Kolchak's Warlord Atlas

Kolchak's Warlord Atlas: Introduction
The maps shown here, as well as the Q&A, are outdated. The new series can be accessed through the threadmarks.

The Warlord Atlas is a history of the Republic of China, running from 1910 to 1958 (although the latest maps I've produced yet are 1939). It is meant to be used a reference for basemaps, a source of inspiration for people creating alternate history, and a general learning tool.

This project is currently a work-in-progress that will be updated whenever I have the time to make a new map. If you notice something that doesn't seem right, or don't understand something then please point it out and this atlas will be better for it.

If you want to use my base maps yourself, then they can be found in later posts. Feel free to use them for any purpose.

Colour Scheme:
Basic Colour: Polity Proper/Crown Colony
Lighter #1 - Viceroyalty/Personal Union
Lighter #2 - Military Administration/Subject Warlord
Lighter #3 - Puppet/Satellite
Darker #1 - Territory/Colony
Darker #2 - Protectorate/Autonomous Government

Q: Why are all of the names wrong?
A: This atlas is in Wade-Giles (because that is the transliteration that was used in the early 20th century) and it will stay that way.

Q: Why didn't you add the Indian princely states [or any other such feature]
A: This is an atlas of China, and although it mentions some events outside China, and you can see countries that are not China (see list 2a "Countries that are not China") on the periphery, they are not the main focus. Also I can't find any re-projection software.

Q: What sources do you use to make this?
A: Wikipedia, some other sites, and the relevant books I have at my disposal.

Q: What program do you use to make your maps?

And without further delay, here is the atlas:

Wuchang Uprising


  • A - China occupies Tibet (Feb 12 1910)
  • B - Japan annexes Korea (Aug 29 1910)
  • C - Wuchang Uprising; A Tangmenghui insurrection triggers the Chinese Revolution (Oct 10 1911)

Defense of Yangsia


  • A - Revolutionaries in Shensi and Hunan revolt (Oct 22 1911)
  • B - First stage of the Battle of Yangsia (Oct 26-Nov 1 1911)
  • C - Provinces begin to secede from the Qing (Oct 29-31 1911)
  • D - In a futile attempt to preserve itself, the Qing state becomes a constitutional monarchy with Yuan Shikai as its premier (Nov 2 1911)

Battle of Nanking


  • A - Southern China joins the revolution (Nov 4-11 1911)
  • B - Revolutionary forces advance on Nanking (Nov 8-11 1911)
  • C - Qing forces attack Hanyang (Nov 21 1911)

Mongolian Revolution


  • A - Qing capture Hanyang (Nov 22-27 1911)
  • B - Khalkha Mongol insurrection (Nov 28 1911)
  • C - Qing governor of Mongolia flees (Nov 30 1911)
  • D - Revolutionaries capture Nanking (Dec 2 1911)
  • E - Great Mongolian State established (Dec 29 1911)

Republic of China


  • A - Republic of China established (Jan 1 1912)
  • B - Qing emperor abdicates (Feb 12 1912)
  • C - Tannu Uriankhai separates from Mongolia (Feb 15 1912)
  • D - North-South Compromise: Yuan Shikai inaugurated as President of the Republic of China (Mar 10 1912)

Second Chinese Revolution


  • A - Tibet declares independence (Apr 4 1912)
  • B - Mongolia occupies Chakhar and Suiyuan (Feb 2 1913)
  • C - Yuan Shikai accused of abusing his power (May 20 1913)
  • D - Second Chinese Revolution: Five southern provinces rebel against Yuan Shikai (Jul 10 1913)

Kiangsi Campaign


  • A - Kuomintang defeated at Nanchang (Aug 1 1913)

