort. Her two main foreign policy measures were to pursue a policy of human rights for aid, along with making overtures towards the German Empires. While being derived as a 'sausage surrenderist' by the far right and those who still held fond memories of the Silvermilk administration, she nevertheless was popular in these policies with the general public. However, she would be undermined by operatives within the still radioactive wreckage of Washington DC who opted to pursue goals in direct opposition to those of the Fiona administration.

She was also attacked for having little to no public policy experience while within the beltway by senators and local mayors. She also proved to be a staunch antisemite in public policy, installing a policy which segregated Jews from the rest of the american population. This policy would be controversially upheld in the 1979 Supreme Court Case David v. Virginia. Of no small importance to the outcome of the case was her appointment of eight of the nine Supreme Court Justices when seven resigned in protest at Cox's election and the eighth died of pneumonia while skiing in Montana. She would even enact plans for an entirely ethnically Jewish state in the newly established territory of Iceland, bought from the Danish Government in exile for a cool price of 49 million dollars. However, she declared that within ten years, the newly establish territory of Bethlehem would be admitted into the union as a the forty-ninth state.

The final nail in her election coffin was rampant rioting throughout the southern united states, spurred on by a lackluster economy and several major blackouts owing to aging power-stations, power-stations that would have been replaced in several laws passed by congress but were vetoed by Cox as being too wasteful. The Republican convention was a contentious mess between the staunch conservative wing and the more liberal wing, with the liberal wing narrowly edging over with New York Governor Nicholas Rodriguez, the first mexican-american nominated for a major party ticket . The outraged conservatives would walk out of the convention in Nashville where they would nominate fellow texan Jefferson Cornwallis as part of the New Conservative Party

With the opposition splintered, Cox would be assured of a second term in office, if she would be able to secure the democratic nomination in Topeka, Kansas. Here she would narrowly edge out an enthusiastic guerrilla campaign by populist female challenger and twelve term House Member and pastor Paula Franklin. However, there were warning signs with her narrow measurement of the democratic nomination. It didnt matter if the republican field had splintered, Cox was going to go down to defeat in November. Throughout August polls indicated her lagging far behind Rodriguez and Cornwallis, though gaffes by Cornwallis made it almost a dead even heat for second place. November came and went, with Cornwallis having a surprising night, with victories in Iowa and Massachusetts, along with strong second place finishes that boosted Rodriguez in the states of California, Missouri and Michigan. Cox's states where she only held more than 41% of the popular vote were just Rhode Island at 43.4% and Oregon at 44%.


Nicholas Rodriguez (Republican-New York)
(January 20th,1981-January 20th,1989)

The coattails of Rodriguez's victory were unprecedented, as the Republicans gained control of the House of Representatives (shared with 11 pickups by the NCP) and the Senate (with 2 NCP senators, one from a victory in South Dakota and another defection from the Democratic party by the Junior Senator from Oklahoma). Rodriguez was in a powerful political position to pass his political agenda, called the "Honest Plan for America". Coming from poor roots, Rodriguez built himself up an education and successful career as the Governor of New York for two terms. The Honest Plan was more social welfarey than the more conservative members could stomach, and so he had been forced to water the policies down in order to get them passed, with the double edged sword of conservative republicans being inclined to vote with the conservative democrats to block his more progressive and liberal proposals.

He was forced to compromise with them, passing immigration reform, providing two million immigrants with a pathway to citizenship within four years in exchange for the founding of the Department of Boarder Security and Enforcement and the authority for deputized citizens to deport illegal immigrants. Another policy on his Honest Plan was to improve the air and water of the nation with the establishment of even more government administrations. He was hamstrung by the Supreme Court's stacked segregationist and antisemitic justices, though he would openly come out to the defense of such religious and ethnic minorities within the United States in his famed Backdoor Speech in the spring of 1983.

Rodriguez's administration was sucker punched in the 1982 and 1984 midterm elections, with losses accumulating to 40 house seats and 5 senate seats on average for both elections. This vulnerability proved an opening for the Democrats in 1984, though they would be hijacked by a hated friend known as Fiona Cox, who managed to rally anger together against the Democratic Establishment to pry the nomination away from more moderate and far left candidates. Cox's desperate attempt at political relevancy had recoiled the american public's disgust with her, leading to a 46 state landslide (Cox only won Rhode Island and Oregon again, with the pickup of Washington).

The President's second term was marked by native american terrorist attacks throughout the United States, forcing Rodriguez to suspend civil liberties and pass wide-sweeping acts, especially after the Trans-American Airlines bombing of 1985. Although modern civil rights champions continue to rail against him for this act, many politicians at the time and the general public generally agreed with these for public safety concerns. He would back the Saddam Hussein regime during their war against Saudi Arabia, with the german empire funneling money, weapons and advisers to the Saudi royal family.
 
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No party switching:
Ronald Reagan/Phil Gramm 1981-1989

Def 1980: Pete Stark/John Lindsay
Def 1984: John Lindsay/Tom Foglietta
Phil Gramm/Richard Shelby 1989-1997
Def 1988: Jay Rockefeller/Leon Panetta Colin Powell/Jeanne Kirkpatrick
Def 1992: John B. Anderson/Lowell Weicker
Howard Dean/Hillary Rodham 1997-2005
Def 1996: Richard Shelby/Elizabeth Anderson
Def 2000: Sonny Perdue/Rick Perry
Norm Coleman/Ben N. Campbell 2005-2013

Def 2004: Hillary Rodham/Mike Doyle
Def 2008: Loretta Sanchez/Chris Coons
Michael Bloomberg/Lincoln Chafee 2013-2021
Def. 2012: Condoleezza Rice/Eric Greitens
Def 2016: Donald Trump/Mike Pence Bernie Sanders/Gloria LaRiva Gayle McLaughlin/Kyrsten Synema
Jim Justice/Jeff Van Drew 2021-?
Def 2020: Lincoln Chafee/Elizabeth Warren
Def 2024: Elizabeth Warren/Gabrielle Giffords
 
Questions, comments, criticisms all welcome. I've gone through a couple drafts and I hope these candidates fit.

