Legacy of the Bull Moose (A What If Scenario if Theodore Roosevelt won in 1912)

Should I start a new thread if I am bumping this timeline to modern day

  • Yes

    Votes: 4 12.5%
  • No

    Votes: 28 87.5%

  • Total voters
    32
  • Poll closed .
A New Dawn; The Tumultuous Times.
October 16, 1909

A day that would leave in its wake 4 years of chaos at home in the U.S. and many years of chaos in Mexico. The first time a United States president would visit Mexico, with an end result flaring the tensions between the two nations drastically. A monumentous occassion, but that did not last long. While passing by the El Paso Chamber of Commerce, a man in the crowd with a pistol would proceed to fatally shoot President William Howard Taft. Mexican President Porfirio Díaz would escape unharmed, however the damage done would later take a toll on the rest of his administration, leading to his resignation and exile in 1911. By the days end, Vice President Sherman would be sworn in as the 28th President of the United States. Sherman would go on to continue Taft's "Dollar Diplomacy". However tensions between the Republican parties progressive and conservative wings would continue to flare, and Sherman was unable to stow those flames. The 1910 Midterms would be a blow out for the Republicans, however progressive Republicans would make gains, in part due to Robert La Folette and Theodore Roosevelt's 'National Progressive Republican League' which would attempt to create unity among the progressive Republicans. Teddy would back the league originally in an op ed titled "Righting these wrongs; A Case for Progressive Republicanism" in which former president Roosevelt would argue against the Sherman administrations decision to not persue anti trust against U.S. Steel, and even against his own former decisions during his administration. This would not be the last time Roosevelt would challenge Sherman and Republican leadership, prominent examples including Roosevelt's opposition to the nomination of Supreme Court Justice Mahlon Pitney. Roosevelt would in the lead up to challenging Sherman for the Republican nomination release 2 more prominent op eds. The first being "Power to the people" an op ed about recall elections, referendums, and initiatives, with Roosevelt making a case in favor of these. and his most popular and a rallying cry of his supporters "Towards a New Nationalism" championing a domestic agenda for progressives, including a Social Security system, a minimum wage, a 40 hour work week, a federal income tax, direct election of senators, Women's suffrage, and his "recall, referendum, and initiative" ideals as stated in his previous op ed.

Gearing up for his 1912 run, Roosevelt would go on speaking tours across America, his new nationalism enchanted progressive activists. Progressive activists clamored for direct primaries to decide delegates, rather than the old system of party bosses running everything. Progressives got their wish, kind of, 13 states would host a primary for the Republican nomination, with Teddy going on to win 10 of those primaries. However even with those pledged delegates there was still an uphill battle ahead of Roosevelt, he was running against an Old Guard Conservative with the backing of the party's bosses. Roosevelt would make his case to delegates, arguing that southern delegates had too much power and a case for progressive republicanism. Roosevelt however would lose on the first ballot, only garnering 503 delegates to Sherman's 552. Roosevelt disillusioned with the Republican Party would leave the party on the last day of the convention, rallying progressives of all stripes to join him in the creation of a Progressive Party. The Republican Party would nominate Iowa Senator Albert Cummins to be Sherman's running mate. The Progressive party would adopt a platform of Roosevelt's "New Nationalism". Roosevelt would be nominated on the first ballot, his running mate would be California Governor Hiram Johnson.

For the Democrats this was their year. Successes in 1910 and the Republican schism could hand them a victory, 16 years out of the Whitehouse did substancial damage to the Democratic Party, with a major reshaping occurring. Major candidates at the convention were Champ Clark and Woodrow Wilson, with Judson Harmon and Oscar Underwood acting as favorite son candidates. As time went on however Wilson's support dwindled, and with Tammany Hall backing his opponent, Woodrow Wilson would withdraw and free his delegates on the 24th ballot. This would elevate three time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan to announce a candidacy, seeing Clark, Underwood and Harmon as too conservative to represent Democratic voters and interests. Bryan's attempt to stop Clark were futile however, with Clark recieving the nomination on the 37th ballot, with the backing of Underwood. Clark would ask New York Representative William Sulzer to be his running mate. However even with nods to populist policies within the Democratic platform William Jennings Bryan was not satisfied, akin to Roosevelt just 10 days previous, Bryan would rally his supporters, "There was once a people's revolt within the Democratic Party, now we need one without it." A new People's Party was formed quickly, with a platform of agrarianism and anti-imperialism. The People's Party ticket would consist of William Jennings Bryan and Governor John Burke of North Dakota.

With all that said and done campaigning season would quickly begin, with Roosevelt and Bryan running vigorous campaign's, going from county to county and city to city, giving speeches of abandoning the political establishment, with the Bryan campaign stressing agricultural workers that feel abandoned by the establishment, and the Roosevelt campaign stressing a progressivism the establishment would never enact due to its own corruption. Clark and Sherman would both run traditional front porch campaigns, leaving the foot work to activists and campaign staff. For Sherman this left a way to attempt to cover his Bright's disease, and not strain himself too much. For Clark however he was mostly positive he would win, seeing Roosevelt as an asset, and Bryan as more of a threat to the Progressives and Socialists.

Campaign season however would be quickly haulted on October 14th, when Roosevelt, while campaigning in Milwaukee would be shot, the bullet would be stopped by a pair of glasses in his shirt pocket and his planned speech to give that day. Roosevelt deducing that he would be fine from these injuries would give a 90 minute speech after his attempted assassin was aprehended, it would take more than that to kill a bull moose. Roosevelt would spend the next 2 weeks recovering, with Clark, Sherman, and Bryan suspending campaigning for those 2 weeks. Campaigning would quickly once again be suspended after this however. On October 30, 1912, just a week before election day, President Sherman would die of Bright's disease. Knox would quickly be given the oath of office, being the 3rd president in 1 term. The Republican Party would quickly go into disarray, no one knew what to do or who to vote for, it would not be until January when Elihu Root would be selected to recieve Sherman's electoral votes. With the chaos of 5 candidates on voting day, one of them now dead, no one would win a majority of either the electoral college or the popular vote. With Clark having 201 electoral votes of the needed 266, Roosevelt having 177, Root having 145, and Bryan having 8 from his home state of Nebraska. The deciding factor on who would be president would have to go to the House.