Outbreak of the Great War

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 11.03.04 AM.png

• A - Nanking falls; Kuomintang defeated (Sept 1 1913)
• B - Tannu Uriankhai accepts Russian protection (17 Apr 1914)
• C - The First World War begins (Jul 28 1914)
• D - Japan declares war on Germany (Aug 23 1914)
• E - Japanese capture the German colony of Tsingtao (Nov 16 1914)

Japan's Twenty-One Demands

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 10.58.47 AM.png

  • A - Japan presents its Twenty-One Demands (Jan 18 1915)
  • B - A treaty implements thirteen of the demands, and clarifies the status of Mongolia (May 25 1915)

Empire of China

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 11.01.57 AM.png

  • A - Empire of China founded by the Hongsian Emperor (formerly Yuan Shikai) (Dec 12 1915)
  • B - National Protection Army established by governor of Yunnan Tsai E to combat Hongsian’s monarchist aims. (Dec 25 1915)

National Protection War

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 11.04.34 AM.png

  • A - National Protection Army victory in Szechwan (Mar 6 1916)
  • B - Six provinces join the National Protection Army (Mar 15 1916)
  • C - Republic of China restored (Mar 26 1916)

Qing Restoration

Screen Shot 2018-08-09 at 1.24.32 PM.png

  • A - February Revolution establishes a provisional republican government in Russia (Mar 16 1917)
  • B - Yuan Shikai dies; his government begins to fracture into the Fengtian, Zhili, and Anhui cliques, of which the latter is the most powerful for the moment (June 6 1916)
  • C - National Protection Army dissolved (Jul 14 1916)
  • D - United States declares war on Germany (Apr 6 1917)
  • E - General Chang Hsun proclaims the restoration of the Qing dynasty (Jul 1 1917)

Asia in the Great War

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 11.10.31 AM.png

  • A - Qing restorationists defeated (Jul 12 1917)
  • B - Siam declares war on Germany (Jul 22 1917)
  • C - China declares war on Germany (Aug 14 1917)

Constitutional Protection Movement

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 11.12.56 AM.png

  • A - Constitutional Protection Junta established in Canton by Sun Yat-Sen, supported by Yunnan, Kwangsi, and Hunan (Sept 1 1917)
  • B - October Revolution in Russia; leads to civil war (Nov 7 1917)
  • C - Armistice between the Beiyang government and the Constitutional Protection Army after a failed attack on Hunan (Nov 23 1917)

Kuomintang Retrenchment

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 11.17.50 AM.png

  • A - Constitutional Protection Army defeated in Hunan (Apr 23 1918)
  • B - National Pacification Army established in Shensi (May 1918)
  • C - Japan seizes the Chinese Eastern Railway (Aug 15 1918)

May Fourth Movement

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 11.19.24 AM.png

  • A - Armistice ends fighting in Europe (Nov 11 1918)
  • B - Paris Peace Conference over the post-war settlement in Europe begins; Chinese representatives are not invited (Jan 18 1919)
  • C - Allied powers confirm Japanese ownership of Tsingtao (Apr 30 1919)
  • D - May Fourth Movement begins in protest of the trampling of Chinese interests (May 4 1919)
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Here are the first set of maps without names, if you want to use them:

Wuchang Uprising:


Defense of Yangsia:


Battle of Nanking:


Mongolian Revolution:


Republic of China:


Second Chinese Revolution:


Kiangsi Campaign:


Outbreak of the Great War:


Japan's Twenty One Demands:


Empire of China:


National Protection War:

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Second set:

Qing Restoration:


Asia in the Great War:


Constitutional Protection Movement


Kuomintang Retrenchment:


May Fourth Movement:


Occupation of Mongolia:


Warlords South and North


Zhili-Anhui War


Washington Naval Conference


First Zhili-Fengtian War

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Here's Part II of the atlas, since AH.com won't let me upload more than 17 files in one post:

Occupation of Mongolia

Screen Shot 2018-08-09 at 1.28.52 PM.png

  • A - Formosa placed under civil administration (Oct 28 1919)
  • B - Zhili in opposition to central government (Nov 1 1919)
  • C - General Hsü Shu-Cheng invades Mongolia, revoking its autonomy (Nov 22 1919)
Warlords South and North