OTL but Reverse and Sometimes Worse

1976: Gerald Ford (Republican) defeats Henry Jackson (Democratic) The only election here that’s not parallel.

1980: Will Rogers Jr. (Democratic) defeats Lowell Weicker (Republican), Clarence Miller (Independent) An aging actor-turned politician defeats a well-intentioned if naive governor from a party’s traditional heartland and starts a revolution.

1984: Will Rogers Jr. (Democratic) defeats Bob Dole (Republican) The President wins re-election in a landslide, defeating a rather dull former Vice President.

1988: John J. Gilligan (Democratic) defeats Terry Branstad (Republican) The Vice President, a long time party member that lost a statewide race in the seventies, defeats a party stalwart Governor by a large margin.

1992: Lee Atwater (Republican) defeats John J. Gilligan (Democratic), Warren Buffett (Independent) A young, charismatic Southern governor defeats the incumbent President when a businessman jumps into the race.

1996: Lee Atwater (Republican) defeats Tom Daschle (Democratic), Warren Buffett (American Gammas) The President defeats an aging Senator and the same businessman from four years prior to win a combination of old party strongholds and new conquests.

2000: Kathleen Sebelius (Democratic) defeats John Ashcroft (Republican) The child of a former President defeats the incumbent Vice President, who chooses a maverick as his running-mate. Allegations of fraud mar a victory in a state ruled by the winning candidate’s brother.

2004: Kathleen Sebelius (Democratic) defeats Bob Smith (Republican) In the midst of war in the Middle East, the President narrowly beats a Vietnam War veteran.

2008: Mario Díaz-Balart (Republican) defeats Al Gore (Democratic) The opposition party wins in the early years of a recession with the first non-white major party candidate accused of ties to a foreign country.

2012: Mario Díaz-Balart (Republican) defeats Al Checchi (Democratic) The President beats a moderate Massachusetts governor but loses several states he had picked up in 2008.

2016: Michael Avenatti (Democratic) defeats Sally Atwater (Republican) An egocentric non-politician with a history of misconduct narrowly beats the controversial wife of a former President.

2020: Michael Avenatti (Democratic) vs. unknown Can the most unpopular President in modern history win re-election or will the winner of the record huge Republican field surge to victory?
 
E Pluribus Unum, Part 1
(more footnotes to come)
1909-1913: Theodore Roosevelt/Woodrow Wilson (Progressive/Democratic)
def. 1908 Theodore Roosevelt/Jonathan P. Dolliver (Progressive), William Jennings Bryan/Woodrow Wilson (Democratic), Charles W. Fairbanks/James S. Sherman (Republican) [1]
1913-1917: Theodore Roosevelt/Albert Beveridge (Progressive)
def. 1912 1st round Champ Clark/William J. Gaynor (Democratic), Henry Cabot Lodge/Theodore E. Burton (Republican)
2nd round Champ Clark/William J. Gaynor (Democratic)
1917-1921: Elihu Root/Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican)
def. 1916 1st round Josephus Daniels/Gilbert Hitchcock (Democratic), Theodore Roosevelt/Albert Beveridge (Progressive), George W. Norris/Hiram Johnson (National), Eugene Debs/Allan Benson (Socialist)
2nd round Josephus Daniels/Gilbert Hitchcock (Democratic)
1921-1929: Carter Glass/Charles W. Bryan (Democratic)
def. 1920 1st round Robert M. La Follette/Gifford Pinchot (National), Elihu Root/Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican), Eugene Debs/George Ross Kirkpatrick (Socialist)
2nd round Robert M. La Follette/Gifford Pinchot (National)
def. 1924 1st round Robert M. La Follette/Parley P. Christensen (United Front), William C. Sproul/Irvine L. Lenroot (Republican)
2nd round Robert M. La Follette/Carl D. Thompson (United Front)
1929-1933: Wendell Willkie/Daniel J. Moody (Democratic)
def. 1928 1st round Norman Thomas/Parley P. Christensen (United Front), Frank Lowden/Charles E. McNary (Republican)
2nd round Norman Thomas/Parley P. Christensen (United Front)
1933-1935: Huey Long/Joseph P. Kennedy (Share Our Wealth)
def. 1932 1st round Norman Thomas/Earl Browder (Popular Front), Wendell Willkie/Daniel J. Moody (Democratic), Calvin Coolidge/John J. Blaine (Republican)
2nd round Norman Thomas/Earl Browder (Popular Front)
1935-1937: Joseph P. Kennedy/vacant (Share Our Wealth)
1937-1941: Joseph P. Kennedy/Gerald L. K. Smith (Share Our Wealth)

def. 1936 1st round Smedley Butler/Henry A. Wallace (United Front), Daniel J. Moody/James T. Heflin (Democratic)
2nd round Smedley Butler/Henry A. Wallace (United Front)
1941-1945: Joseph P. Kennedy/James F. Byrnes (Christian Democratic)
def. 1940 1st round Henry A. Wallace/William Z. Foster (Patriotic Front), Norman Thomas/James Burnham (Socialist)
2nd round Henry A. Wallace/William Z. Foster (Patriotic Front)

