Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Thanks!
I hope you voted in the poll; those things influence TTL, y'know! :)
Because Gore's dad never lost re-election, Jr stayed in his original career as a reporter and then branched out into documentary filmmaking (I think I mentioned this in an earlier chapter or two, I'll have to check...). So he hasn't held political office. I'll mention him in the next chapter! :)
No problem. It would be really cool if Vice President Meredith is nominated for the Republicans as President going up againstJesse Jackson for the Democrats. Two African Americans on both sides for President in the new millennium
 
Chapter 80: January 2000 – June 2000
Chapter 80: January 2000 – June 2000

“We are all bozos on the same bus, so we might as well sit back and enjoy the ride.”

– Wavy Gravy (OTL)



“The door’s always open,” said the voice; visitors needed to be cleared by the security guards, nevertheless.

Bob’s former Chief of Staff had been curious for weeks. The call kept coming; newspaper editorials, radio call-ins, and good ol’-fashion grassroots-style grapevine-traversing enthusiasm had led to opinion poll after opinion poll. What was Bob’s take on it all? What was going on in his old boss’s mind?

“In the studio, Jimmy,” Jim heard the voice say as he entered the abode, a surprisingly modest lake house, nestled near the banks of a contributor of the Tanana River, more than 20 miles upstream from Fairbanks proper. Jim entered the hall and followed the voice into the large room facing the waterfront.

On the love seat rested Bob’s beau, Linda, who still remembers the scene fondly. In front of a large tripod holding a nearly-finished oil-on-canvas stood Bob. “Hello, Jim, what can I do for you this beautiful morning?”

Jim smirked, “You know why I’m here. You called me, remember?”

“So I did.”

“So, you’ve made a decision, then, yeah?”

“I will admit, America does need a few touchups here and there.”

“That’s a yes, right?” Jim’s face lighted up at the prospect of, let’s say, going national. “Because there’s a lot of issues you can address even if you don’t make it.”

Bob sighed as he zig-zagged a bit of emerald green onto a branch, giving a tree a friend in his unfinished world. “It’s like I tell the painters at home, Jim. ‘We want happy paintings. Happy paintings. If you want sad things, watch the news.’ [1]

“It wouldn’t hurt to try. I mean, it wouldn’t, uh, knock the wind out of your sails, um, I mean, your doing much better, yeah?”

“Paint a bush, don’t beat around one,” he said gently but assertively.

“Can your body take such an undertaking or not,” Jim said more firmly.

“It’s still in remission, Jim.”

“Well good, because the leukemia would be a major concern.”

He paused for just a second. “I was talking about my political drive,” he said warmly, smiling at the unintentional joke.

Linda giggled at the exchange as well, then left her seat to give her two cents. “I wouldn’t mind another bunch of months on a campaign bus. Heck, I take up less room that your paints.”

Bob smiled at her, then turned back to the painting as he add the final details on the meadow. Some red dots to create roses, and white-and-yellow spots for daisies. Finished; another landscape, beautiful and serene like most of his. Only this one seemed to conjure up an even greater sense of optimism. Light sirrus clouds edged the top of the canvas and tiny acidic leaves blow on by in the meadow. A scene of change, of hope. Bob walked on over to the window, his face now just inches away from the glass. Squinting, he gazed past the lake before him and onto the mountainous terrain beyond, as the morning sun shined its rays brilliantly onto the works of nature. “I guess one more voice defending these majesties wouldn’t hurt.”

Jim smiled.

“We’ll give it a go,” said Linda confirmed.

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014



BOB ROSS ENTERS PRESIDENTIAL RACE: Credits Large Draft Movement [2] For Last-Minute Bid

– Anchorage Daily News, 1/9/2000



My past life of stumbling around in a drug-induced haze of ups and downs and highs and lows finally caught up to me at the dawn of the new century. At 65, my haired gone all white, my eyes had become little glasses I kept in a little case in a little zipper pocket so they’d never fall out an embarrass me. At worst of all, my heart was giving out. Heart disease, the cardiovascular menace was wrecking my heart every which-a-way. I couldn’t hide it from my fans; I would sweat profusely, I looked puffy from treatment, and I was exhausted from me and my doctors and therapist worked to keep me at that balance between needing medicine and wanting more. On January 10, I had that on-stage collapse in Houston. The next day, I confirmed what many already had guessed. I had the heart of a 90-year-old man, and he was about to retire on me.

– Elvis Presley’s second autobiography It’s Been All Right, I Guess: My Life So Far Once More, Berkley Books, 2018



…Some of the more technologically-sophisticated Wide-Awakes began the new millennium by targeting school netsites to spread their jingoistic, militaristic, or even pro-violence propaganda. Dubbed “cyber-terrorists” whenever they verbally harassed technetters, the incidents lead to “e-threats” rising in prominence and in seriousness…

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press (e-publication), 2018



…In other news, an upstate New York man has been arrested at his home in Poughkeepsie for allegedly plotting to bomb the Duchess County Sheriff’s Office. According to several of the apprehended individual’s neighbors, the arrested man held radical views such as supporting eugenics and the use of nuclear weapons as a first-response measure to all conflicts in non-white nations. Local police claim that an assortment of cherry bombs, dynamite sticks, C4, and homemade pipe bombs were found in a raid on his home. The man in question, a resident known by locals for being an active supporter of the Wide-Awakes, a conservative pro-military political organization affiliated with Republican war hawks, was known for previous incidents of public disturbance. He was apprehended because these incidents led to him being observed by local law enforcement under the Mental Health Protection Act passed by New York Governor Cuomo in 1996...

– NBC News, 1/11/2000 broadcast



SECRET SERVICE TO GUARD JACKSON, TAKING UNUSUALLY EARLY STEP

…Governor Jesse Jackson, whose crowds at political rallies across the country have often numbered in the thousands, was placed under Secret Service protection yesterday, a spokesman for the agency said.

The agency authorized the protection for Governor Jackson after consulting with a Congressional advisory committee that reviews security for presidential hopefuls. The decision to assign agents to Governor Jackson, nearly two months before voting even begins in the Democratic Presidential primaries, is the earliest the Secret Service has ever issued a security detail to a candidate. Jackson received such protect when he ran for President in 1996, but not until April, after already winning several primaries.

A spokesperson for the Secret Service today said the agency was not aware of any specific threat against Jackson, and declined to provide details of what had prompted the elevation of security for Governor Jackson.

Presidential candidates often resist security protection until the last possible moment, saying it restricts movement and prevents them from campaigning directly with people. But since Governor Jackson announced his candidacy, he has been accompanied by a private security detail hired by his campaign. Members of this detail also have declined to discuss whether the Governor has received specific threats.

In an interview yesterday, Jacqueline Brown Jackson, the Governor’s wife, said the Secret Service protection underscored the notion that “we are moving to the next level” of the presidential campaign, “including unusually large crowds and attention. Security was one of many issues that I have and will have in the course of this campaign,” said Mrs. Jackson, who has talked openly about fearing for her husband’s safety. “But I’ve thought through in my mind all the possible scenarios and how we’re going to handle it.”

Generally, candidates are placed under security protection around the time they receive their party’s nomination
. [3] In the 1996 election, for example, Senator John Glenn received his secret service details in June, days after the primaries had concluded and Glenn was viewed as the nominee-in-waiting...

The New York Times, 1/17/2000



…In his fifth formal State of the Union Address, held on Thursday, January 27, 2000, Dinger sought to appeal to voters beginning to tire of the warfare continuing on down in Mexico and Colombia. After describing the situation down there as “promising,” he branched off to mention how, “while foreign threats peck at the back of our minds, domestic threats must be addressed as they strike at the live and livelihoods of more Americans every day” – heart disease, STDs, and cancer rates; automobile accidents; knife and gun accidents; and other culprits responsible for unnatural deaths were touched on. In an additional effort to win over voters who cared more for economic/domestic-policy issues than foreign-policy ones, Dinger touted the improvements to the economy that had been made in the months since the nation entered recession, but the fact that DOW Jones had recovered did little to either comfort or win over those still living off NITR and the slashed remains of FJG program instead of the full employment that they had previously enjoyed…

– Edward Gulio Romano III’s LMD: A Study of The Dinger Days, Sunrise Publishers, 2020



AL GORE JR.’S “BELLAMY”: A Documentary On America’s First Female President Shines Light on Misogyny Still Found In Politics

…Al Gore Jr., the documentary filmmaker who rose to national prominence with his 1987 debut “Before It’s Too Late” and the 1990 critically-acclaimed “Get Well Soon” hopes his latest project will “shine a light on the parts of the administration that few people are aware of.”…

The Nation, progressive news magazine, 1/29/2000



…The book [Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser] was published in 2000. …while attempted to describe broadly the issues concerning the fast food industry and how it impacts American eating habits, the book particularly criticizes McDonald’s. Additionally, while praising the early efforts taken by KFC in the 1970s to improve the quality of their products, the author also criticizes modern KFC more failing to promote healthy eating habits in recent advertising. The debatably scathing attacks were viewed as “a new low” for the company by some but dismissed by others…

– clickopedia.co.usa/Fast_Food_Nation



…On 1 February, when John decided to declassify several million pages worth of military documents, he gave me one simple reason as to why he would do something so controversial at a time when his approval ratings were not too reassuring that he would even win the general election set to be held later that year: “I had to give people the truth!”

John had been inspired by the 1956 book Alas, Babylon, which he had been given and read in 1965 to become more involved in the calls for nuclear disarmament, but from what I gather, it was really the 1975 film adaptation that really lit a fire under him. The movie had never gotten a big screen adaptation until then, apart from being an episode on Playhouse 90 in 1960. But I know that that film, directed by Roman Polanski and Roger Corman, and I think co-written by Rod Serling right before he died, was one of John’s favorites. He used to watch it every time it was available. Theaters, television, and when the Micro-LaserDisc (MLD) became a thing, John personally called the people who made it to get the ball rolling on it becoming available on home video. You don’t do that without really liking the movie…

– Lyn Cornell-Lennon’s memoir, Lennon & I: Our Lives: From Liverpool to 10 Downing Street And Back Again, Thames Books, 2017



“Look around. Look at what we have. Beauty is everywhere – you only have to look to see it.” [4]

– Bob Ross, calling for greater land preservation measures while campaigning in White Mountain National Forest, NH, 2/3/2000




MALCOLM X ENDORSES DIAMONDSTONE!

….calling Presidential candidate Pete Diamondstone “the only true progressive in this race,” Malcolm X traveled to Diamondstone’s home town of Brattleboro, Vermont to give a speech encouraging young voters to “listen to what this man is really saying.” Like the junior US Senator from Vermont, Civil Rights activist Malcolm X has suggested the use of “armed revolution” from time to time, albeit in order to create “natural racial secession,” as X described it in 1967. Mr. X also agrees with Diamondstone that “government should provide, not suffocate; enshrine, not desecrate; and preserve, not decimate,” as X put it in his speech, and that all “responsible Americans” should own “as many guns as they need to keep themselves and their families safe and protected.”


(please forgive the shoddy editing on this picture; I'm already sorry about it :( )

Above: Malcolm X, endorsing Diamondstone outside of the US Senator’s house in Brattleboro, VT.

Malcolm X, 74, was most influential in the early and middle years of the 1960s decade, when racial disparaties persisted after the 1962 Civil Rights Act was passed, and “shoutnik” activism was at its apex. Since then, Malcolm X has only slightly pivoted ideologically – to far-left, from very-far-left – with his persistant support of the Second Amendment – even after the assassination of President Iacocca – and his claims that “the welfare state keeps The Black Man in invisible chains” being his most libertarian viewpoints. He is currently seen as an elder statesman for various socialist groups – even serving as Angela Davis’ 1988 campaign manager. With a belligerent debating style, X has continued to stir up controversy ever since his 1964-65 trial and acquittal for the murder of Louis Farrakhan. In 1998, for example, X butted heads with Al Sharpton and then-gubernatorial candidate Jesse Jackson over Jackson’s support of gun regulation, with X claiming “these kind of laws take away guns from more Black hands than White hands,” despite most studies suggesting X greatly exaggerated the disparity. In another example from last September, X flipped the bird to Wellington Webb for failing to close a major private prison outside of Boluder, Colorado…

The Boston Globe, 2/5/2000



CIA LINKS MEXICO’S INTERIOR MINISTER TO RECREDRUG LORDS!

Mexico City, MEXICO – Francisco Labastida, Mexico’s former Interior Minister and a leading candidate for President of Mexico, may have just lost his chance for higher office, as CIA officers working with Interpol and Mexico’s DFS have announced that “irrefutable long-standing ties” have been discovered linking Labastida to multiple recreadrug dealers. Labastida has been accused of protecting Sinaloan drug traffickers by overlooking their criminal activities, with connections to the drug lord underworld reportedly dating back to Labastida’s time as Governor of Sinaloa in the 1980s. If true, the case is the most high-profile example of corruption in Mexico yet. As Mexico is a key part of major supply routes for heroin, cocaine, and other dangerous and illegal narcotics, passing into the US, the federal government is coordinating with Mexican agents to combat “multinational crisis,” as Dinger called it in his State of the Union address last month…

The Washington Times, 2/7/2000



“I don’t get it, John. Jackson’s not as radical as Diamondstone, but he’s still a radical!”

“Maybe people aren’t getting the threat these Mexican cartels pose.”

“What's to not understand, though? I mean, is it because it’s a new kind of war, one where we’re sending in troops to combat criminals instead of other troops?”

“I don’t really know, Larry. But the fact remains that the calls for legalization backed by the likes of Jackson and Wellington Webb are only rising.”

“Maybe we should double down on the message – the Americans can’t allow recreadrug,s and the crime and death rates that accompany them, to become the new norm!”

– President Larry Dinger and Chief of Staff John Dinger, White House transcript, 2/9/2000 (publicly released in January 2009)



‘OUR NATIONAL COMMUNITY’: Jackson Gaining Momentum, Siphoning Supporters, Funding From Fields, Hall, Webb

The Daily Advertiser, Louisiana newspaper, 2/11/2000



PARLIAMENT SET TO LEGALIZE BLUTAG MARRIAGE!

London, ENGLAND – More than two years after a formal consultation was launched to determine how to best introduce civil marriage for British BLUTAGs into the United Kingdom, parliament’s Marriage Couple’s Act was been granted royal assent – a major stepping stone that will ease the passing of this landmark piece of legislation. In effect repealing the Matrimonial Causes Act passed under PM Powell in 1972, and reversing the Civil Partnership Act and Gender Recognition Acts passed under PM Goodlad in 1989 and 1991, respectively, the Marriage Couple’s Act may very well lead to same-sex marriage being legal in the UK in the very near future. The bill was introduced by Conservative MP Matthew Parris and was sponsored by members of the Labour, LD, and Intrepid Progressive parties. Citing “no credible reason, morally, ethically, mathematically, religiously or logically, to oppose this bill,” PM Lennon approved the draft penned by the House of Commons in January. “Letting people who love one another marry will strengthen, not weaken, the institution of marriage.” The bill also includes wording that is meant to ensure that religious organizations will not be forced to conduct same-sex marriages – wording which may have been a contributing factor in the crown assenting to its passing. “This is a legal matter before it is a faith matter,” explains MP Gordon Marsden (Labour)…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 15/2/2000



JACKSON, RICHARDS SEEN AS WINNERS OF FINAL PRE-PRIMARY DEBATE; Webb, Blanchard Falter Under Scrutiny

…”Jackson promoted the largest and diverse set of ideas,” says one audience member. Indeed, Jackson’s support for a “Voting Rights For All” Act, “so that all American have the right to full representation,” and calling for all territories to become states or be treated like states in Presidential elections, was well-received by viewers. His support for anti-gerrymandering legislation, and a guarantee of every American voting via Automatic Voter Registration, were also praised. His support for voting rights for those found guilty of victimless crimes, however, received criticism from most other candidates on stage, especially from Senator Richards. ...When the subject of government efficiency came up in relation to the controversial Balanced Budget Amendment, Ross stated “Sometimes you’ve just got to take something that’s well-meaning but doesn’t work right and just beat the devil out of it until it works like it’s supposed to. If there’s a government program that’s iffy, we’ll review it, and see what money’s being used on what exactly and specifically, so we remove government waste and use taxpayer money for taxpayer needs.” …Diamondstone’s gauche remarks – calling for all prison regardless of the crimes for which they were convicted to have the right to vote, and for all workers to have 1 hour of paid time off for every 9 hours spent working – set him apart from the other men and women on the stage, and made even far-left candidates like Paul Wellstone look moderate by comparison...

The Bangor Daily News, Maine newspaper, 2/21/2000



As the economy continued to struggle, the once-highly-popular PM Ryutaro Hashimoto lost support, and resigned in November 1999; he was succeeded by Takeo Hiranuma, a member of the Diet since 1980 who had overseen several ministries since 1987. …The yakuza were increasingly angry at American and Japanese politicians trying to “run [them] out of business.” While America’s Dinger was not as hardline as Iacocca when to came to Japanese machinations, he was still reluctant to lend Japan a helping hand, at least not one as large as many in Japan wanted them to lend. In response to this, several prominent syndicates dedicated to take a more active approach to local politics. Blackmailing prominent Japanese locals and politicians to promote anti-American sentiments and policies came easy, as such sentiments were already festering; the yakuzas’ action simply brought them up to the surface. Thousands across Japan blamed the US’s belligerence earlier on in the second half of the 1990s for the recession ending their two decades of economic expansion in 1999. Despite the government’s effort to rebuild the national economy without resorting to “backwards isolationism” as Hiranuma called it, the yakuza’s pushing of anti-American politicians, with many of them being from “the hard right” of the dominant LDP, led to several conservatives gaining prominence and influence in Japanese politics. An effort to push conservative members of the LDP into higher positions of power was the subsequent result of this.

Within the LDP existed factions closely aligned with the Uyoku Dantai, an ultranationalist far-right group founded in 1996 and quickly grew in size after the nations entered recession. Calling for more isolationist practices, the group’s most controversial plank was its revisionist view of Japan’s actions in WWII, with many members downplaying or even outright denying several war crimes incidents, and claiming that there was a “self-hate bias” taught in modern Japan’s education centers. This group was also backed by the yakuza, and without blackmail or threats, either.

It seemed the LDP was approaching a leadership crisis, as Hiranuma failed to keep the factions united ahead of new elections.

Enter Shintaro Ishihara.

Ishihara (b. 1932), a friend and somewhat follower of controversial conservative nationalist writer Yukio Mishima, was one of the most prominent conservative/right-wing politicians in Japan’s Diet, having served in the House of Representatives from Tokyo since 1972. A Liberal Democrat with independent tendencies, he was the one who authored the 1989 book “The Japan That Can Say No,” which called on his countryman to “stand up” to the US. Many analysts believe this and other works promoted anti-US business practices in the late 1980s and early 1990s – practices that had led to Lee Iacocca running for President in 1992. Seeing a chance to “lead the party in a better direction,” he worked with the hard-right factions of the LDP to become their unofficial leader, and reached out to more moderate members of the party in the hopes of forming an anti-Hiranuma coalition.

Most Diet members, however, were not that interested in throwing Hiranuma under the bus until another major scandal hit the presses. It was discovered that Hiranuma’s son-in-law was embezzling funds from a Hokkaido construction company. In a moment reminiscent of the Lockheed bribery scandals of yesteryear [5], the scandal rocked Hiranuma’s administration and was embarrassing at a multi-national level.

Four weeks later and Hiranuma had failed to bounce back from the scandal. In a leader confidence vote, Hiranuma was rejected from the office of Prime Minister and replaced with Ishihara.

Two weeks after that, on February 28, 2000, the general election was held. Ishihara increased the number of the LDP’s seats, besting several opposing parties. The most prominent of his challengers were Yukio Hatomaya of the Democratic Party, and 85-year-old Kaname Harada of the Socialist Party (Harada was WWII veteran whom, due to the grief of him killing, opened a kindergarten and became an anti-war activist)…

– Alec Dubro and David E. Kaplan’s Yakuza: Japan’s Criminal Underworld, University of California Press, 2003



…After less than two years, KFC began considering ending the production and broadcasting of the “Cartoon Colonel” commercials, voiced by Oscar winner Randy Quaid, as many older customers were still calling in to complain that the portrayal was disrespectful to the Colonel. “But even his kids liked it,” argued Quaid in a 2000 meeting at KFC advertising division. “Well the silly old grannies who remember the Colonel and the conservative are still having a hard-o for the old man don’t. They may not be the majority, but a minority group always get their way when they’re this loud and annoying,” was the answer he received, according to his autobiography. After this, Quaid met with FJC CEO J. A. Collins to make his case that the cartoon series was popular, saying “Only people who aren’t satisfied pick up the phone to call management nowadays.” Quaid also took to the technet, where he discovered that younger consumers were more supportive to keeping the “Cartoon Colonel” “character” around. Some technetters even suspected that it would receive his own cartoon spinoff series, similar to what had happened to the mascot of the SpongeBob’s seafood restaurant chain. However, Collins came to the conclusion that it was these rumors of the TV series that was fueling the rise in “anti-CC” backlash. On February 28, the KFC confirmed in a public announcement that the company had no intention of, or plans to, create a TV series based on the Cartoon Colonel. Based on post-announcement technet forum discussions and other trends, the announcement disappointed some younger customers, but seemed to have contributed to a drop in anti-CC complaints…

– Eric Schlosser’s Fast Food Nation Revisited: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Mariner Books, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012



COYLE SUSPENDS PRESIDENTIAL BID AMID POOR POLLING, DRIED-UP FUNDS; ENDORSES WELLSTONE

The Minnesota Daily, side article, 3/1/2000



…On March 2, 2000, a shipment of cocaine was apprehended 20 miles south of El Paso by anti-narcotics officers from both sides of the border. The Dinger administration made sure to capitalize on the event, calling it “just another victory” in their ongoing fight to stem the flow of drugs into the US. The uptick in Dinger’s approval ratings significantly took the steam out of former Senator Paul’s anti-incumbent tires just days before the nation’s New Hampshire Presidential primaries…

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



WELLSTONE WINS GRANITE STATE IN FIRST-IN-THE-NATION PRIMARY

…on the Republican side, Dinger defeated challenger Ron Paul in a landslide; the President received 94.3% of the vote, compared to Paul, 5.2%; the remaining percentage went a several minor and write-in candidates…

– The New Hampshire Union Leader, 3/7/2000



JUSTICE EDWARD H. LEVI DIES AT 88: Sanders Appointee Walked Line Between Left And Right Factions In Supreme Court

…The associate justice, who was suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease, was planning to retire next January…

The Washington Post, 3/9/2000



WASHINGTON STATE PASSES SAME-SEX MARRIAGE!

The Los Angeles Times, 3/10/2000



…In order to boost the economy and lower unemployment, the Korean government launched The Reconnection Project in 1999, which saw the building of rail lines and roadways on the peninsula, some of whom even cut through selected parts of the DMZ in order to better physically connect the two regions. Maglev train construction increased during the period, with workers breaking ground on one in Pyongyang in March 2000…

– John Wood’s Travel Technology: Maglev Trains, Hovercrafts, And More, Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2019





– Jesse Jackson on horseback, while campaigning in Ely, NV, ahead of the March 14 Nevada caucus, 3/12/2000



“As president, I would make Congress have to retire on Social Security and Medicare. You know that those programs would suddenly become funded and fixed to work right if I did that, or if any President did that!”

– Peter Diamondstone, 3/13/2000



…The clock past midnight forty minutes ago, but it looks like we can only now call Nevada for Senator Richards. The narrowness of this primary, once thought to be a surefire win for Richards, really shows the strength of the Reverend Governor’s Rainbow Coalition, as pro-Jackson Hispanic voters may have outnumbered pro-Clemente Hispanic voters tonight – er, uh, last night. Again, to recap: Senator Ann Richards has clinched the Presidential Democratic Primary in Nevada, with Jesse Jackson outperforming with a close second finish, and Roberto Clemente coming in third. …In a major update, Senator Diamondstone has won a plurality of votes in his home state. However, due to the delegate math, it is likely that he and second-place finisher Paul Wellstone will have an even number of delegates, if not one more delegate than Diamondstone...

