Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Hillenburg needs to name his Chain ''Spongebob's'' or something to that effect. It just seems like something that would attract kids to the restaurant. Works much better than the Krusty Krab IMO. Also, can we have it so that Chris Farley doesn't die here, now that Dan is sadly gone? The world needs that Matt Foley movie more than ever now Akroyd's passing. Also, Universal Healthcare in the United States. The 90s are off to a spectacular start. By 1997, they'll probably be in the top 5 when it comes to the best Healthcare systems in the world. Maybe even in the top 3. Needless to say, the insurance and drug industries are about to fall apart and for the betterment of everyone. However, now is probably going to be the time where Bellamy will switch to focussing on BLUTAG issues and rights.

Also, what is the state of the comics Industry ITTL? I remember reading back to the 60s and, needless to say, the term ''X-Men'' doesn't mean the same thing as it does IOTL, so what are Marvel and DC doing ATM?
 
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Why do I have a feeling the next chapter is going to cover the Colonel's death?
Well the Colonel is 99 years old. Lets hope he makes it past his next birthday wich is septberber 9th. Perhaps he should die on Decmber 27th which 10 years and a day longer then he lived otl
 
Please let the Colonel have at the least one more birthday, maybe make it a big one to be celebrated and if he has to die of illness it should be with a smile on his face.
 
Mongolia reverting to the old script instead of undergoing Latinization could be seen as a move towards Beijing's orbit, as Mongols in China use the old script....
 
Chapter 62: July 1990 – December 1990
Chapter 62: July 1990 – December 1990



The 1990 NDRR Presidential Election was the second Presidential election held in the National Democratic Republic of Russia (Natsional’no-Demokraticheskaya Republika Rossiya). Incumbent President Vladislav Volkov, eligible for a second consecutive term, ran on his warming of relations with most formerly Soviet nations and his handling of the economy, while his challengers mostly criticized his approach to manners of foreign policy. The election’s first round was held on July 13, and the second and final round (called a “runoff round” in the NDRR) was held on July 27.

[snip]

Candidates (7):

Ruslan Khasbulatov, b. 1942 (Motherland), was a former Volkov advisor and an economics professor from Grozny elected to the national congress in 1985 whose campaign was supported by National Congressman and then-candidate for Mayor of Saint Petersburg Anatoly Sobchak.

Vladimir Kirillovich, b. 1917 (Imperial), a long-shot candidate, was a member of the Romanov dynasty who ran on a platform calling for the reinstating of the Russian monarchy.

Albert Makashov, b. 1938 (National), a nationalist hardliner with the support of war hawk politicians, ran a communistic campaign with an emphasis on law and order amidst accusations of anti-Semitism.

Nikolai Ryzhkov, b. 1929 (Independent), ran with a campaign focused on price reform and fiscal responsibility, believing that increasing the production of goods would lower inflation.

Vladislav Volkov, b. 1935 (Democratic), defended his slow-and-steady approach to the economy, and touted the lack of wars or military tensions under his term as proof that his leadership merited a second term.

Boris Yeltsin, b. 1931 (Independent), the former Commerce Minister, believed stronger austerity measures would lower inflation and provide a boost to the nation’s slowly-growing economy

Vladimir Zhirinovsky, b. 1946 (Communist), an anti-Western populist and fiercely nationalist, was a towering figure known for numerous controversies.

[snip]

Results:

The 13 July 1990 Russian election primary round saw Volkov come in first place (with 40% of the vote) via a coalition of liberals, war veterans, and environmentalists, while Yeltsin came in second place (with 32% of the vote) via the backing of conservatives and moderates; Ryzhkov, Makashov and Zhirinovsky were practically tied at third place, while Khasbulatov underperformed with only 4.1%. Kirillovich came in last place with 3.7%. Ahead of the 27 July 1990 Russian election runoff, Yeltsin sought to win over former Makashov, Ryzhkov and even Zhirinovsky voters, only for an incident of public intoxication to return focus on Yeltsin’s alcoholism. Ryzhkov refusing to endorse Yeltsin led to many of his former voters staying home. Meanwhile, Volkov ran a campaign focused on the improvement of social welfare programs and the drop in crime rates under his watch. In the end, Volkov won re-election by a 7% margin.

– clickopedia.co.usa



“The 1989-1990 recession was only for three fiscal quarter and was not at all the deep, bottoming out at negative 2% GDP growth. However, it was still memorable for the panic it created. Inflation and unemployment dropped later than expected, and long-run interest rates did not fully recover for several weeks. By July, the economy was recovering from what was a mild recession, but some Democrats still feared substantial losses in the midterms over the actual rate of recovery.”

– Former US Treasury Secretary E. Gerald Corrigan, 2001 interview



COAL CEO CLAIMS SOLAR POWER “ISN’T FEASIBLE”

…“the natural powers of the Earth are not as reliable as tried-and-true coal, oil and natural gas.” …According to a July 14 Gallup poll, support for wind, wave, and sun –based forms of energy has risen sharply in the past two years, from 33% in March 1988 to 44% in March 1990, possibly due to the Bellamy administration’s offerings of tax credits for companies that convert or invest in such energy alternatives...

The Miami Herald, 7/17/1990



SUPREME COURT JUSTICE WILLIAM BRENNAN RETIRING, EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY!

The Washington Post, 7/20/1990



KFC Kabul finally opened on the 25th of July, 1988. After the collapse of the USSR, the landlocked nation’s communist groups fell apart with it, finally stabilizing the area. Nevertheless, American companies had to be careful not to upset conservative locals that disapproved of the alleged “westernization” of their country. Most Afghans, though, approved of the community-building efforts of King Zahir Shah. When I first met with him in July 1990, I sort of understood what they meant. He was a very hospitable man who hid his sexism very well.

I remember how it had been particularly difficult for Millie to establish KFC in this country, since chicken is not at all a major element in Afghan cuisine (most of it instead centering on the region’s most abundant crops – wheat, barely, maize, grapes, melons, whey and yogurt. Lots of brainstorming went into coming up with ways to implement local cuisine adaptations into KFC Kabul’s menu. Chicken Seekah Kabob and Tandoori Chicken were the first to be greenlit, but a dish rather complicated for a fast food job, Afghan Braised Chicken in Yogurt (also called Lawang), took longer to figure out. We ultimately tweaked the traditional recipe to make it a pressure-fried chicken treated with onion, turmeric, and coriander, and then covered in yogurt with a special “spinning-while-drying” process our R&D department cooked up back in Florence, KY.

Despite this innovation, when I attended the second anniversary of KFC Kabul’s grand opening, male attendees were passionately offended that I had shown up, even with me wearing the appropriate attire. It seems they expected Dad to attend despite him doing so in 1988 and 1989. I was routinely inspecting in Dad’s absence, but they only calmed down when I told the crowd that the brief speech I’d written was “direct from the Colonel’s desk.” Other than that incident, though, the visit was not that bad.

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997



31 GOVERNORS TALK HEALTHCARE, BLUTAG RIGHTS IN MASSIVE NGA MEETING

…The 1987 annual meeting of the National Governors’ Association is wrapping up its activities today, the multi-day convention-like event being held here in town and having begun on the 26th… Association Chairman Carolyn Warner (D-AZ) presided over a myriad activities concerning the implementation of America’s new healthcare system and the issue of insurance and pharmaceutical companies seeking out loopholes in it, the implementation of the latest federal consumer protection policies, and the governors’ respective stances on BLUTAG rights and abortion rights, in a display of regionally-different attitudes and positions…

– The Traverse City Record-Eagle, Michigan newspaper, 7/28/1990




[ pic: https://imgur.com/pBzh7FD ]
– Left-to-right: then-nominee for Governor (R-TN) Hillary Rodham-Clinton, former Governor (D-AK) Bill Clinton (no relation to Hillary), and former Governor (D-KY) Martha Osborne, all attending the 1987 NGA meeting in Traverse City, Michigan, as Special Guest Speakers, 7/27/1990; Osborne would later accuse Bill Clinton of groping her backside at this event (possibly even while this photo was being taken – after all, where is his left hand?)



"I began working as a staff member, basically a glorified paid internship, for Senator Larry Williams - a politician that all three of my parents respected - in late July or early August 1990..."

– Barack "Rocky" McCain, 2006 interview



PEPSICO PLANS TO REPLACE 50 TACO BELLS WITH ZANTIGO SPOTS

…the parent company today announced their intention to convert 50 Taco Bell outlets, located across seven Western US states, into Zantigo outlets, a chain that offers similar food staples. The official reason is for “the need to build up a wonderful brand, whereas Taco Bell is already a well-established franchise.” However, the move continues the trend of Taco Bells slowly disappearing from American cities and towns – a trend that began early last year…

The New York Times, 8/2/1990




[pic: https://imgur.com/xi3MzxF ]
– A rare photo of the Colonel not wearing his duds, while spending some quality time with one of his great-granddaughters, c. early August 1990



With the bench having Alabaman, Illinoisan, a D.C. carpetbagger from California, a Minnesotan, a California carpetbagger from Texas, and not one or two but three Pennsylvanians, Bellamy shied away from nominating someone from the east coast for the vacant Supreme Court seat. This effectively took Stephen L. Carter, a 36-year-old Professor of law and Yale Law School from Connecticut out of the running. Looking farther west and farther south, Bellamy wanted a progressive, or at least progressive-leaning, justice that would defend Americare and “make the right decision” should they have to rule on issues concerning childcare, the rights of children, anti-poverty social programs, abortion rights, and BLUTAG rights. Circuit Judges Arthur Lawrence Alarcon of California, Ruth Bader Ginsburg of D.C., Stephanie Kulp Seymour of Michigan, Harry Thomas Edwards of D.C., and Richard S. Arnold of Arkansas were considered, as were House Judiciary Committee Chair Sam Ervin III of North Carolina and former US Attorney General Ramsey Clark. More unconventional options, including members of her administration – such as Attorney General Amalya Lyle Kearse of New York, Deputy Secretary of Labor and African-American teachers’ union leader Mary Hatwood Futrell of D.C., CIA Director and professional attorney Togo D. West Jr. of North Carolina, FBI Director Robert F. Kennedy of Virginia, education policy analyst Diane Silvers Ravitch of New York and First Amendment-defender John Seigenthaler of Tennessee – were mulled over as well.

In the end, Bellamy decided to nominate a Mondale-appointed Judge from the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit due to said judge’s impeccable record. The judge, a Colorado native immediately endorsed by former House Speaker Udall, had ruled in favor of protecting wildlife species, upholding copyright infringement procedure updates in the wake of the technet gaining prominence and attention in the education and marketing spheres at the time, upholding the Due Process Clause of the US Constitution and the 1962 Civil Rights Act. [1]

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s Upholding Liberty: The Supreme Court Under Chief Justice Frank Minis Johnson, Sunrise Publishing, 2019




BELLAMY NOMINATES JUDGE MARY MURPHY SCHROEDER FOR SUPREME COURT SEAT

The Washington Post, 8/5/1990



“No, no, the recent attacks on youth culture from right-wing talking heads is conservative backlash to the wave of liberalism of recent years. And, you know what, you, eh, you know what? It goes both ways as younger voters are becoming only more likely to vote Democrat. I mean, even former idol of the young Republicans, Ron Paul, has fallen from grace for repeatedly criticizing President Bellamy, and even more so for opposing federal intervention in the aftermath of natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes as of late. As a result, with his poll numbers in decline, Paul is now foregoing re-election to the Senate, though he claims to his due to his outrage at frequent congressional blockades against libertarian principles, or some bunk like that. It’s also because some people aren’t getting used to having a woman president. They just can’t accept it, you know?”

– political analyst and former Governor Jim Florio (D-NJ), NJ 101.5 Radio, 8/9/1990 broadcast



…the Alaskan Timber Reform Act and the Oil Pollution Act become law today. Supported strongly by Governors Bob Ross, Thyra Thomson and others, these two environmentally-conscious law are being implemented concurrent with a push from the Bellamy White House for consumers to invest in “clean energy companies pertaining to solar and wind power, offering tax credits for early investors …meanwhile, in other political news, President Bellamy has just increased the CDC budget, and US contributions to the WHO, for the second year in a row…

– The Overmyer Network, 8/18/1990 broadcast



In a turning of the tables, Sali Berisha, the once-popular revolutionary-turned-President, was failing to quell “pro-Yugo” groups organizing sit-ins, strikes, rallies and other forms of protest across the country as the idea of upholding the controversial referendum began to gain momentum.

On the other side of the border, Yugoslavian politics were calming down after a series of shake-ups. Yugoslavia’s economic issues of roughly ten years prior, namely the Debt Crisis of the late 1970s and early 1980s, had finally resolved thanks to the International Monetary Fund advising Veselin Duranovic, the moderate leader of Yugoslavia sine Marshal Tito’s death in January 1984, to restrict credit, cut expenditures, and devalue the national currency dinar for a two-year period (1980-1982) to reduce the nation’s deficit. With this, Yugoslavia finally paid off its foreign debt in 1985, encouraging foreign investors and trade partners to resume business relations with Yugoslavia. Keeping in line with the nation's five-year mandate on Presidential terms (which was later shortened to three years), Duranovic left office on May 15, 1989, and was succeeded by Radovan Vlajkovic.

Now the nation's top issue was what to do with Albania. Naturally, a majority of Kosovans were enthusiastic for Albania joining Yugoslavia, but the nation’s people overall seemed evenly split on the suggestion.

One vocal opponent of the proposal was a supporter of Serbia-based centralization, Slobodan Milosevic. Milosevic began his career as an economic advisor to the Mayor of Belgrade during the 1960s and worked his way up to becoming the head of Beobanka, one of the largest banks in Yugoslavia, by 1978 – just in time for the 1978 recession to occur, to which Milosevic responded poorly. In the wake of several poor financial decisions, Beobanka collapsed and filed for bankruptcy, while Milosevic himself fell out of favor among political organizations – a 1984 run for a Belgrade city committee seat was an abysmal failure, despite the efforts of close ally and future Deputy PM Ivan Stambolic. Now a radio talk show host repeatedly suffering from scandalous legal issues but nevertheless maintaining a passionate but very small collection of cult-like followers, Milosevic opposed Yugoslavia “taking on any more non-Serbians,” just one more of many divisive comments. However, the most prominent and influential member of the national government to oppose Duranovic and Vlajkovic decentralization policies, and the absorption of Albania, was deputy PM Ivan Stambolic. On the other hand, liberal PM and former Mayor of Belgrade Dragisa Pavlovic had more influence over both Duranovic and Vlajkovic.

Back in Albania, the situation became more tense as the year progressed. In April, for instance, Aziz Kelmendi, a 23-year-old Albanian who previously lived in Kosovo, defended Berisha’s “anti-Yugo” stance and responded to the “pro-Yugo” movement by firing a gun into a crowd of protestors in Rreshen, leading to three deaths and four injuries in a violent incident dubbed “the Rreshen Massacre.” This action actually hurt his own cause as it led to an increase in pro-unity rallies. The incident also hurt Berisha’s standing in the nation even further.

In September, Yugoslavia’s President Vlajkovic revealed his position on the “Albanian Question” with a dramatic speech that he concluded with the iconic line “we have room for a seventh flag,” referring to the symbols of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnian, Slovenia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, and now Albania and an earlier speech given by his successor. The main issue keeping Yugoslavians reluctant to absorbing Albania, however, was their substantially lower standard of living causing many Yugoslavians to fear Albania’s integration would lower said life quality overall. This led to pro-absorption politicians outside of Kosovo to suggest that Albania could be an investment opportunity as the new province was “built up, renovated, repaired, and restored” – with respect to the Albania people, of course. Albania would be expected to follow the same official and unofficial rules as the rest of the provinces. For instance, all children would be expected to learn two languages – the language of their ancestors and the de jure official national language, Serbo-Croatian. A major consideration also emphasized by the pro-Albanian movement in Yugoslavia was the fact that Yugoslavia was all set to host the 1992 winter Olympics, which could hopefully improve the nation’s economic situation further if pulled off and financially handled correctly.

Yugoslavia’s “14th Congress” of January 1990 was another factor in Yugo-Albanian relations during this period. Continuing Duranovic's efforts to model aspects of the country after the United States – a tendency of sorts he began in early 1985 – Vlajkovic established a compromise solution to the debate on how to represent the provinces in the national assembly: a bicameral legislature. This appealed to Serbian supporters for a “one man – one vote” policy with the population-based chamber, while the other chamber, representing each province equally, appealed to Slovenia and the other provinces. Another important development was the establishing of laws stating territory leaving or joining the nation must be performed with the consent of two-thirds of the provinces, and laws making it so the closer a province is tied to the federal government, the greater funding they receive for federal services.

Finally, on August 22, after talks with his advisors and his approval ratings tanking to 20%, Berisha decided to reverse course and announced that he would “honor the results” of the referendum and “begin the process” of joining Yugoslavia.

With bilateral talks, as well as economic reform and modernization efforts, well underway, the 1990s looked like it would be a good, or at least very productive, set of years for Albania and Yugoslavia.

– Tajar Zavalani’s The Albanian People: A Fiery History, London Books, 2015 [2]



WORKING FOR THE WORKERS: US Attorney General Kearse Is Mounting Crackdown Efforts On Shareholder-Dominant Companies Putting Profit Ahead Of Laborers In 50-State Sweep

The Boston Globe, 8/25/1990



“It’s a complicated electricity-powered calculator-like machine that can send and get information to and from other such machines like how a telephone works, but with a TV-like screen, and you control what goes on with the info-sending and info-getting and with what’s on the screen. There's also some thing called a 'mouse's involved, too." The Colonel continued, “But press one wrong button and you can break, or, eh, ‘shut down,’ the whole thing, so you have to be really careful around them. I bet once they make them easier to use, they’ll really catch on, even more so than they're catchin' on right now. Because right now I keep seeing fairly large businesses and universities having and using them in their offices and library - it's all very impressive - but these slow-movin' confangled contraptions ain't must-haves for the regular American just yet. They’re just too complicated right now.”

Nevertheless, Sanders took the opportunity to explore the technet. After sitting through the "horrendous noise" of a dial-up connection, he began by perusing the websites of advertisements he had accidentally clicked on (impatiently tapping his fingers on his cane while the site took "its sweet time" to upload), then being guided through settings with the help of a tech assistant, before being informed that search engines and online group discussion forums had come into existence during most of the past year. Typing in "What are the eleven secret herbs and spices?" into one such search engine sent him to a visitable chat page on a MIT student discussion forum, in which several technetters had made various guesses as to what was the composition of herbs and spices that made the Colonel's KFC chicken so delicious.

The Colonel reportedly chuckled continuously and heartily as he read each amusing guess.


[pic: https://imgur.com/HEYoYWV ]
Above: The Colonel peruses a computer at the University of Texas A & M before cautiously using it, c. early September 1990.