(Progressives in Green, Republicans in Red, Democrats in Teal, People's in Baby Blue)

The Republican Party viewing Roosevelt as a lesser evil than Clark quickly set up a meeting with Roosevelt and Johnson. The meeting would consist of Roosevelt, Johnson, Root, Charles Mann (Republican House Leader), President Knox, and Henry Cabot Lodge, with Knox and Lodge attempting to act as neutral parties. Democrats would attack this meeting, believing that Knox should remain neutral in this process. The meetings would go successfully, but not without compromise from the Progressive side, Republicans would support Roosevelt on the condition of keeping some of the Taft-Sherman-Knox cabinet, those cabinet members would be Charles Nagel, James Wilson, Frank Hitchcock, and Henry Stimson, with the latter having his post changed from Secretary of War to Attorney General. A majority of state delegations would vote Roosevelt to be the United State's 30th President. Roosevelt would be inaguarted on March 4, 1913.





And as an editors note thankyou to @Goweegie2 been a big help with me on all of this, great person her current timeline DTR is dope.

Edits made to make it more accurate.
 
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Bull Moose Back in Business; 1913
Before inauguration day in 1913, Roosevelt will have met one of his campaign promises. On February 3, 1913, the 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution would be ratified, allowing the Federal Government to levy an income tax upon the populace. Roosevelt would be inaugurated just a month later, coming into office he knew compromises would have to be made, not just with the Republicans but the Democrats that controlled Congress. The Progressives didn't have much representation in Congress, 20 representatives, some Progressive sympathetic Democrats and Republicans but no where close enough where the Progressive Party could dominate on it's own. Roosevelt would quickly nominate his cabinet, consisting of 4 Progressives, 4 Republicans, 1 Democrat, and 1 Independent with Progressive sympathies. Most would get through Congress very easily, except for Louis Brandeis, who Democrats disliked due to his secularism and Jewish ancestry. However Brandeis would enter the Roosevelt administration after a series of compromises between Roosevelt and his Progressives and Congressional Democrats on the issue of lowering tariffs.

Roosevelt cabinet circa 1913:


Within a matter of weeks of being in office the 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution would be ratified, mandating the direct election of United States Senators. Roosevelt would attempt to use this momentum to pass his recall, referendum, and initiative programs. These efforts however bore no fruit, with these programs unable to pass Congress for all of Roosevelt's second stint in the White House.

Congressional Progressives and Democrats would bear fruit however with 2 Progressive bills passed by Congress and Roosevelt before 1914. The first being the Revenue Act of 1913, sometimes referred to as the "Underwood tariff" after one of its key sponsors Oscar Underwood. The Revenue Act of 1913 would nearly half the average tariff rate from 42% to 24%. The act would also establish the first income tax since the ratification of the 16th amendment, with a 1% tax on earners making above 3000$ yearly. The next major act would be the "Federal Reserve Act" sponsored by Virginia Representative Carter Glass. The Federal Reserve Act would create a National Banking system in the United States, after much debate on the Aldrich proposal with conservatives in Congress preferring a system similar to the one Aldrich laid out, while populists and some progressives preferred a centrally controlled National Bank. Roosevelt after being advised by Treasury Secretary Brandeis choose to take a middle ground and compromise with Democrats.
 
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An appeal to the People; 1914
Roosevelt while riding high in popularity from his first year legislative achievements, wanted more to be done, there was no time for inaction for the President. Roosevelt would push Progressive representatives to introduce legislation to push for a 40 hour working week and minimum wage. As well as pushing for a new 18th Amendment which would guarantee women the right to vote. Sadly both Democrats and Republicans would vote these bills down in droves. Roosevelt would write an op ed titled "There's no room for inaction on equality" in which Roosevelt would champion the cause of women's suffrage once again. This would do little to sway Congress.

While Roosevelt was fighting Congress, Mexico was in flames, with Diaz exiled, Madero dead, and Huerta in power, constitutional and revolutionary armies fighting the Huerta government, business interests would make attempts to lobby Roosevelt to intervene, whether to support Huerta or the Constitutionalist Army. Roosevelt definitely had sympathies towards Carranza, however he would come to hear of a certain Revolutionary general who would pique his interest. Pancho Villa, a robin hood like figure as some would describe, and Roosevelt wanted to meet him. Roosevelt's advisers would quickly discourage this, last time a U.S. President met a Mexican leader they had to buried, his advisers were weary of a similar fate. Roosevelt was not a man to shy away and so in February Villa and Roosevelt would meet in Dallas. Roosevelt would walk away from the meeting ready to send material aid to Villa's armies in the fight against the Hueristas. Congress however would not share Roosevelt's sentiment, Roosevelt instead would directly appeal to the American people, calling for the organisation of a new "Rough Riders" militia to go into Mexico and support Villa.

Roosevelt would in 1914 back new antitrust measures, with the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 which attempted to crack down on anti-competitive practices, and the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 which would be a government agency with the purpose of pursuing antitrust suits. Roosevelt would also create the new Department of Health and Wellness, Roosevelt would nominate former Senator Charles Curtis to the position.

With midterms abound Progressives and Republicans would announce an electoral coalition, where neither party would run candidates against the other, arguably this benefited the Republicans more than anything since Republicans were much more established. Progressives would gain a few House seats in the south however. 1914 would end with a small Republican/Progressive majority in the Senate and a small Democratic majority in the House.
 
(final electoral map post house) Note: not all Republicans in the House would vote for Roosevelt, just enough to get him in office, the rest protest voted for Root.

And as an editors note thankyou to @Goweegie2 been a big help with me on all of this, great person her current timeline DTR is dope
That’s not how contingent elections work...

basically the Electors vote and if there is not a majority the Top Three go to the house where one must win over half of the individual states’ house delegations. This means Bryan wouldn’t be there. This doesn’t effect the electoral votes btw. The top two VP candidates are also brought to the senate where the VP is chosen in a majority vote, irregardless of who becomes president.
 
That’s not how contingent elections work...

basically the Electors vote and if there is not a majority the Top Three go to the house where one must win over half of the individual states’ house delegations. This means Bryan wouldn’t be there. This doesn’t effect the electoral votes btw. The top two VP candidates are also brought to the senate where the VP is chosen in a majority vote, irregardless of who becomes president.

The Bryan part funnily enough got mentioned to me by a friend just haven't got to fixing it today, the rest however i knew, sort of, I knew with contingency elections the VP went to Senate while the president went to the house, and the delegations part made it complicated for me since I wanted to use graphics for it. I will in the next few days fix the Cummins vice presidency and the second map still showing bryan. Thankyou for explainimg where I went wrong
 
The Bryan part funnily enough got mentioned to me by a friend just haven't got to fixing it today, the rest however i knew, sort of, I knew with contingency elections the VP went to Senate while the president went to the house, and the delegations part made it complicated for me since I wanted to use graphics for it. I will in the next few days fix the Cummins vice presidency and the second map still showing bryan. Thankyou for explainimg where I went wrong
You’re welcome, this tl is promising so far.
 