– ABC News, 3/15/2000



…Dinger’s second Supreme Court appointment pushed the bench’s composition even further to the center. On March 15, 2000, Dinger surprises analysts by nominating 52-year-old Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Emilio Miller Garza of Texas, after high-profile attorney-at-law/public defender Barry Scheck of California was repeatedly floated to be an “outsider” favorite. Two other major rumored candidates for the nomination had been Dana Sabraw, a 42-year-old half-Japanese Judge of the San Diego County Superior Court who had a moderate-to-conservative judicial record, and – in what was retrospectively a longshot – John Paul Kennedy, a prominent (but 34-year-old) Mormon law expert who twice argued before the Supreme Court as a lawyer before joining the Utah state’s third district court in 1997. Garza was the first very Hispanic/Latino-American to be nominated for a Supreme Court seat…

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s Upholding Liberty: The Supreme Court Under Chief Justice Frank Minis Johnson, Sunrise Publishing, 2019



The HWB Team: The Aberrant Campaign of Harry W. Braun

…the junior US Senator from Arizona has gathered a small but fierce and loyal following of supporters. Compiled mainly of a diverse collection of technology enthusiasts, environmentalists, and elderly peaceniks, these “braunsters” are intrigued by Braun’s hydrogen-based energy proposals, which Braun claims would lower unemployment and replace fossil fuels with a more Earth-friendly global energy source. “He’s totally not a single-issue candidate,” says his campaign’s western states field organizer. “the utilizing of hydrogen product would lower energy costs, freeing up money for taxpayers to spend and thus improve the quality of life overall.” Braun’s middle-tier showing in most polls do little to deter the candidate’s most loyal backers, who believe he will pull of a major upset in the March Cluster despite his eighth-place showing in New Hampshire and his sixth-place finish in Nevada...

Newsweek, mid-March 2000 issue



WEBB SEEN AS BIGGEST LOSER ON LAST NIGHT’S DEBATE IN SAVANNAH: Fumbled on Mary Jane Questions, Repeated Rehearsed Lines Twice

The Augusta Chronicle, Georgia newspaper, 3/16/2000



…March 21 saw GOP and Democratic primaries be held in Georgia and Maryland. Dinger received over 90% in both, while Paul received less than 10% in both. The Democrats, meanwhile, saw a much more contentious race unfold in Georgia, where several candidates fought to win over Black voters. In the end, Jackson won the primary. Congressman Leland, having underperformed in the contest, immediately dropped out to endorse Jackson in a showing a party unity. In Maryland, Jackson edged out Blanchard and others. This made Jackson the winner of two primaries, and Wellstone and Richards the winners of one each, heading into the delegate-rich March Cluster…

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



It always trips me out that America, the most powerful and magnificent nation in the history of the world, whose might was built by immigrants from all over the world, only speaks one language. [6] Now, if I ran for President, I’d be a candidate for a wide variety of language-speakers. People who speak Spanish, people who speak Cuban, people who speak Mexican, people who speak Colombian, the list goes on and on. But right now, I’ve got a lot of work to do for New Mexico, and I’ve got to do it. If we get a brokered convention, I’ll jump in, but right now I’m thinking Jesse Jackson’s the best man for the job. Wellington would be cool, too. But I’d like to say, you know, thank you all, I mean it, to everyone who urged me to jump in, because that means there’s a lot of people out there who not only understand what’s at stake in this election, but also are trying to do something about it. So I’ll all tell you what – the best thing you can do, if you want to do something great this year, is to go help out the Democrats down-ballot. Stand up for immigration workers any way that you can. And do everything that you can to legalize Mary Jane. Or just to New Mexico. Whatever’s easier for you. No sweat, man.”

– Governor Cheech Marin (D/LRU-NM), 3/24/2000



…In an extensive exit poll taken during the Georgia and Maryland primaries, the top 4 issues among Democratic voters were ranked as follows: economy/jobs at 35%, crime rates at 17%, recreadrug use at 15%, racial inequality at 14%, and the war in Colombia at 10%. …These numbers conflict with Governor Blanchard’s talk of a great economy in Michigan, exaggerating their handling of unemployment rise. The numbers also conflict with former Governor Clemente’s anti-war rhetoric...

– Gallup, 3/27/2000



The March 28 “March Cluster” saw the return of “favorite son” voting in many of the 12 contests held that day. In Iowa, Jackson edged out Richards in an upset, while Blanchard won Delaware and Washington, breathing some air into his campaign’s sails. Richards won North Carolina and Virginia, as predicted. In Alabama, Jackson won a plurality of the African-American vote, and won the contest by a hair over Clemente (in second place) and Richards (in third). California, however, was the biggest win of the night; Jackson won the delegate-rich contest by a 7% margin, widening the delegate gap between him and Richards. Despite his best efforts, Wellstone underperformed in the South, and only won the Massachusetts primary. Arizona and Missouri went to the “favorite son” candidates of Braun and Litton, respectively, even though Litton had not officially entered the race. Clemente’s overall underwhelming performance, winning only American Samoa, led to him losing prominent in polls conducted afterward. Bob Ross won the Alaska primary with ease. New York was the final contest to be called, on account of how narrow it was. With 40% of the vote, Jackson won the Empire State, with New York Senator Gabe Kaplan coming in second place with 30%, and Wellstone coming in third. Many pundits credit Bern Sanders, a philanthropic businessman who invested millions into Jackson’s campaign in his home city of NYC, which seriously cut into Kaplan’s strategy for winning the primary.

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019





– Media mogul Bern Sanders congratulates Jesse Jackson on winning the New York Democratic Presidential primary, 3/28/2000



“Maybe it was too many Groucho impressions. In that case, (imitating Groucho Marx) I’ve had a wonderful time, but this wasn’t it. But seriously, we gave it our best, but the voters were more interested in other candidates. But I currently, and everyone who supported my bid should, take comfort in the fact that we raised the call for better education to the national spotlight. I think it’s wonderful that the other candidates are finally talking about how children with good schooling has a massive spillover effect. Place with good schools experience less crime, such as stealing, a.k.a. creative borrowing, and produce greater economic opportunity for the next generations of Americans. To quote Grouchy Marx, ‘Those are my principles, and if you don’t like them, well, I have others.’ For example, the call for financial relief for Mexico, another position many of the other candidates have picked up. Which is good because Mexico’s good citizens are really suffering right now. I mean, times are so rough over there, the cartels don’t even use guns – they just insert the bullets manually!”

– US Senator Gabe Kaplan (D-NY), suspending his campaign and endorsing Governor Wellstone, 4/1/2000 [7]



…As you can see her on the monitor, Richards has narrowly edged out Jackson in the Kentucky primary. This makes for Richards’ sole win of the night, as Jackson coasted to victory in South Carolina, where he is the Governor, and as Roberto Clemente picked up Puerto Rico, where he was the Governor eight years ago. That wraps up all three primaries of the night…

– CNN, 4/4/2000 broadcast



SNL DEBATE SKETCH HOLDS LITTLE BACK WITH JABS AT ALL CANDIDATES

…In last night’s airing of “Saturday Night Live,” guest star Eddie Murphy serenaded the audience with a witty “soul” song calling for “a coalition of perms, weaves, yamukas, fedoras, cowboy hats and hardhats,” while guest star Grand Lee Bush portrayed Wellington Webb, describing the Presidential contender as “the closest think y’all got to a real-life Bass Reeves.” …In the debate sketch, Chris Parnell presented Governor James Blanchard as a monotone and milquetoast contender (“the safe choice is always the most exciting one. Whoo.”). Tim Meadows wonderfully depicted former Governor Cleo Fields, lightheartedly mocking his youth and glasses by dressing up as the character Urkel from Family Matters to complain about his low approval ratings. Cheri Oteri made for a rambunctious Ann Richards, while guest star Bob Newhart exaggerated President Dinger (“I know, uh, lately, that, some people have been saying this, uh, this office was been, uh, tiring me out. I’ve got more wrinkles than a trampled carpet, the bags under my eyes have bags of their own, and I’m only 53. But, uh, hey at least I still look better than Steve Martin.”). The mock debate ended with Chris Kattan playing Ron Paul, dressed as an old-time prospector, crashing the vent:

MODERATOR (played by Ana Gasteyer): “Ron Paul, you’re not in this debate!”

PAUL: “Don’t mind me, I’m just looking for a good place to hide my gold! It’s a good investment, you know!” …

– Variety magazine, episode review, 4/9/2000



…In the first debate held after the March Cluster, Richards stumbled when her voting record on prisons came under fire. In a gaffe meant to be an example of both her honesty and policymaking abilities, Richards said, “To be frank with you, I made a deal, and the deal was that I would help pass the legislation and be for building a lot more prisons in Texas if I could get rehab programs for people who were alcoholics and drug abusers because I knew that over 80 percent of the crime committed in Texas was committed by people under the influence of alcohol or drugs.” [8]

Jackson cut into her time allotment with the retort, “Only for those programs to be scrapped in ’97. But the prisons remain, Ann!”…

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



…In the April 11 collection of primary contests (dubbed an “April Cluster” of contests), Jackson underperformed, winning only the state of Mississippi, while Ann Richards added Tennessee and Kansas to her tally. Blanchard and Wellstone, won their respective home states of Michigan and Minnesota. Within a week, three more candidates – businessman Arthur Simon, Congressman Mike Easley, and Governor Kathleen Brown – had all dropped out of the race, having failed to win any primaries. Additionally, Simon and Easley failed to win a single delegate, while Brown only obtained three delegates from her disappointing showing in the California primary held on March 28…

– Richard Ben Cramer’s What It Takes: Roads to The White House, Sunrise Publications, 2011 edition



“JUSTICE MATTERS!” Why Democrats Are Fighting With Republicans And Each Other On Prison And Recreadrug Reform

…a major topic this year favoring the Democrats is Dinger’s slashing of social welfare programs in 1997 and 1998, after the Second Korean War boosted his approval ratings and before the start of the recession. However, instead of charging the incumbent administration of being irresponsible and unwise in this decision, many Democrats are falling for the GOP trick of changing the subject to the supposedly-successful War on Recreadrugs. A “war” that has American troops combating mafia-type cartels and recreadrug lords in Mexico and Colombia, leading to the deaths of thousands of innocents caught in the crossfires, all for the sake of lowering the amount of drugs entering the country. When Democrats reply to these claims by noting the taxability of legal marijuana, they can come off as uncaring to the ears of suburban and blue-collar voters, believing Democrats think taxes are more important than a child’s safety. But the ironic thing is that Dinger’s social program cuts may be a bigger contributor to juvenile delinquency than illegal narcotics!...

The Washington Post, 4/12/2000 editorial



2003 MISSIONS TO MARS COULD SWING BY VENUS ON RETURN VOYAGE, NEW RESEARCH SUGGESTS

…According to planetary geologists who have drafted a white paper on the subject, it is possible that the planned 2003 mission to Mars could see the spacecraft travel past Venus on its way back to Earth. “It all depends on when exactly their orbits align; short-distance intervals can last as long as 2 Earth years,” says assistant co-writer of the white paper. “The ship could slingshot past Venus and use its gravity to assist in the return home, dramatically reducing the amount of fuel spent and thus saving NASA millions of dollars!” This last aspect may just be a selling point for the fiscally-conscious Dinger administration. “It’s all about the exact timing,” the co-writer continues, “but if it can work, and NASA approves of a change in their current flight path plans, whatever they may be, the trip would prove our calculations correct – that a Venus flyby would in fact simplify the propulsion calculations for this endeavor,” meaning going to one planet and passing by another can actually be cheaper than just going to one planet... [9]

The Houston Chronicle, 4/15/2000




On the Republican side, Ron Paul not doing well. His primary performances had only waned after New Hampshire, and funding were drying up. He didn’t even make it onto the ballot in half of the contests scheduled for May and June. In a rant made to an embarrassingly near-empty high school annex gym on April 16, Paul complained to the small attendees, “The federal government is not a charity case, nor does it have some magic wand that will fix all your problems for you. If you can’t handle the responsibilities that come with adulthood, then you shouldn’t be entitled to the privileges of adulthood, like operating a thousand-pound piece of machinery called a car, or voting, or owning a home. You need to be able to take care of yourself so you are not a burden, but instead are a responsible and productive member of society.” Most of the attendees left by the end of his rant.

Three days later, Paul once more received under 5% in a round of primary contests. Having enough of the humiliation, and with nothing to show for his efforts except for one delegate from Arizona, Paul bowed out the next day, his campaign dying with not even a whimper, just slight gust of wind.

Meanwhile, the Democratic began thinning again, and in a more prominent way. As his candidacy lopped away more supporters from Jackson than from Richards, and with no clear path forward for his campaign, Governor Wellstone dropped out and endorsed Jesse Jackson. Jackson accepted Wellstone’s subsequent help to win over voters in Florida. With its large Cuban and Jewish retiree communities, Jackson carried the Sunshine State on April 18 with a slight majority of 51%, an overperformance that shocked the Richards and Blanchard campaigns, who underperformed and won 29% and 11%, respectively. Ross, who was born in Florida, received 8% of the vote. In the only other contest held that night, Bob Ross won Hawaii by a plurality.

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



SIGN LANGUAGE RESEARCH TEAM MAKE BREAKTHROUGH IN MOTION-ACTIVATED SOFTWARE

…a group of scientific researchers, computer software developers and sign language specialists are working with M.I.T. to try and develop a special pair of “e-gloves,” or “SL-gloves.” The concept behind them is that moving the fingertips of the globe will allow its user, a mute person, audially produce the words they are saying with sign language in order for them to speak to those that don’t understand sign language. A computer chip build into the fingers of the glove translate SL into spoken words with a voice box/speaker located at the wrist. While still in its infancy, the expensive project has “enough funding to keep moving forward. Hopefully, it will become readily available, and affordable for mute and audially and verbally impaired people, by the end of the decade if not sooner,” said the head of the project…

Popular Mechanics magazine, April 2000 issue



WILL WELLINGTON FINALLY GET HIS WATERLOO?

…Colorado Governor Wellington Webb is trying to revive his underwater candidacy with a shakeup of his campaign staff and a shift to a more informal campaign style, replacing the articulated speeches with descriptions of personal anecdotes. For instance, at an event held in Roanoke, Virginia, last week, Webb tried to show the audience that he related to healthcare concerns by saying “I am six-foot-four and 275 pounds right now, but when I was a child struggling with asthma, I was a skinny, sickly kid. My parents could afford to take me to Arizona and the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota to try to better my breathing, and this one trip to Nogales, Mexico was one of the best times my mother and I shared.” [10].

Putting his robust personality to the center of his campaign, Webb seems to be trying to win over western voters by touting his reputation for being a “Western movie buff.” While visiting the Navajo Nation two weeks ago, Webb described how, when growing up, he liked western movies that “showed Native Americans were intelligent and had principles they were fighting for,” [11] like the James Stewart film “Broken Arrow,” then pivoted to his advocacy for clean water and modern medicine being introduced to Native American reservations via “actual treaties and agreements, not lies.” In his favor, Webb pointed out the fact that two of his children have the Native American names Cochise and Sonseeahray as middle names…

…Additionally, Webb poignantly touched on his relationship with urban renewal: “During my lifetime, I watched the neighborhood change. Both of the drugstores became liquor stores. The donut shops closed. The dime store become a beer joint. The area went from comprising working families to people living on government assistance…The gang issue was part of my first term in 1995. The media tagged it as The Summer of Violence. As Governor, I fought to take the neighborhoods back to where kids, like me as a Cole junior High School student, could feel safe playing in the parks or walking down the street.” [12]

…In arguably his most relatable batch of anecdotes, given two days ago during a stump speech in Wilmington, North Carolina, Webb discussed how he has personally experienced violence. He retold the time in his youth when he was held up while working at a convenience store, recollected a time when a girl he knew was murdered by an unstable boy with whom he sometimes played basketball [13], and pointed out the fact that Webb even has a criminal record (he was arrested for taking the wrap for a girlfriend he had in the early 1960s, who crashed his grandfather’s car into a store window; Webb spent the night in jail and was fined $250 the next day for “careless driving”) [14]

…while polling shows Webb to be hovering at fifth or even sixth place (far from the second-place showing he had when he entered the race last year), suggesting little chance of him having a “breaking out” moment in the upcoming Second April Cluster, this new campaign strategy is creating more media attention. If that if anything to go by, then there very well may be hope for Webb’s campaign yet.

The Gazette, Colorado Springs newspaper, 4/21/2000



…The April 25 primaries were dubbed “April Cluster 2” for simplicity’s sake. These six contests yielded results favorable to Jackson the most. In Louisiana, “favorite son” candidate Cleo Fields, who had failed to become a prominent candidate in the race, barely won his home state over Jackson. Clemente, who had already dropped out, won both the Virgin Islands’ caucus, and his home state of Puerto Rico’s primary. Predictably, Richards carried her home state of Texas. The race in Illinois was tricky, as Jackson won the popular vote, but split the delegates with the second-place finisher, Senator Katie Beatrice Hall; Hall had heavily invested in the Illinois primary in the hopes of it reviving her campaign, but when momentum failed to materialize afterward, Hall dropped out and endorsed Jackson; Fields followed suit a day later. The biggest election of the night, however, was in Ohio, where Jackson once more subverted expectations by winning the Buckeye state’s primary in an upset over Governor Jim Blanchard. With a war chest depleting and fears of splitting the moderate vote with Richards (effectively heading the nomination to Jackson) rising, Blanchard suspended his candidacy on April 28th…

– Richard Ben Cramer’s What It Takes: Roads to The White House, Sunrise Publications, 2011 edition



DINGER FOR EX-PRESIDENT!

– Banner spotted at a Jesse Jackson political rally in pro-GOP Scranton, PA, 5/1/2000



TONIGHT’S DEMOCRATIC PRIMARIES: Jackson Wins PA, Richards Wins Arkansas; Richardson Bows Out After Upset Home State Loss, Endorses Jackson

– The Birmingham News, Alabama newspaper, 5/2/2000



Dear Elvis,

My sister Elaine was an avid fan of yours, as am I. She traveled across the country following your 1981 comeback tour, and I think attended every single one of your concerts. I last saw you at that Feed Korea concert in New York; you were great as always.

I’m writing to you because my sister died in a car accident last month, and in accordance to her recently-updated will, I have to at least offer to donate her heart to you. Let me explain. Elaine was an organ donor, and somehow found out about your blood type. She was very proud of your blood type matching her. And after hearing about her heart shutting down on you, she insisted that, should anything happen to her, we’d offer you her heart.

Please contact me as soon as you can,

Danielle

– A fan letter to Elvis Presley, postmarked 5/3/2000



…President Colosio’s efforts to root out government corruption has yanked out another rotted vine. It appears that Manlio Beltrones, a federal deputy of Colossi’s own party who served as Governor of Sonora from 1991 to 1997, has been arrested for accepting bribes to protect recreadrug lord Amado Carrillo, head of the Juarez Cartel, who is wanted by the police for laundering money through war-torn Colombia to pay for his fleet of drug-transporting jets – a level of showboating anti-federal defiance not seen since the Pablo Escobar days…

– XEABC-AM, Mexico City radio station, 5/4/2000 broadcast



LENNON WIN THIRD TERM! Incumbent PM Secures Victory, But In Narrowest Win Yet

…the former Beatle carried the Labour Party to a slim plurality tonight over Nigel Lawson (Conservative), Charles Kennedy (Liberal Democrat), and Rosemary Byrne/Tommy Sheridan (UKIP/Socialist Alliance). Like with Lennon’s victories in 1992 and 1995, the Labour Party has announced it will form a minority government with the LD party. This time, however, the UKIP Party will not be joining them in the coalition government, due to the party’s recent criticisms of Lennon’s tax policies and his pushing off the election until almost five years after the last one, and due to Labour leaders’ “concerns” over the UKIP Party forming an alliance with the Socialist Alliance. This coalition is thus much smaller than it was before – only 4 seats over the minimum needed to make up a majority of seats in Parliament…

The Daily Telegraph, 5/5/2000



SENATE CONFIRMS GARZA FOR VACANT SUPREME COURT SEAT: Texas Judge Will Become First Hispanic Associate Justice

The Washington Post, 5/7/2000



…The May 9 “West Cluster” of five primary contests was very telling for the Richards campaign. The Texan won only one state (Wyoming), while Jackson won Utah, Idaho, and Oklahoma… Wellington Webb won his first Presidential primary, his home state of Colorado; it was also his last Presidential primary win, as, without a path forward, Webb gave up the ghost and endorsed Richards for President less than a week later. The subjectively “late” endorsement was considered appropriate by Colorado’s state media, due to Webb’s infamous tendency to often show up late to meeting and events. Webb even showed up late to a Presidential debate in December 1999, leading to him not wearing makeup or even a tie during the event. The trait was so notable that Webb himself owned up to it in his autobiography: “The only place I needed to improve was in punctuality. (That issue dogged me as an adult. When I was mayor, and when I was Governor, the media used to joke that all press conferences were on ‘Webb Time’ – that usually meant I was running behind fifteen to twenty minutes.)[15]

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



…After the war, Korean-German relations grew to be very strong because the revelations over the extent of the North Korean concentration camps ended up leaving a deep psychological scar on both former Northerners and former Southerners. It was a sense of national shame and self-reflection that the German people could easily relate to…

– Choe Yong-ho’s Bittersweet: Korea After Reunification, Columbia University Press, 2010



…The May 16 primary contests saw Jackson win Wisconsin and Oregon, with Richards coming in second place in each race. After having put all of her chips on victory in either place, Richards bitterly and reluctantly dropped out. This major development left Ross and Diamondstone as the only significant candidates left in the race, and finally let Jackson go from “frontrunner” status to “presumptive nominee” status…

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



BIAGGI SWITCHES TO GOP, RESTORING REPUBLICAN SENATE MAJORITY!

“I can’t in good conscience go along with a party supportive of Jesse Jackson’s wild and dangerous policies. If the Democrats nominate him, the 2000 election will be theirs to lose, and I for one refuse to tie myself to the mast of a sinking ship!”

The Washington Post, 5/17/2000



ISRAEL AND UAE STRIKE DIPLOMATIC DEAL TO NORMALIZE RELATIONS, ENDING MANY YEARS OF LOW-KEY TENSION

The Guardian, 18/5/2000, side article



…Five states held contests tonight in a round of Presidential primaries called the Arcadia Cluster. On the Democratic side, Bob Ross won Maine, while presumptive nominee Jesse Jackson won Rhode Island, Connecticut, the North Dakota caucus, and Washington, D.C., with that last content being won with over 95% of the vote there. On the Republican side, Dinger won all five contests with only opposition from minor candidates on three ballots, and unopposed in North Dakota and Maine…

– The Overmyer Network’s Night-Time News, 5/23/2000 broadcast



TWO NATIONS, ONE PEOPLE: The Complexities Of Life In The Two Yemens

…The Yemen Arab Republic, also known as North Yemen or Yemen-Sana’a, lies west of the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen, a.k.a. South Yemen, or Yemen-Aden… while divided by political structure, their shared border being undefined and unclear, and the homogeny of the Yemen people, has led to these two nations being very close and friendly. Neither government wants to merge with the other, and yet, at the local level, these two countries almost function as one, with citizens being allowed to travel freely between the two, and families and businesses expanding far into each other…

– National Geographic, May 2000 issue



“We’ve come as far as we can. When you hit a wall, you climb it and move on.” Days ahead of the Indiana and West Virginia primaries, Bob sat down with Jesse Jackson to discuss environmental policy and artistry. In the preceding several weeks, Bob had slowly accumulated an impressive number of delegates from primaries that divided delegates proportionally, instead of in the winner-take-all sort. He told Jackson he was going to drop out of the race and endorse him, but wanted confirmation that the policy planks of the Ross campaign would not be ignored.

“Bob, I’ll be honest with you because I like you,” the presumptive nominee said. “You are really something special, Bob. In the debates, when Ann and Blanchard were going after me on prison reform and social justice, saying my ideas went too far or made me unelectable, you always had my back. You were always in my corner. If you want, I can give you a position in my administration.”

Bob replied that he was flattered, but urged Jackson to add a stronger “Green” plank to his campaign ahead of the election. “We can talk more about it after you’ve won,” Bob said gently.

Jackson and he negotiated until that made a “friendly understanding” as Bob called it. On May 28, two days before the Indiana and West Virginia primaries, Ross graciously bowed out of the race, making Jackson the sole candidate left in the race (except for Senator Peter Diamondstone, who failed to get on the ballot in any of the remaining primary contests). On May 30, Jackson won both aforementioned primaries, but Bob still received 2 delegates from each of them, as his candidacy had posthumously received 10% and 15% of the vote in each respective race.

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014



…Well, this morning is certainly a good if not early morning for Jesse Jackson, as he won all five Presidential primaries held last night. Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Nebraska – Jackson won them all in landslides last night…

– ABC Morning News, 6/7/2000





Popular vote:
Jesse Jackson – 7,115,145 (43.7%)
Ann Richards – 2,539,963 (15.6%)
Paul Wellstone – 1,823,561 (11.2%)
Roberto Clemente – 960,625 (5.9%)
Bob Ross – 830,371 (5.1%)
James Blanchard – 814,089 (5.0%)
Harry W. Braun III – 455,890 (2.8%)
Peter Diamondstone – 341,917 (2.1%)
Wellington Webb – 325,635 (2.0%)
Katie Beatrice Hall – 227,945 (1.4%)
Jerry Litton – 195,381 (1.2%)
Cleo Fields – 179,099 (1.1%)
All other votes – 472,171 (2.9%)
Total popular votes – 16,281,792 (100%)

– clickopedia.co.usa [16]



RICHARDS (FINALLY) ENDORSES JACKSON

…The Senator presented a reconciling tone in an effort to bury the hatchet and end the bad blood reportedly made between their two campaigns during the primary season…

The Spartanburg Herald-Journal, South Carolina newspaper, 6/10/2000



“Their relationship was much friendlier than the media outlets made it out to be. It really wasn’t that bitter; there were no below-the-belt punches or personal jabs. In fact, in one of the pre-primary debates, when Senator Diamondstone tried to ridicule my Mother for holding a glass of water with two hands, [17], claiming it was a sign that she was too old and weak for the job, Jesse Jackson was the first candidate to admonish him for making such a stupid and childish remark. But friendliness is for fluff pieces, I guess, because the media didn’t focus on what Ma had to say about Jesse Jackson, just that she delayed giving her speech, which was because of scheduling conflicts, not reluctance. In her concession speech, my Mother was sincere when she said, and I quote ‘Jesse Jackson is a leader and a teacher who can open our hearts and open our minds and stir our very souls. And he has taught us that we are as good as our capacity for caring. Caring about the drug problem. Caring about crime. Caring about education. And caring about each other [18].’ She meant that.”