– Josh Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012



The 1988-1990 Nagorno-Karabakh War ended in a stalemate, with both nations signing the Kiev Treaty of September 5, 1990, a treaty giving the disputed region to Armenia and creating a physical land strip connecting Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia in exchange for Armenian and Nagorno-Karabakh representatives agreeing to Azerbaijan having “first claims” on business and land resource opportunities in the disputed region. Armenia also agreed to paying a monetary “dowry” to Azerbaijan to cover 50% of the cost for repairing “war damages,” as Azerbaijan’s damages and casualty count were both higher than those of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh combined.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997



The Louisville ballroom called back to the 1950s, decorated with streamers, balloons and a large orchestra pit filled with a band playing the Colonel’s favorite songs, which ranged from “Old Dan Tucker” to “9 to 5.” If Sanders was going to reach an anniversary as major as his 100th birthday, he was going to do it with a bang. And with an extensive guest-list, ranging from Hollywood celebrities and the political elite to old friends from his pre-Presidency days and a horde of distant relatives. And a delightful menu featuring all of Sanders’ favorite dishes, from hit biscuits and corn fritters to light bread, scalloped potatoes, lemon sponge pie, and – of course – a personally-prepared mountainous pile of Kentucky-fried chicken.

The nonagenarian celebrated becoming a centenarian with a generous slice of the party’s five-foot-tall vanilla-and-chocolate cake – “real” cake, the Colonel called it, “not the sugarless stuff I’ve been havin’. I’ve been avoiding sugar for ten-and-a-half years now because of the dad-burn diabetes, but I ain’t waitin’ to turn 200 to have it again.” Jubilation lit up his eyes as he and savored the familiar sensation of sugar dancing on his tongue that came with that first of many bites.

Despite the night being all about him, when wheeled up onto the stage near the end of the festivities to make a speech, he instead gave a request to the bandleader, and the Colonel promptly serenaded his wife with a hearty rendition of “Sweet Caroline,” changing the name “Sweet Claudia.”

Instead of presents, the Colonel insisted the partygoers donate the money they would have spent on gifts to the charity of their choice. A competition ended up organically growing among the guests after a rumor spread that the Colonel would give some kind of reward to whoever was found to have been the most generous partygoer. While no such reward announcement occurred that night, receipts later revealed that over 90 charities received a collective total of over $38million during the hours of the Colonel’s birthday bash–turned–unintentionally record-breaking fundraiser. “Now that’s a gift that keep on giving,” the Colonel said upon learning of this news two weeks later.

[snip]

“No hours, nor amount of labor, nor amount of money would deter me from giving the best that there was in me.” [3] This was the Colonel’s creed, the motto and moral compass that he lived by all his lived. And with it he lived well.

– Josh Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012



…Not long after the 1989-1990 recession had ended, unemployment was still not down to pre-recession levels. Bellamy and the Democratic-controlled Congress responded to this concerning issue on September 12, by narrowly voting in favor of a special benefit programs omnibus package meant to help former low-wage workers until they could find work. The measure was ridiculed by Senator Dick Obenshain (R-VA), who called it “weak… what’s really needed is some actual jobs!”

– Thomas Hennen Carter’s Bellamyville: The Rise And Struggles Of An American President, Scribner publishers, 2018



“COMING TOGETHER THROUGH COMMON GROUND”: 15th Chicken Dinner Summit In Jerusalem Celebrates Scientific, Societal Progresses

…The nations of Oman, Israel, Egypt and Lebanon stand out for their strides in industrial innovation, as trade deals and market opportunities over the years have led to Israel becoming a hub for regional tech companies in exchange for oil and natural gas, while massive solar and wind energy projects in Oman and Egypt have yielded financial prosperity for them and their Lebanon-based investors… ...Colonel Sanders’s affectionate speech, in which he celebrated the work of local community leaders in making national leaders “take note of the issues that truly matter” in “this annual Pieces-for-Peace drive,” received a standing ovation…

The New York Times, 9/18/1990



JOHN LENNON WINS LEADERSHP ELECTION

London – In the culmination of an impressively quick rise in national politics, semi-retired pop rock singer-songwriter John Lennon, MP for Liverpool since February 1985, has bested Neil Kinnock, MP for Islwyn since 1970, for the position of leader of the UK Labour Party. With a margin of 55% to 45%, the Labour MPs have selected Lennon to face off against PM Alastair Goodlad in the next general election. …Kinnock’s policies were meant to push the party further to the center, a notion Lennon believed would only lead to more party members leaving for the Intrepid Progressives. …While Lennon was criticized for once calling himself “more popular than Jesus,” Kinnock’s own controversies – such as referring to Lennon, and possibly his more ardent supporters, as “savage,” and using derogatory comments made toward the Welsh [4] MPs – hurt Kinnock’s own campaign, too. A major turning point in the leadership race may have been on the 9th, when former PM Dingle Foot revealed in a BBC interview his disapproval of Kinnock, stating he did not favor him to be his successor in 1983 due to his “ambition blind[ing] him,” …Lennon, calling for denuclearization, the UK leading the world in environmentalism, and expanding the welfare state with programs to help people find work, won the support of former rival Tony Benn and a multitude of unions who gave pressure to their respective MPs. Ultimately, it was Lennon who convinced party members to vote him in, making their announcement to the deafening cheers of Lennon’s supporters earlier today…

The Guardian, 20/9/1990



…the economy of Indonesia is only now beginning to recover from economic recession. Indonesian corporations had been borrowing money in American dollars, believing it to be strong, and contributing to the economic well-being that allowed Indonesian President Suharto to win a sixth five-year term earlier this year. When recession hits the United States, though, the rupiah, which had been strengthened respective to the dollar, collapsed in value soon after the election. Indonesian businesses were forced declare bankruptcy, requiring Suharto to instigate a wages and prices freeze to stabilize the situation. Now, unemployment has finally returned to pre-recession levels in the Southeast Asian country...

– BBC World News, 29/9/1990 broadcast



HOME IS WHERE THE HEART IS: Tijuana Welcomes Former State Sec’s House-Building Group

…Jimmy Carter, the former US Secretary of State and former Presidential candidate, is spending his 66th birthday working alongside roofers, plumbers, electricians and construction workers to build houses for those in need… The “Habitat for Humanity” Carter Works Project, founded in 1985 by the Secretary and his wife Rosalynn, became an international endeavor today when it organized 2,000 volunteers in a four-acre tent city in Tijuana, Mexico for the purpose of constructing homes and installing electricity and running water into pre-existing homes. Carter personally participates in each of these sorts of house-building projects, which he calls “complicated and gratifying” in a non-profit humanitarian effort…

– The Orange County Register, 10/1/1990



“DID WE ELECTED THE WRONG NIELSEN?”: With Our Gaffe-Prone “Goofball” PM Unable To Get Laws Passed, Buyer’s Remorse Is Setting In Fast

The Globe and Mail, Canadian newspaper, 10/3/1990



MCDONALD’S TAKES EUROPE

…in the years since the death of Ray Kroc, McDonald’s CEO June Martino has successfully expanded the company. In 1984, McDonald’s had 3,600 locations in 5 countries outside of the US, accounting for 37% of their sales. [5] Since then, McDonald’s has spread to 15 more nations in Europe, as well as to two countries in South America (Brazil and Argentina), two in Africa (Egypt and South Africa), and five in Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, Laos and Indonesia, with plans on soon expanding into Thailand as well), building up their number of locations to over 4,000. McDonald’s stock value continues on strong as this year has seen Martino work diligently to maintain quality control amid the establishing of these 400 new outlets...

Nation’s Restaurant News, monthly trade publication, October 1990 issue



BELLAMY SIGNS WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT BILL INTO LAW

The Washington Post, 10/7/1990



SAUDI CLERIC VISITS AUSCHWITZ AND REACHES OUT TO POLISH JEWS

...Away from the world of political wrangling, the head of the Muslim World League is on a four-day visit to Poland
. [6] The powerful Mecca-based Muslim cleric aims to spread the message of goodwill and mutually-beneficial collaboration found among the governments of the Middle East “into the directionless former Warsaw Pact nations of Europe.” The “pilgrimage” to Poland may be a starling example of putting rhetoric into action, as it comes weeks after the same cleric attended the 12th Annual Chicken Dinner Summit in Jerusalem, a multinational event stemming from peace talks in the 1970s that have grown into being a global platform for promoting peace and stability among the world’s religions…

The Sacramento Union-Tribune, 10/9/1990



“People, if you are to remember anything about business, remember this: the purpose of a company is not solely to make a profit, but to also provide for the people. This company, this massive enterprise of ours, is a success because of what we’re doing not just for our investors, but for workers and our customers. We create jobs, and people fill up those jobs because of how well we treat them. And because we are fair to them, we have provided jobs for thousands and thousands! The farmers that grow our chickens, the gardeners that make the secret herbs and spices. The chefs skillfully trained in the art of cookery. The construction workers that build our new locations, and the waitresses and the busboys and the cleaning staff. The designers for advertising and such. Even the other companies where we get our materials – pressure fryers, ovens, cookers, buckets, cups, utensils, plates, tables, chairs, everything – their employees benefit, too! We provide high-quality food to millions and millions of people because we care about the people. We give them the best-tasting chicken that will ever pass through their lips, and because we keep our prices low and our quality high they keep on coming back for more, giving us the money to pay our workers’ salaries, who, emboldened by their weekly paychecks, continue on with their excellent service, making the customers happy and repeating the cycle anew. That is how we make a profit, ladies and gentlemen! Not by grabbing for every cent in their wallets and purses, but by providing good food and good wages for our customers and workers!”

– Harland David “Colonel” Sanders, speaking at what would end up being his final board meeting, 10/12/1990



BERISHA HOSTS “TRANSITION’ TALKS IN TIRANA

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 14/10/1990



SENATE CONFIRMS SCHROEDER FOR A.J. SUPREME COURT SEAT, 58-41-1

…two women will be serving on the Supreme Court bench at the same time once more… Associate Justice Sylvia Bacon has stated that she “looks forward to having a wonderful time working with” Schroeder…

The Washington Post, 10/15/1990



SUPREME COURT COMPOSITION ON OCTOBER 29, 1990

Chief Justice (since March 1971): Frank Minis Johnson Jr. (R-AL, centrist) – succeeded Earl Warren – appointee: Sanders

Associate Justice Seat 1 (since April 1979): A. Leon Higginbotham (D-PA, liberal) – succeeded Hugo Black – appointee: Mondale
Associate Justice Seat 2 (since November 1967): Edward Hirsch Levi (R-IL, centrist) – succeeded Abe Fortas – appointee: Sanders
Associate Justice Seat 3 (since June 1985): Joseph Tyree Sneed III (R-CA, conservative) – succeeded Sarah Tilghman Hughes – appointee: Denton
Associate Justice Seat 4 (since June 1974): William Joseph Nealon Jr. (I-PA, liberal) – succeeded William O. Douglas – appointee: Mondale
Associate Justice Seat 5 (since November 1971): Sylvia Bacon (R-DC, centrist) – succeeded John M. Harlan II – appointee: Sanders
Associate Justice Seat 6 (since September 1981): Herbert Allan Fogel (R-PA, conservative) – succeeded Potter Stewart – appointee: Denton
Associate Justice Seat 7 (since April 1973): Miles Welton Lord (I-MN, liberal) – succeeded Tom C. Clark – appointee: Mondale
Associate Justice Seat 8 (since October 1990): Mary Murphy Schroeder (D-CO, liberal) – succeeded William Brennan – appointee: Bellamy

– thesupremecourt.co.usa/court_compositions/by_date/month/1990



Years of practice being financial frugal to keep his painting program afloat was instrumental in Bob implementing his agency without going over-budget. In fact, in 1990 saw the state government have a surplus by the end of the year, with Bob decided was to be added on the Alaskan Permanent Fund. …His high approval ratings and nonpartisan status led to praise from both sides of the political aisle. Bob was dubbed “Ross the Boss” by many supporters. Even Colonel Sanders himself approbated Bob, calling him from his home in Kentucky to commend him for doing “the Lord’s work” …In October 1990, Tim Leary and Tommy Chong visited Fairbanks to endorse Bob’s re-election bid…

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014



November United States Senate election results, 1990

Date: November 6, 1990
Seats: 33 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51

Senate majority leader: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Senate minority leader: Bob Dole (R-KS)
Seats before election: 54 (D), 45 (R), 1 (I)
Seats after election: 52 (D), 46 (R), 2 (I)
Seat change: D v 2, R ^ 1, I ^ 1

Full List:
Alabama: incumbent Albert Lee Smith Jr. (R) over John Glen Browder (D)
Alaska: Jalmar “Jay” Kerttula (R) over Sarah J. “Sally” Smith (D) and Kathryn Poland (Green); incumbent Hazel P. Heath (R) retired
Arkansas: incumbent Jim Guy Tucker (D) over Tim Hutchinson (R)
Colorado: Penfield Tate II (R) over Josephine Ward “Josie” Heath (D) and Carlos F. Lucero (La Raza Unida); incumbent William L. Armstrong (R) retired
Delaware: incumbent Joe Biden (D) over M. Jane Brady (R)
Georgia: incumbent Sam Nunn (D) unopposed
Idaho: incumbent George V. Hansen (R) over Ron Twilegar (D)
Illinois: incumbent Paul Simon (D) over Lynn Morley Martin (R)
Iowa: Larry Miles Dinger (R) over Berkley Warren Bedell (D); incumbent Roger Jespen (R) retired
Kansas: incumbent Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R) over Joan Finney (D)
Kentucky: Martha Layne Osborne (D) over Jim Bunning (R); incumbent Lawrence W. Wetherby (D) retired
Louisiana: incumbent Clyde Cecil Holloway (R) over William Jennings Jefferson (D) and David Duke (Heritage)
Maine: Angus King (I) over incumbent appointee Nancy Nye Masterton (D) and Bob Nutting (R)
Massachusetts: Bill Weld (R) over Ken O’Donnell (D); incumbent Ed Brooke (R) retired
Michigan: incumbent Jack R. Lousma (R) over Barbara-Rose Collins (D)
Minnesota: incumbent Mark Dayton (D) over Vin Weber (R)
Mississippi: incumbent James H. Meredith (R) over George Raymond Jr. (D)
Montana: incumbent Larry Williams (R) over John Patrick “Pat” Williams (D)
Nebraska: incumbent Orrin Hatch (R) over John J. Cavanaugh III (D)
New Hampshire: incumbent Endicott Peabody (D) over Harold Burns (R)
New Jersey: incumbent Mary V. Mochary (R) over Barbara Wright McConnell (D)
New Mexico: incumbent Roberto Mondragon (D) over Manuel Lujan Jr. (R)
North Carolina: James Grubbs “Jim” Martin (R) over incumbent Terry Sanford (D)
Oklahoma: incumbent Bud Wilkinson (R) over Dave McCurdy (D)
Oregon: incumbent Mark Hatfield (R) over Harry Lonsdale (D)
Rhode Island: incumbent Claiborne Pell (D) over Ronald Machtley (R)
South Carolina: incumbent Strom Thurmond (R) over Bob Cunningham (D)
South Dakota: incumbent Larry Pressler (R) over Ted Muenster (D) and Dean L. Sinclair (Independent)
Tennessee: Marilyn Lloyd (D) vs William R. Hawkins (R); incumbent Howard Baker (R) retired
Texas: Kay Bailey Hutchison (R) over Kathryn J. Whitmire (D) and Gary Johnson (Liberty); incumbent Ron Paul (R) retired
Virginia: incumbent Richard Dudley Obenshain (R) over Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr. (D)
West Virginia: John Raese (R) over Harley O. Staggers Jr. (D)
Wyoming: Barbara Cubin (R) over Kathy Helling (D); incumbent Gale W. McGee (D) retired

– knowledgepolitics.co.usa



United States House of Representatives results, 1990

Date: November 6, 1990
Seats: All 435
Seats needed for majority: 218

New House majority leader: Robert Smith Walker (R-PA)
New House minority leader: Hale Boggs (D-LA)
Last election: 198 (R), 235 (D), 2 (I)
Seats won: 223 (D), 210 (D), 2 (I)
Seat change: R ^ 25, D v 25, I - 0

– knowledgepolitics.co.usa



While the Democrats retained the Senate, many pundits were quick to note the party had an advantage – the elections were for 21 Republican seats and only 12 Democratic seats. …The “surprise” loss of the House was the biggest disappointment of the night for the Democrats… Colonel Sanders endorsing several “conscience conservative” Republicans (through phone calls to newspapers and call-ins to radio and TV programs) was frequently cited as a contributing factor in the GOP taking back the House…

…The election of four more women (2 Democrat, 2 Republican) to the US Senate raised the chamber’s total number of female lawmakers to an unprecedented 24 (Garner, Schroeder, Uccello, Mink, Church, Kassebaum, Mikulski, Hall, Kennedy-Shriver, Peterson, Growe, Kelly, Vucanovich, Mochary, Schneider, Richards, Kunin, Unsoeld, May, and Engeleiter, plus the four newcomers – Osborne, Lloyd, Hutchison, and Cubin)…

– Gary C. Jacobson’s The Power and the Politics of Congressional Elections, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015



United States Governor election results, 1990

Date: November 6, 1990
Number of state gubernatorial elections held: 36
Seats before: 38 (D), 11 (R), 1 (I)
Seats after: 34 (D), 15 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D v 4, R ^ 4, I - 0

Full list:
Alabama: William R. “Shorty” Price (R) over Joseph C. McCorquodale Jr. (D) and John Logan Cashin Jr. (Alabama); incumbent Bill Baxley II (D) was term-limited
Alaska: incumbent Bob Ross (I) over Wally Hickel (R), Tony Knowles (D), Joe Vogler (AIP), Rick Halford (Liberty), and Michael O’Callaghan (I)
Arizona: incumbent Carolyn Warner (D) over Fife Symington III (R) and Max Hawkins (Life)
Arkansas: Mike Beebe (D) over incumbent Lynn Lowe (R)
California: incumbent Donald Kennedy (D) over Mary K. Shell (R), Peter Camejo (Green) and Maria Elizabeth Munoz (La Raza Unida)
Colorado: John Andrews (R) over incumbent Byron L. Johnson (D)
Connecticut: Eunice Groark (R) over Bill O’Neill (D); incumbent Robert K. Killian (D) retired
Florida: incumbent Bruce A. Smathers (D) over Bill McCollum (R)
Georgia: incumbent Jimmie Lee Jackson (D) over Guy Millner (R)
Hawaii: Fred Hemmings (R) over John D. Waihee III (D), John P. Craven (I) and Peggy Ross (Natural Mind); incumbent Jean King (D) retired
Idaho: Larry LaRocco (D) over Roger Fairchild (R); incumbent Larry Jackson (R) retired
Illinois: Jim Edgar (R) over Frank Annunzio (D); incumbent John Bayard Anderson (R) retired
Iowa: Joy Coming (R) over Donald Avenson (D); incumbent Jo Ann McIntosh Zimmerman (D) retired
Kansas: incumbent Jim Slattery (D) over Mike Hayden (R) and Christina Campbell-Cline (I)
Maine: incumbent Libby Mitchell (D) over Andrew Adam (R) and John Menario (Progressive)
Maryland: Decatur “Bucky” Trotter (D) over incumbent Melvin A. Bilal (R)
Massachusetts: Evelyn Murphy (D) over Steven Pierce (R); incumbent Michael Dukakis (D) lost re-nomination
Michigan: James J. Blanchard (D) over incumbent James H. Brickley (R)
Minnesota: Rudy Perpich (DFL) over Bill Frenzel (R), Jerome M. Hughes (Independent), and Arlan Stangeland (Liberty); incumbent Coya Knutson (DFL) retired
Nebraska: incumbent Helen Boosalis (D) over David Domina (R)
Nevada: incumbent Joseph Yale Resnick (D) over Charles Woods (R)
New Hampshire: Bob Smith (R) over J. Joseph Grandmaison (D) and Miriam F. Luce (Liberty); incumbent Calvin Warburton (R) retired
New Mexico: Ben Lujan Sr. (D) over Frank M. Bond (R); incumbent Fabian Chavez Jr. (D) was term-limited
New York: incumbent Mario Cuomo (D) over Pierre Andrew Rinfret (R), Herbert London (Conservative), and Louis P. Wein (Life)
Ohio: incumbent Jerry Springer (D) over George Voinovich (R) and Ron Daniels (I)
Oklahoma: Bill Price (R) over incumbent Mike Turpen (D) and Thomas D. Ledgerwood II (I)
Oregon: incumbent Norma Paulus (R) over Barbara Roberts (D), David B. Frohnmayer (Independent Republican) and Al Mobley (Independent)
Pennsylvania: incumbent William W. Scranton III (R) over Ed Rendell (D)
Rhode Island: incumbent Buddy Cianci (R) over Francis X. Flaherty (D) and Joe Trillo (I)
South Carolina: Nick Theodore (D) over David Beasley (R); incumbent Jesse Jackson (D) was term-limited
South Dakota: Gus Hercules (R) over incumbent Lars Herseth (D)
Tennessee: Hillary Rodham-Clinton (R) over Phil Bredesen (D) and Charles Vick (Liberty); incumbent Frank Goad Clement (D) was term-limited
Texas: incumbent Rick Perry (D) over Warren G. Harding (R), Jack Rains (Country) and Ramsey Muniz (La Raza Unida)
Vermont: incumbent Jan Backus (D) over David Atkinson (R) and Richard F. Gottlieb (Liberty Union)
Wisconsin: incumbent Paul R. Soglin (D) over Steve Gunderson (R)
Wyoming: incumbent Thyra Thomson (R) over Mike Sullivan (D)

– knowledgepolitics.co.usa



Analysts pointed to the economic nosedive for the results. Ardent “Bellamy Backers” agreed, believing that Republicans running an impressive national campaign vaguely connecting the Democratic Bellamy to the 1978 economic crash under President Mondale, also a Democrat. Others, however, judged the results to be in response to the “controversial” passage of Universal Health Care (informally called “Americare” by its supporters and derided by some critics as “Bellamycare”) suggesting the move was not a popular as had been believed.