Supreme Court in 1914
With the death of Supreme Court Justice Horace Lurton, Roosevelt would have a vacancy in the Supreme Court to fill, Roosevelt would decide upon the moderately conservative Edward Terry Sanford. Sanford's palatability with Republican senators and Progressive activists made him a strong choice for Roosevelt, he would be confirmed quickly after.

The Supreme Court as of 1914 is:
Edward White (Cleveland appointment) Conservative
Joseph McKenna (McKinley appointment) Moderate
Oliver Wendell Holmes (Roosevelt appointment) Progressive
William R. Day (Roosevelt appointment) Moderate
Charles Evans Hughes (Sherman appointment) Moderate

William Van Devanter (Sherman appointment) Conservative

Joseph Rucker Lamar (Sherman appointment) Conservative
Mahlon Pitney (Sherman appointment) Conservative
Edward Terry Sanford (Roosevelt appointment) Moderate
 
A World In Flames; 1915
By the start of 1915 Europe was in tatters, the major powers of the globe were at war. A war to end all wars, at least that is what was believed, trenches had been dug from the North Sea to France, a long bloody conflict would ensue. The United States as a nation had never fought a war on European soil, and why start now? In the eyes of the American population this was Europe's conflict, but the Bull Moose would see differently. To Teddy war was inevitable, a way for nations to solve their problems. For the time being Teddy however wanted reconciliation for the powers of Europe, this however would change, on May 7th 1915, a British civilian vessel carrying arms would be sunk by German U-Boats, the RMS Lusitania. The sinking would kill 128 American civilians that were passengers. To Roosevelt this was an act of war, Roosevelt would ask Congress to convene a special session on May 15th, where he would talk for 2 hours about the need to curb German aggression. Roosevelt however would not receive the Declaration of War he was seeking. Roosevelt would then shift his focus toward "Preparedness" and building a larger Army and Navy as a way to defer German aggression. Roosevelt was going to get the United States into this war one way or another, just that day was not today.

With both the People's Party and Socialist Party opposed to the war talks began of creating a united front between the two. In late 1915 the Farmer-Labor Party would be created, with plans to field candidates for local, state and federal elections in 1916.

New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson would also be one of the key leaders in the Democratic opposition to entrance into war against Germany. Wilson would quickly become the front runner for the Democratic Presidential Nomination for 1916, his moderate reformist stances made him highly popular with conservative Democrats with progressive Democrats viewing him as a palatable candidate.

While this was going on Huerta in Mexico would be deposed, and a meeting of the victors was planned, a way to reconcile the Revolutionary and Constitutional forces, before this meeting could happen however, Venustiano Carranza, leader of the Constitutionalist Army, would be assassinated by a Huerista. Álvaro Obregón would then seize control of the Constitutionalist Army, with Obregón having sympathies towards the Revolutionaries both sides would easily be able to compromise and reconcile, this process would lead to a Constitutional Convention in Mexico.

The year would end with a Progressive proposal in Congress for a National Health Service, ramping up further pushes among Progressive's for social insurance. This proposal would gain little traction, with Secretary of Labor Samuel Gompers denouncing it, believing it would highly weaken unions. With Secretary of Health and Wellness Charles Curtis also disagreeing with the proposal, seeing it as highly inefficient and not up to the government to administer health care.
 
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Supreme Court 1916
1916 would begin quickly, with a vacancy in the Supreme Court with the death of Justice Joseph Rucker Lamar. Roosevelt would end up nominating his own Secretary of the Treasury, Louis Brandeis, Brandeis was a pick Roosevelt had to fight tooth and nail to nominate, with Senators taking issue with his progressivism and his Jewish ancestry. After 3 weeks of debating among Senators, Brandeis would receive just enough votes to be seated on the Supreme Court. George Cortelyou would replace Brandeis as Secretary of the Treasury.

The Supreme Court as of 1916 is:
Edward White (Cleveland appointment) Conservative
Joseph McKenna (McKinley appointment) Moderate
Oliver Wendell Holmes (Roosevelt appointment) Progressive
William R. Day (Roosevelt appointment) Moderate
Charles Evans Hughes (Sherman appointment) Moderate

William Van Devanter (Sherman appointment) Conservative
Mahlon Pitney (Sherman appointment) Conservative

Edward Terry Sanford (Roosevelt appointment) Moderate
Louis Brandeis (Roosevelt appointment) Progressive
 
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1916 and the 1916 U.S. Presidential Election
1916 would start with a bang, with the death of Supreme Court Justice Horace Lurton, leading to an uphill battle to get Louis Brandeis on the Supreme Court, and George Cortelyou entering Roosevelt's cabinet as Secretary of the Treasury, replacing the outgoing Brandeis,

Roosevelt Cabinet as of 1916:
President - Theodore Roosevelt (1913 -)

Vice President - Hiram Johnson (1913 -)
Secretary of State - James Rudolph Garfield (1913 -)
Secretary of Treasury - George Cortelyou (1916 -)
Secretary of War - Leonard Wood (1913 -)
Attorney General - Henry Stimson (1913 -)
Postmaster General - Frank Hitchcock (1913 -)

Secretary of the Navy - Albert J. Beveridge (1913 -)
Secretary of the Interior - Gifford Pinchot (1913 -)

Secretary of Agriculture - James Wilson (1913 -)
Secretary of Commerce - Charles Nagel (1913 -)

Secretary of Labor - Samuel Gompers (1913 -)
Secretary of Health and Wellness - Charles Curtis (1914 -)


(Colors represent which party they are a member of, with the Purple representing Farmer-Labor)

This however would not be the end of the action, with at the start of February Roosevelt would call a White House Press Conference, dubbing it his "Address to the Union" this would address his intention to run for another term, stating that his job is not done, with a German menace that had attacked American civilians less than a year previous, the cause of women's suffrage not having been fully realized, and Congress' inability to pass social insurance and strengthen labor regulations, Roosevelt was needed in the White House. Roosevelt would also to continue to stress the need of a Progressive-Republican partnership heading into the 1916 elections. Roosevelt would proceed to attack the Democratic Party as "Do Nothing's" and Farmer-Labor as "Socialists and idealists" with the Progressive-Republican partnership being the way to protect workers and provide for a truly progressive future.