– Cecile Richards, 2012 interview



…For running mate, Jackson considered dozens of national politicians. Outside of fellow 2000 Presidential candidates, several names were floated. Moderates such as Oklahoma Governor Robert S. Kerr III and US Representative Jim Folsom Jr. were floated as potential choices if Jackson meant to appeal to less “change-centric” voters, while Texas Governor Henry Cisneros (who has since recovered from the 1999-2000 Texas budget crisis that prevented him from running for President this year) would double down on his message. One of three prominent US Representatives, Louis C. Weinburg, Howard Wolpe, and Dick Gephardt, would give legislative experience to the ticket, as would a number of US Senators. …Reports that Jackson passed over Richards for the nomination due to bad blood between her and Jackson went unconfirmed, and were subsequently rebuked by most pundits and Richards supporters as the year went by…

– Christine Baker’s The Party of Jackson: How The 2000 Election Changed The Democratic Party, Borders Books, 2011



JACKSON SELECTS WELLSTONE FOR VP SLOT!

...the nominee-in-waiting is doubling down on his progressive platform by choosing Minnesota’s own Paul Wellstone, our incumbent Governor and a former Presidential candidate, to be his running mate…

– The St. Paul Pioneer Press, Minnesota newspaper, 6/19/2000



“Jackson pulled together what they’ve called a Rainbow Coalition. It sounds like a labor union for Sesame Street, but it’s actually the uniting of all the ethnic groups in the US – I’m talkin’ Blacks, Browns, Smurfs, Martians, you know – Jackson won the ethnic vote, while Richards solidly won over the ‘Get the f@3k off my property before I shoot you’ vote. Now, the good news is that Jackson will bring out the black vote. And it will, but the bad news is that it will bring out ‘I-don’t-want-his-kind-runnin’-my-country’ vote. Yeah, didn’t think about that. But Jay-Jay did. He thought, ‘How’m I going to win over white people? I know, I’ll pick this Jewish guy over here.’ So now Jesse’s going to bring out the ‘I-don’t-want-his-kind-runnin’-my-reichstag’ vote, too. Uh-oh. Didn’t think that out, either!” [19]

– comedian Chris Rock, 6/21/2000




…I was taken aback by Elaine’s generosity. I still receive hundreds of packages, letters, art and other kinds of fan mail, but I say it was fate that led me to her post-mortem message. God’s mysterious ways, which are no match for postal service workers, was what led to that one fan letter getting to me. Elaine’s mother’s name being the same as my own mother’s name confirmed the presence of divine intervention. I believe the transplant worked for that reason. My family and I were so grateful to that beautiful woman, that my next album was dedicated to her honor. Elaine was released on July 25, 2003, the third anniversary of the transplant. I am so ebullient that the titular song became so well known. They even used it for a time for the intro music for the TV drama series “Drywater” in the early 2010s…

– Elvis Presley’s second autobiography It’s Been All Right, I Guess: My Life So Far Once More, Berkley Books, 2018



“…Dinger gave Korea 30-year loans with the first payment not due for ten years. If we can rebuild Korea and Japan, we can rebuild Chicago and Atlanta and Pittsburgh. We can rebuild America! …Dinger has failed to defend the dignity of America from attacks made by the right-wing assaulters, the naysayers, the defends of the worst of the old ways, the type of people who would prefer it if people like me and my family and my wife and my children had to sit at separate lunch counters again. When the President turns a blind eye and keep their mouth mute to the inequality and injustice of the country over which they preside, then the President does not deserve four more years.”
[snip]
“…We deserve better than this. We have welfare; now we must fight for jobs and daycare and education. This fight was never about upholding a nanny-state welfare, but about jobs and opportunity, of breathing new air into ideas like the National Initiative, the Federal Aid Dividend, and the Zones of Economic Development. It is a moral imperative to create a job for every American. ...We can change the course, and right the wrongs of the last four years. We can rid ourselves of private prisons and renovate the buildings into reform centers, schools, hospitals, civic centers and museums. We must lift our youth up, not lock them up. We must reclaim our children’s future for them. It is our moral obligation. ...Social Justice, gender equality, racial equality cannot be achieved without the support of the people, and that support begins this November.”
[snip]
“…We must ensure proper representation for the citizens of Washington, DC. In our nation’s capital, more people live than in five states. They pay more in taxes than ten states, and yet they live in a limbo-like state of congressional occupation. Freedom must ring from our nation’s capital…”
[snip]
“We must seek a new moral center… How we respond to diversity is a measurement of our character, our strength, and our dedication to the ideals of equality and justice enshrined in the US Constitution and in the Declaration of Independence, two documents that call for the creation of an America that we do not have yet, but certainly can.”
[snip]
“…Keep the faith, stand with the chicken workers. Keep the faith, stand with the coal miners. Keep the faith, stand with the shipbuilders. Keep the faith, stand with the poor. Keep the faith, stand with the widows and the children and the elderly. Keep the faith, stand tall. Keep the faith, and we will prevail, and we will win and deserve to win! Keep hope alive!” [20]

– Jesse Jackson at the 2000 DNC, 6/28/2000




NOTE(S)/SOURCE(S)
[1] OTL quote!
[2] A.k.a., the high number of votes he got in the poll
[3] The italicized passages were pulled from this source: https://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/04/us/politics/04obama.html
[4] Quote is from OTL!
[5] OTL event from the 1950s (thank @ajm8888 for pointing it out to me, and for his help with the Japan-centric parts): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_bribery_scandals
[6] This is also an OTL quote – at least, according to the following website: www.brainyquote.com
[7] Both Marx lines are from RL, and the stealing and manual bullets jokes are from “Welcome Back, Kotter”
[8] OTL quote!: Ann Richards Discusses Texas, Politics and Humor on Larry King Live, CNN, January 23, 2001
[9] This is an OTL proposal; many pieces, passages, and terms used in this section were pulled from this article here: https://www.space.com/mars-astronauts-venus-flyby-idea.html
[10] The italicized part(s) is/are from his OTL autobiography https://www.google.com/books/edition/Wellington_Webb/nYw_NaCgJuMC?hl=en&gbpv=0, page 38
[11] Ibid., page 39
[12] Ibid., page 41
[13] Ibid., page 45
[14] Ibid., page 47
[15] OTL quote, found on page 36 of his autobiography: https://www.google.com/books/edition/Wellington_Webb/nYw_NaCgJuMC?hl=en&gbpv=0
[16] The placement/ranking of the candidates is based on their ranking in the poll on August 21st, as their numbers had not moved in 48 hours at that point.
[17] Here’s a (regrettably low-quality) picture of it:

[18] The italicized part is a quote from Ann Richards’ 1988 DNC speech; specifically, starting at the 15:10 mark: youtube: wtIFhiqS_TY
[19] Based on his comedic style and delivery during the opening monologues on The Chris Rock Show in OTL (which is on the air for much longer ITTL, BTW)
[20] Several sections of this series of speech extractions were pulled and edited from here: youtube: Xi2KyaI9GIU

The next chapter’s E.T.A.: Soon.
 
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Chapter 81: July 2000 – January 2001
Chapter 81: July 2000 – January 2001

“You cannot separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless one has freedom”

– Malcolm X (OTL)



In the Presidential election held on July 2, four candidates sought to succeed incumbent Luis Colosio (PRI), who was constitutionally limited to a single six-year term. The PRI nomination was contested between three former cabinet members. Emilio Chuayfett (b. 1951), Governor of the State of Mexico from 1993 to 1995 and Secretary of the Interior under President Colosio from 1995 to 1999, was an early frontrunner; Jose Francisco Ruiz Massieu (b. 1946), Governor of Guerrero from 1987 to 1993, was an underdog candidate; and Esteban Moctezuma (b. 1954), former Senator, and Secretary of Social Development from 1994 to 1999, gathered momentum as the time for nomination neared. After Colosio began “using me [Chuayfett] as a scapegoat” for recent “missteps” in the “war on recreadrugs,” as Chuayfett claimed in a 2007 interview, Moctezuma was nominated with relative ease.

Ahead of the general election, Chuayfett ally Fidel Herrera (b. 1949) left the PRI to run under the Truth and Justice Party banner; he hovered at around 10% in most polls, siphoning most of those votes away from Moctezuma. A week before the election, though, undercover journalist Regina Martinez Perez published the revelation that Herrera had deep financial connections to several recreadrug cartels. Herrera claimed the accusations were conspiratorial in nature and remained in the race.

The elections results gave Moctezuma a clear plurality of votes (42.5%) as Herrera’s support collapsed. Moctezuma won over Mauricio Fernandez (PAN), a Senator from Nuevo Leon who received 38.4%, and Cuauhtemoc Cardenas (PRD), who came in third place with 17.2%. Herrera finished in fourth place with 1.3%... [snip] ...In 2001, Herrera was shot and killed on the orders of a branch of the Juarez Cartel…

– clickopedia.co.usa/Mexico_general_election,_2000



A TWO-STATE SOLUTION: Puerto Rico and D.C. For States 51 And 52

…if Puerto Rico’s strategic importance in and military contributions to the Cuban War were not enough for my fellow Puerto Ricans to earn statehood, then perhaps political leverage will. Pairing up the Commonwealth with the District of Columbia could receive bipartisan support, as Puerto Rico has been leaning Republican in recent years thanks to partisan efforts, most visibly by former Secretary of Defense Rocky Versace, to shore up GOP support on the island. Congress, especially a bipartisan one, can easily bring both Puerto Rico and Washington, D.C. into the 50-state fold. The U.S. Constitution gives Congress the power to grant statehood but does not establish the process for doing so. Congress is free to determine the conditions of statehood on a case-by-case basis. According to the Constitution, a new state cannot be created by splitting or merging existing states unless both the U.S. Congress and the legislatures of the states involved approve. In most past cases, Congress has required that the people of the territory seeking statehood vote in a free referendum election. [1] Puerto Rico’s most recent referendum demonstrated clearly that Puerto Ricans want to join, and DC residents have been calling for proper representation for decades. Congress has the power to kill two partisan birds with one stone, and make both Puerto Rico and Washington, D.C. America’s 51st and 52nd states, and should do so the very next time Congress is split between Democrats and Republicans…

The Orlando Sentinel, 7/7/2000 op-ed



DINGER: 49%
JACKSON: 40%
OTHER/UNDECIDED: 11%

– Gallup national poll, 7/15/2000



PARTY OF JACKSON: The Reverend-Governor’s Plan To “Renew The American Promise”

– Time Magazine, mid-July 2000 issue



The 2000 NDRR Presidential Election was held in the National Democratic Republic of Russia (Natsional’no-Demokraticheskaya Republika Rossiya) on July 27, 2000. Incumbent President Viktor Chernomyrdin, initially viewed as “strongman” and a shoo-in for re-election, faced intense popular scrutiny for austerity measures taken to combat the Long Recession. As a result, he ultimately declined to seek a second term in the wake of underwater approval ratings. The election subsequently became a mandate on how Russia should proceed going into the new century and a post-recession world.

[SNIP]

Candidates (4):

Nina Lobkovskaya, b. 1925 (independent), a member of the National Assembly from Siberia since 1990 and a former Army sniper during WWII, her confirmed 89 kills make her the tenth deadliest female sniper of that war. Retiring after the war to teach at a military school, Nina “The Deadly Grandma” became more politically involved under Premier Kosygin, but declined becoming a member of the Politburo. During the fall of the USSR, Lobkovskaya disagreed with her government’s handling of United Turkestan’s independence movement, and in 2010 confessed to having taught Tajiki women hunting and self-defense skills during a 1983 visit to Dushanbe, Tajikistan. After the war, Lobkovskaya became a critic of President Vlad Volkov. In 2000, she was convinced to run by hawks critical of Chernomyrdin; her campaign focused on her post-USSR activities, especially her overseeing the National Treasury from mid-1995 to late 1997.

Irina Khakamada, b. 1955 (Democratic), a member of the National Assembly since 1993. With Japanese and Armenian heritage, she was a moderate who appealed to several minority groups across the country, and was lauded for her debating skills leading up to the primary round, which raised her standing in the polls considerably.

Vyacheslav Maltsev, b. 1964 (Motherland), a member of the National Assembly from Saratov since 1994. An openly vocal critic of fellow Motherlander Chernomyrdin, Maltsev claimed the nation’s troubles were due to government corruption and a mishandling of the ruble. He favors “direct democracy” and was the favorite to win until his support of government surveillance – in other words, allowing citizens to survey government officials with hidden cameras – caused him to lose donor support.

Sergei Mavrodi, b. 1955 (National), a wealthy businessman from Moscow proper. A half-Greek, half-Ukrainian entrepreneur favoring healthcare expansion and the continuation of Chernomydrin’s space programs via higher taxation on the rich and “utilizing the positive effects of greater international trade,” Mavrodi was implicated in a huge tax fraud scandal, connected to his founding of several tech companies in the mid-1990s, one week ahead of the primary round.

[snip]

Results:

In the July 13 primary round, Maltsev came in first place with 37.1% of the vote, compared to first runner up Lobkovskaya’s 31.3%. Coming in at a close third was Khakamada with 25.9%, followed by Mavrodi with merely 5.7%. Ahead of the runoff held two weeks later, Khakamada endorsed Lobkovskaya, and wealthy donors began backing Lobkovskaya as well. Maltsev accused her of corruption, but in the wake of his controversial opinions, and a poor showing in the July 6 debate, Lobkovskaya defeated him on July 27, and won said election by a margin of 10% to boot.

– clickopedia.co.usa



“The 2000 Republican primaries were a Matterhorn of an uphill climb, even with Dinger being a lot more vulnerable than he was four years ago. But, even though I only received 3 delegates and less than 5% in total, the fact remains that I got my message out there – that Dinger’s interventionism was reckless and irresponsible – and I think I made more people wise up to things. So I think it was worth it.”

– Former US Senator Ron Paul, 7/28/2000 radio interview



THE OVERMYER NETWORK HIRES RON PAUL FOR POLITICAL ANALYST JOB

– thehoustonchronicle.com, 7/29/2000 e-article



…While libertarian Republicans held their nose and got behind Dinger/Meredith, the same could not be said for many of the populist Wide-Awakes paramilitary groups that had endorsed Dinger in 1996. With their popularity within the GOP already on the decline due to recent incidents from extreme affiliates tarnishing their image, most Wide-Awakes turned their attention to down-ballot races, financially defending US Congressman Bo Gritz (R-ID) and several Congressional candidates as November neared...

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



“We’ve got to change course!” Larry hollered into the receiver. The President’s inner circle had come to a conclusion that the RNC Chairman refused to recognize. “Support for BLUTAGOism is on the rise, and that rise includes nearly all of the swing states. Hell, even Ohio is trying to legalize BLUTAG marriages! …Yes, and their crazy Governor’s doing nothing to stop it! …Yeah, but if we don’t pivot the party’s policy to this being a state-by-state matter, we’re going to lose independents, in Ohio and elsewhere. …Especially if they’re uninformed! They’ll think we’re the opponents of individual rights instead of the Democrats!”

Dinger rubbed his brow in frustration at the man on the other end of the line. His face was becoming so wrinkly, his hair so grey, and his eyes so tired. The White House staff members who were veterans of previous administrations were right – the President is indeed a 24-hour job.

Finally, Dinger offered the RNC Chairman a bone. “In exchange for discreetly sticking the state-by-state policy into the platform, I will include in my nomination speech, and we’ll prominently display in the platform, this administration’s absolute refusal to back down in the War on Recreadrugs. That we will not make any such similar shift on recreadrugs. That we will not retreat on this. Marijuana is a hell of a lot more dangerous than marriage. Heh. I know a lot of people will beg to differ on that, but, personally, I can’t relate to them.” On this last bit, he flashed me a smile a wink.

I smirked back, and then went back to the Roosevelt Room to continue being a gracious host to the First Lady of Ohio. Naturally, I did not mention to her Larry’s thoughts on her husband.

– Paula Gaffey Dinger’s Starting In Riceville: The Journey of Larry And I, Random House, 2011



…Well, it’s official: Dinger has been re-nominated for the Presidency…

…I noticed the, quote, “peace at any cost,” unquote, language from 1996 was removed, as well as that year’s party platform calling for the, quote, “defense of traditional families,” unquote. This could mean that either the party leaders or the Dinger administration, is, uh, are attempting to shift more to the ideological center, just a bit, and that kind of thing could make for a closer election come November, don’t you think?…

…I think party leadership is distancing themselves away from the Wide-Awakes, not conservative ideology. I spoke to a lot of people when I was leading canvassing efforts for Wellstone in the primaries, and I really think that, even with the removal of the more jingoistic rhetoric used in ’96, I think war fatigue is being seriously overlooked by the GOP this year, and by a lot of pollsters as well. I think that’s going to play a surprising role going forward...

– snippets from ABC News’ roundtable discussion, 8/10/2000



“I’m very proud of the work I did on the Ross campaign, but Jackson better keep to his promise of protecting Mother Earth. If I have to put together rally after rally, or put together protests and picket lines outside the White House like the shoutniks of yesteryear, to keep our government from contributing to Global Climate Disruption, I will, if that’s what I have to do.”

– environmental advocate, actress, and political activist Susan Elizabeth “Suzy” Amis, TON News interview, 8/12/2000



“It looks like Jackson/Wellstone is trying to energize a diverse coalition of Democratic voters, and, you know, it’s reminiscent of the Johnson/Humphrey coalition of 1960, but I don’t think Jackson can pull it off.”

– James Carville, CBS political analyst, 8/14/2000



SAUDI ARABIA SPACE AGENCY LAUNCHES PROBE TO VENUS!

…while the US looks to Earth’s one neighbor, the Middle East eyes another neighbor…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 15/8/2000



The RNC weighed more on their strategizing of the vote of “the Minority-American” as autumn approached because of the belief that the African-American vote and the Hispanic-American vote were in play, and that both could or would determine the election. In the President’s pocket was his VP, the maverick Meredith, a Black Republican. While roughly 30% of African-Americans were registered Republicans at the time, many within the Dinger campaign feared that Jackson would siphon away many of these voters. Additionally, Jackson’s “Rainbow Coalition” was successfully amassing a plethora of Hispanic-Americans surrogates, including former Puerto Rico Governor Roberto Clemente, former US Senator from California Mario Obledo, New Mexico Governor Cheech Marin, Texas Governor Henry Cisneros, and many other prominent Hispanic people; this fact made the GOP coordinators and mobilizers focus on the states bordering the Mexican border, as many wealthy GOP donors eyed the populations down there with much old-world agitation. To top it all off, due to the surrogate campaigning of Richards and Cisneros, concern that Texas would “revert” back to the Democrat lane was genuine.

In August, Dinger’s campaign looked into the backgrounds of both Jackson and Wellstone. Doing so for the latter was unexpectedly easy for Dinger’s inner circle – it turned out (and later revealed to the public) that the FBI had been keeping records on Wellstone since as early as his first arrest at a 1964 Cuban War protest [2]. Unfortunately for them, the investigative peruses of old files and reports failed to find anything outside of “socialistic” rhetoric and non-violent protest-centric antics in the 1960s and 1980s.

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



Dinger/Meredith – Full Speed Ahead!

– Unofficial Dinger’00 slogan, first used c. late August 2000



DINGER: 52%
JACKSON: 39%
OTHER/UNDECIDED: 9%

– Gallup national poll, 8/22/2000



RECREATIONAL MARIJUANA MAKES ONTO BALLOT IN NEW HAMPSHIRE

The Washington Post, 8/27/2000



DINGER CAMPAIGN ADRESSES AD ACCUSED OF BEING RACIST FOR ALTERING JACKSON’S SKIN COLOR

Jackson’s campaign was quick to condemn a TV ad playing on broadcasting stations across Texas for using a photograph of Jesse Jackson that was edited to make the Democratic party’s Presidential nominee look like he has a different, much darker skin tone.



Above: the original photo (taken in February, left) and how it appears in the TV ad (screen still, right)

Dinger’s campaign press secretary today clarified that, “like the fine print of the ad says, the Wide-Awakes for Dinger Organization is responsible for the content of that ad. The President, the White House and the Republican National Committee are not affiliated with said specific organization. Nevertheless, we can requested that TV stations refuse to air these heinous ads, even if that means they have to return the money the WADO gave them to air them.”…

– The Associated Press, 8/30/2000



“I am an intensely private person. But don’t misunderstand me, I understand and appreciate the magnitude of what my father-in-law’s trying to do here. I knew he was going places and that politics was in the family blood even before I married into it. I went to school with the Governor’s daughter, Santita. We were classmates at the Whitney Young High School. [3] That’s how I was introduced to them, and how I met Junior. I remember Santita was a bit peeved when I started dating her little brother, but what can you do when you make that connection? When you fall for someone, and I go for it, you accept all of that person, the good and the bad. Now, Jesse and his dad may be very public people, but I’m more like Jaqueline and the Governor’s mother – I work better behind cameras than in front of them. But I’m getting better – I’m doing this interview, aren’t I? I think Mother Jacqueline and I are helping each other slowly get more comfortable with limelight. But right now, I still greatly prefer spending my time raising my three children, while Junior, Senior and Jonathan play politics.”

– Michelle Robinson Jackson, 9/1/2000 interview



…On September 2, 2000, the California Supreme Court ruled 6-to-3 that it was illegal for public netsites to allow anonymous users, citing security concerns. The ruling was later cited as an example of the government overreacting to calls for more transparency in industries, and, more prominently, the rise in incidents in the late 1990s of on-tech pestering and serious threats made by anonymous site users, and to the “cyber-terror” films of the 1990s, such as “Lawnmower Man” (1992), “Sneakers” (1993), “Hackers” (1995), and most prominently “Hackers 2” (1998). The ruling was immediately challenged on the grounds on violating the privacy rights of citizens; the operations of companies, businesses, and schools was also on the line. Opponents noted that the technet was primarily a source of exchanged ideas, with the “social contract” being made global despite the ability to maintain anonymity while using it.

Soon after, US Secretary of Energy and Technology Rod Driver proposed the implementation of TechNet ID Cards. “You must scan your ID through some sort of Computer Scanner at front of the computer screen in order to sign into and enter adult sites, and to purchase alcohol on the computer, and things of that sort.” Supporters of Driver’s proposal believed that treating netsites like liquor stores would result in “scumbags” preferring public or private radio or in-person discussions. Supporters even seem to approve of the hypothetical scenario of such members of society growing to oppose the internet (despite it greatly improving the quality of life on earth – especially in Africa, where knowledge of sanitary techniques was drastically improving health conditions each year).

Driver’s proposal was DOA in the realms of technology and commerce. Its implementation would be very costly, let alone the difficulty of its enforcement, and would no doubt lead to even further litigation. As a result of its overall very poor reception, the comments were swept under the metaphorical rug, and the Dinger Administration’s Attorney General and Justice Department resumed focus on the court challenges to the state ruling...