Regardless of the cause or causes, the fact remained that the 1990 midterms gave the Republicans substantial gains and changed the relationship Bellamy had with congress. New House Speaker R. Smith Walker was more Conservative than had been Hale Boggs, and was less willing to compromise of certain policies and issues. With roughly ten weeks separating the elections and the swearing-in of the new congress, Bellamy spent even more time behind her private desk – its surface almost entirely covered by hefty stacks of paper – looking over legislation and profiles on the incoming legislators, trying to determine which ones would vote for what.

– Thomas Hennen Carter’s Bellamyville: The Rise And Struggles Of An American President, Scribner publishers, 2018



PERRY RE-ELECTED AS TXGOP MAKES GAINS IN STATE CONGRESS AND U.S HOUSE

…Perry, a popular conservative Democrat known for feuding with liberal Democrats in D.C. won re-nomination with ease after Lieutenant Governor Henry Cisneros declined to challenge him in the race, opting to instead run for re-election. The past few weeks saw Perry work to win over moderates and Republican-registered voters by touting his record in office, focusing most notably on his handling of the economy during the nation’s brief-but-impactful recession earlier this year. Perry has maintained ideological consistency during his first term, assisting his message of reliability. Late last night, Perry received over 60% of the vote – the same night that Kay Bailey Hutchinson, the Republican nominee for US Senate, won election with 55% of the vote…

– The Dallas Morning News, 11/7/1990



…North Carolina became the 38th state to approve of the Balanced Budget Amendment earlier tonight. In the state capitol of Raleigh, the state legislature has finally ratified the amendment passed by the U.S. Congress over five years ago… This development, which received tepid support from Vice President Litton, may have a major impact on Bellamy’s policies and budget proposals going forward…

– CBS Evening News, 11/14/1990 broadcast



BELLAMY SIGNS OMNIBUS BUDGET RECONCILIATION BILL INTO LAW

The Washington Post, 11/20/1990



US SUPREME COURT AGREES TO HEAR “MOSELEY V. VAN DAM” CASE, SENDING ABORTION DEBATE TO THE FEDERAL LEVEL

– The San Francisco Chronicle, 11/28/1990



…As December 1990 began, Congress took advantage of their Winter Recess to hastily pass the Immigration Reform Act of 1990, which repeal the controversial Immigration Bill of April 1984 but included most of the more liberal additions made to it under President Kemp. Congress also took the time to quickly pass the Fire Exit Regulation Act, the Judicial Improvements Act, and the School Nutrition Information Act, along with other, smaller bills…

– Dana Lawson’s Madame President: The Extraordinary Journey of Carol Bellamy, Sunrise Publishing, 2017



I remember reminiscing with him about the early years, about how Sanders slept in his car, rolled up in a heavy wool blanket that I had given him [7] during his long rides across the state and then the country, selling his chicken here and there. The Colonel called me his oldest friend, and just he was my youngest. Toward the end of our final conversation together, thing got philosophical. Sanders reflected back on his life and decided that it had all been destined to happen, but I respectfully disagreed, thinking that Sanders did much of it. I told him, “You shouldn’t be so modest, even if pride is a sin.”

“What about my soul?” he replied.

“You’ve done enough good on this Earth, Colonel. I think Saint Peter will permit you being proud about that,” I said.

“Well, here’s hopin’,” he replied with a kind smile.

Getting back to the subject, I continued, “I tell you, Colonel you controlled your fortune, you controlled your fate. You kept trying and trying, year after year, failure after failure, until you finally struck gold with KFC.”

“But that would mean it was not already in the cards that I would meet you,” he replied, “Back in 1951, I was so focused on following Larry Wetherby’s advice of franchising solely within Kentucky, I almost didn’t attend the restaurant convention in 1951 where I met you, dear friend. But something told me I should go, and something told me that you were the first non-Kentuckian to franchise to.”

Indeed, it did feel like destiny encountering him, a stranger with a goatee, at convention in Australia in 1951 and again in Utah in 1952, but he turned out to be the exact thing I needed to increase my burger stand’s revenue, and then some. If only I was a mathematician; then I could figure out what the odds were of us meeting despite being on opposite sides of the country. So, I offered the Colonel a compromise. I told him, “Maybe it’s an undeterminable combination of both – some things are just destined to happen no matter what we do, but everything else is in our own hands to control.”

Sanders tilted his head back, closed his eyes and stated “grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change… and the strength to change the things I can, huh?”

I answered, “Yep.”

“I like that,” he said with a smile. The nurse then came in, and we said goodbye. The next time I would see the man, his eyes were forever closed.

– Pete Harman, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1999



“Humanity isn’t selfish. We do things – break records, write books, make friends, pursue happiness or power or love – to leave behind something that says ‘I was here.’ But it isn’t necessary. Why? Because everything we do is already interactive and leaves an effect on somebody else. We write or simply tell stories so other people can experience the unique feelings and perspectives and ideas that we have. Those are ours and only ours alone if we don’t share them, and because we want to connect to others, we do share ’em. Whenever we discover or invent something, we give it to others. Salk and Edison’s workers didn’t keep polio and electricity to themselves, under lock and key – they shared them with the world. Why? Because people want to better the world, or at the very least, change a part of the world to how they believed it should be. Others may disagree on what is better, but still, all people feel this urge, to not be some island all alone. To do something with what they have. Even the lunatic in a mental hospital does what he does to interact and connect with others. A man believing himself to be the Mad Hatter will find a friend in whoever he thinks is the March Hare! People, all people, in one way or another, they all love, they share, they do these things to connect – with people, with the planet, with the stars, with the heavens. It might sound like some kind of cliché, but it’s really true – love is the meaning of life. Or at least, it’s what drives us, what drives life. Love. Love, and sharing what we know and experience – it’s what we yearn for, to strive for – it is humanity’s drive, its goal, its meaning… its purpose…”

– Colonel Sanders, bedside Dictaphone tape recording, 12/3/1990



“That night, he said to me ‘I love you, lovely’ and then faded off to sleep. Those were his last words. Sometime during the night…he left.”

– Claudia Price Sanders, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1992



EXTRA!: COLONEL SANDERS HAS DIED!: American Icon Passes Away At Age 100

“The Colonel is Dead. Long Live the Colonel!”

Corbin, KY – A spokesperson for the Sanders family has revealed that “As the man known a Colonel Sanders was slowing down, he stated that he knew it was his time. After spending the weekend and Monday night happily partaking in festivities with many of his great-grandchildren and great-great-grandchildren, the former President retired to his home, where he passed away peacefully in his sleep in the early hours of the morning.” …Due to the advanced age and recent declination in health, it is currently assumed that the former President has died from the long-term effects of diabetes, which he was diagnosed as having back in early 1980…

The New York Times, 12/5/1990



“The Colonel demanded, and I am quoting him verbatim here, ‘KFC will stay open the day I go. If anybody anywhere is denied chicken on that day, I’ll get right out o’ that coffin just to give the one responsible a good wallopin’!’ We will respect his wishes and remain open during this time of national mourning. We will also honor his legacy by keeping to another promise made to him – that while we can try new chicken offerings, we will always make and serve his signature dish, Kentucky-fried chicken, the same way that he made it. This is a promise we intend to keep, from now until forever.”

– F.L.G. Inc. CEO James A. Collins, official statement, 12/5/1990



THE COLONEL: AN AMERICAN ICON

[snip]

The man they called The Colonel was the most visible president the United States had ever had. Thanks to his unique appearance, and the way in which he regarded photography not with the wariness displayed by almost all his predecessors, but as an ally, he became the most photographed person in the world. It was no accident that it was Colonel Sanders who created the position of official White House photographer. Even more than photography, however, it was television that endowed Sanders with a visibility that no previous leader in world history had ever attained. Colonel Sanders was America’s first television president, and from the beginning it was obvious that he and the medium were made for each other. [8]

[snip]

Upon entering office, Sanders doubled tax credits for small businesses and supported Congress using cost-benefit analyses when reviewing all bills. [snip] Even the rare snub from the Colonel, the kind that would create a political adversary, would only make for a delay in the establishing of respect for the Chicken King. For instance, when William C. Sullivan was appointed FBI head after Hoover’s passing, despite the Colonel telling Clyde Tolson that John P. Mohr would get the job. Instead of holding a grudge, Mohr went on to head a lucrative securities company which made him millions, and so there were no hard feelings felt between Mohr and the Colonel; in fact, Mohr oversaw security operations for KFC Virginia locations during much of the 1980s.

[snip]

Sitting down with this reporter, Margaret Sanders jokingly claims that she was her father’s favorite child [9], but quickly relents to note “he loved all of us, and he liked everyone, it seemed.” Indeed, the only complaints of the Sanders Presidency to maintain substantial attention, would be his use of the U.S.I.A., which critics allege the Colonel used to oppress Freedom of Speech and Freedom of Press laws to censor vile language, vices and violence in books, films, and especially comics [10] in the name of protecting children.

[snip]

Through his dedication to his ideals and by persevering through hardship after hardship, from his origin as the oldest child of poor farmers to failing at a multitude of jobs to surviving two car wrecks and a hotel fire, Sanders’s luck finally turned around shortly after his 60th birthday. At a point in life when most people call it quits, resigned to reflecting back on the life they’ve lived already, Sanders instead look forward, determined to do more. And from this, Harland David Sanders became the Colonel, a symbol of Americana as iconic and emblematic as the American eagle or the Liberty Bell, and an inspiring representation of the American dream: that even the most simple, humble, and poorest man could one day be among the powers that be. [11]

Time Magazine Special issue, 12/7/1990



The family held a private service for him on the seventh, two days before the rest of the world took its turn saying goodbye… Even with his death, the Colonel managed to bring people together – at the memorial service, former rivals and former Prime Ministers of the UK Enoch Powell and Dingle Foot were seen conversing in an amicable manner at the same table. It was one more time, one more good deed, for the road, I guess. [snip] …Richard Nixon, former Secretaries of State Carl Curtis and Jimmy Carter, Barry Goldwater, Elvis Presley, Bellamy and all the former Presidents, Alice Cooper, Bill Scranton, Muhammed Ali, Jerry Lewis, numerous religious leaders, world leaders – it seemed everyone other than the Pope (who reportedly could not attend due to a bout of pneumonia from which he quickly recovered) attended the service, either lining the streets of the funeral procession, making their way to pay their respects at Father’s body’s lay in state, or to contribute to the massive piles of flowers and candlelight vigils strewn around the cemetery boundary. Officially, over 22,000 people attended the ceremony in some way or another [12]. As the public funeral was televised, it received an audience of over 1.2billion TV viewers worldwide, from D.C. to Moscow to New Delhi, making it one of the biggest televised events in history. [13]

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991





[pic: https://imgur.com/HczrSzF ]
– The Colonel’s son (farthest left), and three of The Colonel’s great grandsons, gather in a private wake ceremony held before the public procession, Sunday 12/9/1990



“My father he believed that putting in effort and holding onto your dreams is all you need to make one’s dreams a reality. His ultimate success in that endeavor should serve as an exemplary example of why the world needs more pragmatic dreamers like him… My father lived for eleven decades, possibly one for each of his eleven secret herbs and spices, from the 1890s to the start of the 1990s [14], during which time he saw the transformation of the world through the actions of man, and while he shied away from bragging, the fact remains that when he became such a man, he transformed the world for the better, whether he boasted about that accomplishment or not.”

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., giving the eulogy at Colonel Sander’s funeral, 12/9/1990




[pic: https://imgur.com/4ZSRmJi ]
– Elvis Presley, Richard Nixon, Jack Kennedy, Anwar El-Sadat, and Jerry Lewis attending Colonel Sanders’ public funeral on 12/9/1990



Christmas 1990 was pretty bad. Family came over to stay with me in the big ol’ house, which felt all the bigger without him. I remember flipping through his old Bible, the one he kept on his nightstand for twenty years or so, and I landed on the quote that he said had helped him kick his cursing habit: “What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them.” Well, mostly – there are some times when cursin’ is necessary, when it’s the only thing you can do to make things better. After the funeral, I cursed up a storm, a blind torrent of rage and woe. A rage against the undefeatable inevitability that awaits us all, a wailing woe at my new reality. The house felt colder, cavernous, a polished grotto of gloom. Empty. That’s how you could describe it. His empty chair, his empty study, his empty half of our bed. My Harland wasn’t there, and never would be again. It really hit me hard, and I sank into a bad state.

I didn’t watch television at all for days. I asked others to tell me what the weather forecasts were. I could not pay any attention to any media – talk of Harland’s death was everywhere.

Despite our husband’s being at each other’s throats those many years ago, Ladybird Johnson and I got along quite well, even way back then. Well still talk now and again. First I found it funny that we’re both named Claudia, though most don’t know that about Ladybird. Other don’t know that we agree on many ideas, and I that was there for her when her husband died in 1975. I deeply appreciated her returning the favor.

She came over, and she poured me a cup of tea. I handed it to her and pour myself a cup of coffee. I like my drinks strong even when they’re not alcoholic. Though in that moment in time a ten-year-old Scotch did sound really appetizing. But I digress.

I remember how during our talk I said to her, “How do you say goodbye to someone you spent a lifetime’s worth of time with?”

Ladybird answered, “It’s never easy. After Lyndon died, there were many days when I would wake up and for a few seconds think that he wasn’t there because he’d left early to go to the office, like he often did. But then I’d remember, and it’d hit me all over again. For days you struggle, but days turn into weeks and the weeks in turn become months. It gets better, and it gets easier to bear, as time passes. Especially when you don’t go through it alone.” She patted my hand to reassure me. “I know you, Claudia,” she continued, “You’re stronger than even you know, and I promise you this – you will get through this. It will get better.”

That was much easier said than done, but as I learned, it is possible.

I still feel him. Here’s still here. He lives on in every family that can walk the streets of Jerusalem without fear of attack. In the smile on the face of every satisfied customer at one of his outlets. In every heart and soul he touched with his love for his fellow man. Because my husband may have been the Chicken King President, but love is more powerful than politics, Kentucky-fried or otherwise.

– Claudia Sanders, Reader’s Digest, 1992



SCHOLARS & CITIZENS DIFFER ON RANKING U.S. PRESIDENTS OF THE PAST 50 YEARS

…an extensive survey completed by Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. for Harvard University and published by the Gallup polling institution has yielded conflicting results concerning how America views its most recent crop of Commanders-in-Chief. An ideologically-balanced collection of historians, political scientists, and scholarly experts give praise to some presidents whose public perception is not so positive. The opposite is true for other former Heads of State. The following is a breakdown of the results of the poll, which excluded President Bellamy due to her incumbency (though with her approval ratings currently at 49%, and her current praise by scholars, Schlesinger notes that, if included in the survey, she would likely be in “fourth or fifth place” in both of the following lists):

SCHOLARS: 1. Roosevelt, 2. Truman, 3. Johnson, 4. Sanders, 5. Mondale, 6. Kemp, 7. Eisenhower, 8. Denton

CITIZENS: 1. Roosevelt, 2. Sanders, 3. Eisenhower, 4. Mondale, 5. Truman, 6. Kemp, 7. Johnson, 8. Denton

Leading both lists is FDR, who lead the country out of depression and through the trials of WWII. His successor, though, is remembered more positively by scholarly experts than by average citizens, believing his handling of the end of WWII and the rise of the Soviet Union, along with the Berlin Blockage and Korea, were instrumental in forming the composition of the Cold War. The least remembered of the Presidents on the list, those who do recall him are split on his use of nuclear weapons, and while desegregating the military was vital step in civil rights movement, his handling of Korea is more or less disparaging.

Colonel Sanders, meanwhile, is ranked more highly by the American people than by the experts (Gallup notes that the survey was completed before the Colonel’s death, thus removing the possibility of the recent wave of sympathy for him influencing the results). Almost at a tie with Ike, but the Colonel’s Civil Rights record, his handling of a sexual pestering incident from his past, and his foreign policy (leading troops to victory in Vietnam, opening China up to the west, and détente with Russia) puts him over the top in the minds of the regular American. Political scientists, however, are less impressed due to Sanders’ censoring of the comics and adult magazine industries, the ramifications of the Ms. Arkansas Scandal in that it caused many Americans to stop trusting the government, and his grade-school education encouraging teen-aged dropouts despite Sanders opposing the trend. Liberals oppose his opposition to the alcohol industry and to drug culture, while conservatives are critical of his support for certain welfare programs during his second term. Other scholars even claim the many close encounters America came to nuclear warfare under his watch prove that the Colonel had poor military skills, while others believe his reliance on military experts during said conflicts kept them from being any worse.

Similarly, average Americans positively remember Eisenhower as the WWII War Hero General-turned-President who presided over a period of expansive post-war economic prosperity that feature more spending money, the suburbs, and the rise of the teenagers. Scholars, though, criticize his record on addressing McCarthyism, segregation, and the rise of communism in Cuba, the last two issues having major consequences in the 1960s.

On the other side of things is Lyndon Johnson, whose legacy is conflicting for both surveyed groups. While his domestic programs are still hailed today, most people remember him better for leading the US into a bloody war in Cuba.