POD: Roosevelt does not pledge to serve only two terms in 1904.
[1] With President Roosevelt finishing his second term, he was overwhelmingly popular, but the Republican Party was divided on his policies. Roosevelt at first stated that he would not seek the nomination, nor would he refuse it, but if was not the nominee, he was determined to pick his successor, and was not happy when they refused to nominate Elihu Root, his Secretary of State. With his Secretary of War unwilling to run, Roosevelt was uncertain who to put forward, and was alarmed by the candidacy of his conservative Vice President, Charles Fairbanks. Roosevelt thus decided to throw his hat in the ring and seek the nomination. Such an idea was controversial, and the Republican leadership was hostile. As the party met that June, the convention was divided. It seemed that the withdrawals of Charles Evans Hughes would be to Roosevelt’s advantage, but then, Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon, a conservative and an opponent of Roosevelt, threw his weight behind Fairbanks. Fairbanks was nominated, and Roosevelt decided to walk out and form his own party, the Progressive Party. The Democrats had the opposite sort of convention, re-nominating their same standard bearer of the last decade, William Jennings Bryan, along with Princeton president and noted liberal reformer Woodrow Wilson. The election was a chaotic one, and all three candidates thought they had a shot. Both Bryan and Fairbanks tried to cast their opponents as two of the same, either wealthy elites or radical socialists. Roosevelt meanwhile promoted his own record and policies, and by the end of the campaign seemed headed for success. He was still splitting votes with the Republicans, however, and the outcome was thrown to the House. Speaker Cannon at first thought he could engineer a victory for Fairbanks, but then, a last-minute surprise motion to vacate the chair was passed by a coalition of Democrats and progressive, pro-Roosevelt Republicans, who then successfully elected Gilbert Hitchcock as speaker. This was the end for Fairbank, who could not win without the corralling and strong-arming of Republicans by the “Czar” Cannon. Enough Republicans turned coat to support Roosevelt to put him over the top, and the Senate seemed ready to follow suit, when Fairbank’s running mate, James Sherman, died from an attack of undiagnosed liver disease. The pro-Fairbanks Republicans had a choice to make, and decided that Wilson was a more conservative bet than Dolliver. With this mess of an election behind them, America’s leaders sought a remedy. Wilson was a proponent of a parliamentary system, but while Roosevelt gave this some thought, it was dismissed as too much of a radical change. Instead, Roosevelt supported a constitutional amendment to establish a two round presidential election, avoiding three-way ties like in 1908, and as a result establishing a popular vote for president. This was ratified as the 16th Amendment, along with a 17th Amendment soon after that, establishing a popular vote for senators. In addition to this, Roosevelt fought successfully for an income tax, passed as the 18th Amendment, an eight-hour workday, the establishment of the Federal Securities Commission, and tariff reform.
 
E Pluribus Unum, Part 1
(more footnotes to come)
1909-1913: Theodore Roosevelt/Woodrow Wilson (Progressive/Democratic)
def. 1908 Theodore Roosevelt/Jonathan P. Dolliver (Progressive), William Jennings Bryan/Woodrow Wilson (Democratic), Charles W. Fairbanks/James S. Sherman (Republican) [1]
1913-1917: Theodore Roosevelt/Albert Beveridge (Progressive)
def. 1912 1st round Champ Clark/William J. Gaynor (Democratic), Henry Cabot Lodge/Theodore E. Burton (Republican)
2nd round Champ Clark/William J. Gaynor (Democratic)
1917-1921: Elihu Root/Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican)
def. 1916 1st round Josephus Daniels/Gilbert Hitchcock (Democratic), Theodore Roosevelt/Albert Beveridge (Progressive), George W. Norris/Hiram Johnson (National), Eugene Debs/Allan Benson (Socialist)
2nd round Josephus Daniels/Gilbert Hitchcock (Democratic)
1921-1929: Carter Glass/Charles W. Bryan (Democratic)
def. 1920 1st round Robert M. La Follette/Gifford Pinchot (National), Elihu Root/Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican), Eugene Debs/George Ross Kirkpatrick (Socialist)
2nd round Robert M. La Follette/Gifford Pinchot (National)
def. 1924 1st round Robert M. La Follette/Parley P. Christensen (United Front), William C. Sproul/Irvine L. Lenroot (Republican)
2nd round Robert M. La Follette/Carl D. Thompson (United Front)
1929-1933: Wendell Willkie/Daniel J. Moody (Democratic)
def. 1928 1st round Norman Thomas/Parley P. Christensen (United Front), Frank Lowden/Charles E. McNary (Republican)
2nd round Norman Thomas/Parley P. Christensen (United Front)
1933-1935: Huey Long/Joseph P. Kennedy (Share Our Wealth)
def. 1932 1st round Norman Thomas/Earl Browder (Popular Front), Wendell Willkie/Daniel J. Moody (Democratic), Calvin Coolidge/John J. Blaine (Republican)
2nd round Norman Thomas/Earl Browder (Popular Front)
1935-1937: Joseph P. Kennedy/vacant (Share Our Wealth)
1937-1941: Joseph P. Kennedy/Gerald L. K. Smith (Share Our Wealth)

def. 1936 1st round Smedley Butler/Henry A. Wallace (United Front), Daniel J. Moody/James T. Heflin (Democratic)
2nd round Smedley Butler/Henry A. Wallace (United Front)
1941-1945: Joseph P. Kennedy/James F. Byrnes (Christian Democratic)
def. 1940 1st round Henry A. Wallace/William Z. Foster (Patriotic Front), Norman Thomas/James Burnham (Socialist)
2nd round Henry A. Wallace/William Z. Foster (Patriotic Front)