Democratic front runner and New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson would stage his own press conference in opposition to Roosevelt's "Address to the Union" Wilson would attack Roosevelt as as "tyrant" stressing the need for a term limit on the presidency, stating "We left the king, why would we want a new one" and that Roosevelt's breaking of the 2 term precedent was anti-American. Wilson would stress that the Democratic Party was the party of peace, while the Progressives and Republicans were trying to agitate the German's into war. The conference would end with Wilson making a case for a more limited and restrained government in contrast to Roosevelt and the Progressive's support of social insurance.

With the stage having been set National Conventions would begin shortly, with a joint Progressive-Republican National Convention happening from June 9th-12th in Chicago, with the keynote address being given by Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge. Hardliner Republicans were highly skeptical of Roosevelt, however they would be unable to decide upon a candidate to back and Roosevelt would face no strong opposition and win the nomination on the first ballot, with Massachusetts Senator John W. Weeks and Iowa Senator Albert B. Cummins having minimal support and quickly conceding. Roosevelt would throw his support in the Vice Presidential nomination to his current VP, Hiram Johnson, however Johnson would face some opposition, with Republicans stressing a more balanced ticket in need of a Conservative Midwesterner, with Republicans coalescing around Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding. After 5 ballots Johnson would begin to take a lead against Harding after stressing the importance of the swing state of California. Johnson would win on the 7th ballot and receive the Progressive and Republican Vice Presidential nomination. The joint Progressive and Republican Platform would stress the need for preparedness against German aggressors and champion the cause of women's suffrage.



If only the Democratic convention could have gone as smoothly, held from June 17th-22nd in St. Louis, Missouri, the keynote speaker would be Illinois Senator J. Hamilton Lewis. The convention would begin on a rocky start with Presidential front runner Woodrow Wilson having a stroke, leading him to withdraw from balloting, this would quickly draw favorite son and dark horse candidates out of the wood work. 10 ballots in and no candidate had above 200 delegates. With Mississippi Senator John Sharp Williams and Indiana Governor Thomas Marshall leading the pack among the candidates, with Alabama Senator Oscar Underwood in a strong 3rd spot. The next 7 ballots would consist of candidates and delegates consolidating, with ballot 18 only consisting of Williams, Marshall and Underwood. Underwood would take on the role of king maker, putting his support behind Williams on the 21st ballot. Williams would receive the nomination on the 22nd ballot after Underwood delegates and a few Marshall delegates coalesced around Williams. The Democratic VP nomination would go to Virginia Representative Carter Glass after 1 ballot. The Democratic Platform would emphasize tariff reduction, limited government, and European neutrality.



An uneventful convention for the Farmer-Labor Party would come after, from June 25th-29th in Omaha, Nebraska. With party chairman William Jennings Bryan serving as the keynote speaker. The Farmer-Labor Presidential nomination would go to prominent socialist Eugene Debs on the 3rd ballot after Debs convinced New York Representative Henry George Jr. to support him for a spot on the ballot. George would quickly be nominated for the VP position on the first ballot. The Farmer-Labor platform would support further unionization for the workforce, nationalization of utilities, agricultural supports, a land value tax, and anti-imperialism.



Campaign season would be relatively slow, with Roosevelt and Debs vigorously campaigning while Williams would run a quiet campaign, rarely being seen publicly at this time. Roosevelt however would be drawn away from the campaign trail in August when a major rail strike was planned, Roosevelt would draw both sides to the White House to mediate with him and Secretary of Labor Samuel Gompers. The negotiations would go nowhere, leading to Secretary Gompers privately encouraging Roosevelt to rally Progressives around a 8 hour work week for rail workers. Utah Representative Parley P. Christensen would soon introduce the "Christensen Act" which would do exactly this, the bill would scrape through Congress and on to Roosevelt's desk. Roosevelt's passage of the Christensen Act would end the strike, and endear him to union workers and socialist voters, peeling away at support for the Farmer-Labor Party.



Election day would quickly come, with lower turn out than 1912 and low turn out of Democratic voters, Roosevelt would win a majority in the Electoral College and a plurality of the popular vote. Indiana, California, Ohio, Oklahoma, and South Dakota would be the closest states, with F-L getting over 20% of the vote in Indiana, California, Washington, Oklahoma, Nebraska, and North and South Dakota. Farmer-Labor would gain 1 senator and 20 seats in the House, A slight Progressive-Republican majority would rule in both chambers of Congress. Roosevelt would begin his next term on March 4, 1917.



(Roosevelt in Red, Williams in Teal, Debs in Purple)
 
What is La Folette doing ITTL, I may ask?
Rob La Folette is still a Progressive member of the Republican party in the senate, his role in Roosevelt’s first term didn’t extend much beyond supporting much of the progressive legislation of the time. However things will change
 
America at war; 1917
1917 would begin quickly, with Germany declaring its intention to resume unrestricted submarine warfare, as well as the American public's discovery of the Zimmerman Telegram on March 1st. With Roosevelt being inaugurated on the 4th, Roosevelt would quickly call for a special session of the new 65th Congress on the 11th. President Roosevelt would address Congress on the 11th, calling for war with the German aggressors and that "Time after time the German menace has attacked American civilians, and we have continuously turned a blind eye, this aggression will not stop until America puts it's foot down!" Farmer-Labor Representatives would outcry about Roosevelt's imperialism and the further loss of life if America were to declare war against the German Empire, however the Progressive and Republican controlled House would vote in favor of the Declaration of War, with the decision up to the Senate, with opposition from Progressive Republican Senators Robert La Follette, George Norris, and Asle Gronna, said opposition would lead to Vice President Johnson to change the Senate rules around the filibuster with a new cloture rule to end voting on a measure once it achieved a simple majority. The Declaration of war would handily pass the Senate with the new rules for cloture and Democratic support. The United States would declare war on Germany on March 17th, 1917.

Roosevelt would quickly choose Secretary of War Leonard Wood to lead the American Expeditionary Force in Europe, this would lead to a shake up within the Roosevelt Cabinet where Attorney General Henry Stimson would return to being Secretary of War, former Attorney General Charles Bonaparte would also make a return to his role to replace the vacancy made by Henry Stimson's position shuffle.

