Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Chapter 14: January 1962 – June 1962
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Chapter 14: January 1962 – June 1962

“Tame birds sing of freedom. Wild birds fly.”

– John Lennon (OTL)


– The Boston Globe, 1/3/1962

Eunice ran because she saw a chance to do something great – a rare opportunity to bring firsthand vital issues to the senate.

– Robert F. Kennedy’s The Definitive Decades, Tangent Writer’s House, 1999

Initially, Father had wanted me to be the one to fill Jack’s seat in the US Senate, seeing as Bobby was to work alongside Jack at the State department. However, not only had I already switched my official residency from Massachusetts to California, but I was also involved in a major newspaper expansion endeavor that I believed, if successful, would be more influential than a US Senate seat. Uh, I mean, that’s how I thought of the situation at the time. Uh, Father was reluctant to accept my declination, but ultimately he understood that I needed to chart my own course. So he turned to Eunice, who saw the vacancy as a great chance to push for the issues she cared about. She ran for the seat instead of me, and I’ve always been grateful to her for that.

– Ted Kennedy, 60 Minutes interview, 1977

Papa Joe got Ben Smith, a harmless lackey of theirs, to hold the post until another member of the Kennedy clan took it during the special election. Kennedy Shriver’s running was due to the process of elimination. Bobby, the second eldest, was to work alongside his brother at the state department, while Ted, the youngest son, had already moved away to California and was not looking back. Joe had only three children left, all daughters – Eunice, Patty and Jean. Jean, the youngest, was an incredibly shy individual – during that point in time, at least. Patty was considered, but Papa Joe deemed her too connected to Hollywood through her then-husband Peter Lawford for Massachusetts voters to take seriously. That left just one and only one Kennedy clan member left – his daughter Eunice.

– Roger Stone’s Nepotism in America: How the Liberal Elite Seek to Control Everything, Vol. II, Stone Stallion E-Publishing, 2013

We will combat poverty, we will return democracy to Cuba, and we will see an American walk on the surface of the Moon before this decade ends, because we have the will, the resources, the intelligent, and the ability to do so!

– Lyndon Johnson, State of the Union address excerpt, 1/11/1962

…Lyndon would work through all hours of the night almost every night, his hand practically attached to the phones and papers that littered his desk. Ladybird often worried the his sleeplessness would ruin his health, but privately, I at the time disagreed; the man seemed to be able to function on just four or five hours of sleep in the way the average man functions on eight or nine hours. His drive for success gave him this energy…

– Clinton J. Hill’s Five Presidents: My Journey with the Secret Service, Simon & Schuster, 2016

War continuing in Cuba had my Jim fretting day and night over our well-being, worried the conflict would escalate into a nuclear war. Then there was this rare solar eclipse event. In February of that year [1962], Jim interpreted a very rare grand conjecture of the planets, an alignment of the heavenly bodies – Saturn, Jupiter, Earth, Mars, Venus, the Moon and the Sun all together in a row – to be a sign of the start of the End of Days. Hindu astrologers on some radio channels predicted a bloodbath would unfold on the 3rd, 4th, or 5th of the month. Hearing this, and seeing no peace in sight for Cuba, Jim put his foot down. “We’re leaving this county before it’s wiped clean off the map,” he was that determined to keep us safe. Then he ventured out to find to where we should move, finally finding the perfect spot during a visit to Brazil. It was a beautiful tract of land soon called Jones’ Oasis, or the Oasis Ranch. But most of us simply called it “the Oasis.” When the conjecture came and went, Jim believed our prayers and his actions had merely bought us time. His philosophy and worldview only grew from there…

– Marceline Jones (1927-2018), 1990 interview


Helena, MT – Only one year and 21 days after being sworn in as the 15th governor of Montana, 46-year-old Republican Donald Grant Nutter has died in a plane accident. “Governor Nutter was traveling to a speaking engagement in Cut Bank,” says Nutter’s executive secretary Dennis Gordon, who says he was supposed to be on the flight but had to stay behind to help Nutter’s allies address gridlock in the state senate over the allocation of funding for “pro-Cuba War military recruitment programs.” Gordon continues, “According to what I have been told by our state’s officials, the plane went down in Wolfe Creek Canyon, which is north of Helena.” Nutter and four others were killed in a blizzard sweeping through the area; according to a report from Cut Bank, winds exceeding 100 mph winds tore off one of the plane’s wings, causing it to crash. …Nutter’s short-lived gubernatorial tenure saw him reduce spending and promote Montanan industry sectors. Nutter previously served as a state senator from 1951 to 1959, after serving as a bomber pilot during WWII. He is survived by his wife Maxine and their son John…

– The Powder River County Examiner, Montana newspaper, 1/25/1962

“We will have peace on this planet even if we have to bomb all of Cuba to get it!”

– Gen. Thomas Power, 1/29/1962 press conference

The February 7 Fire was another blow to the program. Scott Carpenter was out of commission until the burns healed. [NASA Director] Webb was in the unwanted position of having to tell Johnson that the program could be delayed even further.

“At least we can take comfort in the fact that the bigger budget lead to us installing the emergency features that saved Carpenter’s life, sir,” Webb said.

Johnson was still displeased. “I spoke with Senator [Clinton B.] Anderson yesterday. He says his committee is going to have to investigate this mess one way or another. So,” he explained, “I want your folks to quell any bad press about the moon program. Downplay the severity of everything, highlight what you learned from the fire, you know, how we know how to avoid something from this when our boys actually are up in space. We can’t look inferior to the Russians, we just can’t.”

– NASA scientist Farouk El-Baz’s Up and Away: How The Cold War Competition Pushed Us into The Stars, MacFarland & Company, 1994

The President was called away to the Pentagon at roughly 5:00 AM on February 11 to be briefed on intelligence’s latest report. The experts had finally confirmed that Soviet officials had discussed with Cuban officials plans to install nuclear weapon silos in Cuba “upon repelling the capitalist swine invaders.” The scheme seemed serious, and needed a response.

“We can confirm that representatives of Fidel Castro did meet with Soviet officials in The Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince. We’re still not sure if Duvalier was aware, but as he still wants to get onto Fidel’s good side [1], I wouldn’t be surprised if we find out he personally set up the meeting,” Secretary of Defense Litzenburg explained.

“How certain are our sources?”

“Very,” Homer assured him.

“So, those commie bastards thought they could try to slip in some nukes into our own hemisphere, and we wouldn’t notice? Bastards.”

“We should proceed quickly but not carelessly here, Lyndon,” Secretary of State Kennedy warned. The New Englander shifted his awkward pose to another to look at the data on the table. Telephone transcripts, photos from CIA men in Port-au-Prince. Kennedy must have secretly loved it; it surely reminded him of Ian Fleming’s famous books that the Secretary often loved to read. “Duvalier still holds a grudge after we suspended aide to them last year,” Kennedy observed.

“He shouldn’t have allied with Fidel,” Lyndon remarked, “At least the Dominican Republic’s President Rafael Bonnelly is on our side; he and the Brits are our only allies in the region, it seems.”

Eventually, somebody in the room wondered aloud how public the situation should become.

“I have friends in the press,” Kennedy offered the President, “If we go public if would show us off as the good guys. Only villains lurk in shadows, Lyndon. We expose them, we could embarrass them into submission.”

“You poke a wildcat, you’re gonna get scratched,” the President disagreed, “Letting this get out could only incense the Soviets into mobilizing troops around Berlin over there, and the revelation could possibly create mass panic over here. We already have people wigging out over rumors of Cuban plans to attack Florida. Announcing to the nation and the world that the Soviets want to move their nukes closer could worsen the problem. Burying the lead wouldn’t help, either.”

“But this sort of behavior cannot go unpunished,” Clark Clifford suggested “We must communicate to the Soviets that such activity will not be tolerated.”

The US Ambassador to the USSR, Llewellyn “Tommy” Thompson, had a novel approach, “Well, how about we just tell that. Stuart [Symington] and I could certainly get Khrushchev on the phone in a few days. Hours if we really push for it.

Lyndon mulled over their options. “If we keep our mouths shut and try anything hostile against them, they’ll know why, but everyone else won’t. On the other hand, the pinkos in Europe would complain about us turning a mountain into a molehill. No, I think this is the sort of thing kept behind closed doors and resolved without the public knowing about any of it until the conflict is resolved. The country can’t afford any more depressing newspaper headlines. Jack,” the President motioned to Kennedy, “work with Tommy and Stu. We’re going to settle this.”

– Robert Caro’s The Years of Lyndon: Book Four: The Power of the Presidency, A. A. Knopf Inc., 2018

I knew shipping Soviet missiles to post-war Cuba was a bad idea [2].


Ambassador Valerian Zorin, as honorable and distinguished a man as he is, was uncertain of how to respond to the discovery of our talks with Cuban officials in Haiti. The best he could do was hand the phone over to Nikita, and scurry out the room.

“It is undignified for him to demand my time without asking ahead or calling for a summit. A phone call? The indignity!”

Nikita’s temporal vein always swelled when he was under pressure; during this incident, it was pulsating. I got him to calm down, though, by reminding him of how much of America is refined and informal; “they don’t even cook or even park their cars for food anymore,” reminding him of the rise of drive-ins and fast food in America since the 1950s. He chuckled slightly, and returned to the matter at hand. He accepted the call, but was unsure how to proceed. He considered denying all knowledge of the Missile Plan. The Generals in the room wanted to take the opportunity to mobilize our troops in Europe and conquer Berlin. That was their answer for everything, though, and fortunately, Nikita determined that any military response would be “an admission to something we would publicly deny.”

“We could always just lie. Tell Johnson we’ll abandon the nuclear missiles idea and plant them in the Caribbean when the time comes regardless!” one of the Generals offered.

“Hm, this is an unusual predicament. Never had we had direct private communication with the US President before,” Nikita, now in a much calmer state of mind, interpreted Johnson calling us as sort of a peace offering. “When you want war, you fight. When you want peace, you talk.” Nikita motioned to the translator and he took the call.

Ultimately, Johnson called for an end to those plans, but the Texan was briefly in a corner upon Nikita mentioning the American missiles in Turkey. In the end, Johnson convinced Nikita to promise not to place nuclear devices in Cuba without UN approval, in exchange for the US decommissioning their silos already assembled in Turkey. Nikita would later say “it was an unfeasible idea anyway, to plant silos so close to America’s border without detection.”

Despite the talk diffusing the situation and allowing us all to return attention to our proxy war in Cuba, the Missile Meeting Incident still heavily embarrassed Khrushchev, and lead to many in the politburo slowly distancing themselves from him, even the ones that had more involvement in the actual planning of the Cuban Missile Silo Plan to begin with. They thought he was weak for being near-uncharacteristically diplomatic for once…

– Anastas Mikoyan’s The Path of Struggle: The Memoirs of Anastas Mikoyan (English translation), Sphinx Press, 1988 (written in 1978)

While the incident’s ramifications being felt by both countries in subsequent years, it did not become public knowledge until the December 1988 publication of Mikoyan’s 1978 memoirs. Media reports have since then increased public awareness of it.



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– Colonel Sanders joining Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. on a Civil Rights march in Charleston, South Carolina, 2/19/1962

ASTRONAUT JOHN GLENN FIRST AMERICAN TO ORBIT EARTH: Rides In “Friendship 7” Capsule For Nearly 5 Hours

– The Arizona Republic, 2/20/1962


The Atlanta Journal, Sunday 2/25/1962

“The attack on Americus, Georgia is one of many immeasurable acts of violence against us and our supporters over the years. But we cannot ever accept these attacks as a way of African-American life. Doing so would not keep alive the memories of these victims. The fallen innocents of cities like Birmingham, Selma, and now Americus. The innocents of America. We can keep their memories alive by never forgetting what they died for.”

“The nonviolent movement for our rights has brought out the best of what this great nation offers, but it has also activated some of the worst elements of our society. Our pursuit for freedom has brought out of the woodwork the very lowest inhabitants of this nation. For as we strive for peace, and show it in our peaceful activities, certain members of our communities wish for the continuation of fear and violence and despair and inequality, and they demonstrate their heinous thoughts and violent racism with acts of violence against our non-violence. They believe that violence can defeat non-violence. But they are wrong.”

“We have been fighting this fight for centuries, but I truly believe that we are winning and that the true destiny of humanity will prevail. We will have peace between the races. We will one day see whites and blacks work alongside one another in total indifference of where one sits or walks or eats; we will one day see our children befriend one another; we will one day see the color of one’s skin be completely obsolete! But we cannot get there, to that glorious day, if we do not continue the cause for which brave men, women and children keep dying over across this great land of ours. Their deaths will not be in vein, for the more they respond to our non-violence with violence, the stronger and more united we become.”

“…The walls of oppression and injustice against their fellow citizens will come crumbling down, and soon. The movement grows stronger every day. Justice and freedom are pounding against the walls of oppression that separate us from our non-Black brethren. This wall must come tumbling down, this wall they erected long ago to deny the black community of the same basic rights as they. It is a wall of hatred and fear and repugnant indignation. But it is an old wall, and it is weakening with every one of our non-violent blows. For we must tear down this wall of inequality, and, as long as we continue on our mission for righteousness, this wall will indeed someday be torn down completely!”