POD: Roosevelt does not pledge to serve only two terms in 1904.
[1] With President Roosevelt finishing his second term, he was overwhelmingly popular, but the Republican Party was divided on his policies. Roosevelt at first stated that he would not seek the nomination, nor would he refuse it, but if was not the nominee, he was determined to pick his successor, and was not happy when they refused to nominate Elihu Root, his Secretary of State. With his Secretary of War unwilling to run, Roosevelt was uncertain who to put forward, and was alarmed by the candidacy of his conservative Vice President, Charles Fairbanks. Roosevelt thus decided to throw his hat in the ring and seek the nomination. Such an idea was controversial, and the Republican leadership was hostile. As the party met that June, the convention was divided. It seemed that the withdrawals of Charles Evans Hughes would be to Roosevelt’s advantage, but then, Speaker of the House Joseph Cannon, a conservative and an opponent of Roosevelt, threw his weight behind Fairbanks. Fairbanks was nominated, and Roosevelt decided to walk out and form his own party, the Progressive Party. The Democrats had the opposite sort of convention, re-nominating their same standard bearer of the last decade, William Jennings Bryan, along with Princeton president and noted liberal reformer Woodrow Wilson. The election was a chaotic one, and all three candidates thought they had a shot. Both Bryan and Fairbanks tried to cast their opponents as two of the same, either wealthy elites or radical socialists. Roosevelt meanwhile promoted his own record and policies, and by the end of the campaign seemed headed for success. He was still splitting votes with the Republicans, however, and the outcome was thrown to the House. Speaker Cannon at first thought he could engineer a victory for Fairbanks, but then, a last-minute surprise motion to vacate the chair was passed by a coalition of Democrats and progressive, pro-Roosevelt Republicans, who then successfully elected Gilbert Hitchcock as speaker. This was the end for Fairbank, who could not win without the corralling and strong-arming of Republicans by the “Czar” Cannon. Enough Republicans turned coat to support Roosevelt to put him over the top, and the Senate seemed ready to follow suit, when Fairbank’s running mate, James Sherman, died from an attack of undiagnosed liver disease. The pro-Fairbanks Republicans had a choice to make, and decided that Wilson was a more conservative bet than Dolliver. With this mess of an election behind them, America’s leaders sought a remedy. Wilson was a proponent of a parliamentary system, but while Roosevelt gave this some thought, it was dismissed as too much of a radical change. Instead, Roosevelt supported a constitutional amendment to establish a two round presidential election, avoiding three-way ties like in 1908, and as a result establishing a popular vote for president. This was ratified as the 16th Amendment, along with a 17th Amendment soon after that, establishing a popular vote for senators. In addition to this, Roosevelt fought successfully for an income tax, passed as the 18th Amendment, an eight-hour workday, the establishment of the Federal Securities Commission, and tariff reform.
Interesting but you have made a mistake in the handling of the elections by the Congress: for the 12th amendment the House can choose between the top three Presidential candidates (and need to vote for State) but the Senate can choose the Vice-President only between the top two candidates (so one between Sherman and Dolliver is already out without killing anyone)
 
A List of Presidents After the Cold War

1989-1993 - George H.W. Bush (R-TX) / Dan Quayle (R-IN)
1988 - def. Michael Dukakis (D-MA) / Lloyd Benson (D-TX)
1993-1997 - George H.W. Bush (R-TX) / Bob Dole (R-KS)
1992 - def. Bill Clinton (D-AR) / Al Gore (D-TN)
1997-2005 - Mario Cuomo (D-NY) / Bob Kerrey (D-NB)
1996 - def. Bob Dole (R-KS) / Jack Kemp (R-NY)
2000 - def. John McCain (R-AZ) / George W. Bush (R-TX)

2005-2008 - Howard Dean (D-VT) / John Edwards (D-NC)
2004 - def. Mitt Romney (R-UT) / Ron Paul (R-TX), Donald Rumsfeld (P-IL) / Mike Huckabee (P-AR)
2008-2009 - John Edwards (D-NC) / vacant
2009-2013 - Colin Powell (R-NY) / Mike Huckabee (R-AR)

2008 - def. various (D)
2013-2017 - Colin Powell (R-NY) / Paul Ryan (R-WI)
2012 - def. Joe Biden (D-DE) / Bill Richardson (D-NM), Newt Gingrich (P-GA) / Sarah Palin (P-AK)
2017-present - Paul Ryan (R-WI) / Nikki Haley (R-SC)
2016 - def. Bernie Sanders (PP-VT) / Tulsi Gabbard (PP-HI), Joe Biden (D-DE) / Elizabeth Warren (D-MA), Ted Cruz (P-TX) / Chris Christie (P-NJ)

The POD is in 1992, where several things conspire to help George H.W. Bush win re-election - 1) The economy recovers from the 1990-91 recession in a better way, 2) Ross Perot stays withdrawn from the race after he initially withdraws, and 3) Bush decides to shake up the ticket by making Dole his VP pick, replacing Quayle. Bush's second term is largely holding the status quo, with Bush being known more for his first term than his second. Bush himself doesn't rock the boat too much, but the 1994 Republican Revolution still occurs, with President Bush coming into open conflict with the more conservative Republican House.

In 1996, the economy begins to falter again, and the Democrats nominate the fiery Mario Cuomo, who is able to trounce Dole in the debates, and finally end the sixteen-year Republican streak. Cuomo almost immediately comes into conflict with the congressional Republicans, although these would be defeated in 1998, with Democrats managing to keep control of the House until 2004. The main event of Cuomo's presidency is the rise of domestic terrorism - although 9/11 never happens, a large variety of smaller attacks occur. The most notable one is the attack on Cuomo's second inaguration - while Cuomo would remain safe, Vice President Kerrey would be critically wounded. A side effect of this is that American culture becomes markedly different without the large trauma of 9/11. This issue would grow to dominate the American discussion. The Republican Party would split between moderate libertarians and conservative authoritarians.

The 2004 election would be one of the most chaotic elections in American history, with the more conservative Republicans leaving to form the Patriot Party. In the end, Democratic nominee Howard Dean would get 265 electoral votes, just four electoral votes short of the majority. The election was cast to the outgoing House and Senate, who quickly confirmed the Democratic nominees for the goal of national unity.

However, with the Patriot Party entering Congress, things would become a lot more difficult. The loyal Republicans, realizing that they had the position as the middleman, would use their new status to shape American policy, with the Republicans becoming the arbiters of what Dean could pass or not. While Dean could easily veto a Republican-Patriot combined bill, he needed Republican support for any bill he wanted to pass.

This continued on for all of Dean's term. The Patriots, realizing that they had been shunted aside, offered to rejoin the Republicans for 2008. The Republicans, hoping to gain the Presidency and an outright majority, would agree, and in the caucus Colin Powell, a liberal but uncontroversial war hero, would emerge as the Republican nominee. The Republicans hoped that Powell's popularity would help him go to the White House. But it turns out, they wouldn't need that.