Jack Kemp almost defeats Mondale for sixth place among scholars due to Kemp’s success at implementing tenant ownership laws, ZEDs, and keeping the US out of new wars, though he also kept troops in Colombia and Nicaragua. Similarly, Mondale’s withdrawal of troops from Angola is a major factor in his low ranking on the list (along with his handling of the 1973 oil shock, the 1978 Economic “Crash,” and the 1979 Trojan Tower Disaster).

Denton places in dead-last in both lists. His response to the S.A.S.I.F. Virus Crisis and his overthrowing of the Dictator of Libya are considered to be the best aspects of a presidency tarnished by those whom he had chosen to trust, and by a critical lapse in judgement when he greenlit the use of state department funds to cover up a sex scandal leading to him resigning under the threat of impeachment. His attacks on “juvenile delinquents” in the name of “family values” is more polarizing, but is a major factor in the politicizing of religious issues.

Time Magazine, late December 1990 issue



1990: total world population: 5,280,910,900, up 9.15% from 1985 [15]

– clickopedia.co.usa/world_population/history





[pic: https://imgur.com/zkVd9DS.png ]
– clickopedia.co.usa



“Look, I just want this guy [Colonel Sanders] to be president”

– Blair of alternatehistory.com, 10/27/2016 [16]



NOTE(S)/SOURCE(S)
[1] Based on what it says on said judge’s Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_M._Schroeder
[2] Big thanks to @Damian0358 for bringing my attention to the OTL people and OTL events mentioned in this passage.
[3] OTL Colonel quote.
[4] OTL (found on his wiki article!)
[5] Numbers/stats from OTL’s 1990!
[6] Italicized parts are from an OTL Bloomberg article of the same title from January 2020
[7] Italicized line is from here: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/how-colonel-sanders-made-kentucky-fried-chicken-american-success-story-180955806/
[8] Italicized parts of this passage are actually from The Letters of John F. Kennedy (via google books), found here: https://books.google.com/books?id=zZC1AQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+letters+of+john+f.+kennedy&hl=en&newbks=1&newbks_redir=0&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwisq8ezm6roAhVDneAKHWQdDuoQ6AEwAHoECAIQAg#v=onepage&q=the%20letters%20of%20john%20f.%20kennedy&f=false
[9] As mentioned in that previously-used “damninteresting” article to which I need to find the link…
[10] Which makes me wonder what he would have thought about the comics that were made about him IOTL!:

Pic:1: https://imgur.com/gd19SwM

Pic:2: https://imgur.com/jjPHXw6
[11] Italicized part is what @Bookmark1995 noted about the Colonel on page 36 of this very thread: https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/kentucky-fried-politics-a-colonel-sanders-timeline.451582/page-36#post-20341811
[12] Roughly 1,000 people attended his body’s lay in state IOTL.
[13] The Muhammad Ali matches of both OTL’s 1970s and TTL’s 1970s, by comparison, had an audience of over 1billion people, OTL’s Live Aid had 1.9 billion watchers, and the funeral of Princess Di was watched by about 2billion IOTL. Also, IOTL, Sanders remained active until the last month of life (December 1980), appearing still in white suit to crowds.
[14] In order to technically include the number 11, as suggested by Michael Canaris’ reply on this very thread: https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/kentucky-fried-politics-a-colonel-sanders-timeline.451582/page-37#post-20358660
[15] According to the wiki page for the year 1990, the world's population in that year IOTL was 5,263,593,000, up 8.95% from 1985. Here, it’s even higher! And for this amount, I had to weigh a host of variables. Vietnam IOTL cost about 667,000-to-951,000 lives on the U.S./South Vietnam side, and 333,000-to-392,000 on the North Vietnam side; add civilian deaths (between 627,000 and 2,000,000) and that number is anywhere between a total of 1,627,000 and 3,343,000. ITTL, the fighting came to a close by the end of 1967, before the deadliest parts of the OTL conflict; here, the numbers are about 325,000-to-450,000 lives on the U.S./South Vietnam side, and 343,000-to-392,000 on the North Vietnam side; add civilian deaths (between 500,000 and 900,000) and that number is anywhere between a total of 1,168,000 and 1,742,000. That makes for 459,000-to-1,601,000 less deaths in Vietnam ITTL. Cuba had over 7 million people in 1960, while Vietnam had over 32 million people that same year. Considering the high casualty count of the OTL Vietnam War (about 9% of their countrymen! (3 million casualties / 32 million people)) and how TTL’s Cuban War had a high casualty count, it’d say about 710,000 people died in the conflict in total (that’s Americans, Capitalist Cubans, Communist Cubans, and civilians). In Laos, about 82,000 died in total during the mid-century wars of OTL, while the Pol Pot regime killed 2 million IOTL. ITTL, only 550,000 died in Cambodia in total due to Pol Pot’s execution in 1971 and stability ultimately coming to the country by the middle of the decade, while only 50,000 people died in Laos. That makes for 1,482,000 lives saved ITTL.
The Ethiopian famine was overseen by more competent and responsible leaders here, and as a result, only 350,000 starved to death, as opposed to the 2 million who died in OTL; however, Ethiopia also has a Civil War that kills 600,000 ITTL, but this was also less deadly that the Derg era of OTL, meaning here, at least 1,050,000 lives are spared. AIDS, called the SASIF Virus in this TL, was addressed a bit better here, too; its peak was over 50,000 deaths per year in 1995 IOTL (according to hivinsite.ucsf.edu), so factor in earlier understanding and prevention, and I think we’re talking at least 400,000 lives sparred.
TTL’s the Soviet-Turkestani War killed 2,300,000 in total, a bit higher than the total casualties of OTL’s Soviet-Afghan War. However, Romania saw more deaths than IOTL’s 64,000 under Elena Ceausescu, about 78,000. I’d say the persecution of ethnic minorities in Western China would subtract, too, but those crimes against humanity was Deng Xiaoping’s response to the one-child policy being discouraged by western investors as a poorly-thought-out idea. Instead, I subtracted the number of people killed in TTL’s Chinese Civil War of 1975, a high number of 900,000.
Also, I subtracted 20,000 for additional deaths in Colombia, Panama, and Mexico from guerilla warfare, revolution, and the increasingly ruthless drug cartels and the dangerous substances they push. Finally, there’s abortion. Without Roe v Wade, the number of aborted healthy babies in the US is significantly smaller, though the exact numbers is difficult to ascertain. Some sources claim that at least 55 million people have been aborted since 1973 and 2013 (40 years). Factoring in accessibility to states with abortion, how many would have been aborted anyway, greater access to contraception during the 1980s in TTL due to Denton’s conservative policies, rates going up and down during those years, and additional butterflies, and it becomes even more difficult. Ultimately, due to the sharp rise in abortion rates noted on most charts I could find (such as checkyourfact.com and other sites), I decided to add 50% of aborted babies from 1973 to 1993 (30million / 2 = 15million!) to the list. So, while over 1,644,000 more people (710,000+14,000+900,000+20,000) died in additional wars ITTL, roughly 18,391,000-to-19,533,000 more people (459,000-to-1,601,000 + 1,482,000 + 1,050,000 + 400,000+15,000,000) lived. Minus 1,644,000 and the sum total is 16,747,000-to-17,889,000, which I cut to 17,318,000 more people being alive in TTL’s 1990 for the sake of being able to add it to OTL’s number sufficiently. Thus, said number.
[16] The inspiration for this TL (even though I didn't actually begin work on it until well over a year later), and found here: https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/alternate-wikipedia-infoboxes-iii.384720/page-393#post-13438833, @Blair

The Next Chapter’s E.T.A.: TBD (May 7th at the very latest)
 
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Figured it'd happened. Huh, Sadat's alive here, nice!. Curious, with Russia geting a new name, what happened to Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and so on? Islam Karamov?
 
When it comes to the comics, I dare say that the Colonel had quite a positive portrayal. Without the whole watergate thing, Captain America probably didn't go through that whole ''Nomad'' phase either. He will be missed to be sure, but he lived a long life and his presidency both directly and indirectly saved a lot of lives. It's a shame that others had to die in their place, but it's never a perfect world, no matter what TL you visit. Not to mention his exceptionally large part in ending the Cold War early, keeping Cuba from falling to communism being the defining factor, of course, as well as the chicken dinner summits. Hopefully, President Bellamy will find a way to keep those going after his death. All the same, I'm not too happy to hear about him holding back the comics industry. Hopefully, whatever changes he made there, were undone under Mondale.

Meanwhile, John Lennon is probably going to become the next Prime Minister. At least, I hope so. He and Carol would work exceptionally together. I'm actually glad to see that Ron Paul has fallen out of favor. As funny as it'd be to see him become President, I now see that, realistically, his objectivist views would destroy the country. Not too worried about the Dems. Come 1992, after Americans realize that Bellamy's policies are actually helping them become happier, smarter, safer and more comfortable, she'll be reelected. I still think it'll be another republican President in 1997, but it's anyone's guess who it could be and unless the Libertarian faction makes itself more attractive, it'll never be one of them.
 
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And so the gentleman, the entrepreneur, the president, the peacemaker and the family man is dead and one of the greatest, if not the greatest, conservative icons is born.
 
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RIP, Colonel Sanders; you had a remarkable life, both IOTL and ITTL...

BTW, did Muhammad Ali attend Sanders' funeral ITTL?
 
Wow. I don't know if you plan to continue this for much longer, but if this is the end, it's been a hell of a ride. I feel like I've gotten to know the colonel intimately, and while you've been excellently even-handed with the portrayal of American politics throughout the century, it's refreshing to have enjoyed a story that revolves around a fundamentally decent figure.
 
Great job! You did Fabulous work and showed so much interesting stuff about the colonel. I just wish we had a Kentucky Fried Chicken closer, since I can't drive I don't know if one would deliver now. Oh well we are trying to support local establishments and not chains right now with the economy but this does make me want to :)

Seriously, it was a great break and with everything going on I will probably be working on my own print-on-demand stuff and things like that but it is a fun way to go out, you really have some great last words for Colonel Sandere. Thanks again for a fabulous timeline.
 
I don't understand why everyone thinks this is going to be the end of the TL, just because the Colonel is dead. I mean, yeah, this whole project started with him becoming an elected official and everything, but ever since then, it's expanded to be so much more and to include so many elements.

We haven't even seen the end of Bellamy's first term, and there are a ton of years left. If anything, I'd love to see the post-Sanders USA and the events of the next 30 years. There's so much left that we haven't explored yet. The new Millenium, the effect Americare will have on pop culture and America's standing in the world, whether or not the Space Program will be revitalized, the next direction the GOP weill take, whether or not America will ever have another big enemy to fight, 90s cartoons and movies under Bellamy and Beyond, Steven Hillenburg's Chuck E. Cheese style restaurant's future, the potential death of Taco Bell and the rise of Zantigo, America's first black president, Eminem seeking help from Elvis (maybe?). Not to mention what a Lennon run UK is gonna end up looking like. Seriously, @gap80, I hope you continue this TL because I'm nowhere near ready to say goodbye. :(
 
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You think it'd be easy for anyone opposing Lennon to point out the hypocrisy of his hippy-dippy bullshit when he was absurdly wealthy. He had a room in his house just for fur coats. Or the fact that he was abusive to his first wife and a crap father.
 
You say that but history has shown even the most garbage of people can rise to the top of politics if they have enough charm and can BS or spin doctor their way through what gets thrown at them. And considering a lot of his music fans are now old enough to be part of significant voting blocks, Lennon may just pull through on the name recognition and rose coloured nostalgia glasses of said fans
 
Curious, with Russia geting a new name, what happened to Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and so on? Islam Karamov?
I'll cover them and what's going on in eastern Europe in the 1991/92 chapters.
BTW, did Muhammad Ali attend Sanders' funeral ITTL?
Thousands attended, so him, too I suppose; I'll add his name to the list!
Wow. I don't know if you plan to continue this for much longer, but if this is the end, it's been a hell of a ride. I feel like I've gotten to know the colonel intimately, and while you've been excellently even-handed with the portrayal of American politics throughout the century, it's refreshing to have enjoyed a story that revolves around a fundamentally decent figure.
Thank you! I'm really happy to see people enjoy this!
Truth be told, I was considering ending it here a few weeks ago. I've been working on this since 2018, and at the current rate I may not even reach January 2021 until after January 2021. That's a lot of time.
But due to the coronavirus, time to work on this is something of which I now have plenty. So, hopefully, I'll get this TL to the present before then.
Looks like we might see Rocky McCain become a Republican Senator from Montana.
We'll see...
You really have some great last words for Colonel Sanders. Thanks again for a fabulous timeline.
Thank you, and you're welcome! :)
I don't understand why everyone thinks this is going to be the end of the TL, just because the Colonel is dead. I mean, yeah, this whole project started with him becoming an elected official and everything, but ever since then, it's expanded to be so much more and to include so many elements.

We haven't even seen the end of Bellamy's first term, and there are a ton of years left. If anything, I'd love to see the post-Sanders USA and the events of the next 30 years. There's so much left that we haven't explored yet. The new Millenium, the effect Americare will have on pop culture and America's standing in the world, whether or not the Space Program will be revitalized, the next direction the GOP weill take, whether or not America will ever have another big enemy to fight, 90s cartoons and movies under Bellamy and Beyond, Steven Hillenburg's Chuck E. Cheese style restaurant's future, the potential death of Taco Bell and the rise of Zantigo, America's first black president, Eminem seeking help from Elvis (maybe?). Not to mention what a Lennon run UK is gonna end up looking like. Seriously, @gap80, I hope you continue this TL because I'm nowhere near ready to say goodbye. :(
Well, the TL starts in 1950, so it's more than halfway to the present. Why stop now?
On top of all the unfinished plotlines of sorts that you mentioned, there's lots more I need to wrap up. In fact, I'll need some time to breathe a bit and sort out the chronology of events for the next decade, and to sort out what will happen with the following people, places and things:
Drug cartels in Colombia and Mexico
Guyana, Venezuela, and the rest of that continent.
Ghana, South Africa, and the rest of that continent.
Eastern Europe.
The fast-food industry - especially KFC!
Rocky McCain
Comic book adaptations and American animation, especially regarding the void created by there not being the same Simpsons and SpongeBob of OTL here.
Japan, of which I know little.
Video games, of which I know even less!
Professional sports, especially baseball and basketball, maybe football too.
Innovation/technology
Rights and social movements in general
As such, the next chapter may not be ready for more than two or three weeks, possibly even four or five weeks, pending how things go.
The 4th of June at the latest. I hope.
My apologies to anyone upset or disappointed by this delay.
You say that but history has shown even the most garbage of people can rise to the top of politics if they have enough charm and can BS or spin doctor their way through what gets thrown at them. And considering a lot of his music fans are now old enough to be part of significant voting blocks, Lennon may just pull through on the name recognition and rose coloured nostalgia glasses of said fans
Both are valid arguments, we'll see what happens... eventually...
 
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World Leaders from the countries discussed the most in this TL so far (1961-1991)

CANADA
7/21/1957-11/18/1965: 13) John George Diefenbaker (Progressive Conservative-SK)
April 8, 1963: Diefenbaker (PC) over Lester B. Pearson (Liberal), Robert Thompson (Social Credit) and Tommy Douglas (New Democracy)
11/18/1965-12/17/1969: 14) Paul Theodore Hellyer (L-ON)
November 8, 1965: Hellyer (L) over John Diefenbaker (PC), Tommy Douglas (ND), Réal Caouette (Ralliement créditiste) and Robert N. Thompson (SC)
12/17/1969-1/26/1980: 15) Robert Lorne Stanfield (PC-NS)
December 1, 1969: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Hellyer (L), Tommy Douglas (Progressive Tomorrow – new party (merger of ND and SC)) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
July 12, 1973: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Martin Sr. (L), Ed Broadbent (PT) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
May 19, 1976: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Martin Sr. (L), Ed Broadbent (PT) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
1/26/1980-6/25/1980: 16) J. J. Jean Chretien (L-QC)
January 13, 1980: Chretien (L) over Robert Stanfield (PC) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
6/25/1980-11/2/1980: 15) Robert Lorne Stanfield (PC-NS)
June 14, 1980: Stanfield (PC) over Jean Chretien (L) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
11/2/1980-9/29/1989: 16) J. J. Jean Chretien (L-QC)
October 25, 1980: Chretien (L) over Robert Stanfield (PC) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
March 20, 1985: Chretien (L) over Erik Nielsen (PC) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
9/29/1989-3/30/1990: 17) Sheila Copps (L-ON)
3/30/1990-present: 18) Erik Hersholt Nielsen (PC-YK)

March 12, 1990: Nielsen (PC) over Sheila Copps (L), Ed Broadbent (PT) and Pierre-Marc Johnson (Quebec)

THE P.R.C.
3/20/1943-11/24/1975: Chairman: Mao Tse-Tung (Communist)
Vice-Chairman: Zhou Enlai (C) (since 1969)
11/24/1975-12/1/1975: Zhou Enlai (C)
Vice-Chairman: none
12/1/1975-12/1/1987: Deng Xiaoping (C)
Vice-Chairman: Bo Yibo (C) (since 1977)
12/1/1987-present: Li Xiannian (C)
Vice-Chairman: Lee Teng-hui (C) (since 1987)

REPUBLIC OF CUBA
9/17/1961-7/24/1966: Jose Miro Cardona (Independent)
7/24/1966-7/24/1972: Rufo Lopez-Fresquet (Conservative)

1966: Lopez-Fresquet over Pepe San Roman (Stability) and Carlos Prio Socarras (New Authority)
7/24/1972-7/24/1978: Erneido Oliva (Conservative)
1972: Oliva over Aureliano Sanchez (NA) and Manuel Artime (S)
7/24/1978-7/24/1984: Pedro Luis Boitel (Stability)
1978: Boitel over Andres Rivero Aguero (C) and Eulogio Cantillo (NA)
7/24/1984-7/24/1990: Armando Valladares (Conservative)
1984: Valladares over Huber Matos (S) and Emilio Ochoa (NA)
7/24/1990-present: Gustavo Arcos (Stability)
1990: Arcos over Jorge Mas Canosa (C)

FRANCE
8 Jan 1959 – 16 Jan 1965: 18) Charles de Gaulle (Union for the New Republic (UNR))
21 Dec 1958 (no runoff needed): de Gaulle over George Marrane (French Communist Party (PCF)) and Albert Chatelet (Union of the Democratic Forces (UFD))
16 Jan 1965 – 7 Mar 1965: Acting) Alain Poher (Popular Republican Movement (MRP))
7 Mar 1965 – 7 Mar 1979: 19) Francois Mitterrand (Convention of Republican Institutions (CIR)), Unified Socialist Party after 1 May 1965)