– Excerpts from Ralph Abernathy’s 2/27/1962 “Tear Down This Wall” speech, considered to be one of Abernathy’s best speeches


– The Chicago Sun-Times, 2/28/1962


GUANTANAMO, Cuba – The US-DRF Alliance’s toehold on the southernmost coast, where the US’s Guantanamo Bay is, has increased to a strong foothold with the capturing of the inland city of Urbano Noris. However, the fighting is now becoming more intense between the forces of Castro and the US-DRF alliance. With anti-Communist forces being only 10 kilometers from Havana, Castro’s military leaders have begun a scorched-earth policy to any villages and fields that fall into anti-Communist hands. It is uncertain if Fidel Castro himself has ordered this change in policy. If he has not, then we are witnessing dissent and confusion among ranks of Castro’s army. Regardless, DRF forces are continuing to face strong resistance in populated areas, with the battle becoming more or less than a stalemate eerily reminiscent of the stationary front lines of Belgium during the First World War.

In Cardenas, not too far from the battlefields around Havana, I sat down to interview the man leading military operations in northern Cuba, US General Samuel Tankersley “Tank” Williams. With roughly three-fifths of the island under US-DRF control in some way, in what could be described as a stable but delicate situation at best, General Williams, along with military and political analysts, suggest that “if the push against the Communist forces continues as is, this war should be over by this Christmas.”

However, the US-DRF alliance still faces very strong resistance in well over half of the country, which includes land under US-DRF occupation now beginning to see a rise in sabotage and other guerilla tactics. General Williams, though, reminds me of our nation’s “undefeated” record: “We liberated Europe during World War Two; we’re liberating Cuba right now!”

– A Special Report by Tad Szulc, The New York Times, 3/1/1962

US Citizen Approval of US Military Performance in Cuba
Approve: 57%
Disapprove: 38%
Uncertain: 5%

– From a Gallop Poll article, published 3/2/1962


Corbin, KY – Harland “Colonel” Sanders’ famous 11 herbs and spices recipe for Kentucky Fried Chicken is one of the best-kept secrets in the history of American fast food. Figuratively – and, reportedly, quite literally – locked away from public knowledge, the secret recipe has been sought after from eager competitors since Saunders created it in 1940. But far fewer people know of another piece of the life story of Colonel Sanders, something that one wouldn’t expect from someone best known for his roles in the worlds of food and politics. The Colonel’s most unique, most bizarre, and most unusual creations are stored in piles of boxes held inside a KFC storage warehouse in southeastern Kentucky; but unlike the secret herbs and spices, these can see the light of day, albeit only when someone who somehow already knows about them asks to see or buy them.

…The story begins in early March 1962, when Colonel Sanders, at the time supporting civil rights activists calling for landmark legislation,
agreed to fund the pressing of 30,000 vinyl records for a children's Christian mandolin band, who then returned the favor by billing themselves as "The Colonel Sanders Mandolin Band" and dressing up like him—all in the Colonel's famous white suit and black string tie—for live performances. "Around here, he was a pretty famous fella, so everybody was glad to act like they either knew the Colonel or that they had something to do with him," says Frances Hall, the widow of band leader Gene Hall, who founded the band of his sixth and seventh grade students from Finchville Elementary School outside of Shelbyville, Kentucky. It was in that town, 30 miles east of Louisville, that Gene realized the financial benefit to be gained by teaming up with Colonel Sanders, who moved there after opening KFC and later grew the company into an international phenomenon starting in the early 1950s. The group's only record, a 15-track self-titled album that runs under 25 minutes, is still available at the original KFC location in Corbin, Kentucky, having had a treacherous sales history since its pressing and distribution in the early-to-mid 1960s. Throughout the album, the direction often turns into a hilarious representation of southern cliché: the band of young Christian school kids plays songs from "Amazing Grace" to "America, The Beautiful" while vocalist David Arnholter occasionally drops in to rain praise to Jesus Christ. The major difference, which created public draw at the time, was the fried chicken funding behind the record…

It is estimated that Colonel Sanders spent somewhere around $70,000 on pressing the 30,000 copies of the album. Braitman's estimation includes pressing the album on 150-gram vinyl, standard plating, basic labeling, plain inner sleeves, assembly costs and shrink-wrapping. Braitman says the estimate doesn't include tax or shipping.


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Above: a close up (left) of the front cover of the record (right)

But Sanders poured much more than just that into the band. In addition to purchasing their instruments and paying for the recording, he also bought the band a large white passenger van, on which the kids aptly painted THE COLONEL'S MANDOLIN BAND INC., and they toured in it.


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Above: the band’s van

Hall says that, despite the former Governor being in high demand in business, entrepreneurial, and political circles, Colonel Sanders still found the time to take the entire band and everyone traveling with them out to KFC after each show, like a little league team pizza party on a summer afternoon. At the band's live church performances, Sanders would always be sure to leave a "big donation" for the church, Hall remembers. Hall laughs when she thinks about it all now: "That's why all the churches were inviting the group of kids to play and bring The Colonel with them."

In 2015, KFC celebrated its 75th anniversary with a nod to the Colonel Sanders Mandolin Band in a commercial featuring actors dressed up as the members of the band as they were depicted on the album's front cover, including comedian Darrell Hammond playing The Colonel. A KFC representative told the day after its first airing that the point of the commercial was to bring the company's brand back to its original roots, which "starts and ends with Colonel Harland Sanders." James Wimberley, a Los Angeles musician who was recruited to perform as one of the band members in the ad, points out that bluegrass music originated in Kentucky, making all this even more fitting. "One of the lines in the commercial is when Colonel Sanders says that, 'Mandolin music is America's favorite music,'" Wimberley remembers. But outside the 2015 ad—a deep reference likely missed by the majority of KFC's customers—The Colonel Sanders Mandolin Band album's memory remains largely in photos and poorly kept vinyl records.


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Above: both sides of one of the vinyl records

The legacy it earned among locals for simply being involved with Colonel Sanders, however, has been something of a unique badge of honor. Gordon Parker, a Las Vegas realtor who grew up in Shelbyville, Kentucky at the same time the mandolin band was playing around town, owns one of the mandolins Sanders originally bought for the children and still calls it one of his "most prized possessions" to this day. Parker often saw the band perform live between the time he was nine and 10 years old. "It was just great," Parker, 68, says, sighing in a wave of nostalgia. "How many mandolin bands have you heard of in your life?" That odd curiosity, which got him so interested in the mandolin band as a child, echoes the same interest that draws most customers at the original KFC in Corbin to the decision to buy the record and check it out themselves. Whether it's a vinyl copy of the Colonel Sanders Mandolin Band or one of the actual instruments used to record it, those who own a piece of it all speak with pride for owning a piece of history tied to one of Kentucky's most legendary cultural figures. "The only reason I have the mandolin is because [the saleswoman] told me it came from Colonel Sanders Mandolin Band," Parker admits. "I couldn't even tell you what I paid for it. I didn't care what it cost. I bought it for the story."

–, 2017 [3]

1962 had began with a hasty double-push to pass the Civil Rights Bill and make significant gains in the war in Cuba. The real hurdle in getting the bill passed was actually not the final senate vote, though. Even if all 22 senators from the former confederate states voted against it, that would still be 29 votes short of the senate rejecting the bill (a simple majority of 51 out of 100). The southern Democrats knew this, and instead sought to kill the bill on the senate floor before it could be moved to a vote. Thanks to the expertise of majority leader Mike Mansfield, the bill bypassed the Judiciary Committee headed by bill opponent Eastland and was instead brought directly to the senate floor for debate.

– Robert Caro’s The Years of Lyndon: Book Four: The Power of the Presidency, A. A. Knopf Inc., 2018


The Times-Picayune, Louisiana newspaper, 3/5/1962

March 6: Virginia’s Senator Robertson fails to attend a planned meeting with President Johnson, later explaining by phone “my state needs me during this crisis.” Robertson is referring to what would become known as the Ash Wednesday Storm of ’62, a severe snow storm of fierce wind gusts and mountains of snow- and ice- fall then battering the Mid-Atlantic that would grow to become one of the most powerful storms to ever hit the region. The next day, US Senator Prescott Bush cancels a March 8 meeting with the President for the same reason.



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– One of many waves on the eastern seaboard during the Ash Wednesday Storm of ’62, Coastal Review, on-net archives


– The Star-Ledger, 3/10/1962


Washington, DC – In the US Senate, Senator Absalom Robertson (D-VA) has just sat down from exhaustion. Hoarse and weak-kneed, he has finally finished filibustering on the floor of the US Senate chamber for 18 hours and 21 minutes, making it one of the longest filibusters ever performed. But Robertson is just one of many Senators vocally protesting the Civil Rights Bill. The next person to filibuster, Strom Thurmond (D-SC) shook Robertson’s hand to congratulate him for his efforts.

Six months ago today, the Civil Rights Bill passed through the House of Representatives. Several US Senators, nearly all Southern Democrats and led by Senator Richard Russell (D-GA), are attempting to block its passing by any means necessary. The most publicly noticeable attempt at this has been going on for three months – filibustering, the act of giving a speech or debate in order to delay or prevent a vote. It is always a spectacular event for journalists, eager for a catchy memorable quote or for a new record to break…

– correspondent Robert C. Maynard, The Washington Post, special report, 3/12/1962

March 13: Johnson rejects Senators Dirksen and Mansfield’s offer of a “slightly weaker” edition of the civil rights bill for passage, believing he would “soon” obtain the 67 “yea” votes needed to end the Senate filibusters, a move known as enacting “cloture”...



The Greenville News, 3/16/1962

I believe I played a role in the Civil Rights Bill. During that time, my primary focus in life was being there for my husband and four children. But I worried for their future and their safety every single day. So every time I would meet with Thurmond, I would try my best to convince him of the err [sic] of his ways. The talks would be short and private, often far away from where anyone could spy through a window or listen through a wall. And in those secure locations I had my biological father’s ear and undivided attention. He at first would change the subject whenever I brought up racism, but as 1961 turned into 1962, I found myself feeling the need to increase the visits. He had to know of the ramifications of his actions. For example, on one visit, I showed him photographs of his grandchildren. He appreciated that.

On the 18th, I met with my Father Senator just hours after he had met with President Johnson. I told him how I worried for my children, about how his grandchildren would continue to be unhappy and without hope if things did not get better. I really opened up to him in a way that led to him finally opening up to me just a little more than usual.

Strom Thurmond was not as terrible as he presented himself to be. I knew that more than ever when I left that day. I saw this look of deep contemplation on his face, and I returned home to my children with a little piece of hope that day.

– Essie Mae Williams’s Dear Senator: A Memoir by the Black Daughter of Strom Thurmond, 1995

Johnson worried that the bill would not pass before the senate’s spring recess, set to begin in April. He faced fierce opposition from southern politicians, who saw him as a “traitor to the Democrats” (Thurmond) and a “Negro-loving weakling and a lapdog for King and Evers” (Eastland) and attempted to stall on voting for the bill via the filibuster until the end of the senate’s January-April session. Attorney General Ramsey Clark later explained, “Lyndon needed to assert himself, to make clear to all of them that he was a leader to respect and follow, and that he meant business when it came to the Civil Rights bill.”

After weeks of only glacial progress, Johnson threatened to use executive action to extend the Senate’s session indefinitely. This would be perfectly legal because Article II, Section 3 of the United States Constitution, reads the President “may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them” for an indefinite period of time. Johnson made it clear to Eastland on March 18 that if the Dixiecrats continued to sit on the bill despite his earlier promises to back them in future legislation work, he would call the Senate into extraordinary session and not end the session until the bill passed. In his own words to a private group of supporters later that day, “we are addressing this imperative national issue that can no longer be ignored. I will not let the people elected to serve the states of this union prolong the liberation of their own constituents!”

– Robert Caro’s The Years of Lyndon: Book Four: The Power of the Presidency, A. A. Knopf Inc., 2018


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– The President giving “The Johnson Treatment” to Senator Russell Long (D-LA), White House archives, 3/19/1962

19 March 1962: On this day in history, Columbia Records releases “Bob Dylan,” which is Bob Dylan’s debut studio album; while the album did not receive much attention upon its initial release – largely due to it consisting primarily of folk standards, and due to Dylan only just starting to develop name recognition – it achieved popularity a few short years later, especially as Dylan’s second album, “The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan,” which was released in 1963, became a surprise hit and quickly propelled Dylan to the national spotlight and to international fame.


“After much consideration, I have decided to vote ‘yea’ on invoking cloture on the Civil Right Bill, and I encourage my fellow Senators to do the same. This bill, I believe, will benefit all Americans, both black and white.”

– US Senator Russell Long, Senate Majority Whip since 1961, WBRZ-TV, 3/20/1962

“I vote in favor of cloture not to suppress Southern society with this bill, but to preserve it... I will still fight for all businessmen to maintain the dignity of their establishments and livelihoods, but I will also advocate for the treatment of our fellow human beings with honor and with the sense of dignity becoming of a Southerner...”

– US Senator Ralph Yarborough, US Senate floor, 3/21/1962


…curiously, Thurmond abstained from the vote without a public explanation...