2008 was known as the year of the "triple tragedy". First of all, the housing market collapsed, causing a major recession. Second of all, another lone-wolf attack would manage to claim the life of President Howard Dean early in the year. Third of all, the new President would find himself mired in a scandal over an extramarital affair he had while his wife had cancer, and the misuse of campaign funds to cover this up. While there were calls for Edwards' resignation, Edwards would not resign, but he would drop out of the Democratic race, leaving a shocked and battered Democratic Party to try to pick up the pieces. In the end, it wouldn't matter - Colin Powell would sweep to election, winning every single electoral vote. Powell was hailed as the "new Washington".

Powell would do even more to help crack down on domestic terrorism, but he would do so in the most libertarian way he could. Powell would lock horns with the Patriot wing of his party, with Powell vetoing many Patriot bills, telling the Patriots that they could not hijack the party they had just re-entered. Powell had the American people on his side.

In 2012, the Democratic party, which was at its breaking point, would manage to muster a ticket, while the Patriots would once again split off from the Republicans. However, Powell himself would easily be re-elected president - he was simply too popular among the American people. The Powell Administration would cause a feeling of revitalization among the American people - after the political disorganization and terror of the first decade of the 21st century.

As the 2016 election approached, some tried to maneuver Powell into a third term, but Powell refused - he had served his two terms as a duty to his country, and now he would finally be able to return to civilian life. In the 2016 election, no-one knew who would be a worthy successor to Powell. Meanwhile, the Democratic party, which had been teetering on the edge of collapse in 2008, finally split into the Populist-Progressives and the Democrats. In the end, however, Powell's second Vice President, Paul Ryan, would manage to win the race without the need to go to Congress.

As Ryan enters office, the nation faces many difficulties. Even with all of the trouble it's been having, America has remained the world's sole superpower, although that status is being threatened by China. Meanwhile, as American politics get more and more splintered, how will this change the political climate? Will Ryan be as strong as Powell and not cave to more radical Patriot demands? Even with President Ryan firmly in the White House, the future looks uncertain...

 
The 1910-14 period in Great Britain fascinates me for the multitude of forces at work: Irish republicanism, British Unionism, parliamentary democracy versus paramilitary forces. The British constitution was tested to its limits since the Conservative Leader of the Opposition, Bonar Law, saw the situation of Irish Home Rule as simply apocalyptic for Ulster, and he did encourage the formation of extra-parliamentary methods to fight any "Catholic domination", even to the point of technically outlawing the British Army to put down the various paramilitaries forming on either side, and thus allow civil war to happen to preserve Ulster. On the government side, Lloyd George and Reginald McKenna more than matched Law's determination, and, add to this the increasing number of striking workers, the suffragette movement becoming increasingly militant, and we have a unique situation wherein civil war appears likely in Great Britain for the only time in the 20th Century. If push did come to shove, this is my serious attempt to chart what might have happened.

We Shall Not Be Moved

Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1800-1921)
of Great Britain and Ulster (1921-)


Herbert Asquith (Liberal, 1910-15)

1910-14 Minority with IPP and Labour confidence and supply
1914-15 Grand Coalition with Liberal Unionists

December 1910 def. Arthur Balfour (Conservative & Liberal Unionist), John Redmond (IPP), George Barnes (Labour), John Dillon (All-for-Ireland);

Walter Long (Constitutionalist, 1915-20)
1915-16 minority
1916-20 majority

1915 def. Herbert Asquith (Liberal & Liberal Unionist), John Redmond (IPP), Ramsay MacDonald (Labour), Edward Carson (Independent Unionist), John Dillon (All-for-Ireland);
1916 def. Winston Churchill (Liberal), John Redmond (IPP), Ramsay MacDonald (Labour), Edward Carson (Unionist), John Dillon (Irish Democratic);

Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (Constitutionalist, 1920-2)
1920 Grand Coalition with Liberals, Unionists, and Coalition Labour
David Lloyd George (Liberal, 1922-)
1922 Minority with Labour confidence and supply
1922 def. Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (Constitutionalist), Horatio Bottomley (John Bull), J.R. Clynes (Labour), Edward Carson (Unionist), Henry Page Croft (National);
1926 def. William Joyson-Hicks (Constitutional Coalition), J.R. Clynes (Labour), Horatio Bottomley (John Bull), Henry Page Croft (National);


Leaders of the Ulster Provisional Government, later Prime Ministers of Ulster (1914-)

Edward Carson (Unionist, 1914-16)
Edward Carson (Unionist-Redmonite IPP Unity Coalition, 1916-21)
Edward Carson (Unionist-Irish Democratic coalition, 1921-)


First Secretaries of Ireland (1914-21)

John Redmond (IPP majority, 1914-18)
John Dillon (IPP, later Irish Democratic majority, 1918-20)
Disputed between John Dillon (Irish Democratic) and Constance Markievicz (Irish Republican Unity), 1921-2

George Lansbury (Chairman of the Committee of the Poplar Soviet, 1919)



Imagining a scenario in which the Home Rule Crisis of 1914 actually sparks a British civil war; a repeated failure of negotiations between Unionists and Nationalists, die-hard Unionist resistance egged on by the Conservative leader Bonar Law, the formation of paramilitaries on either side, the threat of resignation from well-connected army officers in the event of the army being used to enforce Home Rule, the rudderless and paralysed response of Herbert Asquith's liberal government to react adequately - all these combine together, lethally.

The Unionist nuclear option to use their supermajority to ammend the annual Army Act as it passes through the House of Lords (to technically outlaw a standing army financed by the central government), spearheaded by Bonar Law and the die-hard faction, provokes Lloyd George and Home Secretary Reginald McKenna to pass an Enabling Act granting the government emergency powers to suppress the Unionist militias and issue arrest warrants for the Opposition frontbench. Bonar Law's actions split the Tories to the bone. Austen Chamberlain reforms the Liberal Unionists and joins the government in a Grand Coalition to deliver 'Home Rule all round', with the blessing of his ageing father, while the remainder of the Tory establishment not imprisoned or assassinated restyle themselves as Constitutionalists.