14 Feb 1965 (1st round): Mitterrand (CIR) over Charles de Gaulle (UNR), Jean Lecanuet (Popular Republican Movement (MRP)), Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour (Miscellaneous far right (DVED)), Pierre Marcilhacy (European Liberal Party (PLE)) and Marcel Barbu (Miscellaneous left (DVG))
28 Feb 1965 (2nd round): Mitterrand (CIR) over Charles de Gaulle (UNR)
14 Feb 1972 (1st round): Mitterrand (USP) over Georges Pompidou (UNR), Alain Poher (MRP), Jacques Duclos (French Communist Party (PCF)), Gaston Deffere (French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO)), Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour (DVED), and Gaston Monnerville (L’Réforme)
28 Feb 1972 (2nd round): Mitterrand (USP) over Georges Pompidou (UNR)
7 Mar 1979 – 7 Mar 1986: 20) Pierre Mauroy (USP)
14 Feb 1979 (1st round): Mauroy (USP) over Michel Jean-Pierre Debré (UNR), Valery Giscard d’Estaing (MRP), Jean Royer (Conservative), Arlette Laguiller (Workers’), Rene Dumont (Reform), Jacques Duclos (PCF), Gaston Defferre (SFIO), and Bertrand Renouvin (New Royalist Action)
28 Feb 1979 (2nd round): Mauroy (USP) over Michel Jean-Pierre Debré (UNR)
7 Mar 1986 – 17 May 1989: 21) Jean-Marie Le Pen (National Front (FN))
14 Feb 1986: Le Pen (Nationl Front (FN)) over Jaques Chaban-Delmas (Republican), Pierre Mauroy (USP), Valery Giscard d’Estaing (MRP), Jean Royer (Conservative), Arlette Laguiller (Workers’), Rene Dumont (Independent), Michel Rocard (Independent Socialist), Marie-France Garaud (Centrist), Georges Marchais (French Communist Party (PCF)), and Michel Crepeau (Radical Party of the Left (PRG))
28 Feb 1986: Le Pen (Nationl Front (FN)) over Jaques Chaban-Delmas (Republican)
17 May 1989 – 30 July 1989: Acting) Alain Poher Popular (Republican Movement (MRP))
30 July 1989 – present: 22) Claude Estier (Socialist Alliance (SA))

9 July 1989 (1st round): Estier (Socialist Alliance (SA)) over Brice Lalonde (Green), Jean-Claude Gaudin (Union for French Democracy (UDF)), Rene Monory (Center), Raymond Barre (Independent), Bertrand Renouvin (New Royalist Action) and Maurice Papon (National Front (FN)).
23 July 1989 (2nd round): Estier (Socialist Alliance (SA)) over Brice Lalonde (Green)

GREECE
5/17/1958-9/20/1961: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ERE)
9/20/1961-11/4/1961: Konstantinos Dovas (Independent)
11/4/1961-6/18/1963: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ERE)
6/18/1963-11/8/1963: Panagiotis Pipinelis (ERE)
11/8/1963-6/10/1965: Georgios Papandreou (EK)
6/10/1965-6/22/1965: Ilias Tsirimokos (Independent)
6/22/1965-10/9/1972: Grigoris Lambrakis (EK/EDA alliance)
10/9/1972-3/5/1977: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ND)
3/5/1977-5/8/1977: Georgios Mavros (ND)
5/8/1977-12/12/1978: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
12/12/1978-10/20/1985: Alexandros Panagoulis (Centre Union)
10/20/1985-10/11/1987: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
10/11/1987-9/8/1989: Alexandros Panagoulis (Centre Union)
9/8/1989-present: Alexandros Onassis (Centre Union)


THE U.K.
10 Jan 1957 – 18 Oct 1963: Harold Macmillan (Conservative)
1959: Macmillan over Hugh Gaitskell (Labour) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
18 Oct 1963 – 27 Aug 1965: Alec Douglas-Home (C)
1964: Douglas-Home over Harold Wilson (Labour) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
27 Aug 1965 – 15 May 1968: George Brown (Labour)
1965: Brown over Alec Douglas-Home (C) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
15 May 1968 – 10 Oct 1968: John Stonehouse (Labour)
10 Oct 1968 – 3 Dec 1968: Michael Foot (Labour)
3 Dec 1968 – 28 Mar 1973: Enoch Powell (C)

1968: Powell over Jeremy Thorpe (Liberal) and Michael Foot (Labour)
28 Mar 1973 – 15 Sept 1983: Dingle M. Foot (Labour)
1973: Foot over Enoch Powell (C) and David Steel (Liberal)
1975: Foot over Edward Heath (C) and David Steel (Liberal)
1979: Foot over Edward Heath (C), David Steel (Liberal) and Mary Whitehouse (Moralist)
15 Sept 1983 – 26 Nov 1987: Shirley Williams (Labour)
1984: Williams over Jim Prior (C), David Steel/David Owen (SDP-Liberal Alliance), United Kingdom Intrepid Progressive (Eric Heffer) and Mary Whitehouse (Moralist)
26 Nov 1987 – TBD: Alastair Goodlad (Conservative)
1987: Goodlad over Shirley Williams (Labour), David Steel/David Owen (SDP-Liberal Alliance), and Eric Heffer (UKIP)

THE U.S.A.
1/20/1961-1/20/1965: 35) Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic-TX)
VP: 37) Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D-MN)

1960: Johnson/Humphrey over Richard Nixon/Walter Judd (R)
1/20/1965-1/20/1973: 36) Harland D. “Colonel” Sanders (Republican-KY)
VP: 38) William Scranton (R-PA)

1964: Sanders/Scranton (R) over Lyndon Johnson/Hubert Humphrey (D) and John M. Patterson/C. Farris Bryant (Heritage and Independence Party)
1968: Sanders/Scranton (R) over Jack Kennedy/Grant Sawyer (D)
1/20/1973-1/20/1981: 37) Walter Frederick “Fritz” Mondale (D-MN)
VP: 39) Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel (D-AS)

1972: Mondale/Gravel (D) over William Scranton/Mike Stepovich (R)
1976: Mondale/Gravel (D) over Ronald Reagan/William Westmoreland (R)
1/20/1981-12/28/1986: 38) Jeremiah Andrew Denton Jr. (R-AL)
VP: 40) Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. (R-TN)
, then none (between 8/15/1985 and 11/15/1986), then 41) Jack French Kemp (R-NY)
1980: Denton/Alexander (R) over Scoop Jackson (D)/Jimmy Carter (replaced Jake Butcher) (D) and Ron Dellums/Phil Hoff (Progressive/“Far-Left coalition”)
1984: Denton/Alexander (R) over Mike Gravel/J. Charles Jones (D)
12/28/1986-1/20/1989: 41) Jack French Kemp (R-NY)
VP:
none (until 4/2/1987), then 42) J. J. Polonko Jr. (R-NJ)
1/20/1989-present: 40) Carol Bellamy (D-NY)
VP: 43) Jerry Litton (D-MO)

1988: Bellamy/Litton (D) over Maureen Reagan/Richard Lugar (R) and Glen Bell/Bill Daniels (Independent)

THE U.S.S.R. (Soviet Russia)
14 Oct 1953 – 5 Feb 1963: Nikita Khrushchev (Communist)
5 Feb 1963 – 10 Dec 1968: Alexander Shelepin (C)
10 Dec 1968 – 21 Apr 1969: Gen. Aleksi Inauri (C)
21 Apr 1969 – 7 Dec 1976: Alexei Kosygin (C)
7 Dec 1976 – 12 March 1977: Nikolai Tikhonov (C)
12 March 1977 – 25 Jan 1982: Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov (C)
25 Jan 1982 – 12 Jan 1983: Nikolai Podgorny (C)
23 Jan 1983 – 9 May 1984: Dmitriy Fyodorovich Ustinov (C)
9 May 1984 – 15 May 1984: Vladimir Orlov (C)
15 May 1984 – 16 Sept 1984: Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev (C)

The N.D.R.R. (Russian Republic)
16 Sept 1984 – 17 Aug 1985: Vladimir Orlov (Independent)
17 Aug 1985 – present: Vladislav Volkov (Democratic)


Governors in this TL (1/1/1961-2/5/1991)

Governors of Alabama
1959-1963: John Malcolm Patterson (D)
1963-1967: George Wallace (D)
1967-1971: Ryan DeGreffenried Sr. (D)
1971-1971: George Wallace (D)

1970: Bull Connor (I), Asa Carter (HIP) and Bert Nettles (R)
1971-1975: Sam Engelhardt (D, then HIP in 1972)
1975-1979: Jeremiah Denton (R)

1974: Richmond Flowers Sr. (D)
1979-1981: Elvin McCary (R)
1978: Melba Till Allen (D)
1981-1983: Charles Woods (D)
1983-1987: Ann Bedsole (R)

1982: Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D)
1987-1991: Bill Baxley (D)
1986: John Hall Buchanan Jr. (R)
1991-TBD: Shorty Price (R)
1990: Joseph Charles McCorquodale Jr. (D) and John Logan Cashin Jr. (Alabama)

Governors of Alaska
1959-1962: William A. Egan (D)
1962-1970: Mike Stepovich (R)
1970-1978: Jay Hammond (R)

1970: W. Eugene Guess (D) and Ralph M. Anderson (I)
1974: Chauncey Croft (D) and Joe Vogler (I)
1978-1986: Bill Clinton (D)
1978: Lowell Thomas Jr. (R), Don Wright (I) and Mike Colletta (Alaskan Libertarian Party)
1982: Terry Miller (R) and Richard L. Randolph (Liberty)
1986-1988: Tom Fink (R)
1986: George H. Hohman Jr. (D), Don Wright (Green), Andre Marrou (Liberty) and Bill Hudson (Alaskan Independence Party)
1988-TBD: Bob Ross (I)
1988 (successful recall special election): Bill Overstreet (I), Bill Sheffield (D), Jay Kerttula (R), Joe Vogler (AIP), Benjamin F. Grussendorf Jr. (D) and others
1990: Wally Hickel (R), Tony Knowles (D), Joe Vogler (AIP), Rick Halford (Liberty), and Michael O’Callaghan (I)

Governors of Arizona
1959-1969: Paul Fannin (R)
1969-1971: Jack Williams (R)
1971-1975: Raul Hector Castro (D)

1970: Jack Williams (R) and Evan Mecham (HIP)
1975-1983: Sam Steiger (R)
1974: Raul Hector Castro (D) and Jack Ross (I)
1978: Jack Ross (D)
1983-1987: Richard Kleindienst (R)
1982: Bruce Babbitt (D)
1987-TBD: Carolyn Warner (D)
1986: Richard Kleindienst (R)
1990: Fife Symington III (R) and Max Hawkins (Life)

Governor of Arkansas
1955-1965: Orval Faubus (D)
1965-1972: Winthrop Rockefeller (R)

1970: Virginia Johnson (D)
1972-1973: Footsie Britt (R)
1973-1975: Dale Bumpers (D)

1972: Footsie Britt (R)
1975-1979: David Pryor (D)
1974: Frank D. White (R)
1976: Leon Griffith (R)
1979-1987: Orval Faubus (D)
1978: Lynn Lowe (R) and Nancy Pearl Johnson Hall (Independent)
1980: Frank D. White (R)
1982: Marshall Chrisman (R)
1987-1991: Lynn Lowe (R)
1986: Orval Faubus (D)
1991-TBD: Mike Beebe (D)
1990: Lynn Lowe (R)

Governors of California
1959-1971: Pat Brown (D)
1971-1979: Ronald Reagan (R)

1970: Jesse Unruh (D), Tim Leary (NM) and Max Rafferty (HIP)
1974: Robert Moretti (D) and Elizabeth Keathley (NM)
1979-1983: Phillip Burton (D)
1978: Ronald Reagan (R)
1982: Edward M. Davis (R)
1983-1987: George Christopher (R)
1987-TBD: Donald Kennedy (D)

1986: Anthony Kennedy (R)
1990: Mary K. Shell (R), Peter Camejo (Green) and Maria Elizabeth Munoz (La Raza Unida)

Governors of Colorado
1957-1963: Stephen McNichols (D)
1963-1975: John Arthur Love (R)

1970: Mark Hogan (D) and Albert Gurule (La Raza Unida)
1975-1979: Dick Lamm (D)
1974: John David Vanderhoof (R) and Earl Dodge (Prohibition)
1979-1987: Bill Daniels (R)
1978: Dick Lamm (D), Roy Peister (Tea) and Earl Dodge (Prohibition)
1982: Raymond Kogovsek (D), Paul K. Grant (Libertarian), John D. Fuhr (Country), Earl Dodge (Prohibition)
1987-1991: Byron L. Johnson (D)
1986: Bob Leon Kirscht (R)
1991-TBD: John Andrews (R)
1990: Byron L. Johnson (D)

Governors of Connecticut
1955-1963: Abraham Ribicoff (D)
1963-1971: John N. Dempsey (D)
1971-1975: Fiske Holcomb Ventres (R)

1970: Attilio R. Frassinelli (D)
1975-1980: Ella T. Grasso (D)
1974: Fiske Holcomb Ventres (R)
1978: Ronald Sarasin (R)
1980-1981: William Ross Cotter (D)
1981-1991: Robert K. Killian (D)

1982: Julie Belaga (R)
1986: Lowell Weicker (R)
1991-TBD: Eunice Groark (R)
1990: Bill O’Neill (D)

Governors of Delaware
1961-1965: Elbert N. Carvel (D)
1965-1969: David P. Buckson (R)
1969-1977: Russell W. Peterson (R)

1972: Sherman W. Tribbitt (D) and Virginia M. Lyndall (HIP)
1977-1985: Joseph R. “Joe” Biden Jr. (D)
1976: Pete du Pont (R)
1980: Andrew Foltz (R) and George Cripps (Conservative)
1985-TBD: Michael Castle (R)
1984: William J. Quillen (D)
1988: Jacob Kreshtool (D)

Governors of Florida
1961-1965: C. Farris Bryant (D)
1965-1967: LeRoy Collins Sr. (D)
1967: Robert King High (D)
1967-1971: Verle Allyn Pope (D)
1971-1979: Louis Bafalis (R)

1970: Verle Allyn Pope (D)
1974: Wayne Mixson (D)
1979-1987: Jack Eckerd (R)
1978: Buddy McKay (D)
1982: Earl Hutto (D)
1987-TBD: Bruce A. Smathers (D)
1986: Louis Frey (R)
1990: Bill McCollum (R)

Governors of Georgia
1959-1963: Ernest Vandiver (D)
1963-1967: Carl Sanders (D)
1967-1971: Bo Callaway (R)
1971-1975: Lester Maddox (D)

1970: James Bentley (R) and Udolpho Sikes Underwood (I)
1975-1977: Bert Lance (D)
1974: Ronny Thompson (R)
1977-1979: Benjamin W. Fortson Jr. (D)
1979-1983: John Skandalakis (D)

1978: Rodney M. Cook (R) and J. B. Stoner (I)
1983-1987: Hal Suit (R)
1982: Larry McDonald (D)
1987-1988: Billy Carter (D)
1986: Guy Davis (R)
1988-TBD: Jimmy Lee Jackson (D)
1990: Guy Millner (R)

Governors of Hawaii
1959-1962: 1) William F. Quinn (R)
1962-1970: 2) John A. Burns (D)
1970-1978: 3) Thomas Ponce Gill (D)

1970: Samuel Pailthorpe King (R)
1974: Randolph Crossley (R)
1978-1981: 4) Alema Leota (Independent)
1978: Frank Fasi (D) and John R. Leopold (R)
1981-1982: 5) Tokio Ige (I)
1982-1990: 6) Jean S. M. King (D)

1982: David M. Akui (R) and incumbent Tokio Ige (I)
1986: Dominis Garrida “D. G.” Anderson (R)
1990-TBD: 7) Fred Hemmings (R)
1990: John D. Waihee III (D), John P. Craven (I) and Peggy Ross (Natural Mind)

Governors of Idaho
1955-1963: Robert E. Smylie (R)
1963-1966: Vernon K. Smith (D)
1966-1967: William Edward Drevlow (D)
1967-1975: Charles Herndon (D)

1970: Jack M. Murphy (R)
1975-1983: Jay S. Amyx (R)
1974: Vernon Ravenscroft (D)
1978: John V. Evans (D)
1983-1991: Larry Jackson (R)
1982: Compton Ignatius White Jr. (D)
1986: Marjorie Ruth Moon (D)
1991-TBD: Larry LaRocco (D)
1990: Roger Fairchild (R)

Governors of Illinois
1961-1965: Otto Kerner Jr. (D)
1965-1973: Charles Percy (R)
1973-1981: Paul Simon (D)

1972: Richard B. Ogilvie (R)
1976: J. R. Thompson (R)
1981-1991: John B. Anderson (R)
1980: Neil F. Hartigan (D)
1982: Adlai Stevenson III (D)
1986: Adlai Stevenson III (D)
1991-TBD: Jim Edgar (R)
1990: Frank Annunzio (D)

Governors of Indiana
1961-1965: Crawford Fairbanks Parker (R)
1965-1969: Richard O. Ristine (R)
1969-1973: J. Irwin Miller (R)
1973-1977: Robert L. Rock (D)

1972: Otis Bowen (R), Berryman S. Hurley (HIP) and Finley N. Campbell (NM)
1977-1981: Danny Lee Burton (R)
1976: Robert L. Rock (D)
1981-1989: Dan Quayle (R)
1980: John A. Hillenbrand (D)
1984: Richard Gordon Hatcher (D)
1989-TBD: Evan Bayh (D)
1988: John Mutz (R)

Governors of Iowa
1961-1963: Norman A. Erbe (R)
1963-1967: Harold Hughes (D)
1967-1967: Robert D. Fulton (D)
1967-1971: Robert D. Ray (R)
1971-1979: Armour Boot (D)

1970: Robert D. Ray (R)
1974: Arthur Alan Neu (R)
1979-1983: Chuck Grassley (R)
1978: Jerome D. Fitzgerald (D)
1983-1991: Jo Ann McIntosh Zimmerman (D)
1982: Chuck Grassley (R)
1986: Roxanne Conlin (R)
1991-TBD: Joy Coming (R)
1990: Donald Avenson (D)

Governors of Kansas
1961-1965: John Anderson Jr. (R)
1965-1967: William H. Avery (R)
1967-1975: Robert B. Docking (D)

1970: Kent Frizzell (R)
1972: Morris Kay (R)
1975-1987: Robert Frederick Bennett (R)
1974: Vern Miller (D) and Marshall Uncapher (Prohibition)
1978: John W. Carlin (D) and Frank W. Shelton Jr. (American)
1982: John W. Carlin (D)
1987-TBD: Jim Slattery (D)
1986: Robert Frederick Bennett (R)
1990: Mike Hayden (R) and Christina Campbell-Cline (I)

Governors of Kentucky
1947-1950: 47) Earle Clements (D)
1950-1955: 48) Lawrence Wetherby (D)
1955-1959: 49) Harland David “(The) Colonel” Sanders Sr. (R)
1959-1967: 50) Bert T. Combs (D)
1967-1975: 51) John M. Robsion Jr. (R)

1971: Happy Chandler (D) and William Smith (HIP)
1975-1979: 52) Mary Louise Foust (R)
1975: Wendell H. Ford (D)
1979-1980: 53) John B. Breckinridge (D)
1979: Mary Louise Foust (R)
1980-1987: 54) Martha Layne Osborne (nee Hall) (D)
1981: Thurman Jerome Hamlin (R)
1983: Jim Bunning (R)
1987-TBD: 55) Buck Ray Jarrell (D)
1987: John Harper (R)

Governors of Louisiana
1960-1964: Jimmie Davis (D)
1964-1968: Gillis Long (D)
1968-1972: John J. McKeithen (D)
1972-1976: Jimmie Davis (D)