Roosevelt Cabinet as of 1917:
President - Theodore Roosevelt (1913 -)

Vice President - Hiram Johnson (1913 -)
Secretary of State - James Rudolph Garfield (1913 -)
Secretary of Treasury - George Cortelyou (1916 -)
Secretary of War -
Henry Stimson (1917 -)
Attorney General - Charles Bonaparte (1917-)
Postmaster General - Frank Hitchcock (1913 -)
Secretary of the Navy - Albert J. Beveridge (1913 -)
Secretary of the Interior - Gifford Pinchot (1913 -)

Secretary of Agriculture - James Wilson (1913 -)
Secretary of Commerce - Charles Nagel (1913 -)

Secretary of Labor - Samuel Gompers (1913 -)
Secretary of Health and Wellness - Charles Curtis (1914 -)


Roosevelt would quickly begin an initiative to get America mobilized for it's war against Germany, with the passage of the Food and Fuel Control Act in August, which would create Federal Agencies for Food and Fuel, both these administrations would expire at the end of the war, with the United States Food Administration being led by the humanitarian businessman Herbert Hoover, both these administration's would attempt to ration both food and fuel in helping the American war effort. The Roosevelt Administration would also pump out a propaganda campaign in favor of the war effort, encouraging civilians to purchase war bonds, enlist, and support the efforts of the Food and Fuel Administrations. Roosevelt would also begin work with Secretary of Labor Samuel Gompers to build a "National Labor Board" which would include unions like the AFL in an attempt to avoid striking, said board would raise working conditions for all workers, especially women workers who America would see much more of during the war effort. The Roosevelt administration would also pass the Immigration Act of 1917 and the War Revenue Act of 1917, with the Immigration Act barring illiterate immigrants and immigrants deemed "undesirable". The War Revenue Act would see a spike in taxes, lowering the starting tax bracket from $20,000 yearly to $2,000 yearly. The United States would also begin conscription for the war effort against Germany. Progressives would begin advocating for the nationalization of rail to increase supplying efficiency for the war effort.



While America was in turmoil deciding whether to declare war against Germany, Russia was having its own internal struggle. The February Revolution, which would see the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and a Russian Republic declared. Within 8 months of the Republic's establishment it would fall apart and begin the Russian Civil War. Roosevelt would lead the Americans into supporting the White forces against the Bolsheviks in Russia. Finland would declare its independence from a Russia in turmoil. The year would end with a United States declaration of war against Austria-Hungary.
 
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A War's End; 1918-1919
1918 would see the outbreak of a dangerous strand of H1N1, referred to as the "Kansas Flu" with the disease being first observed in the state of Kansas. The Kansas flu would ravage soldiers in the crowded trenches during the Great War, killing an estimated 23 million by modern estimations.

Russia in the midst of its civil war would see independence movements prop up among states like Estonia, Ukraine, and Poland. In light of all of this the Red Forces would sign a peace with the Central Powers, the "Brest-Litovsk Treaty" would carve out German puppet states in Eastern Europe and the Baltic. Freeing the German Empire of a war on both fronts the German's would begin pushes on the Western Front in an attempt to quickly achieve peace with France. American troops however would quickly arrive in droves, replenishing French and British divisions and raising morale. German failures in organization would manifest in the inability to consolidate their gains on the Western Front, mass demonstrations against the German government and war effort. It would end with the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II and the declaration of armistice from Germany, with Austria-Hungary following suit quickly after. The Great War would reach its end on November 11, 1918.

Shortly after Roosevelt would leave for Europe, Democratic opponents would argue against Roosevelt meeting with the Entente Powers to achieve peace, seeing America as independent of the Entente, Roosevelt however would go to the Entente Peace Conference to ensure American interests. Roosevelt would argue for a soft peace against the Germans, arguing in favor of stripping their empire while maintaining most of Germany's claims in Europe, turning Germany into a Republic and striking Germany with reparations to provide pensions for all the civilian casualties on liners like the Lusitania. The American's and French clashed heavily during the peace conferences, with the French preferring a full dismantling of Germany and French hegemony over the Rhineland. A more moderate peace with the Germans would end up being agreed upon by the French, with the Entente powers agreeing to some of Roosevelt's provisions, the German armed forces would however be dismantled and have caps placed upon their ability to raise an army, steep reparations, and the independence of all nations carved out of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty. Roosevelt would also argue in favor of a "World Powers Council" which would consist of the UK, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Japan and the United States, meant to settle disputes among minor nations and guide them. With Roosevelt believing the World Powers Council should lead his idea for a "League of Nations". Roosevelt would believe these reforms would help in the case of international arbitration, and avoiding another conflict on this scale. The French would shoot down his idea for the World Powers Council to lead the League of Nations, instead just backing the creation of the League of Nations, believing the War Powers Council would provide support to keeping Germany as an adversary the French viewed it as an awful proposal. The League of Nations Proposal would be a part of the Treaty of Versailles, however in America Congress would have to vote to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, with Democratic majorities in both houses of Congress there would be struggles around their opposition to the League of Nations, with Democrats preferring international neutrality to the international cooperation proposed by Roosevelt. The Treaty of Versailles would narrowly pass the House with support of Farmer-Labor Representatives who opposed Roosevelt's "World Power's Council" but also believed a League without it was much more preferable to the status quo. Ratification would then proceed to go to the Senate, where Democrats would rally in their opposition behind Alabama Senator Oscar Underwood, Underwood would state the need for national independence to secure American's best interests. Ratification would fail in the senate by 2 votes. Roosevelt would decide against continuing to push voting on the Treaty, instead pushing that off for the next Congress, hoping for a more Progressive aligned Congress.

Post War Europe Map coming at a later date.
 
America post war; 1919-1920
Roosevelt's return from Europe would begin with a cabinet shake-up, with the resignations of Frank Hitchcock as Postmaster General, who would be replaced with Republican publisher Frank Knox. James Wilson would also resign as Secretary of Agriculture to be replaced by Republican Activist Henry C. Wallace, and former AFL leader and Secretary of Labor Samuel Gompers would resign to return as a Labor activist, being replaced by Progressive Representative Parley P. Christensen.