– The Washington Post, 3/22/1962

Ladybird was invaluably instrumental in winning over politicians too stubborn to talk to Lyndon, but knew better than to appear “ungentlemanly” when the First Lady asks to meet with you. Her “sweet demeanor and charm” threw politicos off when discussing politics with her, as their male ego blinded them from the possibility that a woman can be exception and astute in a male-dominated workplace – despite the presence of Senator Margaret Chase Smith! …many on the hill were surprised by Ladybird’s knowledge of the issues and the skills of her tongue with words. …Senators Francis Case, Alexander Wiley, and Prescott Bush were all unsure of the bill for one reason of another, but ultimately came to support it after meeting with the First Lady. …The fact that Ladybird and Lyndon made one powerful team should be celebrated. The fact that so few know of how much power she wielded demonstrates the bias spat out by our male-dominant media outlets…

– feminist activist extremist Diana Oughton’s Behind Every Powerful Man, Righteous Publications, 1983

People of America, your voices need to be heard now more than ever! We cannot stand for the desecration of America’s traditions and regional ways of life. The time is now! It cannot wait! We cannot let this bill pass. Call your Senator, meet with leaders, and hold rallies! Do whatever you must do to protect America from the conspiratorial method of constricting its people to the will of the wrongful and totalitarian political elite! Do it now!

– activist Robert J. Morris of Texas at an anti-Civil Rights Bill rally in Winnsboro, South Carolina, 3/25/1962

“AT LONG LAST!” CIVIL RIGHTS BILL PASSES SENATE 77-23; LBJ Set to Sign Act Into Law In April; Senate Prepares For Easter Break

– The New York Times, Thursday 3/29/1962


J. Lister Hill (D) – Nay
John J. Sparkman (D) – Nay
Bob Bartlett (D) – Yea
Ernest Gruening (D) – Yea
Barry Goldwater (R) – Nay
Carl Hayden (D) – Yea
John Little McClellan (D) – Nay
J. William Fulbright (D) – Nay
Clair Engle (D) – Yea
Thomas H. Kuchel (R) – Yea
Gordon L. Alcott (R) – Yea
John A. Carroll (D) – Yea
Thomas J. Dodd (D) – Yea
Prescott Bush (R) – Yea
John J. Williams (R) – Yea
J. Caleb Boggs (R) – Yea
Spessard Holland (D) – Nay
George Smathers (D) – Nay
Richard Russell Jr. (D) – Nay
Herman Talmadge (D) – Nay
Hiram Fong (R) – Yea
Oren E. Long (D) – Yea
Henry Dworshak (R) – Yea
Frank Church (D) – Yea
Paul Douglas (D) – Yea
Everett Dirksen (R) – Yea
Vance Hartke (D) – Yea
Homer E. Capehart (R) – Yea
Jack Miller (R) – Yea
Bourke Hickenlooper (R) – Nay
James B. Pearson (R) – Yea
Frank Carlson (R) – Yea
John Sherman Cooper (R) – Yea
Thurston Morton (R) – Yea
Allen Ellender (D) – Nay
Russell Long (D) – Nay
Ed Muskie (D) – Yea
Margaret Chase Smith (R) – Yea
James Glenn Beall (R) – Yea
John M. Butler (R) – Yea
Benjamin A. Smith II (D) – Yea
Leverett Saltonstall (R) – Yea
Philip Hart (D) – Yea
Patrick McNamara (D) – Yea
Roy Weir (DFL) – Yea
Gene McCarthy (DFL) – Yea
John Stennis (D) – Nay
James Eastland (D) – Nay
Edward V. Long (D) – Yea
Albert S. J. Carnahan (D) – Yea
Michael Mansfield (D) – Yea
Lee Metcalf (D) – Yea
Roman Hruska (R) – Yea
Carl Curtis (R) – Yea
Howard W. Cannon (D) – Yea
Alan Bible (D) – Yea
New Hampshire
Maurice J. Murphy Jr. (R) – Yea
Norris Cotton (R) – Nay
New Jersey
Clifford P. Case (R) – Yea
Harrison A. Williams Jr. (D) – Yea
New Mexico
Dennis Wyatt Chávez (D) – Yea
Clinton Presba Anderson (D) – Yea
New York
Kenneth Keating (R) – Yea
Jacob K. Javits (R) – Yea
North Carolina
B. Everett Jordan (D) – Nay
Sam Ervin (D) – Nay
North Dakota
Quentin N. Burdick (D) – Yea
Milton Young (R) – Yea
Stephen Young (D) – Yea
Frank Lausche (D) – Yea
Robert S. Kerr (D) – Yea
Mike Monroney (D) – Yea
Maurine Brown Neuberger (D) – Yea
Wayne Morse (D) – Yea
Hugh Scott (R) – Yea
Joseph S. Clark Jr. (D) – Yea
Rhode Island
John Pastore (D) – Yea
Claiborne Pell (D) – Yea
South Carolina
Strom Thurmond (D) – Nay
Olin D. Johnston (D) – Nay
South Dakota
Karl Mundt (R) – Yea
Francis Case (R) – Yea
C. Estes Kefauver (D) – Yea
Albert A. Gore Sr. (D) – Yea
Ralph Yarborough (D) – Yea
John Tower (R) – Nay
Frank Moss (D) – Yea
Wallace Bennett (R) – Yea
Winston Prouty (R) – Yea
George Aiken (R) – Yea
Harry Byrd (D) – Nay
Absalom Robertson (D) – Nay
Scoop Jackson (D) – Yea
Warren Magnuson (D) – Yea
West Virginia
Jennings Randolph (D) – Yea
Robert Byrd (D) – Nay
William Proxmire (D) – Yea
Alexander Wiley (R) – Yea
Gale McGee (D) – Yea
John J. Hickey (D) – Yea

[ ]
Map Key:
Light shade – both Senators voted Yea
Medium shade – one Senator voted Yea, the other Nay
Dark shade – both Senators voted Nay
Red – both Senators were Republicans
Green – one Senator was a Republican, the other a Democrat
Blue – both Senators were Democrats

– [4]


Washington, D.C. – in a televised event, President Johnson signed into law. …The law comes almost two years after the Civil Rights Act of 1960 (the establishing of federal inspections of voting polls), which Johnson was also implemental in getting passed. …Rev. King announced “Today, April 4, is a great day for America, a day of great celebration and merriment that will be celebrated in this nation for years to come. But this is not the end of the road to harmony. After freedom is achieved, it must be maintained…” …Johnson proclaimed, “Now begins the time when the law starts to become a custom.” …in attendance at the ceremony, and standing beside Johnson when the President officially signed the bill into law, were King, Abernathy, activist Medgar Evers, 94-year-old writer-activist W. E. B. DuBois (smiling widely), retired federal judge J. Waties Waring, activist and “grandmother” of the Civil Rights movement Septima Clark, musician and activist Paul Robeson, plus many more...

– The Baltimore Afro-American, 4/4/1962


[ ]

Hubert [Humphrey], Mike Mansfield, and Russell Long were instrumental in getting naysayers still on the fence to change their minds in exchange for supporting their own pieces of legislation later on. One of America’s most pivotal and landmark pieces of legislation finally passed in the end thanks to them. Oh, of course there was outrage among some Southerners, but their jeers were drowned out by the cheering of African-Americans all across the country rejoicing. …I remember, Senators Gore and Kefauver complained to Lyndon about the amount of hate mail they received in the days that followed; they worried they would their respective lose re-election bid. I told Gore, though, that I'd make his tongue-biting worth it; when it came time for legislation of his own, I'd back it up 100%. …On the night of the formal signing, though, to my surprise, Khrushchev wired Lyndon a passive-aggressive sort of message congratulating him on “my leadership skills in finally ending the US’s Civil War.” His words, not mine. >chuckle<

– Mildred Stegall (1908-2014, 105), longtime personal aide to Lyndon Johnson, 1978 interview

“It’s good to see the folks on Capitol Hill are doing their job of making sure every citizen can exercise their God-given freedoms and Constitution-given rights.”

– Colonel Sanders to associate, 4/5/1962


The Sun News, South Carolina daily newspaper, 4/6/1962

Washington is ignoring the rise in Cuban refugees invading Florida’s coasts. Boatloads of people fleeing the island nation arrive almost every day, taking up space, filling up shelters, and even taking low-income jobs from locals. It is imperative that the Johnson administration return focus to securing Cuba so these people can return to their native Cuban houses and jobs.

– Florida Governor C. Farris Bryant’s open letter to Washington D.C., 4/7/1962


…the chicken-selling franchise continues to grow, and if these commercials are any indication, the company execs have their licked fingers right on the pulse of America’s fast-food wants and needs.

Life magazine, 4/10/1962

April 15: At 7:00 AM local time, Johnson and Secretary of State Jack Kennedy touch down in Germany. At 10:00, the two meet with West German President Heinrich Lubke to express the US’s concern over the Berlin Wall. Lubke promises to give Johnson “full support if any crisis should ever arise.”


New Military Hospital Offers Latest In Medicine, Treatment

Pearl Harbor, HA – The Chester Nimitz Medical Center opened its doors today in a ceremony where US Navy Secretary John Connally took time out from his busy schedule overseeing the Navy’s efforts concerning Cuba to cut the ribbon… The hospital was commission and began construction roughly 11 months ago, after the US Department of Veterans Affairs, under President Johnson, pushed for the expansion of medical services available to US military personnel in Oahu… The hospital is considered “state-of-the-art,” featuring the latest techniques, medicines, and methods for assisting wounded veterans…

– The Honolulu Star-Advertiser, 4/21/1962

(vid: jNrKNMfzok4)
– Colonel Sanders showing Tennessee Ernie Ford and Minnie Pearl how to cook KFC chicken,, 4/22/1962

“I WON’T SERVE YOU!”: Infamous GA Diner Owner In Even Hotter Water Over Civil Rights Rejection

...Lester Maddox is being called "the anti-Colonel" for his business ethics being the polar opposite of another restaurant-owning politician, the anti-segregation founder of the fast food chain Kentucky Fried Chicken and founder Governor of Kentucky, Harland "Colonel" Sanders...

– The New York Post, 4/26/1962

youtube: watch?v=7m3JCPrQ3zs
[ watch?v=m3JCPrQ3zs ]
– video compilation of newsreels concerning the incident

Father would gladly fight any businessman, politician, or restauranteur that opposed racial fairness, once explaining “The only customer you should ever kick out is the kind that can’t pay for the meal or is causing trouble. Now if somebody’s spoutin’ communist propaganda or cussing’ up a storm too loudly, then sure, exercise your right to refuse service. But if they just want to give you their money for your services, any reason to not serve them is going to be a really stupid reason.” When one such businessman, a man in Georgia named Lester Maddox, tried to defy the 1962 Civil Rights Act, Sanders denounced him: “That fella has no business acumen if he’s spending his time fightin’ people instead of feedin’ people.”

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991

It is odd how similar the Colonel and Maddox were. Both were restaurateurs whom entered politics later in life. Both were known for their chicken, with the Colonel’s being pressure-fried and Maddox’s being skillet-fried. Both were religious and avoided drinking and smoking. And yet, they were at opposite sides of the issue of desegregation. Maddox believed his right to private property control superseded the rights of strangers, sought to maintain his segregationist practices through the courts and simple intimidation of any Black inquisitors of his restaurant. …The conflict dissipated when Maddox, presenting himself as a martyr of sorts, closed the Pickwick restaurant (closing it officially the next year due to court fines), saying “I’d rather give it all up then let other people tell me how to run it.” Maddox then switched careers from the restaurant business to politics, throwing himself full-time into the lieutenant governor’s race into which he had already entered…

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

In public, Kroc was all smiles – especially on May 2, when he flew to Illinois to attend the grand opening of McDonald’s 200th outlet. Behind closed doors, though, the man was still agitated over the contractual obligations he’d made to the McDonald Brothers, and over how they had refused to transfer to him the real estate and rights to the original San Bernardino location. The brothers had told Kroc they were giving the operation, property and all, to the founding employees. [5] Ultimately, his anger lead him to opening another McDonald’s location very close to the original McDonald’s restaurant. Kroc would later gloat in an informal radio interview, “The two had to rename the original spot "The Big M" because they had overlooked what you would think would be one of the most important things to negotiate for, a vital part of the entire franchise when it came brand recognition and marketing – the name ‘McDonald.’ It was their own last name, yet they failed to remember to retain rights to it! It’s ridiculous; it’s like if Colonel Sanders was not allowed to use his own face on something he cooks! But…therein lies a lesson – never overlook anything.”

Chef Wars: The Start of an American Pop Culture Craze, 2021


Birmingham, AL – The tally of last night’s election for one of Alabama’s US Senate seats was finalized earlier today: Crommelin has won with just over 50% of the vote, avoiding a runoff; Hill came in second place with roughly 44%; a third candidate on the ballot, a one Donald G. Hallmark, received under 6%. Crommelin, a Rear Admiral who served in the Navy for 30 years and has unsuccessfully run for public office several times since 1950, claimed in April that the incumbent Senator, Lister Hill “failed to protect our state from the Yankee scourge of forced integration,” referring to the passing of the Civil Rights Act two months ago. Crommelin’s polling numbers had been steadily rising since then, but was still expect to come in second place; a Gallup poll published just two days ago projected Hill to win by no less than a 5% margin.

The Birmingham News, 5/2/1962

Alabama US Senate Primaries, 5/1/1962:
Democratic Primary Results (15.10% Total Population):
John G. Crommelin – 248,470 (50.37%)
J. Lister Hill – 215,617 (43.71%)
Donald G. Hallmark – 29,203 (5.92%)
Total votes cast: 493,290



The Birmingham News, 5/3/1962


– The New York Times, side article, 5/8/1962


Washington, DC – The nation's older citizens got a bit of advice today from a man who parlayed his first $105 Social Security check into a multi‐million dollar fortune.