The expected resignations take place, the violence combined with striking workers and suffragette activism to make more than a few hurriedly-promoted officers trigger-happy, the effect snowballing. Cities become battlegrounds between strikers and soldiers and George Lansbury leads the Poplar Soviet for 3 weeks before his surrender, while abroad, Austria dissolves into civil war. Britain is too diistracted to get caught up in the ensuing German-Italian-French-Russian confrontation. The Liberals win, at bloody cost, separating Ulster from Ireland and absorbing the old Liberal Unionists, a move that drags them to the centre. The outnumbered radicals shift to the left, the divisions allowing the moderate former Conservative (and arch-opponent of the Chamberlains) Walter Long to squeak through with a narrow majority.

Long holds the fort for several years while the Mitteleuropa trading bloc dominates the continent. He retaliates with his own Imperial Preference scheme (ironically backed by Austen's octogenerian father), but mishandles a recession caused by his trade policies and mishandles a General Strike that sees the fragile Carson-Redmond coalition fall before Constance Markievicz's Irish Republic. Like Asquith before him, too old by now to lead, his refusal to permit a second Grand Coalition forces a Cabinet revolt, and the government settles on Lord Milner as a compromise candidate to negotiate with Markievicz and the unions, the Liberal leader considered too hotheaded to bring peace to the country.

Milner's Second Grand Coalition brings in the moderate trade union leadership and steadies the sinking ship of state for a couple of years, loosening tariffs and encouraging moderate social reform, but palliatives can only go so far with such an ideologicaly diverse coalition. Several old Liberals collect around Winston Churchill and defect to the Constitutionalists while the Labour movement is on the march, its radicalised unions assembling behind their deceptively effective and moderate leader. They make the first move, then the radical wing of the old Liberals, to return to adversarial politics, the remaining protectionist and anti-socialist splinters divided between increasingly popular radical populist reactionaries and the lingering ghosts of the old Tories.
 
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Something I've had on my harddrive and been kicking around for a while. Enjoy.

Two-thirds Is Enough

1968–1979: Pierre Trudeau (Liberal)
1979–1980: Joe Clark (Progressive Conservative)
1980–1984: Pierre Trudeau (Liberal)
1984–1991: Joe Clark (Progressive Conservative)

def. 1984 (maj.): Pierre Trudeau (Liberal), Ed Broadbent (New Democratic)
def. 1988 (min.): Donald Johnston (Liberal), Ed Broadbent (New Democratic)


66.9% was not a rousing endorsement of his leadership, but Joe Clark and his advisers decided it was enough support to stay on as leader— resigning and running in the subsequent leadership election was mooted, but ultimately rejected as "too clever by half". Of course, a relatively small mandate hardly silenced his critics— particularly those in the rank-and-file who believed he was too moderate— but for all the public sniping, Clark remained entrenched in his position. He was the leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, and he would be taking it into the next election… he just needed to bring the party in-line first.

With Clark's on-going leadership problems, Trudeau is convinced to make one last run under the belief that since he beat Clark once, he could do it again. This does not pan out, and Clark wins a comfortable majority and, most notably, makes a breakthrough in Quebec with some dozen seats.

Cognizant of the changing ground in his party, Clark governed a bit more to the right during his second term, though his Red Tory instincts show through; concerns over full and unrestricted free trade limited a negotiated deal with the United States to a general reduction of tariffs and free trade only in certain sectors. The deal won bipartisan support— the Liberals' (now under Donald Johnston) only criticism is that doesn't go far enough— and passed without incident. Clark's major pursuit was a "flexible federalism" meant to both engage Quebec and address western concerns, which— after a series of meetings with fellow first ministers— evolved into a package of constitutional reforms dubbed the Harrington Accord (after the location it was finalized, the prime minister's summer residence).

The Accord's main features were to devolve more powers to the provincial governments— exclusive jurisdiction over natural resources, increased involvement in immigration, and allowing provinces to "opt-out", with full compensation, of a federal program to establish a provincial one— in exchange for full "harmonization" in certain policy areas (such as telecommunications, trade and labour), Senate reform that expanded its size (every province getting 12 seats, except Ontario and Quebec which remained at 24) and culled its power, and recognition of Quebec as a "distinct society" alongside similar clauses for linguistic minority communities across Canada.

The opposition was initially unsure what to make of the Accord. The New Democrats had concerns with the harmonized policy, but ultimately endorsed it, citing increased provincial powers and easier intra-Canada movement of people. The Liberals had a very tough time: Leader Johnston is staunchly opposed for how it weakens the federal government, but most of his MPs— representing Quebec ridings— support it for its cultural provisions, causing tension. Trudeau emerged from his quiet retirement to fiercely denounce the Accord, intending to throw his weight behind Johnston and bring the party in line, but instead only opened the party up to perceptions of having not moved on from his leadership.

Although the Accord could only be ratified by provincial legislatures, it nevertheless became the defining issue of the 1988 election. The Liberals attempt to adopt an ambiguous position but are widely known as the "anti-Accord" party, which results in major losses in Quebec— the Conservatives winning a majority of seats for the first time since John Diefenbaker— but does manage gains in English Canada— including a small rebirth in the western provinces. The vote split in such a way that Clark falls just short of a majority… but support from the New Democrats ensured the Accord's passage. Looking to put it behind them, the Liberals swiftly replace Johnston with the pro-Harrington Raymond Garneau.