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018



…As Dinger continued with his re-election bid, “country” conservative members of the GOP began increasing their “Buy American” rhetoric. House Speaker Emery held them back at the committee level, but the push for the President to take a harder stance against Japan persisted. Senator Chenoweth, for example, was privately critical of Dinger’s approach to Japan being less belligerent than his predecessor, saying on a hot mic “we’ve got to keep them in line,” as in, she opposed the US helping Japan return to the major power they were before entering recession. Dinger, however, believed that Japan could be a more US-friendly power if it received assistance from the US. On this note, both Dinger and Jackson were in agreement. As a result of this, when the theme and issue of being tough on crime at home and abroad was discussed among political circles, it focused more on the reluctance of some members of the GOP to fully back Dinger when it came to Japan’s economic goals. Instead, most of said theme and issue revolved around Mexico and Colombia, where the candidates differed sharply, with the rise of the yakuza in Japan being a less contentious issues – because, again, Jackson and Dinger agreed that the yakuza could not be tolerated any more than mobsters and recreadrug lords…

…Domestically, the main issues of the 2000 general election cycle were how to stop the flow of recreadrugs into the US, the merits of criminal justice reform, the validity of recent calls for Puerto Rican and Washington, DC statehood, how to best lower employment, the merits of the Balanced Budget Amendment, and the topic of immigration…

– Richard Ben Cramer’s What It Takes: Roads to The White House, Sunrise Publications, 2011 edition



“We can’t force people to uphold morals. That’d violate America’s creed of separating church from state. Instead, we, all of us, at the federal, state, county, local, community, and family level, need to teach our children to lead not into temptation, and to not pursue dangerous substances or harmful practices. …Reforming our criminal justice system, which I strongly support, does not mean we have to accept the legalization of heroin, cocaine, fentanyl and other deadly drugs. It means we must find economic sanctions – and effective treatment – for drug users while retaining much tougher punishment for those making money while enriching the drug cartels. [4] If American illegal drug purchases fell radically – even to less than a billion a year – the cartels would collapse because they would not have the money to pay their troops and to support their infrastructure.” [4]

– Gov. Jesse Jackson (D-SC), at a campaign stop in Green Bay, Wisconsin, 9/15/2000




DINGER: 48%
JACKSON: 42%
OTHER/UNDECIDED: 10%

– Gallup national poll, 9/17/2000



The rise of the yakuza in a Japan trying to make an economic recovery complicated international and domestic efforts to stabilize and conditions and restor consumer confidence in legal avenues of revenue and purchasing. The new Prime Minster of Japan heightened anti-corruption measures, and pro-law newspapers began increasing the circulation of stories concerning recreadrug cartels and Japanese banking practices, in a manner not seen since North Korea dominated headlines in the previous several years. “KW2 was like lifting up a rock and seeing all the bugs under it scatter,” said the new Prime Minister in a press meeting held on September 18, in which he explained Japan’s latest efforts to round up gun runners and cocaine pushers running amok in the patches of the North still to be “cleared of debris,” as the new PM put it. “Corruption, the seedy underbellies of societies, they are a part of the human condition, and so can never be permanently snuffed out of existence. But to do nothing is to worsen their suffocating grip on people. It is the responsibility of every responsible citizen to shine light on corrupt ways, in order for all of us to push the scourge of corruption back into the shadows and away from our children, communities and livelihoods!”

– Alec Dubro and David E. Kaplan’s Yakuza: Japan’s Criminal Underworld, University of California Press, 2003



NAYLE MOAWAD ELECTED PRESIDENT OF LEBANON

…Moawad, 60, is the wife of politician and unsuccessful presidential candidate Rene Moawad. Elected to her husband’s seat in the national assembly after Moawad’s appointment to a cabinet position in 1989, Moawad bested PM Rafic Hariri, a business tycoon-turned-politician with close connections to both Syria and Saudi Arabia, for the office of President. Upon being sworn in, she will become Lebanon’s first democratically-elected female head-of-state…

The Guardian, side article, 23/9/2000



…And in the American continents, at least 22 American soldiers were killed in Colombia today as Cartel-backed guerillas reconquered a provincial capital, a military defeat that will no doubt be fairy hurtful to American President Larry Dinger’s e-election chances…

– BBC, 9/30/2000 broadcast



CLOSING CEREMONY: Reflections And A Fond Farewell To The 2000 Olympics In Manchester



…Fair autumn weather cooperated with the closing ceremonies today at the XXVII Summer Olympics. Additionally, friendliness and humor from hundreds of thousands of spectators, athletes, sponsors, volunteers, and other participants, highlighted the games’ themes of global goodwill. The night’s events were a “raucous party” that centered on Manchester’s prominent music scene in celebration of medals won, records broken, and bonds formed in the aura of friendly competition…

The Daily Telegraph, UK newspaper, 1/10/2000



In American political jargon an “Autumn Surprise” is a term designated to unforeseen events that tend to shake-up or otherwise effect an election. Typically occurring in either September or October, the event can range from major events such as an economic downturn or a foreign policy crisis, to comparatively minor events such as a personal scandal or campaign gaffe.

The Autumn Surprise of 2000 is considered by most to have been a major event, as the Jackson campaign milked the story for all it was worth.

– Richard Ben Cramer’s What It Takes: Roads to The White House, Sunrise Publications, 2011 edition



WHOLESALE EARNINGS OF ILLEGALLY BOUGHT RECREADRUGS MEASURED INTO THE BILLIONS!

…according to an extensive study, between the years of 1989 and 1999, over $8billion dollars was spent by Americans purchasing illegal recreadrugs, with roughly 90% of those dollars going into the pockets of Mexican, Colombian, and international recreadrug cartels, and the rest going to drug pushers and “mules” (transporters) living in the US…

The Washington Post, 10/4/2000 extra



JACKSON JUMPS 5 POINTS IN NATIONAL AVERAGE POLLING!

The Baltimore Sun, 10/5/2000



…The revelations over just how much money the US was losing to criminal organizations by keeping marijuana illegal (no less than half of the cartel’s total wholesale earnings) shifted the election’s focus away from the recovering economy and Jackson’s difficulty in winning over white suburban voters to the War on Recreadrugs. Fallout from the revelations included Larry’s polling numbers taking a hit effects. It really took a toll on him. Not just the lost revenue issue, but the weight of the Oval Office. I am still amazed at just how tired and worn out he’d gotten in just five years, developed huge bags under his eyes and his hair going from black to grey. He was still handsome to me, but you can look handsome and still look like a wreck…

– Paula Gaffey Dinger’s Starting In Riceville: The Journey of Larry And I, Random House, 2011



DINGER: 48%
JACKSON: 47%
OTHER/UNDECIDED: 5%

– Gallup national poll, 10/7/2000



…Prior to the October 8th debate, Dinger seemed slightly nervous and anxious, and spent most of his time that morning fretting about minor details concerning official White House policy, versus how to take an amicable approach to his opponent without upsetting the “Country conservatives” in the GOP who hated Jackson vehemently.

Below: President Dinger talking with staff members backstage



In their first of three head-to-head matchups, Jackson pressed the Dinger on multiple domestic policy issues, without reluctance or hesitance. After several weak replies, Dinger began challenging Jackson more assertively:

Dinger: “We as a nation have been through turmoil and heartache again and again, and each time we’ve come back stronger. We are still here because we never give in to fear – we conquer fear. We acknowledge our fears, we confront them, and we defeat them. In the past four years, we’ve improved America’s sense of security, and we will only improve on our security even more if I’m re-elected.”

Jackson: “Dinger, you talk about hard times, but, with all due respect, sir, you have made it harder for Americans nationwide to get through hard times. The social services established under Presidents Lyndon Johnson, Walter Mondale and Carol Bellamy have been stripped of their funds under you. All for the sake of balancing the budget, when any small business owner will tell you that sometimes you have to risk going into the red to go for an investment that you bring you more profit.”

Dinger: “No risk, no reward. That’s what the governor advocates. Well I am not the kind of person who is willing to risk the well-being and livelihoods of the American people by allowing the nation to acquire a debt. Because once we start one, we’ll keep adding to it, because that will be easier than paying it off. This happens too often with people who don’t pay enough attention to their credit cards. A federal government cannot function that way, it never should, and it never has under my administration.”

The meeting of the minds was considered either a draw, or a win for Dinger, pending on whom one asked…

– Richard Ben Cramer’s What It Takes: Roads to The White House, Sunrise Publications, 2011 edition



JACKSON: “What’s driving the production of recreadrugs in Mexico is the millions of lower-class Mexican citizens willing to earn money by joining these criminal organizations because the Mexican government has failed to provide them with the legal means to provide for their families. They need well-paid jobs, legal well-paid jobs. The proportion of the population living in poverty in Mexico has risen 15% in the past four years!”

DINGER: “It is not the American President’s job to care for Mexico.”

JACKSON: “Americans are neighbors and business partners to Mexico. Our economy took a hit because theirs took a hit a while earlier. America’s top class has bounced back, but the Average Joe in America and the Average José in Mexico are still struggling. And we can help both of them out by taking a more collaborative and cooperative approach to Mexico, instead of continuing on with Dinger’s hardline approach, which has been tried out for the past four years and has, if anything, only made the situation worse, and on both sides of the border to boot!”

JACKSON: “Our economic disparity is nowhere near that of other countries.”

DINGER: “Yes, I know – it’s much fairer in other countries.”

JACKSON: “That’s not how I meant it and you know it, Mr. President, you know that.”

JACKSON: “Our government’s budget expenses for poverty alleviation and social development need immediate expansion. If I was President, we’d explore every possible route to make this happen, starting with making sure that America’s wealthiest, the millionaire and billionaire elites, pay their fair share, and cutting out excessive and wasteful spending from the federal budget. Carol Bellamy did so without violating the BBA, and Colonel Sanders, a Republican who cared about the lower classes, did so a balanced budget before the BBA even existed. It’s been done before, and it must be done again!”

– Snippets from the Second Dinger-Jackson Presidential Debate, Tuesday 10/14/2000



…with an election so noteworthy, young people across the country are paying closer attention to politics than usual. …Even prominent musicians are getting in on the campaign fever. Nirvana, for instance, played at a concert for Jackson in Seattle, in an idea thought up and seen through by band member Krist Novoselic. Meanwhile, Elvis has come out as a big supporter of President Dinger…

– Tumbleweed magazine, October 2000 issue



JACKSON TOUTS ACCOMPLISHMENTS WHILE GOVERNOR AS RACE TIGHTENS

The Houston Chronicle, 10/20/2000



DECISIONE 2000: Wellstone Called Out Meredith For History Of Backing Controversial Figures In Last Night’s VP Debate

– The Duluth News Tribune, Minnesota newspaper, 10/21/2000



“Let me tell y’all what the Cartel Wars, and prohibiting low-harm recreadrugs like marijuana, has led to: reports of human rights abuses in Mexico and Colombia, police militarization in several US cities, poor police-community relations only weakening and leading to a reduced trust in local police, a rise in racial disparities concerning incarceration as well as prison overcrowding, wasted tax dollars and wasted police resources, violence toward officers and overincarceration, failure to give help for those who need it, and an inability to reach out to those in need in the first place. In essence, President Dinger is treating a public health problem as if it is a criminal justice problem, which has led to unsafe communities, and increases in overdoses, homelessness cases, civil asset forfeiture cases, tainted drugs, street gangs, prison gangs, and turf wars, not just in the US, but in Mexico and Colombia also. And it has led to the misuse of government funds better used for bringing back jobs with investments into the workforce and removing the barriers to pain management and rehab centers that addicted people face. Funds better used to lift up the lower classes who at this moment are farther away from the American Dream that ever before. And all because of the poor attempts of this administration to respond to concerns over the amount of dangerous narcotics entering the country. I think we need a change of pace, don’t y’all?”

– Jesse Jackson’s closing statement at the Third Dinger-Jackson Presidential Debate, Saturday 10/25/2000; Jackson is considered to have been the clear winner of this debate



…most polled say that Dinger did not do well in the three debates in overall, with many saying that he generally came off as cold and calculating in the first debate, unenthusiastically answered every question in the second debate, and slipped up massively in the third debate. The third debate saw, conversely, saw Governor Jackson give fiery and passionate statements that resonated well with the audiences…

– ABC News, 10/25/2000 broadcast



WORLD SERIES: METS BEAT MARINERS 6-to-1!

The New York Times, 10/26/2000



JACKSON: 49%
DINGER: 48%
OTHER/UNDECIDED: 3%

– Gallup national poll, 10/27/2000



JACKSON/WELLSTONE: THE FACE OF THE NEW SOUTH?

…The south may rise again, but not in the way the original user of that phrase meant it. Minority voters are turning out in full force the southern states, aiming to put Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia into play. All three heavily lean to Dinger/Meredith, but Jackson/Wellstone supporters are hoping to defy the odds…

Time Magazine, late October 2000 issue



GALLUP: JACKSON LEADS DINGER BY 2% IN NEW NATIONAL POLL!

The Washington Post, 10/29/2000



“Yes, Dinger has taken a number of hits this year, and the economy is only so-so, but despite all that, I really don’t think Jackson can win. He may lose his home state, he'll definitely lose Pennsylvania, and he might win Wisconsin, but it won't matter, because I think all signs show that he will lose, and most likely in a landslide.”

– James Carville, CBS political analyst, 11/3/2000





– clickopedia.co.usa



"This election was a fluke, it defies the odds and everything. ...Jackson's total upset victory tonight was brought on by, um, uh, low voter turnout on the Republican side, eh, because they were so certain they would win, yeah..."

– James Carville, CBS political analyst, 11/8/2000



…After the 2000 election, CBS fired Carville, though Carville himself claims that he “stepped down from [his] guest spot” in order to spend more time with his family…

– knowledgepolitics.co.usa/people/pundits/Carville_(disambiguation)/James_Carville_(former_analyst)





– President Larry Dinger on election night 2000



“That election was a real game-changer. It gave us a lot of firsts – first African-American President, first President from South Carolina, first Jewish VP – and it demonstrated years of efforts to unite people from across the lower classes and across the ethnic groups behind a single candidate. I am very proud of the work done in the South, where white and African-American activists worked ferociously to win over voters. Republicans also worked hard to keep those states, especially, Texas and the Deep South, and, yes, they succeeded, but at the cost of losing the suburban regions in the northeast and Midwest, and along the eastern seaboard as well. And while Jackson didn’t win the Southern states, we came very close, impressively close, in many, and the Democratic Party picked up a very large number of congressional seats thanks to the down-ballot candidates riding Jackson’s coattails. And the results out in the American Southwest, they were a mandate on Dinger’s handling of the War on Recreadrugs – those state, their voters, they agreed with Jackson’s statement ‘It is time for a new strategy.’ It was, it really was.”

– Jackson2000 campaign strategist Steve Cobble, 2008 interview



Jackson/Wellstone received 51.01% (or 60,389,581 votes), compared to Dinger/Meredith’s 47.88% (or 56,684,297 votes). 1.11% went to all other candidates. 0.39% (or 461,714 votes) went to the big-tent far-right Patriotic Front “fusion” Ticket (an ad hoc alliance of the minor Country, Morals, Exposure, Defense, Values, and Liberty parties), which had nominated former state senator Don Gorman of New Hampshire for President and publisher Herb Titus of Oregon for Vice President.

Similarly, 0.43% (or 509,071) went to two far-left candidates almost evenly. The Socialist Alliance “fusion” ticket (an alliance of the Socialist Unity, Liberty Union, American Democratic Labor, Progressive Society, Communist Party USA, and other, even smaller, parties) nominated US Senator Peter Diamondstone for President and eco-socialist scholar Joel Kovel of New York for Vice President. Meanwhile, the Green Party nominated former Mayor Jello Biafra of California for President and activist Stephen Gaskin of Tennessee for Vice President.

0.25% went a quixotic “Rainbow Unity” ticket, alternatively named the “Millennium Transcendence” Party on 5 state ballots, and nominated by the Natural Mind party in California. The head of the ticket was actress and activist Shirley MacLaine of California. After former US Congressperson Dottie Lamm and San Miguel County Board of Commissioners member Art Goodtimes, both from Colorado, declined the spot, MacLaine convinced 77-year-old writer Norman Mailer of New York to be her running mate. The ticket received only 295,970. Despite media coverage of her campaign being overall “condescending,” according to MacLaine, and limited ballot access and a lack of being taken seriously by voters, the ticket did very well in New Hampshire, where a surprisingly strong showing led to many analysts fearing she would be a spoiler on election night. As said night continued, some pundits even indirectly accused the ticket of siphoning off votes from either Dinger of Jackson. However, such criticisms ended once the election was called for Jackson even before New Hampshire’s winner was even declared.

All other votes made up the remaining 0.09% (or 47,625 votes). The total number of votes: 118,388,258.

– Stephanie Wayne’s 2000: The Millennium Election, Random House, 2019



United States Senate election results, 2000

Date: November 7, 2000
Seats: 34 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
New Senate majority leader: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
New Senate minority leader: Bob Dole (R-KS)
Seats before election: 47 (D), 50 (R), 2 (I), 1 (LU)
Seats after election: 51 (D), 46 (R), 2 (I), 1 (LU)
Seat change: D ^ 4, R v 4, I - 0, LU - 0

Full list:
Arizona: incumbent Harry Braun (D) over Doug Wead (R), Barry Hess (Liberty), William Toel (I), and Vance Hansen (Green)
California: incumbent George Deukmejian (R) over Anna Georges Eshoo (D) and Medea Benjamin (Green)
Connecticut: incumbent Ralph Nader (I) over Richard Blumenthal (D) and Chris Shays (R)
Delaware: Daniel S. Frawley (D) over incumbent William Victor Roth Jr. (R)
Florida: Alexander Penelas (D) over John Thrasher (R); incumbent appointee Rhea Chiles (D) retired
Hawaii: incumbent Patsy Mink (D) over John S. Carroll (R)
Indiana: incumbent Katie Hall (D) over Paul Hager (R)
Maine: incumbent Olympia Snowe (R) over Mark Lawrence (D)
Maryland: incumbent Paul Sarbanes (D) over Paul Rappaport (R)
Massachusetts: Kathleen Hartington Kennedy-Roosevelt (D) over Carla Howell (R); incumbent Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D) retired
Michigan: Barbara-Rose Collins (D) over incumbent W. Mitt Romney (R) and Matthew Abel (Green)
Minnesota: Hubert Horatio “Skip” Humphrey III (DFL) over Carol Molnau (IRL) and Jim Gibbons (I); incumbent Joan Growe (DFL) retired
Mississippi: incumbent William Webster “Webb” Franklin (R) over Troy Brown (D)
Missouri: incumbent Alan Wheat (D) over Grant Samuel Stauffer (R)
Montana: incumbent Jack Mudd (D) over Rick Hill (R)
Nebraska: incumbent Ted Sorensen (D) over Don Stenberg (R)
Nevada: incumbent Anna Nevenic (D) over Jim Gibbons (R)
New Jersey: incumbent Frank X. McDermott (R) over Jon Corzine (official write-in) (D) and John A. Lynch Jr. (withdrew amid scandal) (D)
New Mexico: incumbent Pedro Jimenez (D) over William T. Redmond (R)
New York: incumbent Gabriel “Gabe” Kaplan (D/Working Families/Progressive/Green) over Rick Lazio (R) and John O. Adefope (Conservative/Life)
North Dakota: Eliot Glassheim (D) over Duane Sand (R); incumbent Arthur Albert Link (D) retired
Ohio: Terry A. Anderson (D) over Frank A. Cremeans (R); incumbent John Glenn (D) retired
Pennsylvania: Paul Kanjorski (D) over Patrick J. Toomey (R); incumbent Darcy Richardson (D) retired
Pennsylvania (special): incumbent appointee Bob Casey Jr. (D) over Philip Sheridan English (R)
Rhode Island: Myrth York (D) over incumbent Claudine Schneider (R)
Tennessee: Bob Clement Jr. (D) over Mae Beavers (R) and Jeff Clarke (I); incumbent appointee Charles V. Brown (D) lost nomination
Texas: Mickey Leland (D) over Joe Barton (R) and Adrian Garcia (La Raza Unida); incumbent Ann Richards (D) retired
Utah: incumbent David D. Marriott (R) over Scott Howell (D)
Vermont: Fred Tuttle (R) over Ed Flanagan (D); incumbent Phil Hoff (D) retired
Virginia: Bobby Scott (D) over incumbent Frank Wolf (R)
Washington: incumbent Jolene Unsoeld (D) over Mike McGavick (R)
West Virginia: incumbent Robert C. Byrd (D) over David T. Gallaher (R)
Wisconsin: Russ Feingold (D) over incumbent Susan Engeleiter (R) and James Powers Moody (I)
Wyoming: incumbent John S. Wold (R) over Mel Logan (D)

– knowledgepolitics.co.usa



United States House of Representatives results, 2000

Date: November 7, 2000
Seats: All 435
Seats needed for majority: 218
New House majority leader: Barbara B. Kennelly (D-CT)
New House minority leader: David F. Emery (R-ME)
Last election: 192 (D), 242 (R), 1 (I)
Seats won: 219 (D), 215 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 27, R v 27, I - 0

– knowledgepolitics.co.usa



United States Governor election results, 2000

Date: November 7, 2000
Number of state gubernatorial elections held: 11
Seats before: 30 (D), 17 (R), 3 (I)
Seats after: 34 (D), 13 (R), 3 (I)
Seat change: D ^ 4, R v 4, I - 0

Full list:
Delaware: Ruth Ann Minner (D) over John Burris (R); incumbent Janet Rzewnicki (R) retired
Indiana: incumbent Steve Goldsmith (R) over Joe Kernan (D)
Missouri: Cynthia Bowers (D) over Jim Talent (R) and Bob Holden (I); incumbent Mel Carnahan (D) retired
Montana: incumbent Denny Rehberg (R) over Mark O’Keefe (D)
New Hampshire: incumbent George Condodemetraky (D) over John Babiarz (R)
North Carolina: Jim Hunt (D) over incumbent James Carson Gardner (R)
North Dakota: Tracy Potter (D) over John Hoeven (R); incumbent Edward Thomas Schafer (R) retired
Utah: Enid Greene (R) over Bill Orton (D); incumbent Jon Huntsman Sr. (R) retired
Vermont: incumbent Howard Dean (D) over Richard Gottlieb (Liberty Union), Ruth Dwyer (R), and Anthony Pollina (Progressive)
Washington: Norm Rice (D) over John Carlson (R); incumbent Ellen Craswell (R) retired
West Virginia: incumbent Cecil Underwood (R) over Denise Giardina (D)

– knowledgepolitics.co.usa



THREE MORE STATES APPROVE OF MARY JANE: NH, VT, And NJ Vote Yes On Recreational Marijuana Ballots

The New York Times, 11/8/2000



DISGRACED FORMER W.H. ADVISOR JESSE HELMS HOSPITALIZED AFTER MASSIVE STROKE

The Washington Post, side article, 11/8/2000



…The Acela Express, which was dubbed a “inter-city high-speed tilting maglev train” began operations in 1999; by 2000, it was a highly popular mode of transportation along the eastern seaboard, especially for the cities of Philadelphia, New York City, Washington D.C. and Boston…

– John Wood’s Travel Technology: Maglev Trains, Hovercrafts, And Moore, Gareth Stevens Publishing, 2019



REPORT: DINGER WELCOMES JACKSON AT WHITE HOUSE, PRIVATELY DISCUSS RECREADRUGS, OTHER ISSUES

The Washington Post, 12/15/2000



Top Five Best and Worst Aspects of the Iacocca administration

1 Reviving the Auto Industry – though only a resurgence in the 1990s before resuming its decline, the midwestern US experienced hope and a return of jobs as a strong economy and a national campaign to increase consumer spending drove up demand, albeit until the 1999 recession ended the mini-era

2 Cut Down on Wasteful Spending – confined by the Balanced Budget Amendment, Iacocca worked diligently to run the government more efficiently, like he had previously done for Ford, Chrysler, and Major League Baseball

3 Jumpstarting a New Space Race – after much urging from NASA Director Dale Myers, Iacocca’s iconic 1993 call for a mission to Mars stirred up Apollo Mission nostalgia for older Americans and made younger Americans become more interested in space travel, influencing a new generation of stargazers

4 Went up Against the Federal Reserve and Big Pharma – aiming for higher government transparency, Iacocca fought with congress to audit possibly-corrupt elements of several industries

5 Promoted Healthcare Research, in Life and in Death – Iacocca investing in finding a cure for diabetes has greatly affected the field of medicine, while his assassination spurred research into mental health care and the establishing of mental health laws, as well as sparking a national discussion on gun rights

Worst

1 Congressional Gridlock – Iacocca failed to pass every aspect of his 1992 platform as Democrats locked horns with Republicans, and the GOP shook along the fault lines of several factions within the party

2 Excessive Use of Executive Orders – the President disliked the slow pace of Washington D.C. even when there was little partisan bickering, and as such, often resorted to executive orders to get things done in a more pragmatic manner

3 Trade War – picking fights with Japan in such an on-again, off-again manner tarnished American leadership’s image in the region, and may have been a contributing factor in Japan entering recession in 1999

4 Drop In America’s Standing Abroad – Iacocca’s belligerent campaign style rubbed many foreign leaders the wrong way, leading to rather icy relationships with several Heads of State, most notably UK PM John Lennon.

5 The GOP Barely Stood United – Iacocca being politically all over the map kept multiple GOP factions (mainly libertarians, moderate, and conservatives) barely united by all of them backing one man; unfortunately, Iacocca did little to bridge the divide between the factions, contributing to the gridlock on Capitol Hill that peeved Iacocca.