Said Col. Harland Sanders, the former Governor of Kentucky and the Kentucky Fried Chicken king: “For God's sake, don't think about retiring. There are so many things to do.” Wearing a spotless white suit and black string tie, the dapper 71‐year‐old shared his formula for after‐65 success with a House subcommittee that is studying the problems of the aging.

Among his suggestions were the following:

1 – One should not plan his retirement in the spirit of being deprived of something, but in the spirit of having something added to his life.

2 – “Don't be against things so much as for things.”

3 – Even if one can afford it, “don't rely on loafing. Life doesn't have to be easy to be wonderful.”

4 – Get up every morning wanting to do something.

5 – Seek variety, develop original ideas, go with your whole heart, and don't let the minutes “rust away.”

6 – Try to keep healthy (Sanders does not smoke or drink liquor, and he said he takes “great pride” in “always” eating nourishing, well‐balanced meals.)

“In these 70‐odd years of mine,” The Colonel said, “I've had my share of ups and downs, up and downs. But every time you go down, get up again. You'll be stronger than ever.”

By the time he had reached 61, Colonel Sanders said, he had been a farmhand, a railroad worker, an insurance salesman, a Chamber of Commerce executive and a service station operator. He had studied law by correspondence course and he had run a restaurant (fried chicken a specialty).

Then, after a series of business reverses in his 40s and 50s, including his restaurant being destroyed in a fire in 1939, he took his first $105 social security check and began touring the country, sleeping in the back seat of his car, as he peddled his fried chicken franchises.

His hundreds of fried chicken franchises – which were overseen by his children (a son and two daughters) during his time as governor (1955 to 1959) – have made him a millionaire, and he says he still works daily at the company. His earnings last year, he said, were “way over $2,000,000, more money than I even know what to do with.”

In addition, he said, he receives a monthly Social Security check of $255. “That's something I don't understand about Social Security,” he told the subcommittee. “I don't need it, yet I get that check every month. Maybe I shouldn't take it, but, anyhow, I give it to charity.

A self‐styled political conservative who was an avid backer of Vice President Richard Nixon during his run for President in 1960, Colonel Sanders gazed fondly at the 24-year-old legislative assistant and recent Arizona State University graduate Barry Goldwater Jr., the son of Republican US Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona.

“You know,” The Colonel said. “I just love your daddy.”

And The Colonel chuckled sympathetically, along with the rest of the audience, when US Representative Edith Green, a Democrat from Portland, Oregon, told about her husband. “He’s getting on in years right alongside me, but we’ve always been spry and determined,” Mrs. Green said. “Unfortunately, he broke his leg a little while ago. He was dancing at the top of some stairs at a friend’s relative’s bar mitzvah, and I guess you can say his feet stopped dancing by the time he reached the bottom of those stairs.”

The New York Times, Monday 5/14/1962 [6]


…John Glenn recovered from injuries sustained in a fire in August last year... After months of delays from related investigations into the worksite fires in August 1961 and February 1962, NASA finally sent Glenn into orbit, where in roughly five hours he circled the globe three times in the Friendship 7 space capsule….

The Guardian, 24/5/1962

…and in North Carolina, incumbent Democratic US Senator Sam Irvin won re-nomination over Ralph James Scott, the three-term US Representative from the state’s fifth congressional district. Scott sought to primary Irvin with a more moderate campaign that called for the state to, quote “move on already,” end quote, from the segregation issue. Congressman Scott won 42% in the Democratic primary, which is considered to be a strong showing for this race. This primary result is already fueling speculation in political circles that Irvin is vulnerable and could actually be defeated by a Republican in November. Speaking of which, Senator Irvin’s G.O.P. opponent will be Claude Greene, whom won his party’s nomination...

– The Huntley-Brinkley Report, 5/26/1962 TV broadcast

IS IT CHICKEN OR BEEF FOR AMERICA?: A Question Two Companies Seem To Want To Know…

...Wherever one shows up, the other quickly sets up shop nearby. So seems to be the latest trend between the fast-food giants Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonald’s. …Reports indicate that the two companies are heavily competing for not just customers, but for franchisees as well. Both companies are offering freedoms in management, stock options, and other benefits to secure location after location…

– Business Weekly, 5/29/1962


[ ]
Time Magazine, 6/2/1962 Issue

NIXON LOSES BID FOR GOVERNOR!: In Stunning Upset, Former VP Loses Primary To Businessman Joe Shell

…Shell, a military pilot and captain of the winning team of the 1939 Rose Bowl, had served as a state assemblyman from 1953 to earlier this year. Despite being conservative ideologically, Shell’s campaign focused on issues such as clean running water and education – topics that seemingly won over moderate and independent voters amid Nixon’s moderate but largely theme-less campaign.
"I think Dick is just lining up a run for President in '64," said one Shell supporter, "I think the people of California want a full-time Governor." Shell had also spent several weeks campaigning heavily and energetically across the Golden State, visiting lumber communities in the North and farmers in the South. Nixon, meanwhile, made comparatively less stump speeches and held largely private fundraisers in the months leading up to the primary.
It also should be noted that a little-known third candidate on the ballot, a self-declared “Christian militia enthusiast” conservative named William Gale, received a number of votes larger than the margin by which Nixon lost.

– The Sacramento Bee, 6/5/1962

California Governor Primaries, 6/5/1962:
Republican Primary Results (12.5% Total Population):
Joseph C. Shell – 970,756 (49.42%)
Richard Nixon – 957,989 (48.77%)
William Gale – 31,036 (1.58%)
Pat Brown (write-in) – 4,517 (0.23%)
Total votes cast: 1,964,298


I considered it an honor to be of Operation Condor, the mission to take out Fidel Castro.

The government had been trying to murder this man since he rose to power, but when Havana was captured, he and his close circle of followers spirited themselves away into the night. Intelligence was certain they had fled to the westernmost part of the island, or possibly the Island de la Juventud, which was then known as the Isle of Pines. Finally our spy plans had located his position in a tiny hideaway in the Vinales Valley of the Guaniguanico mountain range. In the present day, it’s a UNESCO World Heritage site for its unique and steep terrain, covered with sharp cliffs, beautiful waterfalls, and many caves. But back then, it was a war zone. Tanks and anti-aircraft missiles doted the landscape. The enemy used those waterfalls and hid out in those caves. It was by no means a tourist destination.

I had the easy part of the mission – I, with thirteen other men, would swoop in and carpet-bomb the eastern part of the valley as a diversion. American soldiers on the ground would then attack the Castro brother’s headquarters in the western part of the valley during the chaos. There was more detail to the plan, of course, but I did not need to know that information, so I was never told it. All I had to do to serve my country was, essentially, to swoop in, blow some stuff up, and leave.

The target was acquired, and I lit it up like a firecracker.

That should have been it for me. I was supposed to simply return to base and await my next assignment. But we did not expect their anti-aircraft artillery to have such distance accuracy. I was turning west to leave the valley when part of my Skyhawk’s left wing was ripped off by an anti-aircraft missile. I went into a nearly-vertical inverted spin, heading right for a small, swampy lake in the middle of the jungles outside of the city of La Palma, a Communist stronghold.

I had been in crashes before, but it was miraculous – but not a miracle – surviving that one. Ejecting awkwardly out of the cockpit shattered my arm and leg, propelled my dog tags off my person, and slammed my around like I was a paper doll. It was the fall into the lake that almost drowned me.

Drowning is an odd sensation. You are surrounded by water and your lungs are filled with it, yet you feel like you’re on fire. Your chest burns with pain and a small fraction of you is thankful for the relief that comes from beginning to pass out.

I don’t know what happens after that; that is when they pulled me out. A small group of Communist reconnaissance troops that had been nearby. As they pulled me to shore, one of them leaned in and whispered something to me. Only later I would learn the meaning of what he’d said: “Welcome to your doom.”

The act itself of surviving the crash was miraculous, but I would soon learn how far removed I was from any miracles.

– Admiral John McCain’s Boldly Into Hell: A Firsthand Account of Four Decades of American Warfare, Random House, 1996


[pic: ]

– A KFC outlet near Columbus, Ohio, c. June 1962

[1] According to Source 18 on his wiki article, Duvalier tried to win over Castro to stop anti-Duvalier Haitians from fleeing to Cuba. ITTL, with Castro busy fighting back American forces, he’s more willing to ultimately accept supplies from Duvalier’s government.
[2] Source 34 on his wiki article supports this as his opinion during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
[3] Everything here (except for the italicized passages) was pulled from this 2017 article:
[4] OTL source:
[5] Italicized passage taken directly from Kroc's wiki article.
[6] Everything here (except for the italicized passages) was pulled from this OTL 1971 article revealing that The Colonel supported George Wallace in 1968 and that he apparently was a big fan of Barry Goldwater, even after his landslide 1964 loss, suggesting that The Colonel may have had conservative and populist political views! (note to self: work more of that into the upcoming chapters):

NOTE: Due to an unexpectedly busy two weeks ahead of me, I'm posting this a day or two early and probably will not be able to post the next chapter until the 17th. A thousand pardons for this TL's glacial pace; hopefully, I'll be back to posting at least one chapter every week very soon. Thank you all very much for your patience, and I hope y'all enjoy reading this!

Why did Al Gore Sr. vote for the civil rights act ITTL?
Edit: Also how did Joe Snell achieve a successful primary?
I went back and added to these bits; Gore was promised backing in future legislation endeavors and Shell ran a more energetic campaign. Hope this helps!

You remember when the Papa John's CEO, John Schnatter, was forced to step down from his job and also resigned from the University of Louisville's board of directors after he used the N-word during a conference call, and it became a big black eye for Papa John's (to the point that the University of Louisville removed the company's name from its football stadium, while Major League Baseball removed its food from their stadiums)?

Well, guess who he was referring to when he used the N-word (as in, someone who was allowed to use the N-word and get away with it)?

Colonel Sanders, of all people.

Yeah, that destroyed any goodwill he still had left in Kentucky and pissed off the Sanders family (which is really like saying the Titanic sprung a small leak)…

I'm glad for this TL, BTW, because we're getting to know more about Mr. Sanders and the world he lived in...

Waiting for more...

Actually, based on my research (example: ) Schnatter's comment was a false claim, in that the Colonel was not a racist (as pointed out in the sources in earlier chapters). Old stereotypes die hard, I guess.

Is it possible the Olly’s Trolly chain could become a real contender against McD’s ITTL?

Seems a shame they got pushed out from the reviews of the food.

Very interesting article! With Dave Thomas, creator of Wendy's, working for KFC like IOTL, I could see Ollie showing up and butting heads ITTL at some point. Great find!

BTW, @gap80, does this crash still occur ITTL:

Waiting for your next update in the next few days...

Because of the Cuba War, paranoid suspicion of Cuban sabotage (the war started, partially, when a plane was shot down, after all) led to the landing gear on that plane being better inspected, and that day at that airport went on without incident (I really should mention that in some chapter, shouldn't I? (I'll make a note of it))!


Wouldn't the plane have still crashed then? It was most likely an elevator motor failure that caused it so landing gear would have nothing to do with that.

EDIT: I'll make that a "better elevator motor inspection" thing - in fact, the whole plane could possibly be inspected better due to the state's relatively close proximity to Cuba. Or, you know, butterflies from TTL's POD of 1932 (see Chapter 1) could simply "butterfly" the crash out of existence. Butterflies can do that, you know!
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Why did Al Gore Sr. vote for the civil rights act ITTL?
Edit: Also how did Joe Snell achieve a successful primary?
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Great update. Civil rights still has a way to go. See if you can feature excerpts of LBJ's taped conversatons in updates. You know he recorded loads of them, I'm sure.
Is it possible the Olly’s Trolly chain could become a real contender against McD’s ITTL?

Seems a shame they got pushed out from the reviews of the food.
You remember when the Papa John's CEO, John Schnatter, was forced to step down from his job and also resigned from the University of Louisville's board of directors after he used the N-word during a conference call, and it became a big black eye for Papa John's (to the point that the University of Louisville removed the company's name from its football stadium, while Major League Baseball removed its food from their stadiums)?

Well, guess who he was referring to when he used the N-word (as in, someone who was allowed to use the N-word and get away with it)?

Colonel Sanders, of all people.

Yeah, that destroyed any goodwill he still had left in Kentucky and pissed off the Sanders family (which is really like saying the Titanic sprung a small leak)…

I'm glad for this TL, BTW, because we're getting to know more about Mr. Sanders and the world he lived in...

Waiting for more...
You remember when the Papa John's CEO, John Schnatter, was forced to step down from his job and also resigned from the University of Louisville's board of directors after he used the N-word during a conference call, and it became a big black eye for Papa John's (to the point that the University of Louisville removed the company's name from its football stadium, while Major League Baseball removed its food from their stadiums)?

Well, guess who he was referring to when he used the N-word (as in, someone who was allowed to use the N-word and get away with it)?

Colonel Sanders, of all people.

Yeah, that destroyed any goodwill he still had left in Kentucky and pissed off the Sanders family (which is really like saying the Titanic sprung a small leak)…

I'm glad for this TL, BTW, because we're getting to know more about Mr. Sanders and the world he lived in...

Waiting for more...

Papa John is kind of a creep. Everyone seems to be secretly evil, and you keep looking for the heart of that golden brown deep fried chicken with good old Southern hospitality you can only get from Colonel Sanders.