1991–2001: Raymond Garneau (Liberal)
def. 1991 (maj.): Joe Clark (Progressive Conservative), Dave Barrett (New Democratic)
def. 1994 (maj.): Roch La Salle (Progressive Conservative), Dave Barrett (New Democratic), Raymond Speaker (Representative)
def. 1998 (maj.): Dennis Timbrell (Progressive Conservative), Dave Barrett (New Democratic), Raymond Speaker (Representative)


Clark's government navigated the minority situation surprisingly well, but ultimately fell in '91. In the subsequent election, Clark tried to run on the success and popularity of the Harrington Accord, but Garneau— aware his that his party was bitterly divided on it, "settled" or not— refused to play ball. He opted to simply ignore the Accord and turn his— and voters'— attention to the economy, the deficit and debt and other areas of fiscal responsibility; and with Canada undergoing a recession, it resonated with the public. Garneau won in a landslide, even improving his fortunes in western Canada some. His government went right to work on balancing the budget through a combination of more efficient taxes and budget cuts.

Garneau's reforms are not very popular with the public, but the Conservatives are in no position to provide opposition. Clark's had always had his detractors within his party, but forming government was enough to hold the party together; his resignation, then, revealed the cracks: not just the old Red vs Blue, but establishment vs grassroots, as well as regional tensions between the new, large, electorally important Quebec wing and a western stronghold that's feeling increasingly ignored and taken advantage of. In an effort to mend the gap, delegates back former industry minister Roch La Salle— a Clark ally and Quebec nationalist, but decidedly on the right of the party— but it just alienated everyone. Quebecers, while admiring his nationalist credentials, are put off by his hardline ideological stances; Clark's strongest supporters, of a Red Tory bent, are likewise not enthused; while westerners just don't trust a Quebec nationalist to work in their interests.

Garneau called a snap election to capitalize on the Conservatives' struggles, and the gamble paid off: not only did the Liberals increase their majority, but the Conservatives fragmented as their western base desert the party— heading not just to their typical western opponent the New Democrats, but also the upstart Representative Party. La Salle was quickly booted and replaced by Dennis Timbrell, moderate Blue Tory from Ontario, who set about repairing and rebuilding the party's base— namely by halting the courtship of Quebec and refocusing on Ontario and the West.

The next few years is the story of three parties trying to position themselves as the best voice for western Canada (with the Liberals occasionally joining in, mostly to stir the pot) while the Liberals operate largely without meaningful opposition; during this period, Garneau pursued the century-old Liberal dream of "reciprocity"— free trade with the United States— with it coming into effect on January 1, 2001.

By then, Garneau felt he had achieved a laudable legacy— rebuilding his party, eliminating the deficit, and free trade with the United States— and decided to retire from public life.


2001–2009: Ralph Klein (Liberal)
def. 2001 (maj.): Dennis Timbrell (Progressive Conservative), Piers McDonald (New Democratic), Raymond Speaker (Representative)
def. 2005 (maj.): Dennis Timbrell (Progressive Conservative), Piers McDonald (New Democratic), Garry Breitkreuz (Representative)


The moment Ralph Klein entered Parliament, he was a star, and his shine only got brighter from there. As Garneau's "western lieutenant", he held considerable sway in cabinet and received several high-profile posts (natural resources, industry and public safety); by the turn of the millennium, Klein was the de facto number two in government. It was only natural, then, that he became the number one after Garneau's retirement.

That is not to say that Klein was welcomed in all quarters of the party. Like Garneau, Klein was from the right wing of the party, and the succession of two right-wingers in a row was met with disappointment and concern from the left wing. In order to keep them on side and not bolt to the NDP— who had experienced steady growth throughout the 90s— Klein shifted to the left, pledging to increase funding for health care, increase payouts for social security programs, and— in a notable reversal— recognize same-sex "civil unions". Additionally, the Deputy Prime Minister role was revived and assigned to Art Eggleton, Klein's nearest leadership challenger and champion of the left.

Klein's pivot was not entirely convincing, but it was enough to keep much of his party in line. And so, with his base stable and riding high in his honeymoon period, Klein called a snap election to refresh and cement his mandate. The election was another Liberal rout; although the Conservatives made notable gains in Ontario, the Representatives collapsed: seeing a right-leaning westerner in the top job rather undermined their "The West Wants In" slogan, reducing them to their stalwart base and allowing the Liberals to make huge gains in urban Alberta and Saskatchewan.

With a mandate of his own, Klein governed as he had promised— and little more. While he fulfilled his pledges to boost health care transfers et al, his left-wing policies largely stopped at additional funding and tinkering around the edges; Klein's instincts remained fiscally conservative, and he remained committed to holding spending steady and delivering balanced budgets. Modest surpluses were held onto or used to pay down the debt rather that reinvested, to the frustration of the more left-wing Liberals. Klein was more amiable to moving on social issues: after various provincial courts started ruling that barring same-sex marriage was unconstitutional, Klein was persuaded by Eggleton to get ahead of the issue and legalize it nationwide in 2005— a timely sop to the activist wing before the impending election.

But the biggest conflict Klein had was over environmental policy. As the decade wore on and evidence continued to mount about anthropogenic climate change, there were increasing calls to enact tighter environmental regulations, move to "green" technology and reduce carbon emissions, and otherwise move to a low carbon economy. Klein, however, was a proud Albertan and staunch proponent of Alberta's oil industry, and had worked— as natural resource minister and later as prime minister— to further develop and exploit them, and brushed off any suggestion to limit it, arguing that oil was good for Canada's economy. Klein made some token efforts to combat pollution more generally, and announced initiatives and subsidies to support clean energy, but continued to support the oil sands. It was too much for the left flank to bear, and in the next election they broke for the more environmentally conscious opposition.