– The President Lee Iacocca National Historic Site website, c. 2025



Top Five Best and Worst Aspects of the Dinger administration

Best

1 Healed Nation In The Wake of Tragedy – the nation was in mourning after the assassination of Lee Iacocca, but Dinger proved to be capable of lifting the nation’s spirit and helping his fellow Americans move on

2 Liberated North Koreans – leading a US-SK military alliance led to the liberation of millions as a mad dictator being removed from power before he could finish building weapons of mass destruction

3 Farm Relief – suicide was the number-one cause of death among American farmers, and the call to end their plight was long overdue; thanks to Dinger’s 1995 relief packages, suicide rates dropped considerably in 1996, though cuts to social programs in 1997 and 1998 did lead to them rising again

4 Diplomatic Leadership – on the world stage, Dinger presented a statesman-like image and was on friendly terms with many world leaders; this was a key factor in the US joining UN efforts to combat CGD and The Long Recession in 1996 and 1999, respectively

5 United the GOP – Dinger worked with libertarians, moderates, and both “Country” conservatives and “Colonel” conservatives to build a united political front, leading to the very productive GOP-majority congress that the US experienced from 1997 to 2001

Worst

1 Mishandling of the War of Recreadrugs – between his strong zero-tolerance recreadrug control policy, and focusing on incarceration of low-level individuals instead of on corrupted higher-up orchestrators, Dinger’s inability to curb the flow of illicit narcotics into the United States was seen as a major factor in him losing re-election

2 A Private World Leader – Dinger’s somewhat aloof personality made even his advisors unsure what his personal positions were on political manners, with many questioning if he truly believed what he said and did, or if he kowtowed to the party line for the sake of GOP unity

3 No Exit Strategy For Colombia – America’s longest war went on without end in sight, as Dinger’s initial efforts to bring warring guerillas to the negotiating table quickly gave way to more military-based endeavors

4 Refused To Bail Out Mexico – A fateful decision, Dinger’s refusal to allocate funds for Mexican economic relief in the mid-1990s is often considered to be one of the key reasons behind the economy entering recession less than a year later

5 Cut Social Programs To Balance The Budget – In a move that is defended by some, Dinger slashed several federal relief and assistance programs in order to ensure the federal government complied with the Balanced Budget Amendment of 1990

– The President Larry Miles Dinger National Historic Site website, c. 2021



HOPE IS ALIVE!: New Leadership For The New Millennium

Time Magazine, declaring Jesse Jackson “Person of The Year,” Special Issue, December 2000



DOMESTIC SALES OF KFC DROP FOR THE FIRST TIME EVER!

…For the first time in Kentucky Fried history, sales in the US of KFC products went down this last fiscal year. A spokesperson for the company claims that the numbers are the result of “the long-term effects of the 1999 recession,” but not all analysts agree. The company barely turned a profit on the domestic level last year, and national studies show that chicken product consumption is on the rise in the US overall. …However, despite this slip at home, the KFC company is actually doing very well overseas.

Fried chicken has the edge over other American fast foods on the international stage in that it doesn’t run up against any serious dietary restrictions, beyond cholesterol reduction; no major world religion forbids the breading and deep frying of poultry. KFC – and, most famously in 1978, the Colonel himself – has taken advantage of this fact, while other U.S. brands such as Chick-Fil-A and Popeye’s, have yet to expand overseas significantly. KFC opened its first restaurant in China in 1975, and now is the largest single franchise in the PRC. KFC is enjoying strong growth in India and Indonesia as well.

Kentucky Fried Chicken is also seeing profits in Asia because of its unique ability to pair an appeal to rural tradition (Kentucky) with an appeal to capitalist modernity. This fact has led to tremendous sales success in both China and Japan, notwithstanding supplier problems in the former that dented product growth. Perhaps KFC should now try to turn around its domestic sales with a resort to the same pitch, one more ambitious than the Colonel being reincarnated as a cartoon version of himself and voiced by Randy Quaid.

The success of KFC and its associated brands in China and Japan has given Finger Lickin’ Good, Inc. the financial heft to lavishly sponsor the Kentucky Derby, as well as other events in Louisville and the greater Bluegrass region. However, with KFC being a public company, their latest figures could very well worry stockholders and investors. Domestic competitors like Chik-fil-A and Popeye’s and even other places are likely syphoning away customers. And with FLG’s CEO, James A. Collins, planning on retiring next year, whoever is their next CEO may will to address the issue of declining domestic sales before it continues to worsen. [5]

The Wall Street Journal, 12/21/2000




JACKSON CONTINUES VETTING PROCESS FOR CABINET SPOTS

…the people reportedly interviewed since November range from prior Presidential candidates to relative unknowns in the President-Elect’s efforts to create an administration of “diversity and expertise,”…due to President Dinger controversially appointing his brother John Dinger to be the White House Chief of Staff in 1997, Governor Jackson has more than once announced that, in order to deflect fears of nepotism, no members of his family will have positions within his administration, “except for the role of First Family, for which they just so happen to be uniquely qualified”…

The Washington Post, 1/7/2001



...On January 18, 2001, a pipe bomb was discovered under a waste receptacle at the National Mall, on the route of then-President-Elect Jesse Jackson’s planned pre-inauguration parade. The areas was cleared and the bomb was defused within two hours of its discovery. After FBI agents viewed security footage and discovered fingerprints on the bomb, an arrest warrant was issued for 21-year-old James G. Cummings of Belfast, Maine [6]. On January 22, Cummings was arrested outside of Torrington, Connecticut. A subsequent raid on his home uncovered bomb ingredients and Nazi paraphernalia in his basement. In late 2001, Cummings was found guilty of attempting to assassinate Jesse Jackson, resisting arrest, and shoplifting, and was sentenced to 20 years in federal prison...

– clickopedia.co.usa/Assassination_threats_against_Jesse_Jackson



“It says a lot about a growing, maturing, and changing America that so many people of diverse backgrounds, livelihoods, and futures, can come together and set us all on a new and better path. ...This administration will aim to be a conduit for which a more mature and a less toxic America is able to express itself and blossom into the kind of America we all want it to be. But it will not be easy. We always knew that this kind of breakthrough was possible; we didn’t know when, but suddenly it is here, right now. Before us lies a monumental set of tasks. In just four short years, we must readdress our handling or the War on Recredrugs. We must improve the quality of our children’s education. We must invest in America’s working class with a strong Federal Jobs Guarantee program, if not an outright monthly Federal Aid Dividend. We must open the democratic process to everyone, not just the 535 people working on this hill, by passing a National Initiative Amendment and a new Civil Rights bill and a new Voting Rights bill. These are not difficult tasks to accomplish, so long as we stand together, hard work, and have faith. Because faith and hard work is what got us this far. Faith and hard work is what brought us to this place, to this situation, to this moment, to this landmark democratic and peaceful changing of the guard and a clear and obvious and lasting changing of the times.”

– President Jesse Jackson’s 1/20/2001 inauguration speech [7]




Jesse Louis Jackson Sr., the 43rd President of the United States of America

NOTE(S)/SOURCE(S)
[1] Italicized segments were pulled from here: https://www.thoughtco.com/us-statehood-process-3322311
[2] The record-keeping bit is OTL, but it was as far back as a 1970 antiwar protests IOTL, at least according to Source 26 on his Wikipedia article!
[3] OTL, according to both of their Wikipedia articles; Santita was even at Michelle’s and Barack’s wedding in OTL!
[4] Italicized parts are from here: https://www.foxnews.com/opinion/newt-gingrich-want-to-defeat-the-lawless-cartels-the-starting-point-may-surprise-you
[5] From this OTL article: https://thediplomat.com/2015/07/the-american-colonel-who-changed-asia/
[6] A real person who IOTL tried to assassinate Barack Obama in 2009 via setting off a dirty bomb at his inauguration, according to Wikipedia.
[7] Some sentences were pulled from Jackson’s comments found here: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-obama-jackson-idUSN0340166220080604

The next chapter’s E.T.A.: TBD
 
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Woo Jesse won! Also how the hell are Chris Paul, Kevin Durant, Deron Williams and Al Horford, playing for the Mets? They'd all be 16 or younger at the time.
 
Driver’s proposal was DOA in the realms of technology and commerce. Its implementation would be very costly, let alone the difficulty of its enforcement, and would no doubt lead to even further litigation. As a result of its overall very poor reception, the comments were swept under the metaphorical rug, and the Dinger Administration’s Attorney General and Justice Department resumed focus on the court challenges to the 6-to-3 ruling...
How do you have a "court challenge" to a Supreme Court ruling? SCOTUS is by definition unappealable.

Now, depending on what legal grounds SCOTUS used to declare internet anonymity illegal (...and TBH I'm really struggling to think of the legal logic used here), Congress could attempt a legislative fix to the ruling.
 
I think the part about it being challenged was the result of me thinking about recent calls in OTL for Roe v Wade to be overturned, i.e., challenged.
Right, but the logic there is that enough of the original Roe v Wade justices have left the court and been replaced by conservatives that maybe the SCOTUS will change its mind now -- it's not the sort of strategy that would work right after a ruling.

I'm also just not sure about the court banning anonymity, simply because the Court's not going to do anything without being able to point to a Constitutional right violated by the act in question -- creating positive law in the name of "public safety" simply isn't the Court's job.

It would make more sense to have a legislature do the initial ban (if not Congress, then a state like California which is large enough to effectively force a whole market to change its ways), the tech companies to go to SCOTUS to overturn the law, SCOTUS goes "nah bro, that law's Constitutional" (IIRC the Court declined to find a "right to privacy" in alt-Roe v. Wade here, so that makes sense). So then the Administration's in the position of either helping the tech companies comply with the "California law" or finding ways to challenge the ruling by saying "Okay, so states can ban anonymity but this specific method of enforcement is unconstitutional, etc."
 
Woo Jesse won! Also how the hell are Chris Paul, Kevin Durant, Deron Williams and Al Horford, playing for the Mets? They'd all be 16 or younger at the time.
Whoops! I must have mixed up some notes or something. I think that bit is supposed to be for the 2010 World Series. My apologies; I'll delete it.

EDIT: deleted, thanks; good eye!

How do you have a "court challenge" to a Supreme Court ruling? SCOTUS is by definition unappealable.

Now, depending on what legal grounds SCOTUS used to declare internet anonymity illegal (...and TBH I'm really struggling to think of the legal logic used here), Congress could attempt a legislative fix to the ruling.
Yeah, the ruling was in response to growing concerns among some groups of people that anonymity would be used for nefarious purposes (hacking, financial fraud, cyberterrorism, etc). I think the part about it being challenged was the result of me thinking about recent calls in OTL for Roe v Wade to be overturned, i.e., challenged.
But, yeah, you're probably right in that opposing the measure would go through congressional avenues instead of judicial avenues.
Maybe, I'm not sure now. I'll look further into it, and in the next chapter or so, I'll both expand on the cause of the ruling, and better describe challenges to it under the Jackson administration.
Thanks for pointing that out!

Right, but the logic there is that enough of the original Roe v Wade justices have left the court and been replaced by conservatives that maybe the SCOTUS will change its mind now -- it's not the sort of strategy that would work right after a ruling.

I'm also just not sure about the court banning anonymity, simply because the Court's not going to do anything without being able to point to a Constitutional right violated by the act in question -- creating positive law in the name of "public safety" simply isn't the Court's job.

It would make more sense to have a legislature do the initial ban (if not Congress, then a state like California which is large enough to effectively force a whole market to change its ways), the tech companies to go to SCOTUS to overturn the law, SCOTUS goes "nah bro, that law's Constitutional" (IIRC the Court declined to find a "right to privacy" in alt-Roe v. Wade here, so that makes sense). So then the Administration's in the position of either helping the tech companies comply with the "California law" or finding ways to challenge the ruling by saying "Okay, so states can ban anonymity but this specific method of enforcement is unconstitutional, etc."
Good points! Thank you for the help/constructive criticism, I really appreciate this! I’ll be sure to incorporate these ideas/developments into the TL’s future chapters and possibly retcon it so it was a state supreme court ruling! Again, thanks!

EDIT: retconned it (edited it so it says California supreme court). Thank you again!



Also, here’s a little something to hold y’all over until the next chapter’s ready (whenever that is...):



World Leaders from some of the countries discussed in this TL so far (1961-1991):

AUSTRALIA
1966-1972: 17) Harold Holt (Liberal)
1972-1976: 18) John McEwen (Country)
1976-1978: 19) Eric Reece (Labor)
1978-1981: 20) Doug Anthony (Country)
1981-1985: 21) Manfred Cross (Labor)
1985-1987: 22) Sir Billy Snedden (Liberal)
1987-1987: 23) Shirley de la Hunty (Liberal)
1987-1989: 21) Manfred Cross (Labor)
1989-present: 23) Shirley de la Hunty (Liberal)

1992: Bob Ellicott (Labor) and Charles Blunt (National)
1995: Bob Ellicott (Labor)
1998: Michael Ignatieff (Labor) and Ben Carson (Country)

President of BELARUS
1984-1991: 1) Stanislav Shushkevich (I) – lost re-election
1991-1996: 2) Vyacheslav Kebich (I) – lost re-election
1996-present: 3) Zianon Pazniak (Conservative Christian) – incumbent

Prime Ministers of CANADA
7/21/1957-11/18/1965: 13) John George Diefenbaker (Progressive Conservative-SK)
11/18/1965-12/17/1969: 14) Paul Theodore Hellyer (Liberal-ON)
12/17/1969-1/26/1980: 15) Robert Lorne Stanfield (PC-NS)
1/26/1980-6/25/1980: 16) J. J. Jean Chretien (L-QC)
6/25/1980-11/2/1980: 15) Robert Lorne Stanfield (PC-NS)
11/2/1980-9/29/1989: 16) J. J. Jean Chretien (L-QC)
9/29/1989-3/30/1990: 17) Sheila Copps (L-ON)
3/30/1990-9/4/1992: 18) Erik Hersholt Nielsen (PC-YK)

1990: Nielsen (PC) over Sheila Copps (L), Audrey McLaughlin (Progressive Tomorrow) and Pierre-Marc Johnson (Quebec)
9/4/1992-4/3/1999: Margaret Anne Mitchell (PT-BC)
1992 (minority government coalitioned with the Liberals): Mitchell (PT) over Paul Martin Jr. (L), Erik Nielsen (PC) and TBD (Quebec)
1995 (minority government coalitioned with the Liberals): Mitchell (PT) over Paul Martin Jr. (L), Dianne Cunningham (PC), Lucien Bouchard (Quebec), Paul Hellyer (Action), Roger S. Bacon (Canadian) and Bob Ringma (Alberta/Frontier)
4/3/1999-12/15/1999: Paul Theodore Hellyer (Action Alliance(A)-ON)
1999 (minority government coalitioned with the PCs, Quebecois, and Baconites): Hellyer (Action) over Margaret Anne Mitchell (PT), Paul Martin Jr. (L), Dianne Cunningham (PC), Lucien Bouchard (Quebec) and Roger S. Bacon (Canadian)
12/15/1999-present: Jean Charest (Action Alliance(PC)-QC)

THE P.R.C.
3/20/1943-11/24/1975: Chairman: Mao Tse-Tung (Communist)
Vice-Chairman: Zhou Enlai (C) (since 1969)
11/24/1975-12/1/1975: Zhou Enlai (C)
Vice-Chairman: none
12/1/1975-12/1/1987: Deng Xiaoping (C)
Vice-Chairman: Bo Yibo (C) (since 1977)
12/1/1987-6/21/1992: Li Xiannian (C)
Vice-Chairman: Lee Teng-hui (C) (since 1988)
6/21/1992-present: Zhu Rongji (C)
Vice-Chairman: Lee Tanghui (C) (since 1988)

REPUBLIC OF CUBA
9/17/1961-7/24/1966: Jose Miro Cardona (Independent)
7/24/1966-7/24/1972: Rufo Lopez-Fresquet (Conservative)
7/24/1972-7/24/1978: Erneido Oliva (Conservative)
7/24/1978-7/24/1984: Pedro Luis Boitel (Stability)
7/24/1984-7/24/1990: Armando Valladares (Conservative)
7/24/1990-7/24/1996: Gustavo Arcos (Stability)

1990: Arcos over Jorge Mas Canosa (Conservative)
7/24/1996-present: Alfredo Abon Lee (Stability)
1996: Lee over Albio B. Sires (Conservative)

FRANCE
8 Jan 1959 – 16 Jan 1965: 18) Charles de Gaulle (Union for the New Republic (UNR))
16 Jan 1965 – 7 Mar 1965: Acting) Alain Poher (Popular Republican Movement (MRP))
7 Mar 1965 – 7 Mar 1979: 19) Francois Mitterrand (Convention of Republican Institutions (CIR)), Unified Socialist Party after 1 May 1965)
7 Mar 1979 – 7 Mar 1986: 20) Pierre Mauroy (USP)
7 Mar 1986 – 17 May 1989: 21) Jean-Marie Le Pen (National Front (FN))
17 May 1989 – 30 July 1989: Acting) Alain Poher Popular (Republican Movement (MRP))
30 July 1989 – present: 22) Claude Estier (Socialist Alliance (SA))

9 July 1996 (first round): Jean-Claude Gaudin (Republican), Edith Campion Cresson (Independent Socialist), Jean-Pierre Stirbois (National Front), and others
23 July 1996 (runoff): cancelled – Estier received over 50% in the first round

GREECE
5/17/1958-9/20/1961: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ERE)
9/20/1961-11/4/1961: Konstantinos Dovas (Independent)
11/4/1961-6/18/1963: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ERE)
6/18/1963-11/8/1963: Panagiotis Pipinelis (ERE)
11/8/1963-6/10/1965: Georgios Papandreou (EK)
6/10/1965-6/22/1965: Ilias Tsirimokos (Independent)
6/22/1965-10/9/1972: Grigoris Lambrakis (EK/EDA alliance)
10/9/1972-3/5/1977: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ND)
3/5/1977-5/8/1977: Georgios Mavros (ND)
5/8/1977-12/12/1978: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
12/12/1978-10/20/1985: Alexandros Panagoulis (Centre Union)
10/20/1985-10/11/1987: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
10/11/1987-9/8/1989: Alexandros Panagoulis (Centre Union)
9/8/1989-4/9/1992: Alexandros Onassis (Centre Union)
4/9/1992-5/7/1998: Melina Mercury (PASOK)
5/7/1998-1/17/1999: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
1/17/1999-7/8/1999: George Papandreou (PASOK)
7/8/1999-present: Giorgos Vassiliou (United Democrats)


Presidents of IRAQ (elected by the Council of Representatives by a 2/3rds majority until the implementation of the Electorate College-based indirect presidential elections system in 1989-1991 reforms):
7/14/1958-2/8/1963: 1) Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba’i (1904-1965) Independent – deposed
2/8/1963-4/13/1966: 2) Abdul Salam Arif (1921-1966) ASU – died in office
4/13/1966-11/2/1975: 3) Abdul Rahman Arif (1916-2007) ASU – retired due to waning popularity
11/2/1975-1/20/1979: 4) Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (1914-1985) Iraqi Ba’ath/Independent – rejected from Ba’ath Party in early 1978 for participating in Atlanta Peace Talks; retired, officially due to “my failure to handle the national recession”
1/20/1979-3/4/1986: 5) Tahir Yahya (1915-1986) Iraqi Ba’ath – retired due to waning popularity; passed away soon after leaving office
3/4/1986-5/8/1991: 6) Abdul Rahman Arif (1916-2007) ASU – retired due to waning health
5/8/1991-present: 7) Abd ar-Razzaq Said al-Naif (1934-2010) ASU (“Pro-West” faction) – incumbent

Prime Ministers of ISRAEL
1969-1974: 4) Golda Meir (Labor) – retired due to declining popularity
1974-1977: 5) Yitzhak Rabin (Labor) – lost election
1977-1985: 6) Menachem Begin (Likud) – retired due to declining health
1985-1988: 7) Yitzhak Shamir (Likud) – lost re-election
1988-1990: (5)) Yitzhak Rabin (Labor) – lost re-election
1990-1991: (7)) Yitzhak Shamir (Likud) – lost re-election
1991-1994: 8) Shulamit Aloni (Meretz) – lost re-election
1994-1996: (5)) Yitzhak Rabin (Labor) – retired after cancer diagnosis
1996: 9) Teddy Kollek (Labor) – interim leader until Labor’s factions could agree on a single leader
1996-1997: 10) Ami Ayalon (Labor) – lost election
1997-2000: 11) Ariel Sharon (Likud) – lost re-election
2000-present: 12) Yossi Sarid (Meretz) – incumbent

PMs of JAPAN
1989-1991: Toshiki Kaifu (LDP)
1991-1993: Kiichi Miyazawa (LDP)
1993-1994: Morihiro Hosokawa (New)
1994-1994: Tsutomu Hata (Renewal)
1994-1995: Tomiichi Murayama (Socialist)
1995-1999: Ryutaro Hashimoto (LDP)
1999-2000: Takeo Hiranuma (LDP)
2000-present: Shintaro Ishihara (LDP)

Presidents of MEXICO
1958-1964: 55) Adolfo Lopez Mateos (PRI)
1964-1970: 56) Gustavo Diaz Ordaz (PRI)
1970-1976: 57) Luis Echeverria (PRI)
1976-1982: 58) Jose Lopez Portillo y Pacheco (PRI)
1982-1988: 59) Miguel de la Madrid (PRI)
1988-1994: 60) Luis Alvarez (PAN)
1994-2000: 61) Luis Colosio (PRI)
2000-present: 62) Esteban Moctezuma (PRI)

Presidents of PALESTINE
The Transfer of Authority from Israel to an interim Palestinian Authority (headed by Arafat as “Interim President”) occurred after the landmark 1978 Peace Treaty, and the transfer process was completed in 1982, with an independent Palestinian state sustaining a “special relationship” (i.e., a complicated but functioning and relatively peaceful relationship) with Israel and Jordan being established.
1982-1994: 1) Nasser Arafat (Popular Palestinian Democratic Front) – retired
1994-1995: 2) Samir Ghawshah (PPDF) – lost re-election
1995-1999: 3) Yasser Abed Rabbo (Strength Through Peace) – lost re-election
1999-present: 4) Sari Nusseibeh (independent) – incumbent

Leaders of POLAND
BEFORE 1984 COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT CAPITULATION:
Wojciech Jaruzelski (as First Secretary of the Polish Union Workers’ Party) and Henryk Jablonski (As Chairman OF the Council of the state)
AFTER 1984 COMMUNIST GOVERNMENT CAPITULATION (AS PRESIDENT OF POLAND):
5/23/1984-5/23/1994: Jarek Kuron (Solidarity) – retired
5/2/1984: Kuron over Tadeusz Mazowiecki (Independent)
5/2/1989: Kuron over Jan Olszewski (Conservative Movement)
5/23/1994-5/23/1999: Leszek Kolakowski (Solidarity) – retired
5/2/1994: Kolakowski over Waldemar Pawlak (Christian Democratic) and Leszek Balcerowicz (Economic Reform)
5/23/1999-present: Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (Civility) – incumbent
5/2/1999: Gonkiewicz-Waltz over Andrzej Olechowski (Defense) and Marian Krzaklewski (Solidarity)

Presidents of SYRIA
1971-1997: 18) Hafez al-Assad – died
1997-1999: -- Bassel al-Assad (claimed office)
1997-present: 19) Abdul Halim Khaddam – incumbent

Presidents of UKRAINE
1984-1991: 1) Leonid Kravchuk
1991-1998: 2) Viachselav Chornovil
1998-present: 3) Levko Lukyanenko

Prime Ministers of The UNITED KINGDOM
10 Jan 1957 – 18 Oct 1963: Harold Macmillan (Conservative)
18 Oct 1963 – 27 Aug 1965: Alec Douglas-Home (C)
27 Aug 1965 – 15 May 1968: George Brown (Labour)
15 May 1968 – 10 Oct 1968: John Stonehouse (Labour)
10 Oct 1968 – 3 Dec 1968: Michael Foot (Labour)
3 Dec 1968 – 28 Mar 1973: Enoch Powell (C)
28 Mar 1973 – 15 Sept 1983: Dingle M. Foot (Labour)
15 Sept 1983 – 26 Nov 1987: Shirley Williams (Labour)
26 Nov 1987 – TBD Jan 1992: Alastair Goodlad (C)
4 Feb 1992 – present: John Winston Lennon (Labour)

29 Jan 1992: Lennon over Goodlad (C), Paddy Ashdown (Liberal Democrats), and Jeremy Corbyn (UK Intrepid Progressive)
27 Oct 1995: Lennon over Jill Knight (C), Paddy Ashdown (LD), and Jeremy Corbyn (UKIP)
5 May 2000: Lennon over Nigel Lawson (C), Charles Kennedy (LD), and Rosemary Byrne/Tommy Sheridan (UKIP/Socialist Alliance)

Presidents of The UNITED STATES
1/20/1961-1/20/1965: 35) Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic-TX)
VP: 37) Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D-MN)

1960: Johnson/Humphrey over Richard Nixon/Walter Judd (R)
1/20/1965-1/20/1973: 36) Harland D. “Colonel” Sanders (Republican-KY)
VP: 38) William Scranton (R-PA)