Screen Shot 2018-08-07 at 4.03.21 PM.png

  • A - Central government authority in eastern China begins to disintegrate (Apr 1 1919)
  • B - Japan seizes Vladivostok as White resistance against the Bolsheviks collapses (Apr 5 1919)
  • C - Kwangsi Clique deposes the Constitutional Protection Junta, ending the first Constitutional Protection Movement (Jan 24 1919)

Zhili-Anhui War

Screen Shot 2018-08-08 at 3.20.12 PM.png

  • A - The Republic of China (Anhui Clique) attacks the Zhili Clique (Jul 14 1920)
  • B - Zhili counterattack (Jul 17 1920)
  • C - Fengtian and Zhili Cliques capture Beiyang; Anhui Clique collapses (Jul 19 1920)

Von Sternberg in Mongolia

Screen Shot 2018-08-08 at 3.45.51 PM.png

  • A - Second Constitutional Protection Movement: Kwangtung revolts in support of the Kuomintang (Aug 11 1920)
  • B - Russian troops under General von Sternberg invade Chinese-occupied Mongolia (Feb 3 1921)
  • C - Von Sternberg declares Mongolia’s independence from China and restores its ruler to the throne (Feb 22 1921)
  • D - Chinese forces in Mongolia defeated (Apr 2 1921)

Washington Naval Conference

Screen Shot 2018-08-09 at 1.45.54 PM.png

  • A - Von Sternberg is defeated; Mongolia becomes a Soviet satellite (Jul 5 1921)
  • B - K.M.T forces under Chan Kwing-Ming destroy the Old Kwangsi Clique (Aug 1921)
  • C - First Northern Expedition (Feb 3 1922)
  • D - Washington Naval Conference attempts to establish a stable status quo in the Pacific. Japan agrees to restore its possessions in Shantung to China (Feb 4 1922)

First Zhili-Fengtian War

Screen Shot 2018-08-09 at 2.02.53 PM.png

  • A - New Kwangsi Clique established (Apr 1922)
  • B - First Zhili-Fengtian War begins (Apr 29 1922)
  • C - Fengtian Clique defeated; withdraws from Zhili and Rehe (May 5 1922)
  • D - Chan Kwing-Ming expels the Kuomintang from Kwangtung (Jun 16 1922)
  • E - First Zhili-Fengtian War ends in a Zhili victory (Jun 18 1922)

Kuomintang Returns to Canton

Screen Shot 2018-08-09 at 2.11.48 PM.png

  • A - Japan withdraws from Vladivostok, ending its long involvement in the Russian Civil War (Oct 25 1922)
  • B - Japan withdraws from Manchuria (Nov 1 1922)
  • C - Union of Soviet Socialist Republics established (Dec 30 1922)
  • D - Sun Yat-Sen founds a new government at Canton (Jan 16 1923)
Second Zhili-Fengtian War

Screen Shot 2018-08-09 at 5.06.41 PM.png

  • A - Zhili Clique agrees to install an Anhui Clique governor in Shantung (Oct 5 1923)
  • B - Cao Kun, the leader of the Zhili Clique, is officially elected president of the Republic of China (Oct 10 1923)
  • C - New Kwangsi Clique aligns with the Kuomintang (Aug 1924)
  • D - Second Zhili-Fengtian War begins (Sept 15 1924)
  • E - Zhili Clique seizes Chekiang from from the Anhui Clique (Sept 22 1924)

Beiyang Coup

Screen Shot 2018-08-10 at 1.15.37 PM.png

  • A - Beiyang Coup: Kuominchun seizes Beiyang from the Zhili Clique, turning the tide of the war (Oct 22 1924)
  • B - Fengtian victory at Qinhuangdao (Oct 31 1924)
  • C - Shansi and the Anhui Clique attack the Zhili (Nov 1 1924)