2009–2019: Elizabeth May (Progressive Conservative)
def. 2009 (maj.): Ralph Klein (Liberal), Piers McDonald (New Democratic), Garry Breitkreuz (Representative)
def. 2014 (min.): Denis Coderre (Liberal), Gilles Bisson (New Democratic), Shayne Saskiw (Representative)
def. 2016 (maj.): Denis Coderre (Liberal), Gilles Bisson (New Democratic), Shayne Saskiw (Representative)


In many ways, Elizabeth May was the opposite of Ralph Klein. But it wasn't just that she was the first female prime minister, that she was from the other side of the country (in fact, the first prime minister to come from Atlantic Canada since Borden), or even that she ran on a platform of environmental protection; the biggest change was her attitude. Where Klein was boorish (in a charming way) and ran a tightly-controlled, top-down government, May had a sunny demeanour and promised a more collaborative cabinet— "I will be a prime minister who is first among equals," is how she put it.

May may have honestly believed it, but it's equally true that her party situation more or less forced a conciliatory approach. The nearly two decades the Conservatives spent in the wilderness was hard on them; Clark's resignation saw the party descend into factional infighting and split apart, and Timbrell spent a decade working to mend the divide. Timbrell's strategy wasn't just an ideological rethink— of finding common ground— but also included institutional reform to commit a Conservative government to implement policy passed by its membership, and to give MPs the ability to challenge and oust a leader. Thus, a party leader could no longer ride roughshod over opponents, lest they be unceremoniously ousted; they would have to work with opponents and keep them happy.

Consequently, May's cabinet was a Lincolnesque "team of rivals", comprising tories red (Bill Casey) and blue (Lewis MacKenzie); Quebec nationalists (Joseph Facal) and traditional bleus (Sébastien Proulx); and westerners both populist (Stockwell Day) and libertarian (Keith Martin). Moreover, May granted her ministers a degree of independence; although they had certain mandates they had to achieve, they were otherwise allowed to handle the portfolio and enact policy as they saw fit. This decision had mixed results: while ministers themselves were happy to have their own personal fiefs, it also meant ministers often came into conflict, leaving May to play referee and giving the impression of a very chaotic government. In the most notable instance, May's government enacted an emissions-trading program and tightened environmental protection laws, while also approving the EnergyEast pipeline and championing Quebec's asbestos industry.

The apparent chaos and contradictions saw the Conservatives' support shrink, and in the 2014 election they were returned with a narrow minority— saved by May's personal popularity and tireless campaigning. This, however, gave May the opportunity to restore a more top-down leadership, reign in her ministers and present a more unified vision. Over the next couple years, May pivoted to placing emphasis on tradition, nationalist sentiment, and provincial autonomy, and cobbled together an unlikely coalition of red tories, western populists and Quebec bleus; when the country went back to the polls in 2016, the re-energized Conservatives thundered back with a majority.

With both a majority and a stronger control over her party, May set about pushing her vision further: heavily investing in green technology and proclaiming her party to be "stewards of the environment", enacting a series of tax credits and programs targeting young families, tightening abortion laws and banning sex-selective abortions. A series of wildfires that ripped through western Canada also led to a large relief program to provide aid to affected families and rebuild the communities.

May stepped down in 2019, citing her age and a desire to spend more time with her family.


2019–2020: Pierre Karl Péladeau (Progressive Conservative)
2020–present: Filomena Tassi (Liberal)

def. 2020 (C&S): Pierre Karl Péladeau (Progressive Conservative), Gilles Bisson (New Democratic), Shayne Saskiw (Representative)

Although he was absent from May's first cabinet— still, then, a political neophyte albeit a star candidate— he quickly emerged as a key ally in her struggles to bring the party behind her; by the time of her retirement, Péladeau had positioned himself as her natural successor. Pélandeau was not in lockstep with May, but as a man of nebulous (perhaps flexible) ideology, Péladeau was arguably best situated to holding together the new base— or at least holding most of it as it as it shifted slightly under his tenure. If anything could be pinned down about Péladeau, it's that he was a proud Quebecer and staunch nationalist; though not necessarily a Quebec nationalist, he had sympathies with that faction and sought to bring them closer into the Conservative tent, with the larger goal of establishing Conservative dominance in the province.

Péladeau's emphasis on "cultural issues"— namely immigration and immigrants— did indeed play well in his home province, as the Conservatives increased their seat count and beat the Liberals into second place; however, it played less well in the rest of Canada— particularly Ontario— which more than cancelled out the gains. However, the coalition was still resilient enough to keep the Conservatives the largest party, even without their majority.

But for all Péladeau and the Conservatives took this as a rousing endorsement and mandate to remain in office, it was not so. Not too long after the election, Filomena Tassi and Gilles Bisson— leaders of the Liberals and NDP, respectively— held a joint press conference announcing that they had signed a four-year confidence-and-supply agreement, and would be voting down the government's throne speech with the intent of having the Liberals form a government. The Conservatives raged and denounced the "coup", but arithmetic, parliamentary procedure and— most importantly— public opinion disagreed, and soon enough Tassi was moving in to 24 Sussex.

Filomena Tassi was a bit of a newcomer to federal politics, but had a long career behind her. First elected as an MPP in 1995, she went on to serve as a minister in the Gerard Kennedy government in multiple portfolios, including labour, health and infrastructure. After the Kennedy government's defeat in 2013, she moved to federal politics for the 2014 election and quickly became a prominent member of the opposition; after Coderre's resignation, she was encouraged to enter the race and ran away with it. Though often regarded as being on the right of the party due to her views on abortion, her economic views place her on the left.

The Liberal–NDP agreement commits the government to an ambitious agenda that includes establishing a national pharmacare program, strengthening labour laws and granting public sectors the right to strike, and "pursuing" electoral reform. Tassi is an accomplished politician, but even she will have her work cut out for her. The next four years will be interesting indeed…


Abridged list:

15. Pierre Trudeau (1968–1979)
16. Joe Clark (1979–1980)
(15). Pierre Trudeau (1980–1984)
(16). Joe Clark (1984–1991)
17. Raymond Garneau (1991–2001)
18. Ralph Klein (2001–2009)
19. Elizabeth May (2009–2019)
20. Pierre Karl Péladeau (2019–2020)
21.
Filomena Tassi (2020–present)
 
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