Because of the Cuba War, paranoid suspicion of Cuban sabotage (the war started, partially, when a plane was shot down, after all) led to the landing gear on that plane being better inspected, and that day at that airport went on without incident (I really should mention that in some chapter, shouldn't I? (I'll make a note of it))!
Wouldn't the plane have still crashed then? It was most likely an elevator motor failure that caused it so landing gear would have nothing to do with that.
Actually, based on my research (example: ) Schnatter's comment was a false claim, in that the Colonel was not a racist (as pointed out in the sources in earlier chapters). Old stereotypes die hard, I guess.

Yeah, I thought that was a false claim, given how he's portrayed here, and that jerk deserved everything he got; no wonder the Colonel's family and many Kentuckians were pissed off at him...

And another tip to the now-former CEO: stay out of KFC for the rest of your life...

With regards to the Orly plane crash, yeah, that is a butterflyable disaster; it wiped out many of Atlanta's elite and affected the city for many years to come (only two Air France stewardesses survived the disaster and they were seated in the very rear of the plane, which had broken off before the plane's final explosion; while they managed to walk away, a steward who had also survived initially died of his injuries)…

Oh, yeah, Malcolm X also got into hot water for a statement where he celebrated the air crash victims' deaths, saying (basically) that it a "blessing from God." By the time of his death, though, he regretted making that statement...
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Chapter 15: June 1962 – December 1962
Chapter 15: June 1962 – December 1962

“This used to be a government of checks and balances. Now it’s all checks and no balances.”

– Gracie Allen, 1940

Due to the extent of the crash site when viewed by spy planes, the Navy had presumed me KIA. Joe would later tell me that the family reacted to the news of me being shot down and likely gone forever in a variety of ways, albeit all typical. “Father was despondent, Sis was beside herself, and I started pickin’ fights in school. Mother was the strongest of us, though. She just I never gave up hope. ‘No body was recovered or even spotted,’ Mom would repeatedly remind us. ‘I would know if my child was gone. I would sense it.’”

– Admiral John McCain’s Boldly Into Hell: A Firsthand Account of Four Decades of American Warfare, Random House, 1996

“Good evening, America. Just a few hours ago, I received confirmation of a pivotal event in our military presence in Cuba… Earlier today, at precisely 1400 hours, or 2-o’clock PM, the United States Air Force conducted an air raid on the headquarters of operations of Communist leader Fidel Castro, and his brother, Raul Castro. The commanding officer of the operation tells me it was a spectacular and valiant fight, but our planes defeated theirs, and their location was leveled. No high-ranking Communist leaders inside the base survived. Not even the Castro brothers, whose bodies have been identified among the other charred remains, and are being secured as I speak. Tonight, believers of democracy in Americans and the world may rest a little easier, knowing that we have may a critical step down the path to assuring freedom for the people of Cuba. The free people of Cuba are now one major closer to reclaiming their island home… God bless you all, God Bless America, and have a pleasant evening.”

– President Lyndon B. Johnson, televised address to the nation, 6/15/1962


– President Lyndon B. Johnson during a televised address, 6/15/1962

The emptying of our magazines console us in this time of sadness and anger. …Fidel, Raul, Sergio, Ramon, [1] all murdered by the cold-blooded capitalist pigs… I again met with Celia and Vilma [1] today; they still fear for the future of our island. Indeed, already their passing is widening internal management issues. Without Fidel and Raul, Che and Cam are uncertain on how to move forward. Split on how to proceed, the two have begun arguing more and more often, on matters ranging from pivotal to trivial, and in tone ranging from subtle remarks to intense and violent shouting matches. Just tonight, tension rose between the two iconic leaders of the people’s movement, the last half of Cuba’s “Group of Four,” as they discussed proper guerilla tactics – scorched-earth policies, aerial attacks, and sabotage in areas firmly held by the enemy – and whether we should fight a war of attrition or a war of espionage. Che believes all ideas should be tried no matter how morally grey they may be for the good of the cause. Cam disagrees, believing attacking Cubans that are traitorous American sympathizers will only strengthen their numbers. Cam wants to attack Americans with swift ferocity, but leave non-Americans alone. Che is calling for an increase in aerial defense measures. And don’t get me started on which one is technically the new leader of the country; we’ve made no proclamation yet, we just don’t know. So this came up in the talk, too. This discussion devolved into a verbal brawl over what Fidel would have wanted. Each accused the other of wanting to be disloyal to Fidel’s vision, with Che storming out, fury still lingering on his face. I am worried. The tensions are beginning to drip down to the other men. The soldiers are starting to suspect each other of most being loyal enough. Most just want to stay out of the strategy of it all and just follow the orders when they get them. Others simply know that now is not the time for internal disputes, but even still, I think some are taking sides. I hope a reconciliation can occur between the two men, and very soon, too. But, I do not worry too much. I do not believe that our great struggle for freedom could possibly be deterred by petty infighting.

– 17 June 1962 entry of The Diary of the Unknown Fighter, published 1996


…None of the 87 passengers and 8 crew members survived… “In light of the Cuban Communist’s prior attacks American civilian aircraft, there is reason to believe that American Airlines Flight 1 was the target of another attack by them,” reported Federal Aviation Agency Administrator Najeeb Halaby at a press conference earlier today. He continued “To better ensure the safety and freedom of all Americans, and with the permission of President Johnson, I am calling for an increase in security measures at all American airports.” An investigation is currently underway to determine the still-unknown cause of the crash…

– The New York Times, 6/17/1962


Huntsville, AL - …the suspects are known members of the John Birch Society, a rigidly conservative group which has seen an increase in member openness and connections to racial violence since the passing of the Civil Rights Act back in April. Local police are advising citizens to cooperate with the authorities… The men and women performing a “sit-in” at the local malt shop are part of a growing trend in American youth, a form of activism rooted in beatnik culture that is growing as troops continue to be sent into Cuba… “We are beatniks, friend,” said one youngster in Huntsville, “but we are new, like, we think snapping figures just won’t cut it anymore, so we sit and picket to shout out our concerns to the world. We’re shouting beatniks; we’re shoutniks.”

– The Sacramento Union (Ted Kennedy’s newspaper), 6/19/1962

SAVIO: We were growing in size and relevance, and so many of us were evolving into something more than the standard “café beatniks” of the late ’50s. College students, the children born at the start of World War Two, were beginning to realize the value of human life and the destruction of the war raging just 70 miles from home. 1962 was when we began protesting the draft, though it would not catch so much media attention and latch onto the public’s mind until later. In the meantime, passionate young activists adopting the moniker “shoutniks” mobilized. We demonstrated with sit-ins and picket lines, marching and cementing ourselves to the floors of one place for hours on end. That’s how we determined the loyalists from the fair-weather wish-washy people. Diana Oughton, for instance, was a genuine anti-war activist student at another college, and drove several hours to participate in a draft protest here in San Francisco. As did Murray Bookchin, then a 40-year-old self-described “socialist anarchist” from Vermont. These were the sort of true believers that made the movement what it came to be.

HOST: Well, and I suppose you did play a small role, too. >chuckle<

SAVIO: >chuckle< I guess!

– Mario Savio, KPFB 89.3 FM radio interview, 1/30/1985 broadcast


Birmingham, AL – Yesterday’s primary runoff to determine whom will be the next Governor of Alabama ended earlier today after George Wallace was declared the winner, edging out conservative favorite Bull Connor in an upset. In the June 24 [2] runoff, Wallace received 306,085 votes (50.19%) while Connor received 304,377 votes (49.91%). The fight between Connor and Wallace, each representing two different depictions of how Alabama should be, cme about after the results of the June 3 [2] primary. That election’s results are as follows:

Bull Connor – 240,570 votes (37.75%)
George Wallace – 218,646 votes (34.31%)
Tom Bevill – 78,066 votes (12.25%)
MacDonald Gallion – 61,371 votes (9.63%)
J. Bruce Henderson – 16,378 votes (2.57%)
Wayne Jennings – 15,549 votes (2.44%)
Albert Boutwell – 7,392 votes (1.16%)
Total votes: 637,273

In both elections, Wallace was endorsed by the NAACP like he was in his 1958 governorship bid. Wallace proclaimed segregation to be a dead issue in the wake of the Civil Right bill becoming law. “It is time for Alabama to move on and join the rest of the south in accepting the disassembling of segregation,” he said in a speech last week. Wallace’s campaign initially feared a split in the anti-Connor vote would cost him the primary race due to the candidacy of prominent fellow moderate Ryan DeGraffenried. However, DeGraffenried left the race in March, shortly after his wife was injured in a car accident, and his name was removed from the ballot. This, alongside Connor’s bombastic, uncouth and polarizing campaign style, arguably helped Wallace advance to the runoff in a way that was much easier than initially expected.

Victory in last night’s election, though, was victory in essentially becoming the state’s next Governor, with the general election being no more than a mere formality – the Republicans have chosen to not field a candidate for that race, leaving just one other person (an independent named Frank Walls) to oppose Wallace on the November ballot. This all but confirms that Wallace will become the state’s next governor, succeeding conservative incumbent Governor Patterson in January of next year.

The Tuscaloosa News, Alabama newspaper, 6/24/1962

June 25, 1962

Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Dear sis,

I hope this letter find you well.

Okay, that should cover the formalities – now let’s get down to business. My work here among the Cuban War refugees has led to many contacts and many ideas. There’s a sweet young man here named Jerry (I forget his last name – it’s a color, like Green or White) and he has shown me how few jobs are available here for these people, to say nothing of their deteriorating dietary conditions. But it is due to our gastric knowledge that I write this letter. I believe Kentucky Fried Chicken should do whatever it can to contribute to the relief efforts down here. We could certainly be of more help than that egg-headed in Tallahassee, Governor Bryant – oh, what a horrid man!

To conclude, upon my return to Florence next week we must sit down and discuss how best to assist our fellow lovers of democracy.

Your younger (and prettier – hey, mirrors don’t lie!) sister,


– A letter from Margaret Sanders to Mildred Sanders, during an excursion made by the latter to rural West Virginia where letters were more reliable than telephone lines (according to Margaret Sanders), public record, retrieved 2019

LBJ ORDERS FEDERAL AGENCIES TO ENFORCE THE CRA: Calls For Peace After Weeks Of Sporadic Outbursts Of Racial Violence Nationwide

– San Diego Union-Tribune, 6/25/1962

In March 1962, Justice Whittaker told President Johnson that he had decided to retire from the bench. He had been serving for only five years, but he had already had enough of the workload, and had determined that he would step down as soon as the 1962 CRA passed. On April 5, Whittaker stepped down, and Johnson immediately leaped at the opportunity to reshape the court, and – ignoring suggestions from some of his advisors to consider any other candidate – chose to nominate a longtime friend and political ally to the seat: Abe Fortas.

While never serving as a judge before, Abraham Fortas (1910-1982) nevertheless possessed an impressive resume – law professor at Yale, worked in several positions under FDR, helped assemble the UN as a Harry Truman-appointed delegate. He also was an advisor to Johnson’s US Attorney General, represented Johnson in a 1948 election dispute, and worked on many high-profile cases during the 1950s such as Owen Lattimore’s. Upon nominating Fortas for the seat on April 29, Johnson was certain that any opposition to the selection, be it over genuine concern for Fortis’s credentials or political grudges over Johnson signing into law the 1962 CRA, would be minimal.

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s The Warren Court and the Pursuit of Justice (Third Edition), Sunrise Publishing, 2010


…The main concern was summed up by Senator Carlson (R-KS): “who will Mr. Fortas work for: the Constitution, or the President?” Fortas’s answer: “The people”…

– The Washington Post, 6/28/1962

McDONALD’S COMES TO COLORADO; First Spot in State Welcomes Founder Ray Kroc

The Denver Post, 6/30/1962


[pic: ]

– Colonel Sanders promoting KFC outlets of the "Greater St. Louis and Illinois" area, c. early July 1962


– The Washington Post, 7/2/1962

“Richard, back in the 1920s, I was a schoolteacher at a segregated school for Mexican children who were too impoverished to ever even dream of going to college [3], and during that time I was witness to the forms of poverty that Mexicans and Americans are still living in throughout this country. It is an injustice to keep children from the vital tool of school, the tool needed for reaching one’s full potential. So forgive me if I seem to be a bit partial to this here anti-poverty law that y’all keep holding up. It’s just that people are living in this country like they’re peasants in the f#@king USSR! We must be better than those negligent f#@kheads, and that starts with doing what we can to eliminate starvation, illiteracy, and chronic unemployment from as much of America as we can. This legislation will be our declaration of war on destitution in America, a law that the children of this country will be forever grateful for. And a law that’ll surely stick it to all the Reds overseas, and will bring in a new generation of Democrats nationwide!”

– Lyndon B. Johnson in phone call to US Senator Richard B. Russell Jr., recorded by Johnson 7/3/1962 [4]


…the Community Improvement Bill, has been in development since last year, and effects several government agencies and administrations…

The New York Times, 7/22/1962

My fears that the fighting between Che and Cam, an unnecessary chasm caused by their aggressive personalities and philosophies, has led to a split within the guerilla forces, threatening to complicate this war. I do not think we can win if my fellow Cuban patriots separately fight the capitalist pigs in two separate camps. Both sides not engaging or even really communicating with each other that often. Instead, Cam’s soldiers and Cam’s soldiers work independently of each other to repel The Grave Enemy. Camilo and I lament Che’s inability to compromise. The last time I saw them together, talk over an air strike harming loyal villagers lead to a wrestling match around the dirt. Before diving off in his jeep, Che called Camilo a traitor. Cam believes the exact same thing about Che.