Aftermath of the Second Zhili-Fengtian War

Screen Shot 2018-08-10 at 1.22.38 PM.png

  • A - Zhili Clique splits into an eastern faction led by Sun Chuanfang and a western faction led by Wu Peifu (Nov 3 1924)
  • B - A new government of the Republic of China is established. Duan Qirui, the leader of the Anhui Clique, is chosen as its leader. Sun Yat-Sen offers to join the government (Nov 24 1924)
  • C - Mongolian People’s Republic established (Nov 26 1924)
  • D - Sun Yat-Sen, famous revolutionary leader, dies in Beiyang. His attempt to seek unification with the Beiyang government is abandoned as his successors jockey for leadership of the Kuomintang (Mar 12 1925)
  • E - Yunnan-Kwangsi War: Wang Jingwei, Chiang Kai-Shek, and the Kwangsi warlord Li Zongren cooperate to withstand an attempt by the governor of Yunnan and Chan Kwing-Ming to overthrow them. (Mar 18-May 21 1925)
  • F - Anhi Clique agrees to cede Shantung (their last territorial possession) to the Fengtian Clique. The government is still nominally controlled by the Anhui Clique (Aug 29 1925)
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This is incredibly impressive, I've been looking for good resources on this era of Chinese history for years. Keep up the good work! (Maybe I could make something like this for one of my areas of expertise sometime)

also, this might seem like a dumb question, but on the first map mentions a Qing occupation of Tibet, but wasn't Tibet already under Chinese rule, or was it de facto independent for a while before 1910?
Thank you so much for these maps, it is so incredibly difficult to find maps and sources about Warlord China! I hope you continue and finish this project.
also, this might seem like a dumb question, but on the first map mentions a Qing occupation of Tibet, but wasn't Tibet already under Chinese rule, or was it de facto independent for a while before 1910?

I think it was done to forestall someone *coughUKcough* from taking it as a protectorate.
This is incredibly impressive, I've been looking for good resources on this era of Chinese history for years. Keep up the good work! (Maybe I could make something like this for one of my areas of expertise sometime)

also, this might seem like a dumb question, but on the first map mentions a Qing occupation of Tibet, but wasn't Tibet already under Chinese rule, or was it de facto independent for a while before 1910?
Thank you! I'd love to see what you could come up with.

The second one. Tibet was a bit complicated in the colonial era.
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Love this series of maps. Always nice if something complicated can be made so much clearer.
I noticed two smal errors relating to the legend/key. 21 nov 1911 is missing on the map and 6 april 1917 has the wrong letter. C is used twice.
Atlas Part III is here.

Anti-Fengtian War

Screen Shot 2018-08-10 at 3.00.51 PM.png

  • A - Kuo Sung-ling defects from the Fengtian Clique to the Kuominchun, beginning the Anti-Fengtian War. Kuominchun attempts to ally with Wu Peifu are unsuccessful and both Zhili cliques join the war in support of the Fengtian Clique. Yan Xishan, warlord of Shansi, stays neutral despite his previous alignment with the Kuominchun, which is thus left with only the tacit assistance of the Kuomintang as support (Oct 1925)
  • B - Kuominchun forces led by Kuo besiege Mukden, the capital of the Fengtian Clique (Nov 22 1925)
  • C - Kuo Sung-ling is defeated at Mukden and captured by the Fengtian army, which is now being supported by Japan. He and his wife are executed the next day (Dec 24 1925)

Fengtian Government

Screen Shot 2018-08-10 at 3.02.03 PM.png

  • A - The disillusioned Fengtian governor of Manchuria resigns, turning an ongoing financial crisis due to the constant war into a total catastrophe (Feb 1926)
  • B - Tang Sheng-chih seizes power in Hunan and declares for the Kuomintang (Mar 11 1926)
  • C - Fengtian Clique captures Beiyang with support from Wu Peifu and heavy subsidizing by the Japanese, breaking the power of the Kuominchun (Apr 18 1926)
  • D - Chang Tso-lin, leader of the Fengtian Clique, declares himself President (Apr 20 1926)
Northern Expedition Begins