1964: Sanders/Scranton (R) over Lyndon Johnson/Hubert Humphrey (D) and John M. Patterson/C. Farris Bryant (Heritage and Independence Party)
1968: Sanders/Scranton (R) over Jack Kennedy/Grant Sawyer (D)
1/20/1973-1/20/1981: 37) Walter Frederick “Fritz” Mondale (D-MN)
VP: 39) Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel (D-AS)

1972: Mondale/Gravel (D) over William Scranton/Mike Stepovich (R)
1976: Mondale/Gravel (D) over Ronald Reagan/William Westmoreland (R)
1/20/1981-12/28/1986: 38) Jeremiah Andrew Denton Jr. (R-AL)
VP: 40) Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. (R-TN)
, then none (between 8/15/1985 and 11/15/1986), then 41) Jack French Kemp (R-NY)
1980: Denton/Alexander (R) over Scoop Jackson (D)/Jimmy Carter (replaced Jake Butcher) (D) and Phil Hoff/Ron Dellums (Progressive/“Far-Left coalition”)
1984: Denton/Alexander (R) over Mike Gravel/J. Charles Jones (D)
12/28/1986-1/20/1989: 39) Jack French Kemp (R-NY)
VP:
none (until 4/2/1987), then 42) J. J. Polonko Jr. (R-NJ)
1/20/1989-1/20/1993: 40) Carol Bellamy (D-NY)
VP: 43) Jerry Litton (D-MO)

1988: Bellamy/Litton (D) over Maureen Reagan/Richard Lugar (R) and Glen Bell/Bill Daniels (Independent)
1/20/1993-5/9/1995: 41) Lee Iacocca (R-CA)
VP: 44) Larry Miles Dinger (R-IA)

1992: Iacocca/Dinger (R) over Bellamy/Litton (D)
5/9/1995-1/20/2001: 42) Larry Miles Dinger (R-IA)
VP:
none (until 10/12/1995), then 45) James Howard Meredith (R-MS)
1996: Dinger/Meredith (R) over John Glenn/Gene Green (D)
1/20/2001-present: 43) Jesse L. Jackson Sr. (D-SC)
VP: 46) Paul David Wellstone (D-MN)

2000: Jackson/Wellstone (D) over Dinger/Meredith (R)

The U.S.S.R. (Soviet Russia)
14 Oct 1953 – 5 Feb 1963: Nikita Khrushchev (Communist)
5 Feb 1963 – 10 Dec 1968: Alexander Shelepin (C)
10 Dec 1968 – 21 Apr 1969: Gen. Aleksi Inauri (C)
21 Apr 1969 – 7 Dec 1976: Alexei Kosygin (C)
7 Dec 1976 – 12 March 1977: Nikolai Tikhonov (C)
12 March 1977 – 25 Jan 1982: Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov (C)
25 Jan 1982 – 12 Jan 1983: Nikolai Podgorny (C)
23 Jan 1983 – 9 May 1984: Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (C)
9 May 1984 – 15 May 1984: Vladimir Orlov (C)
15 May 1984 – 16 Sept 1984: Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (C)

The N.D.R.R. (Russian Republic)
16 Sept 1984 – 17 Aug 1985: Vladimir Orlov (Independent)
17 Aug 1985 – 17 Aug 1995: Vladislav Volkov (Democratic)

13 July 1985 (“primary round”): Vladislav Volkov (Democratic) over Sergey Sokolov (Independent), Gennady Burbulis (National), Vladimir Bukovsky (Progressive), Oleg Baklanov (Independent), Vasily Arkhipov (Communist (“conservative” faction)), Mikhail Gorbachev (Communist (“glasnost” faction)), and Vladimir Chub (Independent)
27 July 1985 (“runoff round”): Vladislav Volkov (Democratic) over Sergey Sokolov (Independent)
13 July 1990: Vladislav Volkov (Democratic) over Boris Yeltsin (Independent), Nikolai Ryzhkov (Independent), Albert Makashov (National), Vladimir Zhirinovsky (Communist), and Vladimir Kirillovich (Imperial)
27 July 1990 (“runoff round”): Vladislav Volkov (Democratic) over Boris Yeltsin (Independent)
17 Aug 1995 – 17 Aug 2000: Viktor Chernomyrdin (Motherland)
13 July 1995: Viktor Chernomyrdin (Motherland) over Anatoly Lukyanov (Democratic), Yevgeny Primakov (independent), Vladimir Bukovsky (Progressive), and Dzhokhar Dudayev (Independence)
27 July 1995 (“runoff round”): Viktor Chernomyrdin (Motherland) over Anatoly Lukyanov (Democratic)
17 Aug 2000 – present: Nina Lobkovskaya (Independent)
13 July 2000: Nina Lobkovskaya (Independent) over Vyacheslav Maltsev (Motherland), Irina Khakamada (Democratic), and Sergei Mavrodi (National)
27 July 2000 (“runoff round”): Nina Lobkovskaya (Independent) over Vyacheslav Maltsev (Motherland)

Head Presidents of UNITED TURKESTAN
12/28/1983-1/5/1993: Mukhtar Ablyazov of Kazakhstan (Independent/Unity) – one of the nation’s co-founders; elected in 1983, 1986, and 1989
1/5/1993-1/5/1999: Ishenbai Kadyrbekov of Kyrgyzstan (Unity) – elected in 1992 and re-elected in 1995; lost re-election
1/5/1999-present: Han Ahmedow of Turkmenistan (Unity) – elected in 1998; incumbent

Presidents of SOUTH VIETNAM
1955-1965: Ngo Dinh Diem (Personalist Labor Revolutionary) – resigned under US pressure
1965-1967: Nguyen Khanh (Unity Through Strength)
Presidents of UNITED VIETNAM
1967-1969: 1) Nguyen Khanh (Unity Through Strength) – resigned under US pressure
1969-1972: 2) Nguyen Xuan Oanh (Unity Through Strength until 1971, Peaceful Today and Tomorrow after 1971) – lost re-election
1972-1975: 3) Nguyen Hop Doan (Healing and Rebuilding) – expanded Presidential terms from two years to three, then lost re-election
1975-1979: 4) Phan Huy Quat (Strength Through Peace) – died, shifting elections
1979: 5) Ngo Quang Truong (Strength Through Peace)
– lost bid for a full term
1979-1988: 6) Have Thich Tri Quang (Tranquility) – retired after serving for three 3-year terms
1988-1998: 7) Nguyen Ngoc Loan (Order) – died, shifting elections
1998: 8) Gen. Cao Van Vien (Order) – Loan’s preferred successor; lost bid for a full term
1998-present: 9) Nguyen Thi Binh (b. 1928) (Strength Through Peace) – first female Head of State; limited to three 3-year terms following 1999 reforms

Presidiums of YUGOSLAVIA
1953-1984: Josip Broz Tito (of Croatia)
1984-1989: Veselin Duranovic (of Montenegro)
1989-1992: Radovan Vlajkovic (of Vojvodina)
– terms amended to three years each
1992-1995: Ibrahim Rugova (of Kosovo)
1995-1998: Stojan Andov (of Macedonia)
1998-present: Raif Dizdarevic (of Bosnia/Herzegovina)




Plus, Governors in this TL so far:

Governors of Alabama
1959-1963: John Malcolm Patterson (D)
1963-1967: George Wallace (D)
1967-1971: Ryan DeGreffenried Sr. (D)
1971-1971: George Wallace (D)
1971-1975: Sam Engelhardt (D, then HIP in 1972)
1975-1979: Jeremiah Denton (R)
1979-1981: Elvin McCary (R)
1981-1983: Charles Woods (D)
1983-1987: Ann Bedsole (R)
1987-1991: Bill Baxley (D)
1991-1995: Shorty Price (R)

1990: Joseph Charles McCorquodale Jr. (D) and John Logan Cashin Jr. (Alabama)
1995-1999: Bettye Frink (R)
1994: Lambert Mims (D)
1999-TBD: Winton Blount (R)
1998: Lenora Pate (D)

Governors of Alaska
1959-1962: 1) William A. Egan (D)
1962-1970: 2) Mike Stepovich (R)
1970-1978: 3) Jay Hammond (R)
1978-1986: 4) Bill Clinton (D)
1986-1988: 5) Tom Fink (R)
1988-1994: 6) Bob Ross (I)

1990: Wally Hickel (R), Tony Knowles (D), Joe Vogler (AIP), Rick Halford (Liberty), and Michael O’Callaghan (I)
1994-1998: 7) Nora Dauenhauer (Green)
1994: Robin L. Taylor (Liberty), Red Boucher (D), J. H. Lindauer Jr. (R), and Joe Vogler (AIP)
1998-TBD: 8) Kenneth James Fanning (Libertarian-Republican Alliance)
1998: Samuel R. Cotton (D), Jim Sykes (Green) and Joe Vogler (AIP)

Governors of Arizona
1959-1969: Paul Fannin (R)
1969-1971: Jack Williams (R)
1971-1975: Raul Hector Castro (D)
1975-1983: Sam Steiger (R)
1983-1987: Richard Kleindienst (R)
1987-1995: Carolyn Warner (D)

1990: Fife Symington III (R) and Max Hawkins (Life)
1995-1999: Samuel Goddard III (D)
1994: Barbara Barrett (R) and John A. Buttrick (Liberty)
1999-TBD: David Fraser Nolan (R)
1998: Samuel Goddard III (D), Paul Johnson (I) and Scott Malcolmson (I)

Governor of Arkansas
1955-1965: Orval Faubus (D)
1965-1972: Winthrop Rockefeller (R)
1972-1973: Footsie Britt (R)
1973-1975: Dale Bumpers (D)
1975-1979: David Pryor (D)
1979-1987: Orval Faubus (D)
1987-1991: Lynn Lowe (R)
1991-1999: Mike Beebe (D)

1990: Lynn Lowe (R)
1994: James Douglas Johnson (R)
1999-TBD: Nicky Daniel “Nick” Bacon (D)
1998: E. Sheffield Nelson (R)

Governors of California
1959-1971: Pat Brown (D)
1971-1979: Ronald Reagan (R)
1979-1983: Phillip Burton (D)
1983-1987: George Christopher (R)
1987-1995: Donald Kennedy (D)

1990: Mary K. Shell (R), Peter Camejo (Green) and Maria Elizabeth Munoz (La Raza Unida)
1995-TBD: Kathleen Brown (D)
1994: Carol Boyd Hallett (R)
1998: Dennis R. Peron (R)

Governors of Colorado
1957-1963: Stephen McNichols (D)
1963-1975: John Arthur Love (R)
1975-1979: Dick Lamm (D)
1979-1987: Bill Daniels (R)
1987-1991: Byron L. Johnson (D)
1991-1995: John Andrews (R)

1990: Byron L. Johnson (D)
1995-TBD: Wellington Webb (D)
1994: John Andrews (R)
1998: Gene Nichol (R)

Governors of Connecticut
1955-1963: Abraham Ribicoff (D)
1963-1971: John N. Dempsey (D)
1971-1975: Fiske Holcomb Ventres (R)
1975-1980: Ella T. Grasso (D)
1980-1981: William Ross Cotter (D)
1981-1991: Robert K. Killian (D)
1991-TBD: Eunice Groark (R)

1990: Bill O’Neill (D)
1995-TBD: Bruce Morrison (D)
1994: Jodi Rell (R)
1998: Jodi Rell (R) and Sandra Bender (Independent Democratic)

Governors of Delaware
1961-1965: Elbert N. Carvel (D)
1965-1969: David P. Buckson (R)
1969-1977: Russell W. Peterson (R)
1977-1985: Joseph R. “Joe” Biden Jr. (D)
1985-1992: Michael Castle (R)
1992-1993: Shien Bau Woo (D)
1993-2001: Janet Rzewnicki (R)

1992: John Carney (D)
1996: Midge Osterlund (D)
2001-TBD: Ruth Ann Minner (D)
2000: John Burris (R)

Governors of Florida
1961-1965: C. Farris Bryant (D until 1964, then HIP)
1965-1967: LeRoy Collins Sr. (D)
1967: Robert King High (D)
1967-1971: Verle Allyn Pope (D)
1971-1979: Louis Bafalis (R)
1979-1987: Jack Eckerd (R)
1987-1995: Bruce A. Smathers (D)

1990: Bill McCollum (R)
1995-TBD: LeRoy Collins Jr. (D)
1994: Tillie K. Fowler (R)
1998: Joe Scarborough (R)

Governors of Georgia
1959-1963: Ernest Vandiver (D)
1963-1967: Carl Sanders (D)
1967-1971: Bo Callaway (R)
1971-1975: Lester Maddox (D)
1975-1977: Bert Lance (D)
1977-1979: Benjamin W. Fortson Jr. (D)
1979-1983: John Skandalakis (D)
1983-1987: Hal Suit (R)
1987-1988: Billy Carter (D)
1988-1995: Jimmy Lee Jackson (D)

1990: Guy Millner (R)
1995-TBD: Eston Wycliffe “Wyc” Orr Sr. (D)
1994: Sonny Perdue (R)
1998: Mike Bowers (R)

Governors of Hawaii
1959-1962: 1) William F. Quinn (R)
1962-1970: 2) John A. Burns (D)
1970-1978: 3) Thomas Ponce Gill (D)
1978-1981: 4) Alema Leota (Independent)
1981-1982: 5) Tokio Ige (I)
1982-1990: 6) Jean S. M. King (D)
1990-1997: 7) Fred Hemmings (R)

1990: John D. Waihee III (D), John P. Craven (I) and Peggy Ross (Natural Mind)
1994: Malama Solomon (D) and Frank Fasi (I)
1997-TBD: 8) Pat Saiki (R)
1998: Jackie King (D)

Governors of Idaho
1955-1963: Robert E. Smylie (R)
1963-1966: Vernon K. Smith (D)
1966-1967: William Edward Drevlow (D)
1967-1975: Charles Herndon (D)
1975-1983: Jay S. Amyx (R)
1983-1991: Larry Jackson (R)
1991-1995: Larry LaRocco (D)

1990: Roger Fairchild (R)
1995-1999: Butch Otter (R)
1994: Larry LaRocco (D)
1999-TBD: Larry J. Echo Hawk (D)
1998: Dirk Kempthorne (R) and Peter Rickards (I)

Governors of Illinois
1961-1965: Otto Kerner Jr. (D)
1965-1973: Charles Percy (R)
1973-1981: Paul Simon (D)
1981-1991: John B. Anderson (R)
1991-1999: Jim Edgar (R)

1990: Frank Annunzio (D)
1994: Dawn Netsch (D)
1999-TBD: Darrell Issa (R)
1998: Glenn Poshard (D)

Governors of Indiana
1961-1965: Crawford Fairbanks Parker (R)
1965-1969: Richard O. Ristine (R)
1969-1973: J. Irwin Miller (R)
1973-1977: Robert L. Rock (D)
1977-1981: Danny Lee Burton (R)
1981-1989: Dan Quayle (R)
1989-1997: Evan Bayh (D)

1992: Lindley Pearson (R)
1997-TBD: Steve Goldsmith (R)
1996: Frank O’Bannon (D)
2000: Joe Kernan (D)

Governors of Iowa
1961-1963: Norman A. Erbe (R)
1963-1967: Harold Hughes (D)
1967-1967: Robert D. Fulton (D)
1967-1971: Robert D. Ray (R)
1971-1979: Armour Boot (D)
1979-1983: Chuck Grassley (R)
1983-1991: Jo Ann McIntosh Zimmerman (D)
1991-1999: Joy Coming (R)

1990: Donald Avenson (D)
1994: Bonnie Campbell (D)
1999-TBD: Sally Pederson (D)
1998: Tom Tauke (R)

Governors of Kansas
1961-1965: John Anderson Jr. (R)
1965-1967: William H. Avery (R)
1967-1975: Robert B. Docking (D)
1975-1987: Robert Frederick Bennett (R)
1987-1995: Jim Slattery (D)

1990: Mike Hayden (R) and Christina Campbell-Cline (I)
1995-TBD: Martha Keys (D)
1994: Jan Meyers (R)
1998: Bill Graves (R)

Governors of Kentucky
1947-1950: 47) Earle Clements (D)
1950-1955: 48) Lawrence Wetherby (D)
1955-1959: 49) Harland David “(The) Colonel” Sanders Sr. (R)
1959-1967: 50) Bert T. Combs (D)
1967-1975: 51) John M. Robsion Jr. (R)
1975-1979: 52) Mary Louise Foust (R)
1979-1980: 53) John B. Breckinridge (D)
1980-1987: 54) Martha Layne Osborne (nee Hall) (D)
1987-1995: 55) Bucky Ray Jarrell (D)

1991: Larry Forgy (R)
1995-1999: 56) Sonny Landham (R)
1995: Bob Babbage (D)
1999-TBD: 57) Gatewood Galbraith (D)
1999: Sonny Landham (R) and Louie Nunn (I)

Governors of Louisiana
1960-1964: Jimmie Davis (D)
1964-1968: Gillis Long (D)
1968-1972: John J. McKeithen (D)
1972-1976: Jimmie Davis (D)
1976-1980: Edwin Edwards (D)
1980-1984: James Edward “Jimmy” Fitzmorris Jr. (D)
1984-1985: Gillis Long (D)
1985-1988: Robert Louis Freeman Sr. (D)
1988-1992: Edith Kirkpatrick (D)
1992-1996: W. Fox McKeithen (R)

1991: Kathleen “Kat” Blanco (D)
1996-2000: Cleo Fields (D)
1995: T. Lee Horne III (R)
2000-TBD: W. Fox McKeithen (R)
1999: Melinda Schwegmann (D)

Governors of Maine
1959-1959: Clinton A. Clauson (D)
1959-1971: John H. Reed (R)
1971-1979: Peter N. Kyros (D)
1979-1983: Linwood E. Palmer Jr. (R)
1983-1987: Helen Longley (Progressive)
1987-1995: Libby Mitchell (D)

1990: Andrew Adam (R) and John Menario (Progressive)
1995-TBD: James B. Longley Jr. (Independent)
1994: Andrew Adam (D) and Richard David Hewes (R)
1998: Tom Connolly (D) and William Clarke (R)

Governors of Maryland
1959-1967: J. Millard Tawes (D)
1967-1971: Spiro T. Agnew (R)
1971-1977: Marvin Mandel (D)
1977-1987: F. P. Blair Lee III (D)
1987-1990: William Oswald Mills (R)
1990-1991: Melvin A. Bilal (R)
1991-1999: Decatur “Bucky” Trotter (D)

1990: Melvin A. Bilal (R)
1994: Ellen Sauerbrey (R)
1999-TBD: Eileen M. Rehrmann (D)
1998: Helen Delich Bentley (R)

Governors of Massachusetts
1961-1963: John Volpe (R)
1963-1965: Endicott Peabody (D)
1965-1971: John Volpe (R)
1971-1977: Pierre Salinger (D)
1977-1991: Michael Dukakis (D)
1991-1999: Evelyn Murphy (D)

1990: Steven Pierce (R)
1994: Paul Tsongas (Liberty) and Argeo Paul Cellucci (R)
1999-TBD: Michael Dukakis (D)
1998: George Bachrach (R) and Paul Loscocco (I)

Governors of Michigan
1961-1963: John Swainson (D)
1963-1971: George W. Romney (R)
1971-1979: Martha Griffiths (D)
1979-1983: Soapy Williams (D)
1983-1989: Elly M. Peterson (R)
1989-1991: James H. Brickley (R)
1991-TBD: James J. Blanchard (D)

1990: James H. Brickley (R)
1994: Connie Binsfeld (R)
1998: Allen Alley (R)

Governors of Minnesota
1955-1963: Orville Freeman (DFL)
1963-1967: Donald Orr Wright Sr. (R)
1967-1975: Coya Knutson (DFL)
1975-1976: Odin Langen (R)
1976-1979: Clark MacGregor (R)
1979-1991: Coya Knutson (DFL)
1991-1995: Rudy Perpich (DFL)

1990: Bill Frenzel (R), Jerome M. Hughes (Independent), and Arlan Stangeland (Liberty)
1994: Harveydale Maruska (IRL (Independence-Republican-Liberty))
1995-2000: Paul Wellstone (DFL)
1998: Frank Germann (IRL) and Warren Limmer (Sanctity)
2000-TBD: Nancy Elizabeth Lee Johnson (DFL)

Governors of Mississippi
1960-1964: Ross Barnett (D)
1964-1968: Paul B. Johnson Jr. (D)
1968-1972: Ruben Phillips (R)
1972-1976: Walter Nixon (D)
1976-1980: William Winter (D)
1980-1984: Evelyn Gandy (D)
1984-1986: Cliff Finch (D)
1986-1988: Evelyn Gandy (D)
1988-1996: Ray Mabus (D)

1991: Pete Johnson (R)
1996-2000: Estus Pirkle (R)
1995: Dick Molpus (D)
2000-TBD: Unita Zelma Blackwell (D)
1999: Estus Pirkle (R)

Governors of Missouri
1957-1965: James T. Blair Jr. (D)
1965-1973: Ethan A. H. Shepley (R)
1973-1977: James W. Symington (D)
1977-1985: Bill Bradley (D)
1985-1993: Betty Cooper Hearnes (D)
1993-2001: Mel Carnahan (D)

1992: William L. Webster (R)
1996: Margaret Blake Kelly (R)
2001-TBD: Cynthia Bowers (D)
2000: Jim Talent (R) and Bob Holden (I)

Governors of Montana
1961-1962: Donald G. Nutter (R)
1962-1973: Tim Babcock (R)
1973-1981: Thomas Lee Judge (D)
1981-1985: Martin J. “Red” Beckman (D, I after losing re-nomination)
1985-1993: Dorothy Bradley (D)
1993-1997: Gordon McOmber (D)

1992: Marc Racicot (R)
1997-TBD: Denny Rehberg (R)
1996: Gordon McOmber (D)
2000: Mark O’Keefe (D)

Governors of Nebraska
1959-1960: Ralph G. Brooks (D)
1960-1961: Dwight W. Burney (R)
1961-1971: Frank B. Morrison (D)
1971-1979: J. James Exon (D)
1979-1987: Charles Thone (R)
1987-1995: Helen Boosalis (D)

1990: David Domina (R)
1995-TBD: Kay A. Orr (R)
1994: Maxine B. Moul (D)
1998: Kim Robak (D)

Governors of Nevada
1959-1971: Grant Sawyer (D)
1971-1983: Rex Bell Jr. (R)
1983-1995: Joseph Yale Resnick (D)

1990: Charles Woods (R)
1995-TBD: Doug Swanson (R)
1994: Sue Wagner (D)
1998: Jan Laverty Jones (D)

Governors of New Hampshire
1959-1963: Wesley Powell (R)
1963-1967: John William King (D)
1967-1973: Harrison Reed Thyng (R)
1973-1981: Malcolm McLane (D)
1981-1985: Walter Rutherford Peterson Jr. (R)
1985-1991: Calvin Warburton (R)
1991-1993: Bob Smith (R)

1990: J. Joseph Grandmaison (D) and Miriam F. Luce (Liberty)
1993-1997: Chris Spirou (D)
1992: Bob Smith (R) and Miriam Luce (Liberty)
1994: Steve Winter (R)
1997-1999: Ovide Lamontagne (R)
1996: Chris Spirou (D)
1999-TBD: George Condodemetraky (D)
1998: Ovide Lamontage (R)
2000: John Babiarz (R)

Governors of New Jersey
1954-1962: 44) Robert B. Meyner (D)
1962-1970: 45) Richard J. Hughes (D)
1970-1978: 46) Francis X. McDermott (R)
1978-1986: 47) James J. Florio (D)
1986-1993: 48) Gloria A. Decker (D)
1993-1994: Acting) Richard J. Codey (D)
1994-1997: 49) Maryanne Trump Giuliani (R)

1993: Peter Shapiro (D)
1997-1998: Acting) Richard J. Codey (D)
1998-1999: 50) Richard Pucci (D)

1997: José F. Sosa (R)
1999-TBD: Acting) Richard J. Codey (D)

Governors of New Mexico
1961-1962: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1962-1963: Tom Bolack (R)
1963-1967: Jack M. Campbell (D)
1967-1971: David F. Cargo (R)
1971-1975: Bruce King (D)
1975-1979: Jerry Apodaca (D)
1979-1983: Joe Skeen (R)
1983-1987: Toney Anaya (D)
1987-1991: Fabian Chavez Jr. (D)
1991-1995: Ben Lujan Sr. (D)

1990: Frank M. Bond (R)
1995-1999: Richard P. “Rick” Cheney (R)
1994: Paul G. Bardacke (D) and Bill Richardson (La Raza Unida)
1999-TBD: Richard “Cheech” Marin (D/La Raza Unida)
1998: John Dendahl (R)

Governors of New York
1/1/1959-1/23/1965: 49) Nelson Rockefeller (R)
1/23/1965-12/31/1966: 50) Malcolm Wilson (R
)
1/1/1967-1/3/1981: 51) Mario Biaggi (D until 1978, Conservative 1978-1979, D after 1979)
1/3/1981-12/31/1998: 52) Mario Cuomo (D)