Roosevelt Cabinet as of 1920:
President - Theodore Roosevelt (1913 -)

Vice President - Hiram Johnson (1913 -)
Secretary of State - James Rudolph Garfield (1913 -)
Secretary of Treasury - George Cortelyou (1916 -)
Secretary of War -
Henry Stimson (1917 -)
Attorney General - Charles Bonaparte (1917-)
Postmaster General - Frank Knox (1920 -)
Secretary of the Navy - Albert J. Beveridge (1913 -)
Secretary of the Interior - Gifford Pinchot (1913 -)

Secretary of Agriculture - Henry C. Wallace (1920 -)
Secretary of Commerce - Charles Nagel (1913 -)

Secretary of Labor - Parley P. Christensen (1920 -)
Secretary of Health and Wellness - Charles Curtis (1914 -)


President Roosevelt would return to the domestic politics of the United States with a vigor, viewing short time left on his tenure and much to still be done Roosevelt would address the nation advocating for state legislatures to help ratify the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, which would allow women to vote, stressing how women suffered from the war just as men had and so women should have the same privileges as men. Roosevelt would also advocate against federal prohibition, advocating for states to set their own liquor laws, this would be an unpopular opinion for his Progressive and Republican allies in Congress and his administration. Roosevelt would end his address stressing the need for New Nationalist reforms for a post war America, stressing the need for a pension for the soldiers who had served in the Great War, an old age pension for those aged 64 and above to live off of, and a reform to U.S. labor laws which would institute a 40 hour work week, a ban on child labor or those below the age of 15, limiting the hours those below 18 could work to 20 hours, and a 10 cent minimum wage for all Americans.

Roosevelt viewed his New Nationalist initiatives as passable to the Democrat-leaning Congress, who had some sympathies towards these reforms. The Servicemen's Pensions Act. would quickly pass both Houses of Congress with broad support from all major parties. The other major reforms Roosevelt had advocated would face much stiffer opposition. With the battle to amend the Constitution to allow women's suffrage now relying on 1 state, Tennessee, to ratify the amendment in it's own legislature. The Old Age Pension Act would face stiff opposition from Congressional Republicans and even Democrats as most within either party would not believe it was the role of the Federal Government to provide welfare measures to its citizens, the Old Age Pension Act would narrowly pass the House to die in the Senate. Roosevelt would rally Progressives in their support for an old age pension, citing those too old to be working continuing to work to avoid abject poverty. Progressives would have better luck with the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1920, which would ban child labor, institute a 40 hour work week, and institute a 10 cent minimum wage. Opposition to the Fair Labor Standards Act would however still be a problem, with the constitutionality of a minimum wage being fiercely debated, the Fair Labor Standards Act would however pass the House, going to the Senate to vote. Senate Republicans Robert La Follette and George W. Norris would lobby the Republican Party to vote in favor of the bill, and that if a minimum wage were to be unconstitutional then that would be up to the court to decide. The Fair Labor Standards Act of 1920 would narrowly pass the senate, to be signed by President Roosevelt in April 1920, going into affect January 1921.
 
1920 Progressive-Republican Convention
Heading into the 1920 Elections President Roosevelt was highly optimistic, some of Roosevelt's initiatives saw failures and setbacks with opposition in Congress, but to Roosevelt he won a war, protected American lives and interests, and had moderate success in the passage of his New Nationalist reforms, however to President Roosevelt he saw it as time to retire, while much was left to be done he knew he was going to be succeeded at some point, and with his health deteriorating after his escapades in Europe, Roosevelt decided this would be an easy time for him to retire. Roosevelt would declare his intention to not run again for President in February 1920, Roosevelt would address the nation declaring his interest to retire at the end of his term, and his support for Vice President Hiram Johnson to succeed him as the next U.S. President. This would quickly set the stage for the Progressive-Republican Convention to come, with Republican Delegates set on a compromise ticket, one led by a more Moderate Progressive or Republican. Republicans first set their eyes on Supreme Court Justice and moderate Republican Charles Evans Hughes, Hughes would decline however wanting to remain on the Court, Republicans then sought after Roosevelt ally and AEF Commander Leonard Wood, Wood however would also reject the proposal, citing a want to retire. Republicans would try to draft Secretary of War Henry Stimson, Stimson would also decline, citing disinterest in the position. Republicans would eventually settle on moderately progressive Republican Irvine Lenroot, a senator from Wisconsin. However while Lenroot was a compromise candidate he was not the only candidate running, with Johnson running with President Roosevelt's support. Old Guard Republicans would back Ohio Senator Warren Harding and Illinois Governor Frank Orren Lowden. An eventful Republican Convention seemed abound with Lenroot seeming dissatisfying to many Progressive and Republican Activists.

The 1920 Progressive-Republican National Convention would be held from June 8 - 12 in Chicago Illinois, balloting would quickly ensue, with 2 other candidates thrown into the ring, US Food Administration head Herbert Hoover and former Massachusetts Senator John W. Weeks, neither would be a major candidate, with Hoover being a dark horse compromise candidate, and Weeks being a favorite son candidate for Massachusetts. With 938 delegates a simple majority of 469 delegates would be required to win the nomination.

First Ballot of the P-R Convention:
Johnson - 287 delegates
Lowden - 236 delegates
Harding - 183 delegates
Lenroot - 111 delegates
Hoover - 63 delegates
Weeks - 21 delegates
Abstaining - 37 delegates


Very little would change until the 6th ballot, behind the scenes Harding would be convincing delegates he would be a better compromise candidate than Lenroot, leading Harding to begin to siphon delegates from Lenroot, as well as gaining delegates from the absentees.

6th Ballot:
Johnson - 284 delegates
Harding - 274 delegates
Lowden - 221 delegates
Lenroot - 72 delegates
Hoover - 55 delegates
Weeks - 21 delegates
Abstaining - 8 delegates

10th Ballot:
Harding - 397 delegates
Johnson - 284 delegates
Lowden - 185 delegates
Lenroot - 23 delegates
Weeks - 21 delegates
Hoover - 17 delegates
Abstaining - 8 delegates


After the 10th ballot both Hoover and Lenroot would free their delegates, with the majority going to Harding.

11th Ballot:
Harding - 433 delegates
Johnson - 287 delegates
Lowden -186 delegates
Weeks - 21 delegates
Abstaining - 8 delegates


John W. Weeks would meet with Harding, offering his support for Harding and endorsing him before the start of the 12th ballot.

12th Ballot
Harding - 490 delegates
Johnson - 304 delegates
Lowden - 136 delegates

Abstaining - 3 delegates


Warren Harding would receive the Presidential nomination on the 12th ballot, Johnson and Progressives were enraged, claiming how the delegates were skewed in favor of Republicans even though the Progressives were a majority partner, mimicking the 1912 Republican convention, Johnson and the Progressive Delegates would walk out. This split between the 2 parties would not be easy, with Congressmen sensing this split would be more permanent Progressive leaning Republicans would change parties in droves, major ones including Senators Robert La Follette, George W. Norris, William Borah, Asle Gronna, Charles McNary, and Knute Nelson. This split between Progressives and Republicans would seem permanent.
 