  • A - Chiang Kai-Shek, a Kuomintang general, assumes control of the organization (Jul 6 1926)
  • B - The Kuomintang launches the long-delayed Northern Expedition against the northern warlords, with the support of the Kuominchun and the southwestern warlords (Jul 9 1926)
  • C - Nationalist army captures Wuchang (Oct 10 1926)
  • D - Fuzhou captured by the Nationalists (Dec 18 1926)

Nanking-Wuhan Split


  • A - Nationalists take Nanking (Mar 27 1927)
  • B - Wang Jingwei establishes a rival government in Wuhan. Both governments continue the Northern Expedition (1 April 1927)
  • C - Chiang Kai-Shek purges communists in Shanghai, breaking with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Apr 14 1927)

Warlord Counteroffensives


  • A - Nanking Government retakes Hunan (Apr 1927)
  • B - Wuhan Government ends its alliance with the CCP (Jul 19 1927)
  • C - Sun Chuanfang launches a counteroffensive against the Nationalists (Jul 24 1927)
  • D - Sun’s advance is stopped (Jul 30 1927)
  • E - Communists attempt to capture Nanchang (Aug 1-5 1927)

Tsinan Incident


  • A - Wu Peifu launches a counterattack in Honan, but a subsequent Kuominchun expedition takes Kaifeng. (Oct 1927)
  • B - Communists attempt to take Changsha but are defeated and retreat into the countryside (Sept 7 1927)
  • C - Long Yun seizes power in Yunnan and declares for the K.M.T. (Jan 17 1928)
  • D - Nationalists capture Tsinan (Apr 30 1928)
  • E - Tsinan Incident: Japanese garrison in Tsinan attacks the Nationalists (May 3-11 1928)

Northeast Flag Replacement

Screen Shot 2018-08-31 at 1.32.28 PM.png

  • A - Japanese assassinate Chang Tso-lin as he retreats to Manchuria. Chang Hseuh-liang becomes the leader of the Fengtian Clique (Jun 4 1928)
  • B - K.M.T. ally Yan Xishan captures Beiyang, completing the Northern Expedition (Jun 8 1928)
  • C - Last Zhili holdouts are destroyed (Apr 1928)
  • D - Sinkiang declares for the Kuomintang (Jul 1 1928)
  • E - Chiang Kai-Shek is elected President (Oct 10 1928)
  • F - Chang Hseuh-liang replaces Northern Government flags in Mukden with the K.M.T. flag. China is now united under a single government, although more as a coalition of warlords than a state (Dec 29 1928)

Sino-Soviet Conflict

Screen Shot 2018-08-11 at 3.50.03 PM.png

  • A - Kwangsi Clique denounces Chiang Kai-Shek (Mar 1929)
  • B - Rebellion in Shantung (Apr 1-23 1929)
  • C - Fengtian Clique seizes Soviet railway concessions in Manchuria (Jul 10 1929)
  • D - Soviets invade Manchuria (Jul 22-Nov 10 1929)
  • E - Kuominchun denounces Chiang (Oct 10 1929)

Central Plains War

Screen Shot 2018-08-11 at 3.45.24 PM.png

  • A - Khabarovsk Protocol: China comes to terms with the Soviets (Dec 19 1929)
  • B - Shansi joins the anti-Chiang coalition (Feb 1930)
  • C - Central Plains War begins (May 11 1930)