– 23 July 1962 entry of The Diary of the Unknown Fighter, published 1996


Sydney, NSW – The first Kentucky Fried Chicken outlet in Australia opened today in the Sydney suburb of Guildford. The very founder himself of the famous American fast-food chain, Col. Harland Sanders, attended the opening ceremony of the city’s latest take-out-only American import. American food staples catching on is nothing new – during WWII, American army-men stopping by to fight Japan introduced us to hamburgers and rotisserie chicken [5]. The chicken serves, however, is a new taste sensation thanks to the Colonel’s unique frying style and secret blend of eleven herbs and spices… Sanders, together with local businessman Jack Cowin, seem determined to transform the city with the introduction of more options into the still-minor fast-food market in Sydney [5]. Judging by the massive crowd at the ceremony, their goal had merit.

– The Australian, 22/7/1962

– A commercial concerning KFC coming to Australia, c. July 1962


[ ]
– Colonel Sanders tries his first Australian meat pie at Harry’s Café de Wheels in Woolloomooloo [6]

GOLDWATER: What amazes me is how Cuba is slowly starting to become a mess.

UDALL: I disagree, Barry, the death of two of their most important leaders has had the Communists on the defense.

GOLDWATER: But nobody – on both sides of the aisle – is talking about the rise in casualties and millions of dollars lost in military property damaged or lost. And by the way, Castro’s gang never should have been able to even hit Guantanamo in the first place. Miami. Why couldn’t our planes or anti-aircraft weapons intercept the planes in time? Under my watch, they never would have been so irresponsibly sluggish.

MODERATOR: Well at least we’re progressing to this war’s conclusion. According to Defense, the island should be secured by Christmas or so.

GOLDWATER: Yeah, that’s another thing, Mo – this whole war should been all wrapped up by now! What in blazes are the boys in the Johnson administration doing dragging this thing out? I tell you, if I had been elected in 1960, that island would be covered with American flags by now, and not just the Castro brothers but his whole entire gang would be buried at the bottom of the Atlantic. When you invade a nation, you plan it out, and execute it quickly.

UDALL: Well, things don’t always go as planned in war times, Barry. The Castro brothers certainly weren’t planning on getting blown to bits, that’s for sure.

– US Senator Barry Goldwater and US Representative Morris Udall, KYCA’s 7/30/1962 radio broadcast

Arkansas’s U.S. Senate Democratic Primary, 7/31/1962:
J. William Fulbright – 216,559 (56.73%)
Winston G. Chandler – 165,179 (43.27%)
Total votes cast: 381,738
Turnout: 21.48% total population


I’m not sure how it happened. Rumored are circling like flies on a donkey’s ass. Either Rafael [del Pino] fired first or Juan [Almeida Bosque] attacked him. Either they were arguing or one of them jumped out from the bushes. But none of it matters. What matters is Juan is dead, and the most clear fact after is that Rafael shot him. I knew both men; they both close friends of Fidel. But recently, they had split over how to defeat The Grave Enemy. Rafael had become a Cam supporter, while the older Juan sided with Che. I fear that it will now be even more difficult to reconcile the two factions of our fight now that we have begun to shed each others’ blood. I pray for all of us now, and for all of Cuba.

– 1 August 1962 entry of The Diary of the Unknown Fighter, published 1996

HAVANA LIBERATED! US TROOPS MARCH INTO CUBAN CAPITAL: Major Leaders Still At Large, Suspected To Have Fled During Spectacular Fight For The City

– The Miami Herald, 8/4/1962

Aug 5 1962: on this day in history, Nelson Mandela and Cecil Williams, two activists and members of the anti-apartheid A.N.C. party, are captured by South African police for inciting worker’s strikes; the two are found guilty and sentenced to five years in prison. Their times in jail are extended considerably after a second unrelated trial finds them guilty of treason in 1964.



…The push into the mountainous hinterland is being coordinated and led by Air Force General Scratchy Brown and Army General William Westmoreland... Brown is more cautious of “burn the house to get out the rats” approach, believing carpet-bombing may lead to anti-American resentment. Army Major General Edwin Walker disagrees, believing Westmoreland’s tactics are the “bolder” initiatives needed to “get the commie out of the mountains”… Intelligence officers report back that the uncoordinated response to the push into Havana was due to an ally of Che being killed by an unidentified Cam ally within the past week, increasing distrust between the two camps. Now more aggressive to each other than before, the island is basically split into three parts – Cienfuegos supporters, Democratists, and Guevara supporters… Navy Secretary John B. Connally emphasized the need to defeat the Communists before the Cam and Che factions have a chance to reconcile: “Their infighting situation is dooming their revolution to failure thanks to the lack of clear leadership among their own ranks.” Brown adds proudly, “we’ve really got them on the un now!”

– Tad Szulc, New York Times Special Report, 8/11/1962

At noon, Cam was called away for a message from the Soviets. Another shipment of arms had been delayed due to “internal issues” and “traffic congestion.” We all know the truth. The splintering of the revolution is an embarrassment to the Soviets – the Sino-Soviet split, the rebels in central Europe, the need to build a ridiculous wall, the US’s Jupiter missiles set up in Turkey, and now our struggle not going exactly as they had planned. As if war ever goes exactly as planned. “They are cutting us loose. If we can’t convince Mao to lend a hand…We are on our own, left to our own devices to see the light of freedom shine through this, our darkest hours.” Cam may seem more lugubrious than angry at the moment, but I know him well. Beneath the somber speech is a man determined and resourceful. I still believe in him.

– 15 August 1962 entry of The Diary of the Unknown Fighter, published 1996

The situation in Cuba was not satisfactory at all. It looked like we had picked a dud. Without the Castro brothers, their followers were directionless imbeciles. Reports showed that some of the less…patriotic Cubans were beginning to express doubt in the revolution. The proletariat were already growing dissatisfied with Khrushchev’s leadership endeavors, and questioning his capabilities increased. First after the Kitchen debate and again after the shoe-pounding incident, an ideological expansion snafu this severe, we feared, could be a nail in Khrushchev’s political coffin, to use an American phrase. We initially decided to see if we could cut our losses, but the military admonished us for that, so we backpedaled on this decision fairly quickly and sent the weapons and aid Guevara sought. However, the hesitance was still enough for Che and Cienfuegos to remain suspicious of our commitment to their fight. We feared that if any more territory was seized in Cuba, Khrushchev and I would quickly find ourselves, at the absolutely least, jobless…

– Anastas Mikoyan’s The Path of Struggle: The Memoirs of Anastas Mikoyan (English translation), Sphinx Press, 1988 (written in 1978)


...the landmark legislation establishes two new national health insurance programs called Medicare and Medicaid. The former is for the elderly and the latter is for the poor. Medicare is a basic program of hospital insurance for Americans aged 65 and older, in addition to being a supplementary medical insurance program to aid elderly Americans in paying doctor bills and other healthcare bills. These programs will be funded by a new tax on employee earnings, which will be matched by contributions by employers...

The Washington Post, 8/16/1962


The Las Vegas Review Journal, 8/25/1962


Birmingham, AL – NAACP leaders said today that they will not obey an injunction banning “racial demonstrations” in Birmingham… A statement today by Negro leader Ralph Abernathy reads “we cannot in all good conscience obey such an injunction which is an unjust, undemocratic and unconstitutional misuse of the legal process. We have come too far to yield to something like this.” …

The Tuscaloosa News, 8/27/1962


[ ]
– Colonel Sanders celebrating his 72nd birthday, 9/9/1962

To prove his influence, Johnson sought to recruit a conservative establishment loyalist to oppose Senator Talmadge in the Democratic primary. He found a willing candidate in John William Davis (1916-1992), a freshman U.S. Congressman from the state’s third district. Initially expecting Davis to pull in no more than 15%, Johnson began to believe Davis could actually pull in as much as 30% after Senator Fulbright of Arkansas defeated a surprisingly strong Johnson-backed moderate primary challenger weeks prior to Georgia’s own primary. Davis began campaigning with more enthusiasm and managed to effectively spend an impressively large war chest, while Talmadge brushed him off as “inevitably the loser here;” thus Talmadge did little, if not any, actual campaigning for the election. Neither Davis nor Johnson expected the final results, which indeed highlighted the influence the Commander-in-Chief still had concerning Senate goings-on nationwide.

– A State of Change: Georgia Politics In the Twentieth Century (2nd Edition), Textico Publishing, 2013

Georgia’s U.S. Senate Democratic Primary, 9/12/1962:
John William Davis – 391,673 (51.17%)
Herman Talmadge – 346,131 (45.22%)
Henry M. Henderson – 27,632 (3.61%)
Total votes cast: 765,436
Turnout: 19.41% Total Population


“She Can Do More For Massachusetts”

– Eunice Shriver for Senate slogan, 1962


Boston, MA – …Shriver won last night by a plurality of 48%. In a 4-candidate race, Shriver’s main opponent, state Attorney General Eddie McCormack, came in second place with 42%, the remaining 10% being split almost evenly between the other 2 candidates… McCormack had sought to paint Shriver as inexperienced, and claimed often she would “merely be a puppet for her brother,” the U.S. Secretary of State, Jack Kennedy, whom once held the seat. Shriver fought against the accusations with a more positive campaign focusing more on statewide issues than attacking her fellow Democrats. …Perhaps the most influential part of the race came in the form of McCormack’s aggressive performance during a televised debate; polls taken after the debate showed potential voters thought his performance was “too overbearing” and “mean,” especially when compared to Shriver, whom many agreed remained “composed” and “honest” throughout the entire debate…

– The Boston Globe, 9/19/1962

Massachusetts State Party Senatorial Primaries, 9/18/1962:

Republican Primary Results:
George Cabot Lodge II – 244,921 (55.49%)
Laurence Curtis – 196,444 (44.51%)
Total votes cast: 441,365

Democratic Primary Results:
Eunice Kennedy Shriver – 386,817 (47.95%)
Edward J. McCormack Jr. – 341,319 (42.31%)
George J. O’Shea – 42,030 (5.21%)
William K. Hefner – 36,544 (4.53%)
Write-ins – 22 (0.00%)
Total votes cast: 806,732



The Clarion-Ledger, Mississippi newspaper, 9/25/1962

This is Walter Cronkite in the news room, where the name of the alleged attempted assassin of President Johnson has just been released: Byron De La Beckwith, age 41, of Greenwood, Mississippi. I would like to remind viewers that as an American like you and me, he has the right to a fair trial, and is innocent until proven guilty …A salesman with ties to the Ku Klux Klan and a member of the White Citizens’ Council, an anti-integration organization in the South, De La Beckwith travelled to the Windy City on the 24th, the day after the President arrived there to meet with Mayor Daley. The next day, De La Beckwith was found by a security guard beginning to assemble a rifle near an open window in the building across the street from the hotel at which the President was staying, and was taken into police custody. According to one anonymous member of the Greenwood Police Department, upon inspection of Mr. De La Beckwith’s Greenwood home, local police discovered De La Beckwith personal journal, in which he describes his anger at President Johnson for supporting Civil Rights, and even expressed interest in attempting to overthrow the United States government. As of now, however, Mr. De La Beckwith claims innocence, but has given no known explanation for what he was doing assembling a rifle across from the President’s location.

– CBS’s Walter Cronkite, 9/27/1962 report

27 September 1962: Houghton Mifflin publishers publish Rachel Carson’s in-depth “Silent Spring” treatise; it becomes a groundbreaking best-seller that fuels popular interest in environmental protection and pro-environment legislation nationwide.


Johnson’s second opportunity to alter the composition of the Supreme Court arose on September 30, 1962, when Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter suffered a fatal stroke. This left only eight justices remaining – Hugo Black, William Brennan, Tom Clark, William Douglas, newcomer Abe Fortas, John Harlan, Chief Justice Warren, and Potter Stewart. Feeling his domestic policies were safe with the majority-liberal Supreme Court, President Johnson was more open to suggestions from advisors for whom he should nominate. One advisor suggested Leon Higginbotham Jr., a 34-year-old African-American lawyer from Pennsylvania whom was involved in writing the Civil Rights Act while working under Johnson’s Attorney General, as a “bold” choice. Johnson reportedly replied “Too soon; the Dixiecratic bastards gave me hell for the Civil Rights Act and they’ll give me more of it if a Black is put on the Supreme Court only months later. No, we’ll put a Black on the Supreme Court later on.” Ladybird Johnson then suggested picking a woman for the bench, leading to 37-year-old prosecutor Shirley Hufstedler of California and 66-year-old Judge Sarah T. Hughes of Texas being considered. According to Ramsey Clark, “Johnson seemed to personally prefer Homer Thornberry, a U.S. Congressman from Texas, and he seemed like a safe choice.” After several talks with Ladybird, though, Johnson allegedly told aide Bobby Baker “Picking a woman could help me win over woman voters in ’64. Besides, at 66, Hughes may not even serve on the bench for that long.”