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Continuation of the 1920 US Presidential Elections;
With the end of the Progresive-Republican Coalition the Republicans would be quick to re brand what was left of the Progressive-Republican Convention to just the "1920 Republican National Convention" Vice Presidential balloting would concede quickly with Harding's support for Weeks swaying delegates already exhausted from fighting with Progressives. The 1920 Republican Platform would be centered around reviving the Sherman tariffs, restricting immigration, and lowering of the income tax.



The Progressive National Convention of 1920 would be relatively uneventful after its rough beginnings, with the convention nominating Hiram Johnson on the first ballot, with James Rudolph Garfield nominated for Vice President on the first ballot as well. The Progressive Platform of 1920 would be centered around ratifying the Roosevelt-German peace, Prohibition of liquor, and the continuation of Roosevelt's New Nationalist reforms.



Shortly thereafter the 1920 Democratic National Convention would begin, with Oscar Underwood walking into the convention as a front runner, the rules of the 1920 Convention would add that a candidate receiving a simple majority would be awarded the nomination, with Democrats growing dissatisfied of the system of a candidate needing 2/3rds delegates to recieve the nomination. Senator Underwood would face opposition from Nebraska Senator and Progressive Democrat Gilbert Hitchcock, New York Governor Al Smith, Ohio Governor James M. Cox, former Indiana Governor Thomas Marshall, and former Democratic Vice Presidential nominee Carter Glass. Hitchcock would put up the best fight against Underwood, however he would concede to Underwood on the 3rd ballot, after Underwood recieved the backing of James Cox and Carter Glass. Underwood would proceed to back Cox in the nomination for Vice President, with Cox beating out Marshall on the 2nd ballot. The Democratic Platform for 1920 would entail negotiation of a new peace with Germany, lowering tariffs, a term limit, with nominee Underwood stating the need for a 1 term tradition for presidents, vowing to serve only 1 term, and denouncing Roosevelt's tyranny in serving so many terms.



From July 1-3rd the 1920 Farmer-Labor National Convention would be held in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Eugene Debs would be the keynote speaker, where he would bow out of running, citing bad health, balloting would begin, with the populist wing rallying around Lincoln, Nebraska Mayor Charles Bryan, brother to William Jennings Bryan. The socialists within the Farmer-Labor Party would rally around Milwaukee Mayor Daniel Hoan. Bryan would meet with Hoan after the 5th ballot to offer him his support for the Vice Presidential nomination if he supported Bryan for the Presidential nomination. Hoan would endorse Bryan on the 6th ballot, and would quickly receive the Vice Presidential nomination. The Farmer-Labor Platform of 1920 would support strong agricultural supports, the nationalization of rail, prohibition of liquor, and international peace.



Campaign season would then begin, Harding would run a front porch campaign, leaving most of his campaigning to activists. Underwood and Cox would take a different approach, Underwood campaigned but no where close to as fervently as VP nominee Cox, Cox would give speeches all across the West, with a focus on trying to win Nebraska and all the Farmer-Labor leaning states back this year, The Democratic Campaign would not be the only one to have the Vice Presidential nominee do the bulk of the campaigning however, with Daniel Hoan making tours around the Industrial Midwest, going to union meetings and strikes and protests to gain support for Farmer-Labor, Bryan would mostly do groundwork in the West trying to build support of Western populists. Hiram Johnson would run a relatively lackluster campaign, Johnson and Garfield would campaign, however most of their efforts were focused on their current offices, Johnson would state that his current position as Vice President would remain his priority through election season, to the dismay of Progressive activists.

The 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution would be ratified on August 18th, 1920, guaranteeing women's suffrage, allowing women to vote in the upcoming election. President Roosevelt would proclaim this day to be "National Women's Day" it would later become a national holiday.

The ratification of the 18th Amendment was believed at the time to give a boost to Progressives, historians debate however if woman voters at the time would have held Progressive sympathies, considering the Progressives had recently sent these women's husbands and sons into war.

Voting day would quickly come and it was a blow out, with Oscar Underwood winning by over 10% of the popular vote and a landslide in the Electoral College. Democrat's however would see losses in Congress, even if they would remain the party with the largest number of seats in both Houses of Congress. Progressives and Farmer-Labor would see surprise gains in both houses of Congress, these gains would cement Progressives as a party truly independent of the Republicans and in due time potentially the opposition party to the Democrats.





 
Supreme Court at the start of 1921 and Full Roosevelt Cabinet
All Roosevelt Cabinet Members 1913-1921:
President - Theodore Roosevelt (1913 - 1921)

Vice President - Hiram Johnson (1913 - 1921)
Secretary of State - James Rudolph Garfield (1913 - 1921)
Secretary of Treasury - Louis Brandeis (1913 - 1916)
Secretary of Treasury - George Cortelyou (1916 - 1921)
Secretary of War - Leonard Wood (1913 - 1917)
Secretary of War - Henry Stimson (1917 - 1921)

Attorney General - Henry Stimson (1913 - 1917)
Attorney General - Charles Bonaparte (1917- 1921)
Postmaster General - Frank Hitchcock (1913 - 1920)
Postmaster General - Frank Knox (1920 - 1921)

Secretary of the Navy - Albert J. Beveridge (1913 - 1921)
Secretary of the Interior - Gifford Pinchot (1913 - 1921)

Secretary of Agriculture - James Wilson (1913 - 1920)

Secretary of Agriculture - Henry C. Wallace (1920 - 1921)
Secretary of Commerce - Charles Nagel (1913 - 1921)
Secretary of Labor - Samuel Gompers (1913 - 1920)
Secretary of Labor - Parley P. Christensen (1920 - 1921)
Secretary of Health and Wellness - Charles Curtis (1914 - 1921)

The Supreme Court as of Roosevelt leaving office:
Edward White (Cleveland appointment) Conservative
Joseph McKenna (McKinley appointment) Moderate
Oliver Wendell Holmes (Roosevelt appointment) Progressive
William R. Day (Roosevelt appointment) Moderate
Charles Evans Hughes (Sherman appointment) Moderate

William Van Devanter (Sherman appointment) Conservative
Mahlon Pitney (Sherman appointment) Conservative