1971: Robert Max Ross (R)
1976-1980: Edwin Edwards (D)
1975: Robert G. Jones (D) and Wade O. Martin Jr. (D)
1980-1984: James Edward “Jimmy” Fitzmorris Jr. (D)
1979: Edgar Gonzague “Sonny” Mouton Jr. (D)
1984-1985: Gillis Long (D)
1983: Henson Moore (R)
1985-1988: Robert Louis Freeman Sr. (D)
1988-TBD: Edith Kirkpatrick (D)

1987: Billy Tauzin (D), Speedy Oteria Long (D), James H. “Jim” Brown (D), and Bob Livingston (R)

Governors of Maine
1959-1959: Clinton A. Clauson (D)
1959-1971: John H. Reed (R)
1971-1979: Peter N. Kyros (D)

1970: James S. Erwin (R)
1974: James B. Longley (I) and James Erwin (R)
1979-1983: Linwood E. Palmer Jr. (R)
1978: Joseph Brennan (D)
1983-1987: Helen Longley (Progressive)
1982: Linwood E. Palmer Jr. (R) and Joseph Brennan (D)
1987-TBD: Libby Mitchell (D)
1986: John McKernan (R) and Sherry Huber (Progressive)
1990: Andrew Adam (R) and John Menario (Progressive)

Governors of Maryland
1959-1967: J. Millard Tawes (D)
1967-1971: Spiro T. Agnew (R)
1971-1977: Marvin Mandel (D)

1970: Spiro T. Agnew (R) and Robert Woods Merkle Sr. (HIP)
1974: Louise Gore (R)
1977-1987: F. P. Blair Lee III (D)
1978: John Glenn Beall Jr. (R)
1982: Robert A. Pascal (R)
1987-1990: William Oswald Mills (R)
1986: Stephen H. Sachs (D)
1990-1991: Melvin A. Bilal (R)
1991-TBD: Decatur “Bucky” Trotter (D)

1990: Melvin A. Bilal (R)

Governors of Massachusetts
1961-1963: John Volpe (R)
1963-1965: Endicott Peabody (D)
1965-1971: John Volpe (R)
1971-1977: Pierre Salinger (D)

1970: Francis W. Sargent (R)
1974: John Frederick Collins (R)
1977-1991: Michael Dukakis (D)
1978: Lou Nickinello (R)
1982: Christopher A. Iannella (R) and Paul Tsongas (Liberty)
1986: George Kariotis (R), John Cassavetes (Liberty), Christy Mihos (I) and Nick Paleologos (I)
1991-TBD: Evelyn Murphy (D)
1990: Steven Pierce (R)

Governors of Michigan
1961-1963: John Swainson (D)
1963-1971: George W. Romney (R)
1971-1979: Martha Griffiths (D)

1970: William Milliken (R)
1974: Marvin Leonel Esch (R)
1979-1983: Soapy Williams (D)
1978: William Milliken (R)
1983-1989: Elly M. Peterson (R)
1982: Soapy Williams (D), Don Riegle (Progressive) and Jimmy Hoffa (Workers’)
1986: William B. Fitzgerald Jr. (D)
1989-1991: James H. Brickley (R)
1991-TBD: James J. Blanchard (D)

1990: James H. Brickley (R)

Governors of Minnesota
1955-1963: Orville Freeman (DFL)
1963-1967: Donald Orr Wright Sr. (R)
1967-1975: Coya Knutson (DFL)

1970: Douglas M. Head (R)
1975-1976: Odin Langen (R)
1974: Edward J. Gearty (DFL)
1976-1979: Clark MacGregor (R)
1979-1991: Coya Knutson (DFL)

1978: Clark MacGregor (R) and Richard Pedersen (American)
1982: Wheelock “Whee” Whitney Jr. (Independent-Republican-Liberty)
1986: Jon Grunseth (Independent-Republican-Liberty) and Florian Chmielewski (I)
1991-TBD: Rudy Perpich (DFL)
1990: Bill Frenzel (R), Jerome M. Hughes (Independent), and Arlan Stangeland (Liberty)

Governors of Mississippi
1960-1964: Ross Barnett (D)
1964-1968: Paul B. Johnson Jr. (D)
1968-1972: Ruben Phillips (R)
1972-1976: Walter Nixon (D)

1971: Gil Carmichael (R) and Charles Evers (I)
1976-1980: William Winter (D)
1975: Gil Carmichael (R)
1980-1984: Evelyn Gandy (D)
1979: Charles Evers (R) and Arthur Eaves Sr. (I)
1984-1986: Cliff Finch (D)
1983: Wayne Dowdy (R)
1986-1988: Evelyn Gandy (D)
1988-TBD: Ray Mabus (D)

1987: Rex Armistead (R)

Governors of Missouri
1957-1965: James T. Blair Jr. (D)
1965-1973: Ethan A. H. Shepley (R)
1973-1977: James W. Symington (D)

1972: Christopher S. “Kit” Bond (R)
1977-1985: Bill Bradley (D)
1976: Harvey F. Euge (R) and Helen Savio (I)
1980: Bill Phelps (R)
1985-TBD: Betty Cooper Hearnes (D)
1984: Gene McNary (R) and Ken Rothman (Independent)
1988: Mike Roberts (R) and John Ashcroft (Country)

Governors of Montana
1961-1962: Donald G. Nutter (R)
1962-1973: Tim Babcock (R)
1973-1981: Thomas Lee Judge (D)

1972: Ed Smith (R)
1976: Stanley G. Stephens (R)
1981-1985: Martin J. “Red” Beckman (D, I after losing re-nomination)
1980: Jack Ramirez (R)
1985-TBD: Dorothy Bradley (D)
1984: Pat M. Goodover (R) and Martin J. “Red” Beckman (Independent)
1988: Stan Stephens (R)

Governors of Nebraska
1959-1960: Ralph G. Brooks (D)
1960-1961: Dwight W. Burney (R)
1961-1971: Frank B. Morrison (D)
1971-1979: J. James Exon (D)

1970: Albert C. Walsh (R)
1974: Richard D. Marvel (R) and Ernie Chambers (I)
1979-1987: Charles Thone (R)
1978: Gerald T. Whelan (D)
1982: J. Robert “Bob” Kerrey (D)
1987-TBD: Helen Boosalis (D)
1986: Kay A. Orr (R)
1990: David Domina (R)

Governors of Nevada
1959-1971: Grant Sawyer (D)
1971-1983: Rex Bell Jr. (R)

1970: Mike O’Callaghan (D) and Charles Springer (I)
1974: Henry W. “Hank” Thornley (D)
1978: Robert E. Rose (D)
1983-TBD: Joseph Yale Resnick (D)
1982: Clarence Clifton Young (R)
1986: Ed Fike (R)
1990: Charles Woods (R)

Governors of New Hampshire
1959-1963: Wesley Powell (R)
1963-1967: John William King (D)
1967-1973: Harrison Reed Thyng (R)

1970: Meldrim Thomson Jr. (HIP) and Roger J. Crowley (D)
1973-1981: Malcolm McLane (D)
1972: Chester Earl Merrow (R)
1974: David L. Nixon (R)
1976: Walter Rutherford Peterson Jr. (R)
1978: Mabel Everett (R)
1981-1985: Walter Rutherford Peterson Jr. (R)
1980: Thomas B. Wingate (D)
1982: John William King (D)
1985-1991: Calvin Warburton (R)
1984: Chris Spirou (D)
1986: Paul McEachern (D) and Paul N. Gagnon (Independent)
1988: Paul N. Gagnon (D)
1991-TBD: Bob Smith (R)
1990: J. Joseph Grandmaison (D) and Miriam F. Luce (Liberty)

Governors of New Jersey
1954-1962: 44) Robert B. Meyner (D)
1962-1970: 45) Richard J. Hughes (D)
1970-1978: 46) Francis X. McDermott (R)

1973: Ann Klein (D)
1978-1986: 47) James J. Florio (D)
1977: Raymond Bateman (R)
1981: Walter H. Jones (R)
1986-1990: 48) Gloria A. Decker (D)
1985: Barbara A. Curran (R)
1989: W. Cary Edwards (R)

Governors of New Mexico
1961-1962: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1962-1963: Tom Bolack (R)
1963-1967: Jack M. Campbell (D)
1967-1971: David F. Cargo (R)
1971-1975: Bruce King (D)

1970: David F. Cargo (R)
1975-1979: Jerry Apodaca (D)
1974: Pete Domenici (R) and Gene Gonzales (La Raza Unida)
1979-1983: Joe Skeen (R)
1978: Bruce King (D)
1983-1987: Toney Anaya (D)
1982: John B. Irick (R)
1987-1991: Fabian Chavez Jr. (D)
1986: Joseph H. Mercer (R)
1991-TBD: Ben Lujan Sr. (D)
1990: Frank M. Bond (R)

Governors of New York
1/1/1959-1/23/1965: 49) Nelson Rockefeller (R)
1/23/1965-12/31/1966: 50) Malcolm Wilson (R
)
1/1/1967-1/3/1981: 51) Mario Biaggi (D until 1978, Conservative 1978-1979, D after 1979)
1970: Steven Boghos Derounian (R), Arthur J. Goldberg (Liberal) and Norman Mailer (Natural Mind)
1974: Peter A. Peyser (R/Liberal)
1978: Hugh Carey (D), Nelson Rockefeller (R/Liberal) and Mary Jane Tobin (Independence)
1/3/1981-TBD: 52) Mario Cuomo (D)
1982: Lewis Lehrman (R/Conservative)
1986: Paul J. Curran (R/Conservative), Denis Dillon (Life) and Lenora Fulani (Green)
1990: Pierre Andrew Rinfret (R), Herbert London (Conservative), and Louis P. Wein (Life)

Governors of North Carolina
1961-1965: Terry Sanford (D)
1965-1969: Daniel K. Moore (D)
1969-1973: James Carson Gardner (R)
1973-1977: Walter B. Jones Sr. (D)

1972: James Holshouser (R), Hargrove “Skipper” Bowles (Independent Democrat), and Arlis F. Pettyjohn (HIP)
1977-1985: Jim Hunt (D)
1976: David Flaherty (R) and Herbert F. “Chub” Seawall Jr. (Country)
1980: Jesse Helms (R)
1985-1989: Elizabeth Hanford “Liddy” Gardner (R)
1984: Rufus L. Edmisten (D)
1989-TBD: Harvey Gantt (D)
1988: Liddy Gardner (R), Ruby T. Hooper (Independent) and Jesse Helms (Exposure)

Governors of North Dakota
1961-1973: William L. Guy (D)
1973-1981: Aloha Pearl Taylor Brown Eagles (R)

1972: Arthur A. Link (D)
1976: Sophus Vernon Trom (D)
1981-1987: Ruth Meiers (D)
1980: Ernest Sands (R)
1984: Anna Bourgois (R)
1987-TBD: George A. Sinner (D)
1988: Rosemarie Myrdal (R)

Governors of Ohio
1959-1963: Michael V. DiSalle (D)
1963-1971: Jim Rhodes (R)
1971-1979: Buz Lukens (R)

1970: Robert E. Sweeney (D), Roger Cloud (IR) and Edward T. Lawton (HIP)
1974: Robert E. Sweeney (D)
1979-1987: Jim Rhodes (R)
1978: J. J. Gilligan (D)
1982: Dick Celeste (D)
1987-TBD: Jerry Springer (D)
1986: Paul E. Gillmor (R)
1990: George Voinovich (R) and Ron Daniels (I)

Governors of Oklahoma
1959-1963: J. Howard Edmondson (D)
1963: George Patterson Nigh (D)
1963-1971: Henry Bellmon (R)
1971-1979: David Hall (D)

1970: Dewey F. Bartlett (R) and Reel Little (HIP)
1974: Jim Inhofe (R)
1979-1987: George Patterson Nigh (D)
1978: Ron Shotts (R)
1983-1987: Neal McCaleb (R)
1982: Howard L. Bell (Progressive)
1987-1991: Mike Turpen (D)
1986: Robert N. Goodhead (R) and Mike Fair (I)
1991-TBD: Bill Price (R)
1990: Mike Turpen (D) and Thomas D. Ledgerwood II (I)

Governors of Oregon
1959-1967: Mark Hatfield (R)
1967-1975: Tom McCall (R)

1970: Robert Straub (D)
1975-1979: Edith Green (D)
1974: Wendell Wyatt (R)
1979-1987: Victor Atiyeh (R)
1978: Edith Green (D)
1982: Ted Kulongoski (D)
1987-TBD: Norma Paulus (R)
1986: Edward Fadeley (D)
1990: Barbara Roberts (D), David B. Frohnmayer (Independent Republican) and Al Mobley (Independent)

Governors of Pennsylvania
1959-1963: David Lawrence (D)
1963-1965: William W. Scranton II (R)
1965-1967: Raymond Shafer (R)
1967-1971: Robert Casey Sr. (D)
1971-1975: Milton Shapp (D)

1970: Raymond Shafer (R) and Andrew J. Watson (Constitution)
1975-1979: Martin P. Mullen (D)
1974: Drew Lewis (R)
1979-1983: Milton Shapp (D)
1978: Dick Thornburgh (R)
1983-1987: Stewart Greenleaf (D)
1982: Bobby Butera (R)
1987-TBD: William W. Scranton III (R)
1986: Stewart Greenleaf (D)
1990: Ed Rendell (R)

Governors of Rhode Island
1961-1965: John A. Notte Jr. (D)
1965-1971: John Chafee (R)
1971-1979: J. Joseph Garrahy (D)

1970: John Chafee (R)
1974: James Nugent (R)
1979-1987: Lincoln Almond (R)
1978: Thomas Ross DiLuglio (D) and Joseph A. Doorley (I)
1982: Hilary R. Salk (D) and Peter Van Daam (Progressive)
1987-TBD: Buddy Cianci (R)
1986: Anthony J. Solomon (D), Robert J. Healey (I) and Tony Affigne (I)
1990: Francis X. Flaherty (D) and Joe Trillo (I)

Governors of South Carolina
1959-1963: Fritz Hollings (D)
1963-1965: Donald Stuart Russell (D)
1965-1967: Robert McNair (D)
1967-1971: Joseph O. Rogers Jr. (R)
1971-1975: John West (D)

1970: Albert Watson (R)
1975-1979: William Westmoreland (R)
1974: William Jennings Bryan Dorn (D)
1979-1983: Richard Riley (D)
1978: Edward Lunn Young (R)
1983-1987: Nancy Stevenson (D)
1982: W. D. Workman Jr. (R)
1987-1991: Jesse Jackson Sr. (D)
1986: Floyd Spence (R)
1991-TBD: Nick Theodore (D)
1990: David Beasley (R)

Governors of South Dakota
1961-1963: Archie Gubbrud (R)
1963-1967: Ralph Herseth (D)
1967-1971: Frank Farrar (R)
1971-1975: George S. McGovern (D)

1970: Frank Farrar (R)
1972: Carveth Thompson (R)
1975-1983: Benjamin “Ben” (Lone Feather) Reifel (R)
1974: Richard F. Kneip (D) and John E. Olson (Country)
1978: Roger D. McKellips (D)
1983-1987: Clint Roberts (R)
1982: Harvey L. Wollman (D)
1987-1991: Lars Herseth (D)
1986: Clint Roberts (R)
1991-TBD: Gus Hercules (R)
1990: Lars Herseth (D)

Governors of Tennessee
1959-1963: Buford Ellington (D)
1963-1967: Frank G. Clements (D)
1967-1971: Buford Ellington (D)
1971-1975: Frank G. Clements (D)

1970: Winfield Dunn (R)
1975-1979: Lamar Alexander (R)
1974: Ray Blanton (D)
1979-1983: Jake Butcher (D)
1978: Hubert David Patty (R)
1983-1987: Buford Pusser (R)
1982: Ned McWherter (D)
1987-1991: Frank G. Clements (D)
1986: H. D. Patty (R), Charles G. Vick (Country) and Gentry Crowell (Green)
1991-TBD: Hillary Rodham-Clinton (R)
1990: Phil Bredesen (D) and Charles Vick (Liberty)

Governors of Texas
1957-1967: Price Daniel (D)
1967-1971: John Connally (D before 1969, R after 1969)
1971-1974: Waggoner Carr (D)

1970: Roger Martin (R)
1972: Henry Grover (R) and Ramsey Muniz (La Raza Unida)
1974-1979: Frances Farenthold (D)
1974: Jim Granberry (R) and Ramsey Muniz (LRU)
1979-1983: Bill Clements (R)
1978: Frances Farenthold (D) and Mario Compean (LRU)
1983-1987: Ross Perot (I)
1982: Bill Clements (R), Ray Allen Mayo II (D) and Mario Compean (La Raza Unida)
1987-TBD: Rick Perry (D)
1986: Ross Perot (I), Ray Hutchison (R (write-in)), Mike Martin (R) and Maria “Rosie” Castro (La Raza Unida)
1990: Warren G. Harding (R), Jack Rains (Country) and Ramsey Muniz (La Raza Unida)

Governors of Utah
1957-1965: George Clyde (R)
1965-1973: Mitchell Melich (R)
1973-1977: K. Gunn McKay (D)

1972: Nicholas L. Strike (R)
1977-1985: Vernon Bradford Romney (R)
1976: K. Gunn McKay (D)
1980: David S. King (D)
1985-1989: Wayne Owens (D)
1984: Vernon Bradford Romney (R)
1989-TBD: Jon Huntsman Sr. (R)
1988: Wayne Owens (D)

Governors of Vermont
1961-1963: F. Ray Keyser Jr. (R)
1963-1973: Phil Hoff (D)

1970: John S. Burgess (R)
1973-1975: Consuelo Bailey (R)
1972: Randolph T. Major (D) and Pete Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
1975-1977: Harry H. Cooley (D)
1974: Walter L. Kennedy (R)
1977-1981: Stella Hackel (D)
1976: William G. Craig (R)
1978: Walter L. Kennedy (R) and Earl S. Gardner (LU)
1981-1989: Richard A. Snelling (R)
1980: M. Jerome Diamond (D), Daniel E. Woodward (I) and Bruce Cullen (I)
1982: Madeleine Kunin (D) and Richard Gottlieb (Progressive/Liberty Union)
1984: Madeleine Kunin (D), and Peter Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
1986: Ralph G. Wright (D) and Richard F. Gottlieb (Liberty Union)
1989-TBD: Jan Backus (D)
1988: David Gates (R) and Richard F. Gottlieb (Liberty Union)
1990: David Atkinson (R) and Richard F. Gottlieb (Liberty Union)

Governors of Virginia
1958-1962: James Lindsay Almond Jr. (D)
1962-1966: Albertis S. Harrison Jr. (D)
1966-1970: Linwood Holton (R)
1970-1974: Vince Callahan (R)
1974-1978: Elmo Zumwalt (D)

1973: Mills Godwin (R)
1978-1982: John N. Dalton (R)
1977: William Battle (D)
1982-1986: Harrison Wilson Jr. (D)
1981: Marshall Coleman (R)
1986-1990: Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr. (D)
1985: Stanford Elmer “Stan” Parris (R)
1990-TBD: Stanford Elmer “Stan” Parris (R)
1989: Mary Sue Terry (D)

Governors of Washington
1957-1965: Albert Rossellini (D)
1965-1975: Daniel J. Evans (R)