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s The Warren Court and the Pursuit of Justice (Third Edition), Sunrise Publishing, 2010


The Houston Chronicler, 10/5/1962

“Up until now, I was a fairly frequent traveler. Even after Flight 1 crashed, I was still determined to continue travelling by air. That is, until the airports changed. Suddenly it has become more and more inconvenient to fly. Before the changes, you did not have go through so many ridiculous regulations. I could not believe it when a few weeks back they asked me to raise my arms so they could pat me down, like some common criminal, to make sure I was not carrying anything like a bomb or some weapon on board. The nerve! And don’t even get me started on the longer lines…

– Katharine Caroline Bleckley (1892-1975) [7], recorded for CBS report, 10/12/1962

During the final weeks of the 1962 mid-term races, Sanders turned to the newer political side of his life at the request of his political colleagues, and campaigned for several candidates. The Colonel had proven himself to be an effective asset to any campaign – all of the candidates he endorsed in Kentucky in 1960 won their respective races, which impressed national Republican party bosses. Campaigns in other states sought to repeat the “Colonel Touch” for their respective candidates, and soon the Colonel found himself flying to Wisconsin to back Senator Wiley, and next to James Marin in Alabama and the to New Hampshire for Senator Cotton. …At a rally in South Dakota for Senator Bottum, Sanders remarked, “Joseph and I are a lot alike – both of us never, ever give up on anything. When Joseph first ran for a big public office, for Governor a while back, he lost. But that didn’t discourage him. He ran for Congress a short time later and lost that race, too, but he still did not give up. Eventually, he became Lieutenant Governor and now Senator, all because of persistence. And why? Because he never gave up on the people of his state! He wanted to do right by the good people of South Dakota, and a man with moxie never quits his passion when things get tryin’. I will always work in the interest of my customers and employees, and Joe Bottum will always work in the interest of y’all. It’s like what his campaign buttons say – ‘You can bet your Bottum dollar on him!’” …By mid-October, the Colonel had stumped for over 50 Congressional candidates.

– Anne Meagher Northup’s Chicken and Politickin’: the Rise of Colonel Sanders and Rational Conservatism in the Republican Party, 2015

After another political stopover in Utah, Father more red in the face than usual. It was such a busy day for him he had to lie down. After I brought him some water, he said to me, “Son, I’m startin’ to face the fact that I’m startin’ to get plum tuckered out.”

“I think maybe you should take a break from the political stump.”

“It’s not just that, it’s also that airport I’m trying to build. The FAA have been draggin’ their feet on approvin’ it for weeks, now, thanks to L.B.J.’s damn government overreach laws seeping into every type of business you can think of!”

I tried to change the subject with “Well, I saw you talking to the regional director for Texas the other day. Maybe you should invite over an ol’ franchisee or two for old times’ sake?”

“Oh, don’t remind me!” he exclaimed with the roll of his eyes.

“What?” I asked.

Father explained with a sigh, “I used to be able to name all our franchisees, and even most of the head managers, but now I’ve taken to keepin’ several rolodexes! I’m realizing that a business this big can never be personal, at least not for all involved.” He looked at me for a beat, then continued, “Harley, you and Millie have been doing a marvelous job runnin’ the store. How’d you like to man the horses, too?”

Father relinquished more responsibilities regarding daily company responsibilities on to Harley and Millie that month. I was reluctant to take on more control, but Father insisted.

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991

“It may seem like only yesterday, but it has been two and a half months since our capital was overwhelmed by the enemy’s forces. This has been nothing more than a fluke. The true Cubans will persevere regardless. For the imperialist warmongers will never imprison the people of Cuba! All they have done is obtain just enough luck to occupy our buildings, but not our hearts. They have overrun our universities but not our clear-as-ever minds. They may have taken one city, but they can never take our inextinguishable spirit!”

– Che Guevara, 10/19/1962 radio broadcast

Finally, some progress! We successfully blew up a major collection of American troops near Sagua la Grande! The chaos was glorious. We cannot do anything about their presence only 90 miles from our shores, but we sure as hell will make them return to their shores!

– 1 November 1962 entry of The Diary of the Unknown Fighter, published 1996

…despite the formation of small groups of young anti-war activists on certain college campuses across the country, a vast majority of Americans still support America’s involvement in Cuba, according to polls taken in the aftermath of last week’s Communist Cuban attack on American troops in Sagua la Grande, Cuba, which killed 83 U.S. soldiers and 32 pro-DRF/US Cuban civilians. ...It has been suggested that sympathy for the lives lost in this attack may influence the results of tonight’s midterm elections, as American voters nationwide line up to weigh in on matters on the local, statewide, and national level. …Some analysts believe that the Republicans will fare very well in the Senate, pointing to the G.O.P. coordinating and funding numbers, along with numerous candidate endorsements from personalities such as former Screen Actors’ Guild President Ronald Reagan, former Governor Colonel Sanders, Hollywood actor John Wayne, and former Vice-President Richard Nixon. These men and others had zigzagged across the country shoring up support for several candidates. Tonight, we may see how effective they were…

– Walter Cronkite, CBS Evening News, 11/6/1962 broadcast

United States Senate election results, 1962

Date: November 6, 1962
Seats: 40 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Mike Mansfield (D-MT)
Senate minority leader: Everett Dirksen (R-IL)
Seats before election: 64 (D), 36 (R)
Seats after election: 62 (D), 38 (R)
Seat change: D v 2, R ^ 2

Full List:
Alabama: James D. Martin (R) over John G. Crommelin (D) and incumbent J. Lister Hill (I) [8]
Alaska: incumbent Ernest Gruening (D) over Ted Stevens (R)
Arizona: incumbent Carl Hayden (D) over Evan Mecham (R)
Arkansas: incumbent J. William Fulbright (D) over Kenneth Jones (R)
California: incumbent Thomas H. Kuchel (R) over Richard Richards (D)
Colorado: incumbent John A. Carroll (D) over Peter H. Dominick (R)
Connecticut: Abraham A. Ribicoff (D) over Horace Seely-Brown (R)
Florida: incumbent George A. Smathers (D) over Emerson Rupert (R)
Georgia: John William Davis (D) over incumbent Herman Talmadge (I)
Hawaii: Daniel K. Inouye (D) over Ben Dillingham (R)
Idaho: incumbent Frank Church (D) over Jack Hawley (R)
Idaho (special): Gracie Pfost (D) over incumbent Len Jordan (R)
Illinois: incumbent Everett Dirksen (R) over Sidney R. Yates (D)
Indiana: Birch Bayh (D) over incumbent Homer Capehart (R)
Iowa: incumbent Bourke B. Hickenlooper (R) over E. B. Smith (D)
Kansas: incumbent Frank Carlson (R) over K. L. Smith (D)
Kansas (special): incumbent James B. Pearson (R) over Paul L. Aylward (D)
Kentucky: incumbent Thruston B. Morton (R) over Wilson W. Wyatt (R)
Louisiana: incumbent Russell B. Long (D) over Taylor W. O’Hearn (R)
Maryland: Daniel J. Brewster (D) over Edward T. Miller (R)
Massachusetts (special): Eunice Kennedy Shriver (D) over George Cabot Lodge II (R) and H. Stuart Hughes (I)
Missouri: Edward V. Long (D) over Crosby Kemper (R)
Missouri (special): incumbent Albert S. J. Carnahan (D) over William C. Cole (R)
Nevada: incumbent Alan Bible (D) over William B. Wright (R)
New Hampshire: incumbent Norris Cotton (R) over Alfred Catalfo Jr. (D)
New Hampshire (special): incumbent Maurice J. Murphy (R) over Thomas J. McIntyre (D)
New York: incumbent Jacob K. Javits (R) over James B. Donovan (D)
North Carolina: incumbent Sam Ervin (D) over Claude L. Greene Jr. (R)
North Dakota: incumbent Milton R. Young (R) over William Lanier (D)
Ohio: incumbent Frank L. Lausche (D) over John M. Briley (R)
Oklahoma: incumbent Mike Monroney (D) over Hayden Crawford (R)
Oregon: incumbent Wayne Morse (D) over Sig Unander (R)
Pennsylvania: incumbent Joseph S. Clark (D) over James E. Van Zandt (R)
South Carolina: incumbent Olin B. Johnston (D) over W. D. Workman Jr. (R)
South Dakota: incumbent Joseph H. Bottum (R) over George McGovern (D) [9]
Utah: incumbent Wallace F. Bennett (R) over David S. King (D)
Vermont: incumbent George D. Aiken (R) over W. Robert Johnson (D)
Washington: incumbent Warren G. Magnuson (D) over Richard G. Christensen (R)
Wisconsin: incumbent Alexander Wiley (R) over Gaylord Nelson (D)
Wyoming (special): Milward L. Simpson (R) over incumbent John J. Hickey (D)


“MRS. SENATOR”: Eunice Kennedy Shriver Wins Senate Seat; Will Be The First Woman Senator From The Bay State

…the only other candidate of significance in the race was Harvard University professor H. Stuart Hughes. Hughes participated in several debates with Lodge and Shriver, where he showcased his views. As Hughes, who is performing well in most polls, strongly favors nuclear disarmament and other liberal policies, exit polls suggest Hughes pulled more voters away from Shriver than from Lodge by a 2-to-1 margin. That advantageous statistic still was not enough for Lodge to win edge out a win, instead losing by a 10-point margin...

– The Boston Globe, 11/7/1962 [11]



United States Senate special election, Massachusetts, results:
Eunice Kennedy Shriver (Democratic) – 990,652 (47.24%)
George Cabot Lodge II (Republican) – 770,251 (36.73%)
H. Stuart Hughes (Independent) – 329,411 (15.71%)
Perennial Lawrence Gilfedder (Socialist Labor) – 5,330 (0.25%)
Perennial Mark R. Shaw (Prohibition) – 1,417 (0.07%)
Total votes cast: 2,097,061



[pic: ]
– US Secretary of State Jack Kennedy congratulating his sister, political activist Eunice Kennedy Shriver, on winning election to the US Senate, 11/7/1962


…Back in December 1960, Senator Humphrey resigned to become Vice-President, causing Governor Orville Freeman to appoint 72-year-old retiring Congressman Roy Wier to the Senate until a special election could be end, per the rules of the state constitution. The state’s Attorney General since 1960, Walter Mondale won by a comfortable margin...

– The Star-Tribune, Minnesota newspaper, 11/7/1962

United States House of Representatives results, 1962
Date: November 6, 1962
Seats: All 437
Seats needed for majority: 219
House majority leader: John McCormack (D-MA)
House minority leader: Charles Halleck (R-IN)
Lest election: 256 (D), 181 (R)
Seats won: 254 (D), 183 (R)
Seat change: D v 2, R ^ 2 [10]



– The Sacramento Bee, 11/6/1962

United States Governor election results, 1962

Date: November 6, 1962
State governorships:
Seats before: 35 (D), 15 (R)
Seats after: 36 (D), 14 (R)
Seat change: D ^ 1, R v 1

Full List:
Alabama: George Wallace (D) over Frank P. Walls (R)
Alaska: Mike Stepovich (R) over incumbent William Allen Egan (D)
Arizona: incumbent Paul Fannin (R) over Samuel P. Goddard Jr. (D)
Arkansas: incumbent Orval Faubus (D) over Willis Ricketts (R)
California: incumbent Pat Brown (D) over Joe Shell (R)
Colorado: John A. Love (R) over incumbent Stephen McNichols (D)
Connecticut: John N. Dempsey (D) over John deKoven Alsop (R)
Georgia: Carl E. Sanders (D) ran unopposed
Hawaii: John A. Burns (D) over incumbent William F. Quinn (R)
Idaho: Vernon K. Smith (D) over incumbent Robert E. Smylie (R)
Iowa: Harold Hughes (D) over incumbent Norman Erbe (R)
Kansas: incumbent John Anderson Jr. (R) over Dale Saffels (D)
Maine: incumbent John Reed (R) over Maynard C. Dolloff (D)
Maryland: incumbent J. Millard Tawes (D) over Frank Small Jr. (R)
Massachusetts: Endicott Peabody (D) over incumbent John Volpe (R)
Michigan: George W. Romney (R) over incumbent John Swainson (D)
Minnesota: Donald Orr Wright Sr. (R) over incumbent Orville Freeman (DFL)
Nebraska: incumbent Frank B. Morrison (D) over Frederick A. Seaton (R)
Nevada: incumbent Grant Sawyer (D) over Oran K. Grayson (R)
New Hampshire: John W. King (D) over John Pillsbury (R)
New Mexico: Jack M. Campbell (D) over incumbent Edwin L. Mechem (R)
New York: incumbent Nelson Rockefeller (R) over Robert M. Morgenthau (D)
North Dakota: incumbent William Guy (D) over Mark Andrews (R)
Ohio: Jim Rhodes (R) over incumbent Michael DiSalle (D)
Oklahoma: Henry L. Bellmon (R) over W. P. Atkinson (D)
Oregon: incumbent Mark Hatfield (R) over Robert Y. Thornton (D) and Robert H. Wampler (I)
Pennsylvania: William Scranton (R) over Richardson Dilworth (D)
Rhode Island: incumbent John A. Norte Jr. (D) over John H. Chafee (R)
South Carolina: Donald Russell (D) ran unopposed
South Dakota: Ralph Herseth (D) over incumbent Archie Gubbrud (R)
Tennessee: Frank G. Clement (D) over William R. Anderson (I) and Hubert David Patty (R)
Texas: incumbent Price Daniel (D) over Jack Cox (R)
Vermont: Philip H. Hoff (D) over incumbent F. Ray Keyser Jr (R)
Wisconsin: John W. Reynolds (D) over Philip G. Kuehn (R)
Wyoming: incumbent Jack R. Gage (D) over Clifford P. Hansen (R)


MIKE’S BACK!: Stepovich Elected Back to Governorship

Juneau, AK – In a rematch, incumbent Governor Bill Egan lost re-election in an upset to former Governor Mike Stepovich. Stepovich, whom was the Governor of Alaska Territory from 1957 to 1958, capitalized on local resentment for President Johnson’s expansion of the federal government’s regulation of local businesses successfully tied Egan to this unpopular domestic policy. Stepovich received backing by many state businesses as well, reportedly outspending Egan by a 2-to-1 margin...