Honan Campaign

Screen Shot 2018-08-11 at 3.52.13 PM.png

  • A - Chiang’s troops attack Kaifeng (May 16 1930)
  • B - Kuominchun victory in Kansu (May 1930)
  • C - Shansi and the Kuominchun attack Xuzhou and capture Tsinan (Jun 1930)
  • D - Anti-Chiang forces capture Yueyang (Aug 1930)
End of the Central Plains War

Screen Shot 2018-08-31 at 1.29.04 PM.png

  • A - Chiang’s forces recapture Tsinan (Aug 15 1930)
  • B - Fengtian Clique declares for Chiang (18 September 1930)
  • C - Fengtian Clique captures Beiping (Sept 23 1930)
  • D - United Kingdom returns Weihaiwei (Oct 1 1930)
  • E - Kuominchun and Shansi Clique capitulate to Chiang Kai-Shek, ending the Central Plains War (Nov 4 1930)
Encirclement Campaigns

Screen Shot 2018-08-31 at 4.04.33 PM.png

  • A - Chiang Kai-Shek begins his encirclement campaigns against the Communists (Nov 5 1930)
  • B - The first wave of encirclement campaigns ends in a Communist victory. Nationalist troops are forced to retreat from the areas they have captured (Jan 3 1931)
  • C - Uyghurs in Sinkiang rebel with support from Ma Clique (Feb 20 1931)
  • D - Nationalists launch a second round of encirclement campaigns (Apr 1 1931)
  • E - Kwangtung (under Chen Chi-tang) breaks with Nationalist government (May 1931)
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Additional maps for part III:

Mukden Incident

Screen Shot 2018-10-20 at 2.36.35 PM.png

  • A - Second Encirclement Campaign ends. The third starts immediately afterwards, but is abandoned after the Mukden Incident (Jul 1931)
  • B - Mukden Incident: The Japanese Kwantung Army stages a false-flag operation against a railway in Korea as a pretext for invading China (18 September 1931)
  • C - Kwantung Army invades Manchuria. Tokyo protests the action but eventually caves in and beginning reinforcing the Kwangtung Army with additional detachments (20 September 1931)
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More maps for the invasion of Manchuria:

Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge


  • A - Soviets back Chin Shu-jen in Sinkiang (Oct 1931)
  • B - Manchurian defectors begin offensive operations in support of the Japanese (Oct 13 1931)
  • C - Zhang Hseuh-liang appoints Ma Zhanshan as military governor of Heilungkiang (16 October 1931)
  • D - Ma Zhanshan engages Japanese troops attempting to cross the Nen River (4 Nov 1931)

Jinzhou Campaign

Screen Shot 2018-10-20 at 3.59.21 PM.png

  • A - Chinese Soviet Republic declared (7 Nov 1931)
  • B - Japanese occupy Qiqihar (18 Nov 1931)
  • C - Kumul Khanate defeated (30 Nov 1931)
  • D - Japanese advance on Jinzhou (21 Dec 1931)
  • E - Japanese occupy Jinzhou (3 Jan 1932)

Defense of Harbin

Screen Shot 2018-10-20 at 4.01.31 PM.png

  • A - Japanese occupy Shanhaiguan (4 Jan 1932)
  • B - Japanese and their Manchurian allies attack Harbin (25 Jan 1932)
  • C - Japanese attack Shanghai (28 Jan 1932)
  • D - Chinese forces retreat from Harbin (5 Feb 1932)

Creation of Manchukuo

Screen Shot 2018-10-20 at 4.02.32 PM.png

  • A - Chinese “Volunteer Armies” begin insurgent operations in Kirin and Fengtian (8 Feb 1932)
  • B - Heilungkiang defects to the Japanese (14 Feb 1932)
  • C - Kirin provincial government surrenders to the Japanese, but volunteer armies continue the fighting (27 Feb 1932)
  • D - Kyrghiz revolt in Sinkiang (Mar 1932)
  • E - Ceasefire in Shanghai (3 Mar 1932)
  • F - The Japanese military command in Manchuria appoints Cheng Hsiao-hsu as the Prime Minister of the Manchu State (9 Mar 1932)