1990: Pierre Andrew Rinfret (R), Herbert London (Conservative), and Louis P. Wein (Life)
1994: Tom Golisano (Conservative) and Herbert London (R)
1/1/1999-TBD: 53) Bernadette Castro (R)
1998: Mary Anne Krupsak (D), Tom Golisano (Independence), Roy Innis (Working Families), Rudy Giuliani (Conservative), Al Lewis (Green), Evan Galbraith (Liberal), and Lenora Fulani (Natural Mind)

Governors of North Carolina
1961-1965: Terry Sanford (D)
1965-1969: Daniel K. Moore (D)
1969-1973: James Carson Gardner (R)
1973-1977: Walter B. Jones Sr. (D)
1977-1985: Jim Hunt (D)
1985-1989: Elizabeth Hanford “Liddy” Gardner (R)
1989-1997: Harvey Gantt (D)

1992: Scott McLaughlin (R)
1997-2001: James Carson Gardner (R)
1996: Lacy Thornburg (D)
2001-TBD: Jim Hunt (D)
2000: James Carson Gardner (R)

Governors of North Dakota
1961-1973: William L. Guy (D)
1973-1981: Aloha Pearl Taylor Brown Eagles (R)
1981-1987: Ruth Meiers (D)
1987-1993: George A. Sinner (D)
1993-2001: Edward Thomas Schafer (R)

1992: Nicholas Spaeth (D)
1996: Eliot Glassheim (D)
2001-TBD: Tracy Potter (D)
2000: John Hoeven (R)

Governors of Ohio
1959-1963: Michael V. DiSalle (D)
1963-1971: Jim Rhodes (R)
1971-1979: Buz Lukens (R)
1979-1987: Jim Rhodes (R)
1987-1995: Jerry Springer (D)

1990: George Voinovich (R) and Ron Daniels (I)
1995-1999: William J. Brown (D)
1994: Bob Taft (R)
1998: Greg Lashutka (R)
1999-TBD: Sherrod Brown (D)

Governors of Oklahoma
1959-1963: J. Howard Edmondson (D)
1963: George Patterson Nigh (D)
1963-1971: Henry Bellmon (R)
1971-1979: David Hall (D)
1979-1987: George Patterson Nigh (D)
1983-1987: Neal McCaleb (R)
1987-1991: Mike Turpen (D)
1991-1995: Bill Price (R)

1990: Mike Turpen (D) and Thomas D. Ledgerwood II (I)
1995-TBD: Robert S. Kerr III (D)
1994: Wes Watkins (I) and incumbent Bill Price (R)
1998: Hoppy Heidelberg (R)

Governors of Oregon
1959-1967: Mark Hatfield (R)
1967-1975: Tom McCall (R)
1975-1979: Edith Green (D)
1979-1987: Victor Atiyeh (R)
1987-1995: Norma Paulus (R)

1990: Barbara Roberts (D), David B. Frohnmayer (Independent Republican) and Al Mobley (Independent)
1995-1999: John Lim (R)
1994: Rod Monroe (D) and Ed Hickam (Country)
1999-TBD: John Elwood “Bud” Clark (I)
1998: John Kitzhaber (D) and Bill Sizemore (R)

Governors of Pennsylvania
1959-1963: David Lawrence (D)
1963-1965: William W. Scranton II (R)
1965-1967: Raymond Shafer (R)
1967-1971: Robert Casey Sr. (D)
1971-1975: Milton Shapp (D)
1975-1979: Martin P. Mullen (D)
1979-1983: Milton Shapp (D)
1983-1987: Stewart Greenleaf (D)
1987-1995: William W. Scranton III (R)

1990: Ed Rendell (R)
1995-TBD: Lynn Yeakel (D)
1994: Marguerite Ann “Peg” McKenna Luksik (R)
1998: Ernie Preate (R)

Governors of Rhode Island
1961-1965: John A. Notte Jr. (D)
1965-1971: John Chafee (R)
1971-1979: J. Joseph Garrahy (D)
1979-1987: Lincoln Almond (R)
1987-1994: Buddy Cianci (R)

1990: Francis X. Flaherty (D) and Joe Trillo (I)
1994-1999: Robert A. “Bob” Weygand (D)
1994: Bob Healey (Cool Moose) and Lincoln Almond (R)
1999-TBD: Bob Healey (Independent)
1998: Jack Dennison Potter (D) and Lincoln Almond (R)

Governors of South Carolina
1959-1963: Fritz Hollings (D)
1963-1965: Donald Stuart Russell (D)
1965-1967: Robert McNair (D)
1967-1971: Joseph O. Rogers Jr. (R)
1971-1975: John West (D)
1975-1979: William Westmoreland (R)
1979-1983: Richard Riley (D)
1983-1987: Nancy Stevenson (D)
1987-1991: Jesse Jackson (D)
1991-1995: Nick Theodore (D)

1990: David Beasley (R)
1995-1999: Robert Durden “Bob” Inglis Sr. (R)
1994: Theo Mitchell (D)
1999-2001: Jesse Jackson (D)
1998: Carroll Campbell (R) and Jim Hodges (I)
2001-TBD: Elizabeth J. “Liz” Patterson (D)

Governors of South Dakota
1961-1963: Archie Gubbrud (R)
1963-1967: Ralph Herseth (D)
1967-1971: Frank Farrar (R)
1971-1975: George S. McGovern (D)
1975-1983: Benjamin “Ben” (Lone Feather) Reifel (R)
1983-1987: Clint Roberts (R)
1987-1991: Lars Herseth (D)
1991-1999: Gus Hercules (R)

1990: Lars Herseth (D)
1994: Jim Beddow (D) and Nathan Barton (Liberty)
1999-TBD: Susan Wismer (D)
1998: Jack Billion (R)

Governors of Tennessee
1953-1959: Frank G. Clement (D)
1959-1963: Buford Ellington (D)
1963-1967: Frank G. Clement (D)
1967-1971: Buford Ellington (D)
1971-1975: Frank G. Clement (D)
1975-1979: Lamar Alexander (R)
1979-1983: Jake Butcher (D)
1983-1987: Buford Pusser (R)
1987-1991: Frank G. Clement (D)
1991-1995: Hillary Rodham-Clinton (R)

1990: Phil Bredesen (D) and Charles Vick (Liberty)
1995-1999: Frank G. Clement (D)
1994: Don Sundquist (R) and Dick Fulton (Independent D)
1999-TBD: Bill Haslam (R)
1998: John Jay Hooker Jr. (D)

Governors of Texas
1957-1967: Price Daniel (D)
1967-1971: John Connally (D before 1969, R after 1969)
1971-1974: Waggoner Carr (D)
1974-1979: Frances Farenthold (D)
1979-1983: Bill Clements (R)
1983-1987: Ross Perot (I)
1987-1995: Rick Perry (D)

1990: Warren G. Harding (R), Jack Rains (Country) and Ramsey Muniz (La Raza Unida)
1995-TBD: Henry Cisneros (D)
1994: Henry Cisneros (D/La Raza Unida) over Keary Ehlers (Liberty), Clayton Williams (R) and Ramsey Muniz (Natural Mind)
1998: Ray Hollis (R)

Governors of Utah
1957-1965: George Clyde (R)
1965-1973: Mitchell Melich (R)
1973-1977: K. Gunn McKay (D)
1977-1985: Vernon Bradford Romney (R)
1985-1989: Wayne Owens (D)
1989-2001: Jon Huntsman Sr. (R)

1992: Stewart Hanson (D) and Rita Gum (Populist)
1996: James Bradley (D)
2001-TBD: Enid Greene (R)
2000: Bill Orton (D)

Governors of Vermont
1961-1963: F. Ray Keyser Jr. (R)
1963-1973: Phil Hoff (D)
1973-1975: Consuelo Bailey (R)
1975-1977: Harry H. Cooley (D)
1977-1981: Stella Hackel (D)
1981-1989: Richard A. Snelling (R)
1989-1993: Jan Backus (D)

1990: David Atkinson (R) and Richard F. Gottlieb (Liberty Union)
1993-1995: John McClaughry (R)
1992: Jan Backus (D) and August Jaccaci (Liberty Union)
1995-TBD: Howard Dean (D)
1994: John McClaughry (R) and Dennis Lane (Liberty Union)
1996: John Gropper (R) and Mary Alice “Mal” Herbert (Liberty Union)
1998: Ruth Dwyer (R) and Richard Gottlieb (Liberty Union)
2000: Richard Gottlieb (Liberty Union), Ruth Dwyer (R), and Anthony Pollina (Progressive)

Governors of Virginia
1958-1962: James Lindsay Almond Jr. (D)
1962-1966: Albertis S. Harrison Jr. (D)
1966-1970: Linwood Holton (R)
1970-1974: Vince Callahan (R)
1974-1978: Elmo Zumwalt (D)
1978-1982: John N. Dalton (R)
1982-1986: Harrison Wilson Jr. (D)
1986-1990: Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr. (D)
1990-1994: Stanford Elmer “Stan” Parris (R)
1994-1998: George Allen (R)

1993: Owen Pickett (D)
1998-TBD: Jim Gilmore (R)
1997: Don Beyer (D)

Governors of Washington
1957-1965: Albert Rossellini (D)
1965-1975: Daniel J. Evans (R)
1975-1977: Arthur Fletcher (R)
1977-1981: Julia Butler Hansen (D)
1981-1989: Daniel J. Evans (R)
1989-2001: Ellen Craswell (R)

1992: Booth Gardner (D)
1996: Mike Lowry (D)
2001-TBD: Norm Rice (D)
2000: John Carlson (R)

Governors of West Virginia
1961-1965: Wally Barron (D)
1965-1969: Cecil Underwood (R)
1969-1977: Arch A. Moore Jr. (R)
1977-1985: Jay Rockefeller (D)
1985-1989: Cecil Underwood (R)
1989-1997: Gaston Caperton (D)

1992: Jack Fellure (R) and Charlotte Pritt (Green)
1997-TBD: Cecil Underwood (R)
1996: Joe Manchin (D) and Wallace Johnson (Liberty)
2000: Denise Giardina (D)

Governors of Wisconsin
1959-1963: Gaylord A. Nelson (D)
1963-1965: John W. Reynolds (D)
1965-1967: Warren P. Knowles (R)
1967-1975: Patrick Lucey (D)
1975-1983: Bronson La Follette (D)
1983-1995: Paul R. Soglin (D)

1990: Steve Gunderson (R)
1995-1999: Margaret Farrow (R)
1994: Martin J. Schreiber (D)
1999-TBD: Kathleen Falk (D)
1998: Margaret Farrow (R)

Governors of Wyoming
1961-1967: Jack R. Gage (D)
1967-1975: Teno Roncalio (D)
1975-1983: Thyra Thomson (R)
1983-1987: Dick Casull (R)
1987-1995: Thyra Thomson (R)

1990: Mike Sullivan (D)
1995-TBD: Harriet Elizabeth Byrd (D)
1994: Richard Bruce Cheney (R) and Mary Mead (Conservative)
1998: Bill Taliaferro (R)



Additionally, the US Congress:

House Speakers:
1955-1961: Sam Rayburn (D-TX)
1961-1967: John W. McCormack (D-MA)
1967-1971: Charles Halleck (R-IN)
1971-1975: Morris K. Udall (D-AZ)
1975-1977: Robert H. Michel (R-IL)
1977-1981: Morris K. Udall (D-AZ)
1981-1987: Robert H. Michel (R-IL)
1987-1991: Hale Boggs (D-LA)
1991-1995: Robert Smith Walker (R-PA)
1995-2001: David F. Emery (R-ME)
2001-TBD: Barbara B. Kennelly (D-CT)

Senate Majority Leaders:
1961-1977: Mike Mansfield (D-MT)
1977-1979: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
1979-1987: Howard Baker (R-TN)
1987-1997: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
1997-1999: Bob Dole (R-KS)
1999-2000: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
2000-2001: Bob Dole (R-KS)
2001-TBD: Robert Byrd (D-WV)

US Senators from Alabama’s Class 2 Seat
1946-1973: John J. Sparkman (Democratic)
1973-1976: John L. LeFlore (D)
1976-1985: John J. Sparkman (D)
1985-TBD: Albert Lee Smith Jr. (R)

1990: John Glen Browder (D)
1996: Roger Bedford (D)
US Senators from Alabama’s Class 3 Seat
1938-1963: J. Lister Hill (D)
1963-1981: James D. Martin (R)
1981-1984: Walter Flowers (D)
1984-1987: Jack Edwards (R)
1987-TBD: Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D)

1992: Dick Sellars (R) and Jerome Shockley (Liberty)
1998: Jerome Shockley (R)

US Senators from Alaska’s Class 2 Seat
1959-1968: Bob Bartlett (D)
1968-1970: Ted Stevens (R)
1970-1973: Mike Gravel (D)
1973-1979: Eben Hopson (D)
1979-1991: Hazel P. Heath (R)
1991-TBD: Jalmar “Jay” Kerttula (R)

1990: Sarah J. “Sally” Smith (D) and Kathryn Poland (Green)
1996: Frank Vondersaar (D)
US Senators from Alaska’s Class 3 Seat
1959-1974: Ernest Gruening (D)
1974-1975: Ted Stevens (R)
1975-1981: Clark Gruening (D)
1981-TBD: Frank Murkowski (R)

1992: Mary Jordan (D)
1998: Tony Knowles (D), Billy Toien (L), Jeffrey Gottlieb (G) and Marc Millican (I)

US Senators from Arizona’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1995: Barry Goldwater Sr. (R)
1995-TBD: Harry Braun (D)

1994: Scott Grainger (R/Liberty)
2000: Doug Wead (R), Barry Hess (Liberty), William Toel (I), and Vance Hansen (Green)
US Senators from Arizona’s Class 3 Seat
1927-1969: Carl Hayden (D)
1969-1987: Paul Fannin (R)
1987-TBD: Eddie Najeeb Basha Jr. (D)

1992: Kiana Delamare (R)
1998: Robert Lee Park (R)

US Senators from Arkansas’s Class 2 Seat
1943-1977: John L. McClellan (D)
1977-1979: Kaneaster Hodges Jr. (D)
1979-TBD: Jim Guy Tucker (D)

1990: Tim Hutchinson (R)
1996: Virginia Johnson (R)
US Senators from Arkansas’s Class N Seat
1945-1995: J. William Fulbright (D)
1974: John H. Jones (R)
1980: William Clark (R) and Walter McCarty (I)
1986: Asa Hutchinson (R)
1992: Mike Huckabee (R)
1995-1996: Harriet Mayor Fulbright (D)
1996-TBD: F. Winford Boozman III (R)

1995 (special): Patrick Henry Hays (D)
1998: Lottie H. Shackelford (D)

US Senators from California’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1964: Clair Engle (D)
1964-1965: Alan Cranston (D)
1965-1994: Richard Nixon (R)
1994-1995: Augustus Hawkins (D)
1995-TBD: George Deukmejian (R)

1994: Peter Camejo (D/Green/La Rada Unida)
2000: Georges Eshoo (D) and Medea Benjamin (Green)
US Senators from California’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1953: Richard Nixon (R)
1953-1981: Thomas Kuchel (R)
1981-1987: Maureen Reagan (R)
1987-1999: Mario Obledo (D)

1992: John Seymour (R), Gore Vidal (Natural Mind), Genevieve Torres (Green) and Merton D. Short (Country)
1999-TBD: Mike Gravel (D)
1998: Edward C. Nixon (R)

US Senators from Colorado’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1979: Gordon L. Allott (R)
1979-1991: William L. Armstrong (R)
1991-1997: Hank Brown (R)

1990: Josephine Ward “Josie” Heath (D) and Carlos F. Lucero (La Raza Unida)
1997-TBD: Bernie Goetz (R)
1996: Nancy E. Dick (D) and Wayne Allard (I)
US Senators from Colorado’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1963: John A. Carroll (D)
1963-1975: Peter H. Dominick (R)
1975-1987: George L. Brown (D)
1987-1993: Pat Schroeder (D)
1993-TBD: Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R)

1992: Pat Schroeder (D)
1998: Dottie Lamm (D)

US Senators from Connecticut’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Thomas J. Dodd (D)
1971-1995: Antonina P. Uccello (R)
1995-TBD: Ralph Nader (I)

1994: Daniel C. Esty (D) and Gary Franks (R)
2000: Richard Blumenthal (D) and Chris Shays (R)
US Senators from Connecticut’s Class 3 Seat
1963-1981: Abraham Ribicoff (D)
1981-TBD: Chris Dodd (D)

1992: Gary Alvin Franks (R) and Robert Giaimo (Independent Democratic)
1998: Wildley Moore (R) and Clarine Nardi Riddle (True Republican)

US Senators from Delaware’s Class 1 Seat
1947-1970: John J. Williams (R)
1970-2001: William Victor Roth Jr. (R)

1994: Charles Oberly (D)
2001-TBD: Daniel S. Frawley (D)
2000: William Victor Roth Jr. (R)
US Senators from Delaware’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1985: J. Caleb Boggs (R)
1985-1997: Joe Biden (D)

1990: M. Jane Brady (R)
1997-TBD: Raymond J. Clatworthy (R)
1996: Joe Biden (D)

US Senators from Florida’s Class 1 Seat
1946-1971: Spessard Holland (D)
1971-1998: Lawton Chiles (D)

1994: Tom Gallagher (R)
1998-2001: Rhea Chiles (D)
2001-TBD: Alexander Penelas (D)

2000: John Thrasher (R)
US Senators from Florida’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: George Smathers (D)
1969-1981: William Cato “Bill” Cramer Sr. (R)
1981-1987: Paula Hawkins (R)
1987-TBD: Michael Bilirakis (R)

1992: Harry A. Johnston (D)
1998: Franklin B. Mann (D)

US Senators from Georgia’s Class 2 Seat
1933-1971: Richard Russell Jr. (D)
1971-1973: Ernest Vandiver (D)
1973-1977: Jimmy Carter (D)
1977-TBD: Sam Nunn (D)

1990: unopposed
1996: John Gregory Cashin (R)
US Senators from Georgia’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1963: Herman E. Talmadge (D)
1963-1981: John William Davis (D)
1981-1987: Mack Mattingly (R)
1987-TBD: John Skandalakis (D)

1992: Dr. Paul Broun (R)
1998: Paul Coverdell (R)

US Senators from Hawaii’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1977: Hiram Fong (R)
1977-TBD: Patsy Mink (D)

1994: Maria Hustace (R)
2000: John S. Carroll (R)
US Senators from Hawaii’s Class 3 Seat
1959-1963: Oren E. Long (D)
1963-TBD: Daniel Inouye (D)

1992: Linda Martin (Green) and Richard O. Rowland (R)
1998: Crystal Young (R)

US Senators from Idaho’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1962: Henry Dworshak (R)
1962-1963: Len Jordan (R)
1963-1964: Gracie Pfost (D)
1964-1973: Len Jordan (R)
1973-1979: Richard H. Stallings (D)
1979-1997: George Vernon Hansen (R)

1990: Ron Twilegar (D)
1997-TBD: Helen Chenoweth (R)
1996: Susan Vegors (D)
US Senators from Idaho’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1984: Frank Church (D)
1984-TBD: Bethine Clark Church (D)

1992: Dirk Kempthorne (R)
1998: Mike Crapo (R)

US Senators from Illinois’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Paul Douglas (D)
1973-1985: Charles Percy (R)
1985-1997: Paul Simon (D)
1997-TBD: John Bayard Anderson (R)

1996: Paul Simon (D)
US Senators from Illinois’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: Everett Dirksen (R)
1969-1970: Ralph Tyler Smith (R)
1970-1981: Adlai Stevenson (D)
1981-1999: Alan J. Dixon (D)

1992: Lynn Morley Martin (R) and J. Quinn Brisben (Socialist)
1999-TBD: Paul G. Vallas (D)
1998: George Ryan (R)

US Senators from Indiana’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1983: Vance Hartke (D)
1983-1989: Earl Landgrebe (R)
1989-TBD: Katie Beatrice Hall (D)

1994: Barbara Bourland (R)
2000: Paul Hager (R)
US Senators from Indiana’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1963: Homer E. Capehart (R)
1963-1975: Birch Bayh (D)
1975-1999: Richard Lugar (R)

1992: Tom Carper (D)
1999-TBD: Evan Bayh (D)
1998: Richard Lugar (R)

US Senators from Iowa’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1973: Jack Miller (R)
1973-1979: Dick Clark (D)
1979-1991: Roger Jespen (R)
1991-1992: Larry Miles Dinger (R)

1990: Berkley Warren Bedell (D)
1992-TBD: Terry Branstad (R)
1994 (special): David R. Nagle (D)
1996: Jim Ross Lightfoot (D)
US Senators from Iowa’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1965: Bourke Blakemore Hickenlooper (R)
1965-1967: Henry Oscar Talle (R)
1967-1993: Harold Hughes (D)
1993-1999: John William Judge (R)

1992: Jean Hall Lloyd-Jones (D
1999-TBD: Patty Jean Poole (D)
1998: John William Judge (R)

US Senators from Kansas’ Class 2 Seat
1949-1962: Andrew F. Schoeppel (R)
1962-1979: James B. Pearson (R)
1979-1997: Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R)

1990: Joan Finney (D)
1997-TBD: Carla J. Stovall (R)
1996: Sally Thompson (D)
US Senators from Kansas’ Class 3 Seat
1950-1969: Frank Carlson (R)
1969-TBD: Bob Dole (R)

1992: Gloria O’Dell (D)
1998: Gloria O’Dell (D)

US Senators from Kentucky’s Class 2 Seat
1952-1955: John Sherman Cooper (R)
1955-1956: Alben W. Barkley (D)
1956-1956: James Stephen Golden (R)
1956-1973:
John Sherman Cooper (R)
1973-1991: Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)
1991-TBD: Martha Layne Osborne (D)

1990: Jim Bunning (R)
1996: Dennis L. Lacy (R)
US Senators from Kentucky’s Class 3 Seat
1950-1957: Earle Clements (D)
1957-1982: Thruston Morton (R)
1982-1984: Charles Rowland Peaslee “Charlie” Farnsley (D)
1984-1993: Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr. (R)
1993-TBD: Patrick “Kelly” Downard (R)

1992: Jim Whitlock (D)
1998: Scotty Baesler (D)

US Senators from Louisiana’s Class 2 Seat
1937-1972: Allen J. Ellender (D)
1972-1985: Jack P. F. Gremillion Sr. (D)
1985-TBD: Clyde Cecil Holloway (R)

1990: William Jennings Jefferson (D) and David Duke (Heritage)
1996: Richard Ieyoub (D)
US Senators from Louisiana’s Class 3 Seat
1948-1987: Russell B. Long (D)
1987-TBD: Buddy Roemer (“D” until 1991, then “R” after 1991)

1992: Chris John (D)
1998: Marty James Chabert (D)

US Senators from Maine’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1996: Ed Muskie (D)
1994: John R. McKernan Jr. (R) and Plato Truman (I)
1996-TBD: Olympia Snowe (R)
1998 (special): Sean Faircloth (D)
2000: Mark Lawrence (D)
US Senators from Maine’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Margaret Chase Smith (R)
1973-1979: William Hathaway (D)
1979-1985: William Cohen (R)
1985-1989: Peter N. Kyros (D)
1989-1991: Nancy Nye Masterton (D)
1991-TBD: Angus King (I)

1990: Nancy Nye Masterton (D) and Bob Nutting (R)
1996: Susan M. Collins (R) and John Rensenbrink (D)

US Senators from Maryland’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1971: James Glenn Beall (R)
1971-1977: Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (R)
1977-TBD: Paul Spyros Sarbanes (D)

1994: Constance “Connie” Morella (R)
2000: Paul Rappaport (R)
US Senators from Maryland’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1963: John Marshall Butler (R)
1963-1969: Daniel J. Brewster (D)
1969-1987: Charles Mathias Jr. (R)
1987-TBD: Barbara Mikulski (D)

1992: Martha Scanlan Klima (R)
1998: Ross Pierpont (R)

US Senators from Massachusetts’ Class 1 Seat
1953-1961: John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy (D)
1961-1962: Benjamin Smith (D)
1962-2001: Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D)

1994: John Lakian (R)
2001-TBD: Kathleen Hartington Kennedy-Roosevelt (D)
2000: Carla Howell (R)
US Senators from Massachusetts’ Class 2 Seat
1945-1967: Leverett Saltonstall (R)
1967-1991: Ed Brooke (R)
1991-TBD: Bill Weld (R)

1990: Ken O’Donnell (D)
1996: Robert Stowe (D) and Susan Gallagher (Conservative)

US Senators from Michigan’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Philip Hart (D)
1971-1989: George W. Romney (R)
1989-1995: Elly Maude Peterson (R)
1995-2001: W. Mitt Romney (R)

1994: Bob Carr (D)
2001-TBD: Barbara-Rose Collins (D)
2000: W. Mitt Romney (R) and Matthew Abel (Green)
US Senators from Michigan’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1966: Patrick V. McNamara (D)
1966-1985: Robert P. Griffin (R)
1985-TBD: Jack R. Lousma (R)