1972: Albert Rosellini (D) and Vick Gould (Taxpayers)
1975-1977: Arthur Fletcher (R)
1977-1981: Julia Butler Hansen (D)

1976: Arthur Fletcher (R)
1981-1989: Daniel J. Evans (R)
1980: Julia Butler Hansen (D)
1984: Booth Gardner (D)
1989-TBD: Ellen Craswell (R)
1988: John Jovanovich (D)

Governors of West Virginia
1961-1965: Wally Barron (D)
1965-1969: Cecil Underwood (R)
1969-1977: Arch A. Moore Jr. (R)

1972: Jay Rockefeller (D)
1977-1985: Jay Rockefeller (D)
1976: Cecil H. Underwood (R)
1980: Arch A. Moore Jr. (R) and Jack Kelley (I)
1985-1989: Cecil Underwood (R)
1984: Clyde M. See Jr. (D)
1989-TBD: Gaston Caperton (D)
1988: Cecil Underwood (R) and Jack Fellure (Exposure)

Governors of Wisconsin
1959-1963: Gaylord A. Nelson (D)
1963-1965: John W. Reynolds (D)
1965-1967: Warren P. Knowles (R)
1967-1975: Patrick Lucey (D)

1970: Jack B. Olson (R) and Georgia Cozzini (Natural Mind)
1975-1983: Bronson La Follette (D)
1974: Bill Dyke (R)
1978: Lee S. Dreyfus (R)
1983-TBD: Paul R. Soglin (D)
1982: Terry Kohler (R)
1986: Robert Walter Kasten Jr. (R)
1990: Steve Gunderson (R)

Governors of Wyoming
1961-1967: Jack R. Gage (D)
1967-1975: Teno Roncalio (D)

1970: William H. Harrison (R)
1975-1983: Thyra Thomson (R)
1974: Edgar Herschler (D)
1978: Edgar Herschler (D)
1983-1987: Dick Casull (R)
1982: Harry Leimback (D)
1987-TBD: Thyra Thomson (R)
1986: Al Hamberg (D)
1990: Mike Sullivan (D)

US Senators in this TL (1/1/1961-2/5/1991)

US Senators from Alabama’s Class 2 Seat
1946-1973: John J. Sparkman (Democratic)
1973-1976: John L. LeFlore (D)

1972: Winston “Red” Blount Jr. (R)
1976-1985: John J. Sparkman (D)
1976 (sp): unopposed
1978: Jerome B. Couch (Prohibition)
1984: Glen Browder (D)
1985-TBD: Albert Lee Smith Jr. (R)
1984: Howell Heflin (D)
1990: John Glen Browder (D)
US Senators from Alabama’s Class 3 Seat
1938-1963: J. Lister Hill (D)
1963-1981: James D. Martin (R)

1974: Clair Chisler (D) and Sam Engelhardt (HIP)
1981-1984: Walter Flowers (D)
1980: James D. Martin (R)
1984-1987: Jack Edwards (R)
1984 (sp): Richard Shelby (D)
1987-TBD: Mary Texas Hurt Garner (D)
1986: Jack Edwards (R)

US Senators from Alaska’s Class 2 Seat
1959-1968: Bob Bartlett (D)
1968-1970: Ted Stevens (R)
1970-1973: Mike Gravel (D)
1973-1979: Eben Hopson (D)

1972: Howard Wallace Pollock (R)
1979-1991: Hazel P. Heath (R)
1978: Eben Hopson (D)
1984: Steve Cowper (D) and William D. “Bill” Overstreet (Independent)
1991-TBD: Jalmar “Jay” Kerttula (R)
1990: Sarah J. “Sally” Smith (D) and Kathryn Poland (Green)
US Senators from Alaska’s Class 3 Seat
1959-1974: Ernest Gruening (D)
1974-1975: Ted Stevens (R)
1975-1981: Clark Gruening (D)

1974: Ted Stevens (R)
1981-TBD: Frank Murkowski (R)
1980: Clark Gruening (D)
1986: Glen Olds (D)

US Senators from Arizona’s Class 1 Seat
1953-TBD: Barry Goldwater Sr. (R)
1970: Renz L. Jennings (D)
1976: Dennis DeConcini (D)
1982: Sam Grossman (D)
1988: Harry Braun (D) and Peter Dunn (Independent Republican)
US Senators from Arizona’s Class 3 Seat
1927-1969: Carl Hayden (D)
1969-1987: Paul Fannin (R)

1974: Jonathan Marshall (D)
1980: Bill Schulz (D)
1987-TBD: Eddie Najeeb Basha Jr. (D)
1986: Evan Mecham (R)

US Senators from Arkansas’s Class 2 Seat
1943-1977: John L. McClellan (D)
1972: Wayne H. Babbitt (R)
1977-1979: Kaneaster Hodges Jr. (D)
1979-TBD: Jim Guy Tucker (D)

1978: Tom Kelly (R) and John J. Black (I)
1984: Ed Bethune (R)
1990: Tim Hutchinson (R)
US Senators from Arkansas’s Class N Seat
1945-TBD: J. William Fulbright (D)
1974: John H. Jones (R)
1980: William Clark (R) and Walter McCarty (I)
1986: Asa Hutchinson (R)

US Senators from California’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1964: Clair Engle (D)
1964-1965: Alan Cranston (D)
1965-TBD: Richard Nixon (R)

1970: Tom Hayden (D) and Robert Scheer (Natural Mind)
1976: George E. Brown (D) and David Wald (NM)
1982: Leo Ryan (D) and Peter Duel (Progressive)
1988: Stetson Kennedy (D), Stanley Bruce Herschensohn (Conservative), Hugh G. Bagley (I), Maria E. Munoz (Natural Mind) and Merton Short (Country)
US Senators from California’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1953: Richard Nixon (R)
1953-1981: Thomas Kuchel (R)

1974: Kenneth Frederick Hahn (D)
1981-1987: Maureen Reagan (R)
1980: Tom Hayden (D/NM) and David Bergland (Liberty)
1987-TBD: Mario Obledo (D)
1986: Pete Wilson (R)

US Senators from Colorado’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1979: Gordon L. Allott (R)
1972: Floyd K. Haskell (D), Secundion Salazar (Raza Unida)
1979-1991: William L. Armstrong (R)
1978: Floyd Haskell (D)
1984: Nancy Dick (D)
1991-TBD: Penfield Tate II (R)
1990: Josephine Ward “Josie” Heath (D) and Carlos F. Lucero (La Raza Unida)
US Senators from Colorado’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1963: John A. Carroll (D)
1963-1975: Peter H. Dominick (R)
1975-1987: George L. Brown (D)

1974: Peter H. Dominick (R)
1980: Mary E. Buchanan (R) and Earl Higgerson (Statesman)
1987-TBD: Pat Schroeder (D)
1986: Ken Kramer (R)

US Senators from Connecticut’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Thomas J. Dodd (D)
1970: Antonina P. Uccello (R)
1971-TBD: Antonina P. Uccello (R)
1972 (sp): Gloria Schaffer (D)
1976: Gloria Schaffer (D)
1982: Toby Moffett (D)
1988: Rosa DeLauro (D)
US Senators from Connecticut’s Class 3 Seat
1963-1981: Abraham Ribicoff (D)
1974: James H. Brannen III (R) and Arthur F. Capozzi Jr. (Country)
1981-TBD: Chris Dodd (D)
1980: James L. Buckley (R)
1986: Roger Eddy (R)

US Senators from Delaware’s Class 1 Seat
1947-1970: John J. Williams (R)
1970-TBD: William Victor Roth Jr. (R)

1970: Jacob Zimmerman (D)
1976: Thomas C. Mahoney (D)
1982: David N. Levinson (D)
1988: Shien Biau Woo (D)
US Senators from Delaware’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1985: J. Caleb Boggs (R)
1972: Joseph Biden (D)
1978: Emily Womach (D)
1985-TBD: Joe Biden (D)
1984: J. Caleb Boggs (R)
1990: M. Jane Brady (R)

US Senators from Florida’s Class 1 Seat
1946-1971: Spessard Holland (D)
1971-TBD: Lawton Chiles (D)

1970: Lawton Chiles (D) over G. Harrold Carswell (HIP), Raymond Claiborne Osborne (R) and Claude R. Kirk Jr. (Conservative)
1976: Jack Eckerd (R) and John Grady (HIP)
1982: Van B. Poole (R)
1988: Louis Frey Jr. (R)
US Senators from Florida’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: George Smathers (D)
1969-1981: William Cato “Bill” Cramer Sr. (R)

1968: George A. Smathers (D) and C. Farris Bryant (HIP)
1974: LeRoy Collins Sr. (D) and Thomas Burton Adams Jr. (HIP)
1981-1987: Paula Hawkins (R)
1980: Bill Gunter (D)
1987-TBD: Michael Bilirakis (R)
1986: Bill Nelson (D)

US Senators from Georgia’s Class 2 Seat
1933-1971: Richard Russell Jr. (D)
1971-1973: Ernest Vandiver (D)
1973-1977: Jimmy Carter (D)

1972: Fletcher Thompson (R) and J. B. Stoner (HIP)
1977-TBD: Sam Nunn (D)
1978: Fletcher Thompson (R)
1984: Jon M. Hicks (R)
1990: unopposed
US Senators from Georgia’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1963: Herman E. Talmadge (D)
1963-1981: John William Davis (D)

1974: Jerry Johnson (R)
1981-1987: Mack Mattingly (R)
1980: John William Davis (D)
1987-TBD: John Skandalakis (D)
1986: Mack Mattingly (R)

US Senators from Hawaii’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1977: Hiram Fong (R)
1970: Cecil Heftel (D)
1977-TBD: Patsy Mink (D)
1976: William F. Quinn (R)
1982: Clarence J. Brown (R) and E. Bernier-Nachtwey (Independent)
1988: Maria M. Hustace (R) and Ken Schoolland (Liberty)
US Senators from Hawaii’s Class 3 Seat
1959-1963: Oren E. Long (D)
1963-TBD: Daniel Inouye (D)

1974: James D. Kimmel (R)
1980: Cooper Brown (R)
1986: Frank Hutchinson (R)

US Senators from Idaho’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1962: Henry Dworshak (R)
1962-1963: Len Jordan (R)
1963-1964: Gracie Pfost (D)
1964-1973: Len Jordan (R)
1973-1979: Richard H. Stallings (D)

1972: Len Jordan (R)
1979-TBD: George Vernon Hansen (R)
1978: Richard H. Stallings (D)
1984: Peter M. Busch (D)
1990: Ron Twilegar (D)
US Senators from Idaho’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1984: Frank Church (D)
1974: Robert L. Smith (R)
1980: Steve Symms (R) and Larry Fullmer (Freedom)
1984-TBD: Bethine Clark Church (D)
1984 (sp): Donald Billings (R)
1986: Steve Symms (R)

US Senators from Illinois’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Paul Douglas (D)
1973-1985: Charles Percy (R)

1972: Roman Pucinski (D)
1978: Alex Seith (D)
1985-TBD: Paul Simon (D)
1984: Paul Findley (R)
1990: Lynn Morley Martin (R)
US Senators from Illinois’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: Everett Dirksen (R)
1969-1970: Ralph Tyler Smith (R)
1970-1981: Adlai Stevenson (D)

1970 (sp): Ralph Tyler Smith (R)
1974: George M. Burditt (R)
1981-TBD: Alan J. Dixon (D)
1980: David C. O’Neal (R)
1986: Judy Koehler (R)

US Senators from Indiana’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1983: Vance Hartke (D)
1970: Richard Roudebush (R)
1976: Earl F. Landgrebe (R)
1983-1989: Earl Landgrebe (R)
1982: Vance Hartke (D)
1989-TBD: Katie Beatrice Hall (D)
1988: Earl Landgrebe (R)
US Senators from Indiana’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1963: Homer E. Capehart (R)
1963-1975: Birch Bayh (D)
1975-TBD: Richard Lugar (R)

1974: Birch Bayh (D)
1980: Adam Benjamin Jr. (D)
1986: Jill L. Long (D)

US Senators from Iowa’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1973: Jack Miller (R)
1973-1979: Dick Clark (D)

1972: Jack Miller (R) and William A. Rocap Jr. (HIP)
1979-1991: Roger Jespen (R)
1978: Dick Clark (D)
1984: Tom Harkin (D)
1991-TBD: Larry Miles Dinger (R)
1990: Berkley Warren Bedell (D)
US Senators from Iowa’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1965: Bourke Blakemore Hickenlooper (R)
1965-1967: Henry Oscar Talle (R)
1967-TBD: Harold Hughes (D)

1974: David M. Stanley (R)
1980: James Leach (R)
1986: Chuck Grassley (R)

US Senators from Kansas’ Class 2 Seat
1949-1962: Andrew F. Schoeppel (R)
1962-1979: James B. Pearson (R)

1972: Arch Tetzlaff (D) and Gene Miller (Conservative)
1979-TBD: Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R)
1978: William R. Roy (D)
1984: James R. Maher (D)
1990: Joan Finney (D)
US Senators from Kansas’ Class 3 Seat
1950-1969: Frank Carlson (R)
1969-TBD: Bob Dole (R)

1974: Bill Roy (D)
1980: John Simpson (D)
1986: Guy MacDonald (D)

US Senators from Kentucky’s Class 2 Seat
1952-1955: John Sherman Cooper (R)
1955-1956: Alben W. Barkley (D)
1956-1956: James Stephen Golden (R)
1956-1973:
John Sherman Cooper (R)
1973-1991: Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)

1972: Jesse Nicholas Ryan Cecil (R), Louie Nunn (I) and Helen Breeden (HIP)
1978: Louie Nunn (R)
1984: Harold Dallas “Hal” Rogers (R)
1991-TBD: Martha Layne Osborne (D)
1990: Jim Bunning (R)
US Senators from Kentucky’s Class 3 Seat
1950-1957: Earle Clements (D)
1957-1982: Thruston Morton (R)

1974: Wendell H. Ford (D)
1980: Wendell H. Ford (D)
1982-1984: Charles Rowland Peaslee “Charlie” Farnsley (D)
1984-TBD: Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr. (R)

1983 (sp): John Y. Brown Jr. (D)
1986: William P. Curlin Jr. (D)

US Senators from Louisiana’s Class 2 Seat
1937-1972: Allen J. Ellender (D)
1972-1985: Jack P. F. Gremillion Sr. (D)

1972: B. C. Toledano (R) and Hall M. Lyons (HIP)
1978: Woody Jenkins (Independent)
1985-TBD: Clyde Cecil Holloway (R)
1984: Jerry Huckaby (D)
1990: William Jennings Jefferson (D) and David Duke (Heritage)
US Senators from Louisiana’s Class 3 Seat
1948-1987: Russell B. Long (D)
1974: unopposed
1980: DeLesseps Story “Toni” Morrison Jr. (D), Woody Jenkins (D) and Jerry Bardwell (R)
1987-TBD: Buddy Roemer (D)
1986: Henson Moore (R)

US Senators from Maine’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Ed Muskie (D)
1970: Neil S. Bishop (R)
1976: Robert A. G. Monks (R)
1982: Edward I. Bernstein (R)
1988: Jasper S. Wyman (R)
US Senators from Maine’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Margaret Chase Smith (R)
1973-1979: William Hathaway (D)

1972: Margaret Chase Smith (R)
1979-1985: William Cohen (R)
1978: William Hathaway (D)
1985-1989: Peter Kyros (D)
1984: William Cohen (R)
1989-1991: Nacy Nye Masterton (D)
1991-TBD: Angus King (I)

1990: Nancy Nye Masterton (D) and Bob Nutting (R)

US Senators from Maryland’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1971: James Glenn Beall (R)
1971-1977: Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (R)

1970: Carlton R. Sickles (D) and James Glenn Beall (Independent Republican)
1977-TBD: Paul Spyros Sarbanes (D)
1976: Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (R)
1982: Lawrence Hogan (R)
1988: Alan Keyes (R)
US Senators from Maryland’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1963: John Marshall Butler (R)
1963-1969: Daniel J. Brewster (D)
1969-1987: Charles Mathias Jr. (R)

1974: Barbara Mikulski (D)
1980: Edward T. Conroy (D)
1987-TBD: Barbara Mikulski (D)
1986: Linda Chavez (R)

US Senators from Massachusetts’ Class 1 Seat
1953-1961: John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy (D)
1961-1962: Benjamin Smith (D)
1962-TBD: Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D)

1970: John Volpe (R) and Josiah A. Spaulding (Independent)
1976: Michael S. Robertson (R)
1982: Ray Shamie (R)
1988: Joseph Malone (R)
US Senators from Massachusetts’ Class 2 Seat
1945-1967: Leverett Saltonstall (R)
1967-1991: Ed Brooke (R)

1972: John J. Droney (D)
1978: Paul Tsongas (D)
1984: James Shannon (D)
1991-TBD: Bill Weld (R)
1990: Ken O’Donnell (D)

US Senators from Michigan’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Philip Hart (D)
1971-1989: George W. Romney (R)

1970: Philip Hart (D)
1976: Donald Riegle (D)
1982: Walter Reuther (D)
1989-TBD: Elly Maude Peterson (R)
1988: Milton Robert “Bob” Carr (D)

US Senators from Michigan’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1966: Patrick V. McNamara (D)
1966-1985: Robert P. Griffin (R)

1972: Frank J. Kelley (D), Jerome P. Cavanaugh (I), Patrick Dillinger (HIP) and Barbara Halpert (Human Rights)
1978: Carl Levin (D)
1985-TBD: Jack R. Lousma (R)
1984: Donald J. Albosta (D)
1990: Barbara-Rose Collins (D)

US Senators from Minnesota’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Eugene McCarthy (D)
1971-1985: Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D)

1970: Clark MacGregor (R)
1976: Gerald W. Brekke (R) and Paul Helm (I)
1982: David Durenberger (R)
1985-TBD: Joan Growe (D)
1985 (sp): Arlen Ingolf Erdahl (R)
1988: Arlen Overvig (R)
US Senators from Minnesota’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1960: Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D)
1960-1961: Roy Weir (D)
1961-1972: Walter Mondale (D)

1972: Phil Hansen (R)
1972-1982: Bob Short (D)
1973 (sp): Phil Hansen (R)
1978: Harold Stassen (R)
1982-TBD: Mark Dayton (D)
1984: Tom Hagedorn (R)
1990: Vin Weber (R)

US Senators from Mississippi’s Class 1 Seat
1947-1989: John C. Stennis (D)
1970: William R. Thompson (I)
1976: unopposed
1982: Haley Barbour (R)
1989-TBD: William Webster “Webb” Franklin (R)
1988: Dick Molpus (D)
US Senators from Mississippi’s Class 2 Seat
1943-1979: James Eastland (D)
1972: James H. Meredith (R) and Prentiss Walker (I)
1979-TBD: James H. Meredith (R)
1978: Maurice Dantin (D)
1984: Maurice Dantin (D)
1990: George Raymond Jr. (D)

US Senators from Missouri’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1961: Stuart Symington (D)
1961-1963: Albert S. J. Carnahan (D)
1963-1977: Leonor Sullivan (D)

1970: John Danforth (R) and Gene Chapman (HIP)
1977-1989: Jerry Litton (D)
1976: John Danforth (R)
1982: R. Wendell Bailey (R)
1988: Norvell William “Bill” Emerson (R)
1989-TBD: Margaret Blake Kelly (D)
1989 (sp): John William “Jack” Buechner (R)
US Senators from Missouri’s Class 3 Seat
1960-1975: Edward V. Long (D)
1975-1987: Thomas B. Curtis (R)