– Anchorage Daily News, 11/7/1962


Sacramento, CA – Governor Brown won a second term over Republican candidate Joe Shell in a rebuke of conservatism… Shell’s endorsement from the John Birch Society likely hurt campaign among independents in the wake of an alleged affiliate of that group being arrested for allegedly plotting to assassinate President Johnson. Plus, Shell did not reach out to former Vice-President Nixon or Nixon’s backers after besting him for the G.O.P. nomination. This failure to make amends with inter-party anti-shell factions weakened Shell’s campaign’s ability to maintain a united front among Republican-leaning and possibly weakening Republican voter turnout.

Despite Shell losing, not all California’s rejected the John Birch Society – two members of the organization, H. L. “Bill” Richardson and John H. Rousselot, won election to the U.S. House of Representatives from…

…The approximate breakdown of last night’s election results are as follows:

Brown: received 3,229,852 votes (54.47%)
Shell: received 2,550,605 votes (43.02%)
Prohibition candidate Robert L. Wyckoff: received 106,140 votes (1.79%)
There were 125,115 (2.11%) invalid or blank votes. The total number of votes was approximately 5,929,602. Turnout was 57.5%.

…Other statewide elections were held on Tuesday as well. In the race for Lieutenant Governor, Republican challenger George Christopher, the Mayor of San Francisco from 1956 to 1964, won over the Democratic incumbent, Glenn M. Anderson. For California’s Secretary of State…

– Sacramento Bee, 11/7/1962

Shell’s loss vindicated Nixon, as could be seen in the sudden widespread use among Republicans of the utterance “Nixon would have won it.” Nixon himself, though, was conflicted over such a prospect. A few weeks after the election, Dick confessed to me that he considered the loss a sort of blessing in disguise.

“I don’t think I would have been happy as governor, the more I think about it. Two years of seat-warming and ribbon-cutting and fighting with s bunch of liberal state legislators over where to put the latest fire hydrants while the old men on the hill get to influence national foreign policy? No, my place is in the Senate. That’s more my speed; it’s where I excelled. And it’s a much better platform.” He began considering running for the US Senate again, potentially against incumbent Democratic Clair Engle in 1964. “But what about running for President that year?”

“I don’t know, John. Has a President ever lost re-election in the midst of commanding over both a popular war and a booming economy?”

“You could be the first.”

He shrugged, “Let’s just keep all cards on the table for now. We’ll see what happens.”

– John Ehrlichman’s Witness: What Went on Behind Closed Doors, Folkways Books, 1998


The Houston Chronicler, 11/13/1962

…Earlier today, federal district judge Sarah T. Hughes was sworn in to Justice Whittaker’s old seat on the United State Supreme Court, making her the first female justice ever to sit on Supreme Court bench. Hughes, whom began presiding over the US District Court for the Northern District of Texas in 1961, is a Texas Democrat known for supporting prison reform and expanding the involvement of and the role of women in the American workforce. Her ascension to the bench marks a historic moment for the Women's rights movement…

– NBC, 11/22/1962 broadcast


Not long ago, chicken was a costly delicacy in Europe; it was said that the European workingman ate a chicken only when either he or the bird was sick. Now chicken is common fare, and not just on Sunday. Much of the credit belongs to U.S. chicken farmers, who have brought down prices from Antwerp to Zurich by delivering frozen broilers to Europe at 30.5cents a lb. Last year the intake of chicken rose 23% in West Germany alone. Demand for chicken expanded briskly in the rest of Europe, and has resulted in a steady rise in agitation from European farmers against their American counterparts...

– Time Magazine, 11/30/1962 [12]

…the elated Secretary Litzenburg continued: “this major military operation has struck a serious blow to the supplies and morale of the Cuban communists”…

The New York Times, 12/13/1962

"We all lost family members in that war. My father, Alasdair Swanson, was shot down over Guaimaro on December 10, 1962, not long after the birth of my kid brother Andrew. I was three. My father died a hero taking fire to allow the rest of his formation to attack, leaving my mother, Carol Shepp Swanson, a widowed mother of two young boys. But through the help of family, friends, and the community, she survived and her children thrived. She worked hard every day so my brother and I would never starve. Hard work and heroism – these are the pillars of the Swanson family, and they are the cornerstones of a stronger and better America."

– US politician Doug Swanson (R-NV) at a Gold Star Families of America fundraiser in Mason City (IA), 11/16/2003

December 14, 1962

[location withheld], Cuba

Dear Mother,

Teaching Spanish to the translators instead of firing into the jungles is both a blessing and a curse. I seem safe from harm, and everyone here resents me for it. Their stares are almost as heavy as this island’s godforsaken weather. I try to participate in every way that I can, from transferring weapons across the base to inspections. It just makes me come off as a suck-up to the others. They want me to get out there and die or come back bloodied and writhing in pain like all those other men. I now responsible whenever a soldier returns injured or worse. I fear the unreal insanity of this island is beginning to unnerve and overwhelm me. They say this is glory, but to me it is an abyss, a struggle between the fears of death and social admonishment. I find no glory here.

The light at the end of the tunnel is the end of this conflict, which I hope will be soon – after all, that’s what everyone says about it – that it will all be over “soon”! “Soon” should get here faster.

Please write,


– letter from a military serviceperson to a family member, an example of many sent out during the Cuba War

December 19, 1962

Dear Mr. John Dewey Toole Jr. and Mrs. Thelma Ducoing Toole

On behalf of the Chief of Staff, United States Army, I regret to inform you of the untimely death of your son, sergeant John Kennedy Toole. He died on December 14, 1962, at camp in Guaimaro, as the result of injuries received while defending the base and personnel from aerial attack. His ultimate sacrifice will contribute to the success of this war. He gave his life for his country; take comfort in knowing your son died a hero. While further details are unavailable at this time, you will receive a letter from your son’s commanding officer with additional information… Once more, on behalf of the Chief of Staff, please accept the Army’s deepest condolences.


William Westmoreland, General, US Army

– letter to the next-of-kin of a KIA soldier, an example of many sent out during the Cuba War [13]

It was just after George had officially become Alabama’s Governor-elect. I felt unwell, but he was so busy meeting with NAACP leaders, I just went to the doctor without him. That’s how I found out that George had been keeping a cancer diagnosis a secret from me. I was so mad, I immediately went right down to his office, opened the door, picked up one of the chairs in front of his desk and threw it right at him. And it was a heavy chair, too, so I must have been on an anger-fueled adrenaline rush or something. George ducked so the chair hit the wall instead, but he got the message. I remember screaming, “how could you?!! I’ve had cancer for 18 months??! You bastard!!!” He said he was protecting me, but that’s not how I saw it. After all that I’d helped him with, convincing him to stay an integrationist after losing his bid for governor in 1958, campaigning alongside him in 1962, that’s how he repaid me? Well, let me say, you would not believe the amount of groveling for forgiveness I made him do after that.

…George was not by any means a perfect man, but, even still…I miss him…

– Lurleen Wallace (1926-1996), 1989 interview

Father spent Christmas ’62 at my house, where he spent what felt like hours making goofy faces to keep his great-grandson giggling and smiling. Harland the Fourth, or “Lando” was we would late nickname him, had just turned three. Playing with the growing number of little ones in the family was always a good distraction for him, a way to block out the infuriating unfolding events found in the newspaper’s political section, the TV’s political news, and the conservative radio channels. Father did not want to spend the holidays ranting about how much he disapproved of Johnson’s wasteful spending and suppression of free enterprise. He was doing enough of that on Senate campaign trails. At home, he wanted to focus on happier things, like his chicken and his family. With that in mind, he spent what time he could during the fall putting together an album of his favorite Christmas songs. A sort of mix tape, Father wanted to spread the feeling of holiday cheer after a long and trying year of 1962. We played the album several times during that yuletide get-together.

Little did we know that 1962 would pale in comparison to 1963.

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991

[ youtube: watch?v=cGRoZ6nVcAA ]

This in my opinion was a mistake to make! I was disappointed by it He dosnt actually sing any of the songs in it! I feel cheated even tho I listened to it for free what a ripoff! 1 star!!!

–, 2013 post by [name withheld] in comments section for the 1962 “Christmas With Colonel Sanders” Album (average 5-out-of-5 stars)

The American instinct is to jump in with both feet and get an unpleasant job over and done with as soon as possible, but traditional Oriental patience makes them willing to carry on the struggle into generation after generation if necessary. We’re fighting a war over there with a commodity most precious to us and held in value far more cheaply by the enemy – the lives of men…We must fight the war with our strength, not theirs. With minimum cost to ourselves and maximum cost to the enemy…The only solution I see is to use our strength, our air and naval power in the most humane manner possible to destroy the North’s ability to wage war on the South… close their ability to get outside help. The power system that fuels every war – transportation, rails, bridges – eliminate! Every factory and industrial-military installation – gone! Don’t stop until there’s not a single pair of bricks stuck together! Irrigation systems if necessary. If the destruction of every creation of man in ’Nam is necessary to crush the scourge of communist aggression there, then so be it!”

– Curtis E. LeMay, 12/2/1962 interview [14]


[pic: ]

– Colonel Sanders offering a box of KFC in promotional photo, c. December 1962

[1] As in: pro-Camilo Cienfuegos Army Chief of Staff Sergio del Valle Jimenez (1927-2007); pro-Castro Ramon Barquin (1914-2008) military colonel; Celia Sánchez (b. 1930) research/archivist revolutionary and close friend of Fidel Castro; and Vilma Espin (1930) wife of Raul Castro.
[2] I’m actually uncertain of these two dates. Wikipedia states the primary and runoff were held on June 3 and June 24, respectively, while states they were both held in May of that year. Anyone know which source is the correct one? (If it’s ourcampaigns, then I’ll move this bit to the previous chapter)
[3] Overviewed here:
[4] Great idea to use his OTL tape recording habit here, @historybuff !
[5] Based on comments made here:
[6] OTL picture and OTL caption found on pinterest
[7] This person is from this unfortunate list:
[8] Happened due to Hill splitting the Democratic vote; Martin received 50.1%, Crommelin received 30.2%, and Hill received 19.7%
[9] McGovern lost by a razor-thin margin. McGovern received little support from the national Democratic party over his criticism of some of President Johnson’s policies, especially regarding foreign affairs, and for allegedly being “not liberal enough” for the national party and “too liberal” for representing all South Dakotans.
[10] Changes from OTL: Because of regional conservative backlash to the Civil Rights Act, the following Republicans won: John H. Rousselot and H. L. Richardson of California, John D. Fox of Missouri, Carrol M. Barringer of North Carolina, and J. Kenneth Robinson of Virginia. Walter Judd’s presence on the 1960 GOP ticket allows him to narrowly win re-election, albeit after a recount. Floyd Spence (R), backed by Strom Thurmond, narrowly wins in South Carolina. A similar rejection of the Democrats also occurs in Kentucky, where, thanks to the Colonel campaigning for them, C. Alex Parker Jr. (R) and Clyde Middleton (R) won their respective election bids. On the other side of the political aisle, the following Democrats (whom lost IOTL) here won, largely thanks to allying with Johnson’s domestic programs and/or supporting the war effort: Albert J. Tomsic of Colorado, Francis X. Lennon Jr. of Connecticut, John Pritchard of Indiana, Frank W. Less of Iowa, Harding C. Noblitt (DFL) of Minnesota, Paul R. Porreca of New Jersey, E. Dent Lackey of New York (over William E. Miller for being just a bit too conservative for his district), Robert E. Cook of Ohio, Peter J. Joyce of Pennsylvania, Wilkes Thrasher Jr. of Tennessee (over Bill Brock), and M. Blaine Peterson of Utah. Everyone mentioned in the November 1960 chapter who was not just mentioned won re-election as well.
[11] Hughes did not perform nearly as well as he did here in OTL because of the Cuban Missile Crisis; without an incident like that occurring to convince voters that the US's nuclear arsenal is warranted, his campaign/candidacy doesn't collapse before the election like it did IOTL, and thus he performs much better here!
[12] This entire entry taken from here:,9171,829587-1,00.html (link found on wiki article for the "Chicken Tax")
[13] Styling (and even entire sentences) of this letter is based on the one shown here:
[14] An OTL quote that he said in the documentary “In the Year of the Pig,” at roughly the 53:50 mark!
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I really hope you don't try to turn Cuba into a Vietnam for this timeline; it lacks a lot of what made the latter what it was. Biggest reason is distance and logistics; it's proximity makes it harder for commie funding and easier for the US to go through too. Also smaller and more of a pain for guerrilla warfare on the defender's part.

This would not be the war I'd use for that; an African war would probably be more effective if you need the anti-war theme to ooze in as it did for us.
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