1990: Barbara-Rose Collins (D)
1996: William Roundtree (D)

US Senators from Minnesota’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Eugene McCarthy (D)
1971-1985: Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D)
1985-2001: Joan Growe (D)

1994: Rod Grams (R) and Dean Barkley (I)
2001-TBD: Hubert Horatio “Skip” Humphrey III (DFL)
2000: Carol Molnau (IRL) and Jim Gibbons (I)
US Senators from Minnesota’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1960: Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D)
1960-1961: Roy Weir (D)
1961-1972: Walter Mondale (D)
1972-1982: Bob Short (D)
1982-1997: Mark Dayton (D)

1990: Vin Weber (R)
1997-TBD: Gilbert Gutknecht Jr. (R)
1996: Mark Dayton (D)

US Senators from Mississippi’s Class 1 Seat
1947-1989: John C. Stennis (D)
1989-TBD: William Webster “Webb” Franklin (R)

1994: Ken Harper (D)
2000: Troy Brown (D)
US Senators from Mississippi’s Class 2 Seat
1943-1979: James Eastland (D)
1979-1995: James H. Meredith (R)

1990: George Raymond Jr. (D)
1995-1997: James E. Chaney (D)
1997-TBD: Kirkwood Fordice (R)

1996: James E. Chaney (D)

US Senators from Missouri’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1961: Stuart Symington (D)
1961-1963: Albert S. J. Carnahan (D)
1963-1977: Leonor Sullivan (D)
1977-1989: Jerry Litton (D)
1989-1993: Margaret Blake Kelly (D)
1993-1995: Thomas M. Keyes (D)
1995-TBD: Alan Wheat (D)

1994: Bill Johnson (R)
2000: Grant Samuel Stauffer (R)
US Senators from Missouri’s Class 3 Seat
1960-1975: Edward V. Long (D)
1975-1987: Thomas B. Curtis (R)
1987-TBD: Bill Bradley (D)

1992: Jeanne Bojarski (R)
1998: Tamara Millay (R) and Wayne Cryts (D write-in)

US Senators from Montana’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1977: Mike Mansfield (D)
1977-1983: John Melcher (D)
1983-1989: Ron Marlenee (R)
1989-TBD: Jack Mudd (D)

1994: Tom Faranda (R)
2000: Rick Hill (R)
US Senators from Montana’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1973: Lee Metcalf (D)
1973-1979: Henry S. “Hank” Hibbard (R)
1979-TBD: Larry Williams (R)

1990: John Patrick “Pat” Williams (D)
1996: Stephen Heaton (D)

US Senators from Nebraska’s Class 1 Seat
1954-1971: Roman Hruska (R)
1971-TBD: Ted Sorensen (D)

1994: Jan Stoney (R)
2000: Don Stenberg (R)
US Senators from Nebraska’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1965: Carl Curtis (R)
1965-1973: Dwight W. Burney (R)
1973-TBD: Orrin Hatch (R)

1990: John J. Cavanaugh III (D)
1996: Ben Nelson (D) and John DeCamp (Liberty)

US Senators from Nevada’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Howard W. Cannon (D)
1965-1995: Paul Dominque Laxalt (R)
1995-TBD: Anna Nevenic (D)

1994: Kenny Guinn (R)
2000: Jim Gibbons (R)
US Senators from Nevada’s Class 3 Seat
1954-1974: Alan H. Bible (D)
1974-1999: Barbara Vucanovich (R)

1992: Lois Avery (D) and Joe Garcia (Country)
1999-TBD: Patricia Anne “Patty” Cafferata (R)
1998: James Bilbray (D)

US Senators from New Hampshire’s Class 2 Seat
1937-1961: Styles Bridges (R)
1961-1967: Maurice Murphy (R)
1967-1973: Thomas J. McIntyre (D)
1973-1979: Harrison Reed Thyng (R)
1979-1981: Carmen C. Chimento (I)
1981-1981: Wesley Powell (R)
1981-1982: Lane Dwinell (R)
1982-1985: Hugh Gregg (R)
1985-1997: Endicott Peabody (D)

1990: Harold Burns (R)
1997-TBD: Ken Blevens (R)
1996: Dick Swett (D)
US Senators from New Hampshire’s Class 3 Seat
1954-1987: Norris Cotton (R)
1987-1993: Emile Dorilas Beaulieu Jr. (D)
1993-1999: Katherine M. Alexander (R)

1992: Emile Dorilas Beaulieu Jr. (D)
1999-TBD: Lou D’Allesandro (D)
1998: Katherine M. Alexander (R)

US Senators from New Jersey’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1982: Harrison A. Williams (D)
1982-1983: Frank Lautenberg (D)
1983-TBD: Frank X. McDermott (R)

1994: Herb Klein (D)
2000: Jon Corzine (official write-in) (D) and John A. Lynch Jr. (withdrew amid scandal) (D)
US Senators from New Jersey’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1982: Clifford P. Case (R)
1982-1983: Richard J. Coffee (D)
1983-TBD: Mary V. Mochary (R)

1990: Barbara Wright McConnell (D)
1996: Robert Torricelli (D)

US Senators from New Mexico’s Class 1 Seat
1935-1962: Dennis Chavez (D)
1962-1964: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1964-1978: Joseph Manuel Montoya (D)
1978-1981: Mary Coon Walters (D)
1981-TBD: Pedro “Pete” Jiménez (D)

1994: Robin Dozier Otten (R)
2000: William T. Redmond (R)
US Senators from New Mexico’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Clinton Presba Anderson (D)
1973-TBD: Roberto Mondragon (D)

1990: Manuel Lujan Jr. (R)
1996: Bruce M. Bush (R)

US Senators from New York’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Kenneth Keating (R)
1971-1983: Paul O’Dwyer (D)
1983-1995: Michael Rockefeller (R/Liberal)
1995-TBD: Gabriel “Gabe” Kaplan (D/Labor/Working Families/Progressive/Green)

1994: Michael Rockefeller (R/Liberal), and Henry F. Hewes (Conservative/Life)
2000: Rick Lazio (R) and John O. Adefope (Conservative/Life)
US Senators from New York’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1981: Jacob Javits (R)
1981-TBD: Mario Biaggi (D/Conservative until 2000, then R/Conservative)

1980: Jacob K. Javits (R) and Bess Myerson (Liberal/Natural Mind)
1986: Al D’Amato (R), Mark Green (Green) and John S. Dyson (Liberal)
1992: Norma Segal (R/Liberal) and Mohammad T. Mehdi (Green)
1998: William P. McMillen (R)

US Senators from North Carolina’s Class 2 Seat
1958-1973: B. Everett Jordan (D)
1973-1991: Terry Sanford (D)
1991-TBD: James Grubbs “Jim” Martin (R)

1990: Terry Sanford (D)
1996: Harvey Gantt (D)
US Senators from North Carolina’s Class 3 Seat
1954-1975: Sam Ervin (D)
1975-TBD: Nick Galifianakis (D)

1992: Robert Cannon Hayes (R)
1998: Barbara Howe (R)

US Senators from North Dakota’s Class 1 Seat
1960-1965: Quentin N. Burdick (D)
1965-1971: Thomas S. Kleppe (R)
1971-2001: Arthur Albert Link (D)

1994: Ben Clayburgh (R)
2001-TBD: Eliot Glassheim (D)
2000: Duane Sand (R)
US Senators from North Dakota’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1981: Milton R. Young (R)
1981-1987: Mark Andrews (R)
1987-TBD: Kent Conrad (D)

1986: Mark Andrews (R)
1992: Steve Sydness (R) and Darold Larson (I)
1998: Donna Nalewaja (R)

US Senators from Ohio’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Stephen M. Young (D)
1965-1971: Robert A. Taft Jr. (R)
1971-2001: John Glenn (D)

1994: Paul E. Pfeifer (R) and Joseph Slovenec (I)
2001-TBD: Terry A. Anderson (D)
2000: Frank A. Cremeans (R)
US Senators from Ohio’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1969: Frank J. Lausche (D)
1969-1987: William B. Saxbe (R)
1987-1994: Carl Stokes (D)

1992: Mike DeWine (R), Martha Grevatt (Country) and Douglas DeGood (Independent Democrat)
1994-TBD: Anthony J. Celebrezze Jr. (D)
1994 (special): Phyllis Goetz (R)
1998: George Voinovich (R)

US Senators from Oklahoma’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1963: Robert S. Kerr (D)
1963-1965: J. Howard Edmondson (D)
1965-TBD: Bud Wilkinson (R)

1990: Dave McCurdy (D)
1996: Glen D. Johnson Jr. (D)
US Senators from Oklahoma’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: A. S. Mike Monroney (D)
1969-1981: Henry Bellmon (R)
1981-TBD: Marvin Henry “Mickey” Edwards (R)

1992: Steve Lewis (D)
1998: Laura Boyd (D)

US Senators from Oregon’s Class 2 Seat
1960-1967: Maurine Brown Neuberger (D)
1967-1997: Mark Hatfield (R)

1990: Harry Lonsdale (D)
1997-TBD: Norma Paulus (R)
1996: Peter DeFazio (D)
US Senators from Oregon’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1974: Wayne Morse (D since 1955, I 1952-1955, R before 1952)
1974-1975: Earl T. Newbry (R)
1975-1981: Tom McCall (R)
1981-1987: John R. Dellenback (R)
1987-TBD: Walter Leslie “Les” AuCoin (D)

1992: Dennis Alan “Denny” Smith (R)
1998: Tonie Nathan (R) and Aaron Dixon (Green)

US Senators from Pennsylvania’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1977: Hugh Scott (R)
1977-1983: Bill Green (D)
1983-1989: Elmer Greinert “Bud” Shuster (R)
1989-2001: Darcy Richardson (D)

1994: Dick Santorum (R), Diane G. Blough (Country) and Donald Ernsberger (Liberty)
2001-TBD: Paul Kanjorski (D)
2000: Patrick J. Toomey (R)
US Senators from Pennsylvania’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1969: Joseph S. Clark (D)
1969-1975: Herman T. Schneebeli (R)
1975-2000: Bob Casey Sr. (D)

1992: Wayne Curtis Weldon (R) and John Perry III (I)
1998: Barbara Hafer (R)
2000-TBD: Bob Casey Jr. (D)
2000 (special): Philip Sheridan English (R)

US Senators from Rhode Island’s Class 1 Seat
1950-1977: John Pastore (D)
1977-1989: Robert Owens Tiernan (D)
1989-2001: Claudine Schneider (R)

1994: Linda Kushner (D)
2001-TBD: Myrth York (D)
2000: Claudine Schneider (R)
US Senators from Rhode Island’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1997: Claiborne Pell (D)
1990: Robert Machtley (R)
1997-TBD: Nancy J. Mayer (R)
1996: Donald Gill (D)

US Senators from South Carolina’s Class 2 Seat
1954-1956: Strom Thurmond (Independent Democrat)
1956-1956: Thomas Wofford (D)
1956-TBD: Strom Thurmond (D until 1962 / R after 1962)

1990: Bob Cunningham (D)
1996: Elliot Close (D)
US Senators from South Carolina’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1965: Olin D. Johnston (D)
1965-TBD: Fritz Hollings (D)

1992: Thomas F. Hartnett (R)
1998: Richard Quillian (R)

Senators from South Dakota’s Class 2 Seat
1948-1973: Karl Earl Mundt (R)
1973-1979: James Abourezk (D)
1979-TBD: Larry Pressler (R)

1990: Ted Muenster (D) and Dean L. Sinclair (Independent)
1996: Gene N. Lebrun (D)
Senators from South Dakota’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1962: Francis H. Case (R)
1962-1975: Joseph H. Bottom (R)
1975-1981: George McGovern (D)
1981-1994: Frank Farrar (R)

1992: Franklin Edvard Denholm (D)
1994-1995: Carole Hillard (R)
1995-present: Teresa McGovern (D)

1994 (special): Carole Hillard (R)
1998: Ron Schmidt (R)

US Senators from Tennessee’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1998: Albert Arnold “Al” Gore Sr. (D)
1982: Robin Beard (R)
1988: Bill Anderson (R)
1994: Bill Frist (R) and John Jay Hooker (I)
1998-2001: Charles V. Brown (D)
2001-TBD: Bob Clement (D)

2000: Mae Beavers (R) and Jeff Clarke (I)
US Senators from Tennessee’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1963: Estes Kefauver (D)
1963-1964: Herbert S. Walters (D)
1964-1991: Howard Baker (R)
1991-1997: Marilyn Lloyd (D)

1990: William R. Hawkins (R)
1997-present: Hillary Clinton (R)
1996: Marilyn Lloyd (D)

US Senators from Texas’s Class 1 Seat
1957-1971: Ralph Yarborough (D)
1971-1983: Lloyd Bentsen (D)
1983-1989: James M. Collins (R)
1989-2001: Ann Richards (D)

1994: Harry “Steve” Bartlett (R), Mary J. Ruwart (Liberty) and Jose Angel Gutierrez (La Raza Unida)
2001-TBD: Mickey Leland (D)
2000: Joe Barton (R) and Adrian Garcia (La Raza Unida)
US Senators from Texas’s Class 1 Seat
1949-1961: Lyndon B. Johnson (D)
1961: William A. Blakley (D)
1961-1967: John G. Tower (R)
1967-1975: Lyndon B. Johnson (D)
1975-1979: J. J. Pickle (D)
1979-1991: Ron Paul (R)
1991-TBD: Kay Bailey Hutchison (R)

1990: Kathryn J. Whitmire (D) and Gary Johnson (Liberty)
1996: Richard W. Fisher (D) and Victor Morales (La Raza Unida)

US Senators from Utah’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1995: Frank E. Moss (D)
1995-TBD: David D. Marriott (R)

1994: Patrick A. Shea (D)
2000: Gary Van Horn (Country)
US Senators from Utah’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1975: Wallace F. Bennett (R)
1975-1993: Jake Garn (R)
1993-1996: Rex Edwin Lee (R)

1992: Bill Orton (D)
1996-TBD: Lyle Hillyard (R)

1996 (special): Karen Hale (D)
1998: Scott Leckman (D)

Vermont Senators from the Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Winston L. Prouty (R)
1971-1973: Thomas P. Salmon (D)
1973-1983: Robert Theodore Stafford (R)
1983-2001: Phil Hoff (Progressive until 1987, I 1987, D after 1987)

1994: Jim Jeffords (R) and Peter Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
2001-TBD: Fred Tuttle (R)
2000: Ed Flanagan (D)
Vermont Senators from the Class 3 Seat
1941-1984: George Aiken (R)
1984-1987: Peter Plympton Smith (R)
1987-1999: Madeleine M. Kunin (D)

1992: Jim Douglas (R) and Jerry Levy (Liberty Union)
1999-TBD: Peter Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
1998: Bob Melamede (D) and Hugh Douglas (R)

US Senators from Virginia’s Class 1 Seat
1933-1965: Harry F. Byrd Sr. (D)
1965-1995: Harry F. Byrd Jr. (D before 1970, I after 1970)
1995-2001: Frank Wolf (R)

1994: Rick Boucher (D)
2001-TBD: Bobby Scott (D)
2000: Frank Wolf (R)
US Senators from Virginia’s Class 2 Seat
1946-1971: A. Willis Robertson (D)
1971-1973: William Lloyd Scott (R)
1973-1979: John Otho Marsh Jr. (D)
1979-TBD: Richard Dudley Obenshain (R)

1990: Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr. (D)
1996: Leslie Byrne (D)

US Senators from Washington’s Class 1 seat
1953-1987: Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson (D)
1987-1989: Norm Dicks (D)
1989-TBD: Jolene Unsoeld (D)

1994: Rod Chandler (R)
2000: Mike McGavick (R)
US Senators from Washington’s Class 3 Seat
1944-1975: Warren G. Magnuson (D)
1975-1981: Daniel J. Evans (R)
1981-1993: Catherine Dean May (R)
1993-TBD: Gary Locke (D)

1992: Slade Gorton (R)
1998: Linda Smith (R)

US Senators from West Virginia’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Robert C. Byrd (D)
1994: Stanley L. Klos (R)
2000: David T. Gallaher (R)
US Senators from West Virginia’s Class 2 Seat
1958-1985: Jennings Randolph (D)
1985-1997: John Raese (R)

1990: Harley O. Staggers Jr. (D)
1997-TBD: Jon McBride (R)
1996: Joseph P. Albright (D)

US Senators from Wisconsin’s Class 1 Seat
1957-1989: William Proxmire (D)
1989-2001: Susan Engeleiter (R)

1994: Alvin Baldus (D)
2001-TBD: Russ Feingold (D)
2000: Susan Engeleiter (R) and James Powers Moody (I)
US Senators from Wisconsin’s Class 3 Seat
1939-1967: Alexander Wiley (R)
1967-1973: Philleo Nash (D)
1973-1975: Gaylord Nelson (D)
1975-1987: Roman Blenski (R)
1987-TBD: Bronson La Follette (D)

1992: Scott L. Klug (R)
1998: Stephen B. “Steve” King (R)

US Senators from Wyoming’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Gale W. McGee (D)
1965-TBD: John S. Wold (R)

1994: Susan Anderson (D)
2000: Mel Logan (D)
US Senators from Wyoming’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1962: John J. Hickey (D)
1962-1967: Milward L. Simpson (R)
1967-1991: Gale W. McGee (D)
1991-TBD: Barbara Cubin (R)

1990: Kathy Helling (D)
1996: Kathy Karpan (D)

US Senate composition on 1/20/2001:

AL: Albert Lee Smith Jr. (R) since 1985, Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D) since 1987
AS: Jalmar “Jay” Kerttula (R) since 1991, Frank Murkowski (R) since 1981
AZ: Harry Braun (D) since 1995, Eddie Najeeb Basha Jr. (D) since 1987
AR: F. Winford Boozman III (R) since 1996, Jim Guy Tucker (D) since 1979
CA: George Deukmejian (R-5) since 1995, Mike Gravel (D-5) since 1999
CO: Bernie Goetz (R) since 1997, Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R) since 1993
CT: Ralph Nader (I) since 1995, Chris Dodd (D) since 1981
DE: Raymond J. Clatworthy (R) since 1997, Dan Frawley (D) since 2001
FL: Michael Bilirakis (R) since 1987, Alexander Penelas (D) since 2001
GA: John Skandalakis (D) since 1987, Sam Nunn (D-10) since 1977
HI: Patsy Mink (D) since 1977, Daniel Inouye (D) since 1963
ID: Helen Chenoweth (R-10) since 1997, Bethine Church (D) since 1984
IL: John B. Anderson (R) since 1997, Paul G. Vallas (D) since 1999
IN: Katie Beatrice Hall (D-15) since 1989, Evan Bayh (D) since 1999
IA: Terry Branstad (R) since 1992, Patty Jean Poole (D) since 1999
KS: Carla Stovall (R) since 1997, Bob Dole (R) since 1969
KY: Patrick “Kelly” Downard (R-15) since 1993, Martha Layne Osborne (D) since 1991
LA: Clyde Holloway (R) since 1985, Buddy Roemer (R) since 1987
ME: Olympia Snowe (R) since 1996, Angus King (I-2) since 1991
MD: Paul Spyros Sarbanes (D) since 1977, Barbara Mikulski (D-20) since 1987
MA: Bill Weld (R) since 1991, Kathleen Hartington Kennedy-Roosevelt (D) since 2001
MI: Jack Lousma (R-20) since 1985, Barbara-Rose Collins (D) since 2001
MN: Gil Gutknecht (R) since 1997, Skip Humphrey (D) since 2001
MS: Webb Franklin (R) since 1989, Kirkwood Fordice (R) since 1997
MO: Alan Wheat (D) since 1995, Bill Bradley (D-25) since 1987
MT: Larry Williams (R) since 1979, Jack Mudd (D) since 1989
NE: Orrin Hatch (R-25) since 1973, Ted Sorensen (D) since 1971
NV: Patty Cafferata (R) since 1999, Anna Nevenic (D) since 1995
NH: Ken Blevens (R) since 1997, Lou D’Allesandro (D) since 1999
NJ: Frank X. McDermott (R) since 1983, Mary V. Mochary (R) since 1983
NM: Pedro Jimenez (D-30) since 1981, Roberto Mondragon (D) since 1973
NY: Mario Biaggi (R-30) since 1981, Gabe Kaplan (D) since 1995
NC: Jim Martin (R) since 1991, Nick Galifianakis (D) since 1975
ND: Eliot Glassheim (D) since 2001, Kent Conrad (D-35) since 1987
OH: Terry A. Anderson (D) since 2001, Anthony J. Celebrezze Jr. (D) since 1994
OK: Bud Wilkinson (R) since 1965, Mickey Edwards (R) since 1981
OR: Norma Paulus (R) since 1997, Les AuCoin (D) since 1987
PA: Paul Kanjorski (D) since 2001, Bob Casey Jr. (D-40) since 2000
RI: Nancy J. Mayer (R-35) since 1997, Myrth York (D) since 2001
SC: Strom Thurmond (R) since 1956, Fritz Hollings (D) since 1965
SD: Larry Pressler (R) since 1979, Teresa McGovern (D) since 1995
TN: Hillary Clinton (R) since 1997, Bob Clement (D) since 2001
TX: Kay Bailey Hutchison (R) since 1991, Mickey Leland (D-45) since 2001
UT: David Marriott (R) since 1995, Lyle Hillyard (R-41) since 1996
VT: Fred Tuttle (R) since 2001, Peter Diamondstone (LU-1) since 1999
VA: Dick Obenshain (R) since 1979, Bobby Scott (D) since 2001
WA: Jolene Unsoeld (D) since 1989, Gary Locke (D) since 1993
WV: Jon McBride (R) since 1997, Robert C. Byrd (D) since 1959
WI: Russ Feingold (D-50) since 2001, Bronson La Follette (D-51) since 1987
WY: John S. Wold (R) since 1965, Barbara Cubin (R-46) since 1991

So yeah, a lot less polarized than in OTL, with a lot of conservative Democrats and liberal Republicans still clinging on to prominence across the country...



And finally, a breakdown of the leaders of the Core Members of the “KFC Corporate Family”:

(parent company) FINGER-LICKIN’ GOOD, INC. CEOs (founded in 1965):
1964-1981: Mildred “Millie” Sanders-Ruggles – a daughter of Colonel Sanders; retired, but stayed on the Board of Directors
1981-1990: Lee Cummings – a nephew of Colonel Sanders; retired
1990-present: James A. Collins – retiring in 2001

(chicken) KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN Head Executives (founded in 1950):
1950-1955: Harland D. Sanders, Sr. – took a leave of absence after being drafted into running for governor, and stepped down after he won; massively expanded company, with Pete Harman as Head Assistant COO from 1951 until Harman’s retirement in 1995
1955-1959: Harland “Harley” D. Sanders, Jr. – retired; decreased activity after taking government job in 1958, relegating some responsibilities to Second Assistant COO Mildred Sanders, the alleged power behind “the sibling throne”
1959-1964: Harland D. Sanders, Sr. – took a leave of absence after being drafted into running for President, and stepped down after he won; increased expansion and opposed McDonald’s over personal dislike of its CEO
1964-1994: Mildred “Millie” Sanders-Ruggles – retired; was chief vice-CEO 1955-1964; expanded menu items in later half of 1960s, and again in the 1980s and early 1990s
1994-1999: Harold Omer – died in office while also serving as Acting COO; an in-law of Colonel Sanders; previously oversaw the launching of “Lee’s Famous Recipe” menu offering in select outlets
1999-2000: Charles Yohe – died in office; was a close ally of Harold Omer
2000-present: David C. Novak – considered to be “young blood” at the age of 48

(barbeque) SMOKY MOUNTAIN BBQ STEAKHOUSE Head Executives (founded in 1964):
1964-1967: John Y. Brown Jr. – fired for underhanded tactics
1967-1990: Floyd “Sonny” Tillman – retired; creator of the chain’s “Sonny’s Special” menu item
1990-present: Bob Yarmuth – company loyalist

(burgers) WENDY’S Head Executives (founded in 1968):
1968-present: Dave Thomas – chain founder

(seafood) HADDON SALT, ESQ.’S AUTHENTIC FISH & CHIPS Head Executives (founded in 1965 and purchased by FLG Inc. in 1969):
1965-present: Haddon Salt – chain founder



Also: since I have yet to finalize it for the next chapter, does anyone have any suggestions for who should be in the Jackson administration (best people for cabinet, inner circle, et cetera)? Mario Oblado, Ron Dellums, Ann Richards, etc.?

Also-also: anyone have any thoughts on this?: https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.cnn.com/cnn/2020/08/24/business/kfc-slogan-coronavirus-trnd/index.html "KFC suspends Finger-Lickin' Good slogan because of coronavirus."


9/12/2020 EDIT:
Since September 9, 2020 was Harland's 130th birthday, HAPPY (belated) BIRTHDAY, COLONEL SANDERS!
 
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