Edward Terry Sanford (Roosevelt appointment) Moderate
Louis Brandeis (Roosevelt appointment) Progressive
 
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Underwood Administration Part 1;



Underwood Cabinet as of entering office:
President - Oscar Underwood (1921 -)

Vice President - James Cox (1921 -)
Secretary of State - John W. Davis (1921 -)

Secretary of Treasury - William Gibbs McAdoo (1921 -)
Secretary of War - Lawrence Tyson (1921 -)
Attorney General - A. Mitchell Palmer (1921-)
Postmaster General - Edward Keating (1921 -)
Secretary of the Navy - Claude Swanson (1921 -)
Secretary of the Interior - Thomas Marshall (1921-)
Secretary of Agriculture - Edwin T. Meredith (1921 -)
Secretary of Commerce - Carter Glass (1921 -)
Secretary of Labor - William Wilson (1921 -)
Secretary of Health and Wellness - Homer Cummings (1921 -)


The administration of Oscar Underwood would be a departure from the administration of President Roosevelt, while Roosevelt was a president who wanted to be deeply involved in the endeavors of the nation, Underwood would be much more interested in delegating with his administration, giving his cabinet autonomy on their governance, specifically towards Secretary of State Davis, who Underwood would trust to negotiate peace with Germany and Austria. With Democrats staunchly opposed to the League of Nations, and with more Republicans turning against the League day by day, Roosevelt's peace deal was long dead, outside of the provisions including the League of Nations most of the Roosevelt peace with the Central Powers would remain intact. During Davis' tenure as Secretary of State the United States would actively attempt to circumvent dealing with the League of Nations, with the State Department tending to prefer direct dealings with individual nations rather than diplomacy within the League. The Davis Peace Treaties would all be ratified in early September of 1921. The State Department under Davis would also seek renegotiation on the payment of American war debts from the Great War. The Underwood administration would also withdraw American volunteers from Russia that were fighting the Bolsheviks, with a Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War being eminent.

With the Democrats being the strongest party in both Houses of Congress, the Democrats, (with Progressive and Farmer-Labor help) would pass the Revenue Act of 1921, lowering the war time income tax rates of the Roosevelt administration down to 4% on income above 3000$ a year, and the general tariff rate down from the 24% during the Roosevelt administration, to 17%.

Debate around the prohibition of alcohol would reach its peak during the first couple years of Underwood's presidency, Underwood would heavily oppose the concept of prohibition, believing it was not the role of the Federal Government to be involved in prohibiting liquor sales. The prospect of a Constitutional Amendment allowing Federal Prohibition of alcohol would not go far in Congress, while Progressive and Farmer-Labor Congressmen would support prohibition, a narrow majority of wet Democrats and Republicans would stifle the amendment, prohibition would slowly fall in popularity as time would go on, never being able to pass Congress.

During James Cox tenure as Vice President of the United States of America, Cox would regularly go to public speaking engagements, Cox would regularly act as the mouth piece of the Underwood administration. Cox would be a relatively beloved Vice President, his popularity at times would surpass that of President Underwood. So it would become a shock to America on February 8th, 1922 when Vice President Cox would be assassinated during one of his many speaking engagements in Searcy, Arkansas. Szymon Wiśniewski, a Polish communist would be his assassin. Wiśniewski would almost be lynched before he was detained by police. Wiśniewski's connections to the Bolsheviks in Russia would begin a "red scare" in America.

Congress would convene quickly after, passing the Sedition and Espionage Acts of 1922, with strong Democratic support for both bills, with mixed Republican support for both bills, some moderate Progressives would support both acts, however all Farmer-Labor Congressmen would vote no to both acts, seeing these acts as a way to crack down on their activities and the activities of labor groups.



Attorney General Palmer would use these acts to justify raids on the homes of political radicals, as well as imprisonment for critics of the Underwood administration, these would also be used to crack down on striking workers, leading to the resignation of Postmaster General Edward Keating and Secretary of Labor William Wilson, they would view Palmer's actions as irredeemable and Underwood allowing it as cowardice. Members of the IWW would slowly be imprisoned due to the Palmer raids, culminating in the high profile arrest of Socialist Eugene Debs. Farmer-Labor and Progressive politicians would begin working with labor and civil liberties organizations to get as many cases brought against left wing radicals to the Supreme Court as they could.

Speaking of the Supreme Court, during Underwood's first 2 years as president he would nominate 3 new Supreme Court justices, with the death of Chief Justice Edward Douglass White in 1921, Underwood would nominate District Court Judge and former Congressional Representative Henry De Lamar Clayton Jr., who was known for introducing the "Clayton Antitrust Act" into Congress. Clayton would make it onto the court with relative ease, with strong support from Democrats and a few swayed votes from Republicans. In 1922 Mahlon Pitney and William R. Day would resign from the court, Pitney would be replaced by Progressive District Court Judge Learned Hand, Underwood would pick Hand due to his attitudes on judicial restraint, Hand would sail smoothly through Congress with Progressive support. Associate Justice William R. Day would be replaced by former Assistant Attorney General James Clark McReynolds, who like Clayton would pass Congress with strong Democratic support.

Supreme Court 1922:
Henry De Lamar Clayton Jr (Underwood appointment) Conservative (Chief Justice)
Joseph McKenna (McKinley appointment) Moderate
Oliver Wendell Holmes (Roosevelt appointment) Progressive
Charles Evans Hughes (Sherman appointment) Moderate
William Van Devanter (Sherman appointment) Conservative
Edward Terry Sanford (Roosevelt appointment) Moderate

Louis Brandeis (Roosevelt appointment) Progressive
Learned Hand (Underwood appointment) Progressive

James Clark McReynolds (Underwood appointment) Conservative

Underwood Cabinet as of 1922:
President - Oscar Underwood (1921 -)

Vice President - Vacant (1922 - 1925)
Secretary of State - John W. Davis (1921 -)
Secretary of Treasury - William Gibbs McAdoo (1921 -)
Secretary of War - Lawrence Tyson (1921 -)
Attorney General - A. Mitchell Palmer (1921-)
Postmaster General -Gordon Woodbury (1922 -)
Secretary of the Navy - Claude Swanson (1921 -)
Secretary of the Interior - Thomas Marshall (1921-)
Secretary of Agriculture - Edwin T. Meredith (1921 -)
Secretary of Commerce - Carter Glass (1921 -)
Secretary of Labor - Joshua W. Alexander (1922 -)
Secretary of Health and Wellness - Homer Cummings (1921 -)
 
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