Outbreak of the Sino-Tibetan War

Screen Shot 2018-10-20 at 8.28.11 PM.png

  • A - Tibet invades Tsinghai (24 Mar 1932)
  • B - Ma Zhanshan establishes a unified command over the Volunteer Armies from his base in Heihe (7 Apr 1932)
  • C - Revolt against Soviet influence in Mongolia (10 Apr 1932)
  • D - Volunteer Armies threaten Mukden (May 1932)

Battle of Surmang

Screen Shot 2018-10-20 at 4.12.30 PM.png

  • A - Brief Mongol rebellion against the Japanese (Aug 1932)
  • B - Japanese defeat Ma Zhanshan at Qiqihar (31 August 1932)
  • C - Tibetans defeated at Surmang (Sept 2 1932)

Pacification of Manchukuo


  • A - Soviets crush Mongolian revolt (Oct 1932)
  • B - Han Fu-chü assumes control of eastern Shantung (Nov 1932)
  • C - Japanese defeat insurgents in Fengtian (20 Nov 1932)
  • D - Japanese defeat Ma Zhanshan (5 Dec 1932)
  • E - Insurgents in Kirin retreat into Soviet territory, ending organized resistance to Japanese dominance in Manchukuo (8 Jan 1932)
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So currently I’m beginning work on two companion sets of maps. These are intended to be more useable for people without any prior knowledge of early 20th century China by increasing clarity at the expense of detail. I would submit that many users of this Atlas don’t particularly want or need, for instance, to know the exact political status of Who Cares Province at a particular date. Furthermore, knowing the extent of recognition or influence is sometimes more useful than a detailed map of control, like when making a world map. Also, I suspect that the irregular way the maps are dated may be a bit unhelpful to some. I use the site Omniatlas (which is the inspiration for the Warlord Atlas’s format) a lot for reference purposes, and this is one of the main problems I have with it.

To this end, I hope to be able to present to you a new series of maps on Government, and a seires on Foreign Support, alongside the existing set of Politcal Control maps. Both of these new sets show the situation on January 1st of the given year for that map, unlike the Politcal Control maps, which use the irregular dating system mentioned previously.

The Government maps show recognition of different governments, which often covers a much larger area than the actual extent of control that government has. A lot of the information is hinted at by the alliances shown in the Politcal Control maps, which often line up with government recognition, but not always.

The Foreign Support maps show the major powers in East Asia, their colonial possessions there, factions in China that enjoy their economic and/or military support, concessions, and direct intervention. This provides a lot of information that isn’t hinted at in the Political Control maps.

If you have any feedback or ideas, feel free to reply.
I spent a few hours working on this, because evidently I have no life. :rolleyes:

Here's the Government maps for 1911-1920. Each shows the recognition of polities claiming to be the legitimate government of China on January 1st of the year given.

The colour scheme is as follows:
- Basic Colour: Direct administration
- Lighter Colour: Controlled by another polity that recognizes that government's authority, or an informal concession of a foreign power
- Faded: Controlled by a polity recognizing no legitimate government or in opposition to the existing one (their names are given a white highlight to show this)

Screen Shot 2018-10-21 at 2.33.23 PM.png

Screen Shot 2018-10-21 at 2.33.55 PM.png

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Screen Shot 2018-10-21 at 2.34.21 PM.png

Screen Shot 2018-10-21 at 2.34.41 PM.png

Screen Shot 2018-10-21 at 2.36.13 PM.png

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Screen Shot 2018-10-21 at 2.37.01 PM.png

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Oh, and as a bonus, here are the base maps I use:

Blank China


Qing Administrative Divisions in 1911


Beiyang Era Provinces (1912-1928)


Nanking Era* Provinces (1928-1944)


*The additional provinces in Manchuria added after the Second World War will be shown in a different map when I reach that point