1974: Edward V. Long (D)
1980: Robert Anton Young III (D)
1987-TBD: Bill Bradley (D)
1986: Thomas B. Curtis (R)

US Senators from Montana’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1977: Mike Mansfield (D)
1970: Harold E. Wallace (R)
1977-1983: John Melcher (D)
1976: Stanley C. Burger (R)
1983-1989: Ron Marlenee (R)
1982: John Melcher (D)
1989-TBD: Jack Mudd (D)
1988: Ron Marlenee (R)
US Senators from Montana’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1973: Lee Metcalf (D)
1973-1979: Henry S. “Hank” Hibbard (R)

1972: Lee Metcalf (D)
1979-TBD: Larry Williams (R)
1978: Paul G. Hatfield (D)
1984: John Driscoll (D)
1990: John Patrick “Pat” Williams (D)

US Senators from Nebraska’s Class 1 Seat
1954-1971: Roman Hruska (R)
1971-TBD: Ted Sorensen (D)

1970: Roman Hruska (R)
1976: John Y. McCollister (R)
1982: Jim Keck (R) and Virginia Walsh (I)
1988: David Karnes (R) and Ernie Chambers (New Alliance)
US Senators from Nebraska’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1965: Carl Curtis (R)
1965-1973: Dwight W. Burney (R)
1973-TBD: Orrin Hatch (R)

1972: Philip C. Sorensen (D) and Terry Carpenter (I)
1978: J. James Exon (D)
1984: J. James Exon (D)
1990: John J. Cavanaugh III (D)

US Senators from Nevada’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Howard W. Cannon (D)
1965-TBD: Paul Dominque Laxalt (R)

1970: Howard W. Cannon (D)
1976: James David Santini (D)
1982: Harry Reid (D)
1988: Richard Byran (D)
US Senators from Nevada’s Class 3 Seat
1954-1974: Alan H. Bible (D)
1974-TBD: Barbara Vucanovich (R)

1974: Mike O’Callaghan (D) and Jack C. Doyle (HIP)
1980: Mary Gojack (D)
1986: Myron E. Leavitt (D)

US Senators from New Hampshire’s Class 2 Seat
1937-1961: Styles Bridges (R)
1961-1967: Maurice Murphy (R)
1967-1973: Thomas J. McIntyre (D)
1973-1979: Harrison Reed Thyng (R) – retired

1972: Thomas J. McIntyre (D)
1979-1981: Carmen C. Chimento (I) – appointee
1978: Gordon J. Humphrey (R) and Thomas J. McIntyre (D) – inconclusive
1979 (sp): Gordon J. Humphrey (R) and Thomas J. McIntyre (D) – inconclusive
1981-1981: Wesley Powell (R) – died
1980 (sp): Norman D’Amours (D) and incumbent Carmen C. Chimento (I)
1981-1982: Lane Dwinell (R) – appointee
1982-1985: Hugh Gregg (R)

1981 (sp): John Rauh (D)
1985-TBD: Endicott Peabody (D)
1984: Hugh Gregg (R)
1990: Harold Burns (R)
US Senators from New Hampshire’s Class 3 Seat
1954-1987: Norris Cotton (R)
1974: John A. Durkin (D) and Carmen C. Chimento (HIP)
1980: John A. Durkin (D)
1987-TBD: Emile Dorilas Beaulieu Jr. (D)
1986: Robert F. Shaw (R)

US Senators from New Jersey’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1982: Harrison A. Williams (D)
1970: Nelson G. Gross (R)
1976: David A. Norcross (R)
1982-1983: Frank Lautenberg (D)
1983-TBD: Frank X. McDermott (R)

1982: Frank Lautenberg (D)
1988: Jim Florio (D)

US Senators from New Jersey’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1982: Clifford P. Case (R)
1972: B. B. Thorn Lord (D)
1978: Ray “Buttercup” Rollinson (D)
1982-1983: Richard J. Coffee (D)
1983-TBD: Mary V. Mochary (R)

1982 (sp): Richard J. Coffee (D)
1984: Alexander J. Menza (D)
1990: Barbara Wright McConnell (D)

US Senators from New Mexico’s Class 1 Seat
1935-1962: Dennis Chavez (D)
1962-1964: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1964-1978: Joseph Manuel Montoya (D)

1970: Anderson Carter (R)
1976: Harrison Schmitt (R)
1978-1981: Mary Coon Walters (D)
1981-TBD: Pedro “Pete” Jiménez (D)

1980 (sp): Manuel Lujan (R)
1982: Harrison Schmitt (R)
1988: Bill Valentine (R)
US Senators from New Mexico’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Clinton Presba Anderson (D)
1973-TBD: Roberto Mondragon (D)

1972: Pete Domencini (R) and Jack Daniels (Independent Democratic)
1978: Pete Domencini (R)
1984: Joseph Skeen (R)
1990: Manuel Lujan Jr. (R)

US Senators from New York’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Kenneth Keating (R)
1971-1983: Paul O’Dwyer (D)

1970: Kenneth B. Keating (R), James L. Buckley (Conservative) and Allard K. Lowenstein (Liberal/Natural Mind)
1976: James L. Buckley (Conservative) and William E. Miller (R)
1983-TBD: Michael Rockefeller (R/Liberal)
1982: Paul O’Dwyer (D), Florence M. Sullivan (C) and Allard K. Lowenstein (Progressive)
1988: Edolphus Towns (D), Adelle R. Nathanson (Conservative) and Charlene Mitchell (Progressive)
US Senators from New York’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1981: Jacob Javits (R)
1974: Lee Alexander (D) and Barbara A. Keating (Conservative)
1981-TBD: Mario Biaggi (D/Conservative)
1980: Jacob K. Javits (R) and Bess Myerson (Liberal/Natural Mind)
1986: Al D’Amato (R), Mark Green (Green) and John S. Dyson (Liberal)

US Senators from North Carolina’s Class 2 Seat
1958-1973: B. Everett Jordan (D)
1973-1991: Terry Sanford (D)

1972: Jesse Helms (R)
1978: George Wimbish (R)
1984: James Holshouser (R)
1991-TBD: James Grubbs “Jim” Martin (R)
1990: Terry Sanford (D)
US Senators from North Carolina’s Class 3 Seat
1954-1975: Sam Ervin (D)
1975-TBD: Nick Galifianakis (D)

1974: Wood Hall Young (R) and William Stevens (Country)
1980: Earl Baker Ruth (R)
1986: Jim Broyhill (R)

US Senators from North Dakota’s Class 1 Seat
1960-1965: Quentin N. Burdick (D)
1965-1971: Thomas S. Kleppe (R)
1971-TBD: Arthur Albert Link (D)

1970: Thomas S. Kleppe (R)
1976: Robert Stroup (R)
1982: Gene Knorr (R)
1988: Kenneth C. Gardner (R)
US Senators from North Dakota’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1981: Milton R. Young (R)
1974: James R. Jungroth (D) and Kenneth C. Gardiner (Country)
1981-1987: Mark Andrews (R)
1980: Kent Johanneson (D)
1987-TBD: Kent Conrad (D)
1986: Mark Andrews (R)

US Senators from Ohio’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Stephen M. Young (D)
1965-1971: Robert A. Taft Jr. (R)
1971-TBD: John Glenn (D)

1970: Robert A. Taft Jr. (R)
1976: Richard B. Kay (R)
1982: Paul Pfeifer (R)
1988: John R. Kasich Jr. (R)
US Senators from Ohio’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1969: Frank J. Lausche (D)
1969-1987: William B. Saxbe (R)

1974: Howard Metzenbaum (D)
1980: Mary Rose Oakar (D) and John E. Powers (I)
1987-TBD: Carl Stokes (D)
1986: Tom Kindness (R)

US Senators from Oklahoma’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1963: Robert S. Kerr (D)
1963-1965: J. Howard Edmondson (D)
1965-TBD: Bud Wilkinson (R)

1972: Ed Edmondson (D) and William G. Roach (HIP)
1978: David L. Boren (D)
1984: David L. Boren (D)
1990: Dave McCurdy (D)
US Senators from Oklahoma’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: A. S. Mike Monroney (D)
1969-1981: Henry Bellmon (R)

1974: Ed Edmondson (D)
1981-TBD: Marvin Henry “Mickey” Edwards (R)
1980: Andrew Coats (D), Billy Joe Clegg (Conservative) and Charles R. Nesbitt (I)
1986: James R. Jones (D)

US Senators from Oregon’s Class 2 Seat
1960-1967: Maurine Brown Neuberger (D)
1967-TBD: Mark Hatfield (R)

1972: Edith Green (D)
1978: Vernon Cook (D)
1984: Mary Wendy Roberts (D)
1990: Harry Lonsdale (D)
US Senators from Oregon’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1974: Wayne Morse (D since 1955, I 1952-1955, R before 1952)
1974-1975: Earl T. Newbry (R)
1975-1981: Tom McCall (R)

1974: Betty Roberts (D)
1981-1987: John R. Dellenback (R)
1980: Ted Kulongoski (D)
1987-TBD: Walter Leslie “Les” AuCoin (D)
1986: John R. Dellenback (R)

US Senators from Pennsylvania’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1977: Hugh Scott (R)
1970: William G. Sesler (D)
1977-1983: Bill Green (D)
1976: John Heinz (R)
1983-1989: Elmer Greinert “Bud” Shuster (R)
1982: Bill Green (D)
1989-TBD: Darcy Richardson (D)
1988: Elmer Greinert “Bud” Shuster (R)
US Senators from Pennsylvania’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1969: Joseph S. Clark (D)
1969-1975: Herman T. Schneebeli (R)
1975-TBD: Bob Casey Sr. (D)

1974: Herman T. Schneebeli (R)
1980: Arlen Specter (R)
1986: George Gekas (R)

US Senators from Rhode Island’s Class 1 Seat
1950-1977: John Pastore (D)
1970: John McLaughlin (R)
1977-1989: Robert Owens Tiernan (D)
1976: Donald P. Ryan (R)
1982: Vincent Marzullo (R)
1989-TBD: Claudine Schneider (R)
1988: Robert Owens Tiernan (D)
US Senators from Rhode Island’s Class 2 Seat
1961-TBD: Claiborne Pell (D)
1972: John Chafee (R) and John Quattrocchi Jr. (Independent)
1978: James G. Reynolds (R)
1984: Barbara Leonard (R)
1990: Robert Machtley (R)

US Senators from South Carolina’s Class 2 Seat
1954-1956: Strom Thurmond (Independent Democrat)
1956-1956: Thomas Wofford (D)
1956-TBD: Strom Thurmond (D until 1962/R after 1962)

1972: Eugene N. Zeigler (D)
1978: Charles D. Ravenel (D)
1984: Melvin Purvis Jr. (D)
1990: Bob Cunningham (D)
US Senators from South Carolina’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1965: Olin D. Johnston (D)
1965-TBD: Fritz Hollings (D)

1974: Gwenyfred Bush (R)
1980: Marshall T. Mays (R)
1986: Henry D. McMaster (R)

Senators from South Dakota’s Class 2 Seat
1948-1973: Karl Earl Mundt (R)
1973-1979: James Abourezk (D)

1972: Robert W. Hirsch (R)
1979-TBD: Larry Pressler (R)
1978: Don Barnett (D)
1984: George V. Cunningham (D)
1990: Ted Muenster (D) and Dean L. Sinclair (Independent)
Senators from South Dakota’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1962: Francis H. Case (R)
1962-1975: Joseph H. Bottom (R)
1975-1981: George McGovern (D)

1974: Joseph H. Bottom (R)
1981-TBD: Frank Farrar (R)
1980: George McGovern (D)
1986: Tom Daschle (D)

US Senators from Tennessee’s Class 1 Seat
1953-TBD: Albert Arnold “Al” Gore Sr. (D)
1970: Bill Brock (R)
1976: Bill Brock (R)
1982: Robin Beard (R)
1988: Bill Anderson (R)
US Senators from Tennessee’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1963: Estes Kefauver (D)
1963-1964: Herbert S. Walters (D)
1964-1991: Howard Baker (R)

1972: Ray Blanton (D)
1978: Joseph L. Evins (D)
1984: Jane Eskind (D) and Ed McAteer (Salvation)
1991-TBD: Marilyn Lloyd (D)
1990: William R. Hawkins (R)

US Senators from Texas’s Class 1 Seat
1957-1971: Ralph Yarborough (D)
1971-1983: Lloyd Bentsen (D)

1970: John Connally (R) and Jack Carswell (HIP)
1976: Alan Steelman (R) and Pedro Vasquez (Socialist Workers/La Raza Unida)
1983-1989: James M. Collins (R)
1982: Lloyd Bentsen (D)
1989-TBD: Ann Richards (D)
1988: Audie Murphy (R), Eldon Boulter (Liberty), Albert G. Bustamante (La Raza Unida)
US Senators from Texas’s Class 1 Seat
1949-1961: Lyndon B. Johnson (D)
1961: William A. Blakley (D)
1961-1967: John G. Tower (R)
1967-1975: Lyndon B. Johnson (D)

1972: Bruce Alger (R)
1975-1979: J. J. Pickle (D)
1976 (sp): George H. W. Bush (R) and Frank Tejeda (LRU)
1979-1991: Ron Paul (R)
1978: J. J. Pickle (D), Wingate Hezekiah Lucas (Big), and Luis A. Diaz de Leon (LRU)
1984: Sam Johnson (D) and Silvestre “Silver” Reyes (La Raza Unida)
1991-TBD: Kay Bailey Hutchison (R)
1990: Kathryn J. Whitmire (D) and Gary Johnson (Liberty)

US Senators from Utah’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Frank E. Moss (D)
1970: Laurence J. Burton (R) and Clyde B. Freeman (HIP)
1976: Sherman P. Lloyd (R)
1982: David Daniel Marriott (R)
1988: Wilford V. Oveson (R)
US Senators from Utah’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1975: Wallace F. Bennett (R)
1975-TBD: Jake Garn (R)

1974: Wayne Owens (D), Utah Phillips (I) and Kenneth Rex Larson (HIP)
1980: Den Berman (D)
1986: Craig Oliver (D) and Mary Zins (I)

Vermont Senators from the Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Winston L. Prouty (R)
1970: Fiore L. Bove (D) and William H. Meyer (Liberty Union/Natural Mind)
1971-1973: Thomas P. Salmon (D)
1973-1983: Robert Theodore Stafford (R)

1972 (sp): Thomas P. Salmon (D)
1976: Scott Skinner (D) and Nancy Kaufman (Liberty Union)
1983-TBD: Phil Hoff (Progressive until 1987, I 1987, D after 1987)
1982: Robert Theodore Stafford (R) and James A. Guest (D)
1988: Mike Griffes (R) and Jerry Levy (Liberty Union)
Vermont Senators from the Class 3 Seat
1941-1984: George Aiken (R)
1974: Nathaniel Frothingham (D)
1980: Stella Hackel (D/Progressive) and Pete Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
1984-1987: Peter Plympton Smith (R)
1985 (sp): James A. Guest (D)
1987-TBD: Madeleine M. Kunin (D)
1986: Peter Plympton Smith (R)

US Senators from Virginia’s Class 1 Seat
1933-1965: Harry F. Byrd Sr. (D)
1965-TBD: Harry F. Byrd Jr. (D before 1970, I after 1970)

1970: George Rawlings (D) and Ray Garland (R)
1976: Martin H. Perper (D)
1982: Dick Davis (D) and Maurice A. Dawkins (R)
1988: Abner Linwood “Lin” Holton Jr. (R) and Gerald Baliles (D)
US Senators from Virginia’s Class 2 Seat
1946-1971: A. Willis Robertson (D)
1971-1973: William Lloyd Scott (R)
1973-1979: John Otho Marsh Jr. (D)

1972: William Lloyd Scott (R) and Horace E. Henderson (Independent)
1979-TBD: Richard Dudley Obenshain (R)
1978: John Otho Marsh Jr. (D)
1984: Edythe C. Harrison (D)
1990: Lyon Gardiner Tyler Jr. (D)

US Senators from Washington’s Class 1 seat
1953-1987: Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson (D)
1970: John Ehrlichman (R)
1976: George M. Brown (R)
1982: Doug Jewett (R) and King Lysen (I)
1987-1989: Norm Dicks (D)
1989-TBD: Jolene Unsoeld (D)

1988: John Spellman (R) and Floyd Hicks (Independent Democratic)
US Senators from Washington’s Class 3 Seat
1944-1975: Warren G. Magnuson (D)
1975-1981: Daniel J. Evans (R)

1974: Warren G. Magnuson (D)
1981-TBD: Catherine Dean May (R)
1980: Allen Byron Swift (D)
1986: Deborah Senn (D)

US Senators from West Virginia’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Robert C. Byrd (D)
1970: Elmer H. Dodson (R)
1976: unopposed
1982: Cleveland Benedict (R) and William B. Howland (Progressive)
1988: M. J. Wolfe (R)
US Senators from West Virginia’s Class 2 Seat
1958-1985: Jennings Randolph (D)
1972: Louis Leonard (R)
1978: Arch Moore Jr. (R)
1985-TBD: John Raese (R)
1984: Jay Rockefeller (D)
1990: Harley O. Staggers Jr. (D)

US Senators from Wisconsin’s Class 1 Seat
1957-1989: William Proxmire (D)
1970: John E. Erickson (R)
1976: Stanley York (R)
1982: Scott McCallum (R)
1989-TBD: Susan Engeleiter (R)
1988: Herb Kohl (D)
US Senators from Wisconsin’s Class 3 Seat
1939-1967: Alexander Wiley (R)
1967-1973: Philleo Nash (D)
1973-1975: Gaylord Nelson (D)
1975-1987: Roman Blenski (R)

1974: Gaylord Nelson (D)
1980: Lynn Ellsworth Stalbaum (D)
1987-TBD: Bronson La Follette (D)
1986: Russell Olson (R)

US Senators from Wyoming’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Gale W. McGee (D)
1965-TBD: John S. Wold (R)

1970: Edness Kimball Wilkins (D)
1976: Peter M. Jorgensen (D)
1982: Rodger McDaniel (D)
1988: John Vinich (D)
US Senators from Wyoming’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1962: John J. Hickey (D)
1962-1967: Milward L. Simpson (R)
1967-1991: Gale W. McGee (D)

1972: Keith Thomson (R)
1978: Alan K. Simpson (R)
1984: Gordon H. Barrows (R)
1991-TBD: Barbara Cubin (R)
1990: Kathy Helling (D)

And also: a big shout-out and an even bigger thank-you to everyone who voted for this TL in this year's Turtledove Award season. In the end, it came in fourth place! :D

I gotta hear about the disputed 1978 & 1979 New Hampshire Senate elections.
Basically, the 1978 election between Humphrey and McIntyre was too close to call, so a nonpartisan interim Senator is appointed, and a special election is held in 1979, only for that to also be too close to call. A second special election is then held in 1980, with both Humphrey and McIntyre separately deciding against a third matchup. Unfortunately, the 1980 election's winner, Powell, dies only days into office in January 1981, leading to a third special election in as many years. Its winner finally finishes the 1979-1985 term.
 
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