Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Comic book adaptations and American animation, especially regarding the void created by there not being the same Simpsons and SpongeBob of OTL here.

Well, I can see that void being filled on both major cartoon stations. Spongebob IOTL didn't come till 1999, so there's plenty of time to fill the gap. I for one would recommend the Greenlighting of Mina and the Count on Nick as well as agreeing to let Danny Antonucci have full Creative Control of Ed, Edd n' Eddy when he pitches it to the network. +, when Cartoon Network comes around, or whatever equivalent of it comes around ITTL, you can have them pick up Johnny Quasar for a full series in 1998 along with the pilot for King Crab: Space Crustacean. Hell, you could even have Fox Kids pick up the slack by greenlighting Defenders of Dynatron City for 1993 and, if you're interested, Doozy Bots for 1991. For the older side of things, I have no clue outside of the Highland High toon I mentioned Previously. (I personally call it ''Take the Highland'') Without The Simpsons, you take out one of the biggest prime time cartoons of the era. The show, for all the shit we give nowadays, it was a god-damn game-changer back in the day. Pretty big shoes to fill unless anyone out there wants to let me know of any failed pilots for a similar show.

Edit: Oh, One last idea. Since there's no X-Men superheroes ITTL, how about instead, Warner Bros makes a Doom Patrol animated series, based off the Paul Kupperberg and Grant Morrison runs of it. (Mostly Morrison's) Maybe using Peter Chung's Æon Flux animation style from that series? One thing that would potentially be cool is if Bruce Timm and Paul Dini went to go work with Marvel and Saban in making their cartoons. Leaves a ton of room for DC to come up with an entirely different style. Not to mention that Flux being butterflied could mean longer runs for both The Maxx and Spawn animated series and maybe, if Rob Liefeld has the right kind of mentorship ITTL so that he doesn't suck as a writer or body proportions artist, a Youngblood Animated Series on Liquid Television.
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I love attention being paid to congressional races and governorships.

Well, it's always the smaller elections that determine the larger ones. Take current president Bellamy for example. Went from being the Mayor of one city, albeit the largest in America, to being the leader of the entire nation within the space of only a few years.
Chapter 60: February 1989 – December 1989

Universal Health Care? That's going to be one hard sell. Might get it through as long as she does not mention gun control...
I wonder if Bob Ross would use Alaska's basic income payments as a way of paying for anti-drink/abuse programs?
Department of Energy and Technology is off to a great start- I wonder if the oil/gas companies start looking at getting into the Alt Energy business at this point?
President Bellamy in the Oval Office - really like those personal touches on the desk behind her
I wonder how President Bellamy gets on with the UK PM?
Russia seems a bit of a mess- hoping the post Soviet transition goes easy
Bellamy sending aid everywhere? Well that's a change to sending the Marines...
Whistleblower act finally went through- excellent
Secretary White sorting out food waste? Cool. Just link it to programs to feed the homeless
I reckon Le Pen will resign before getting kicked out
UN intervention in Colombia to help stem the tide of refugees?
I was wrong about Le Pen- bye you racist dick
Abdul Ahad Mohmand: sounds like a sounds chap
Come on Prez Sanders- you can fix Kashmir!
'socio-economic waffling'? Interesting phrase there looking forward to what is means- though good on Wyoming and Kansas for getting in on the AltEnergy
Education bill is less ambitions than I thought it would be, but then I cannot compare it to anything
Nicolas Cage as Batman? Fire up the Dimension Hopper! I wanna see this one!
Albania becoming the 51st state? Well that would be hilarious!
Interesting snippet on music there
The China Blockage seems to have worked then...
Sanders in Kashmir- hooray! Gald there was a peace deal
39% is hardly a good sign of what the people want- should have made compulsory...
Woman PM in Canada as well? Excellent - 'legalization of “safe” recreadrugs such as marijuana' should be interesting to see. Lots of cash in it.
And now We Didn’t Start The Fire is stuck in my head... nice alt lyrics though!
Russia still in space is good- competition keeps all sides going and innovating...
Loma Prieta Earthquake- this is going to spark another wave of disaster movies isn't it..
Education Bill done- UHC to top it?
Lee Harvey Oswald finding peace is an odd thought considering OTL, but I am glad he is happy
Decent US-Mexico relations and cross-border co-operation? Nice
Better use of US military intelligence to counter terrorist and coup attempts? That could be very important
The Colonel gets his Nobel Peace Prize - now that is a decent top out to one heck of a career
Economic news at the end is not a good sign...

Excellent chapter @gap80 - sorry its takes me a while to read it.
Chapter 61: January 1990 – July 1990

Col. Sanders getting himself ready for the off then? Seems in character for him.
Looks like the economy is going to be Bellamy's first big challenge then.
Gore Jr. - is he going to be the 'go to' journo for documentaries I wonder?
Electricity from lightning strikes? Well why not!
More international shows on US TV? Well that's good reversal from the usual position.
I agree with the Colonel about the emergency spending bill opponents.
Leslie Nielsen’s brother is Prime Minister of Canada? The comedy writes itself.
I like the Buffalo Commons Act- seems like a good sensible move.
Good that Bellamy didn't forget the SASIFs.
Seems that Harland is not as ready as all that. Great moment there @gap80
"$5 billion that Americans spent last year on fast-food chicken" - damm that's a lot birds!
Plus the pizza market is opening up too. Lots of possible problems for KFC there.
I.S.S. and Mars- glad the US is keeping it's hand in.
Malcolm X a good family man? Good.
Nader needs to watch that he does not over work himself.
"with the Wendy logo looking like a good who would live on a farm with a red barn" - word missing?
Is it me or are the Canadians changing leaders a lot?
Wow the Universal Health Care Bill actually passed? Damm! Bellamy got the Big One done!
Labour Party Leader John Lennon? Heh, cool. I wonder what the Band mates think...
Interesting post Soviet move there by Mongolia.
Good luck Mr Hillenburg

Nice chapter.
Chapter 62: July 1990 – December 1990

Welcome back President Volkov!
…“the natural powers of the Earth are not as reliable as tried-and-true coal, oil and natural gas.” … - I nearly spat my drink over my laptop....!!!
Afghan Braised Chicken in Yogurt - that sounds kinda nice...
National Governors’ Association - was Bob there I wonder?
Ron Paul quitting the Hill? Wow... the Bellamy Effect...
"we have room for a seventh flag" - great line. Good luck Yugoslavia. Wonder if it would work with Pureto Rico...?
The Colonel on the 'Net is an amusing thought.
Happy 100th Birthday Colonel!
15th Chicken Dinner Summit - some great examples of cross-border working there. Glad its still working.
John Lennon- Labour Leader- well he'd get my vote, if I was born ITTL.
I like this Jimmy Carter. Seems a nice bloke.
That is a lot of MaccyD's...
"...That is how we make a profit, ladies and gentlemen! Not by grabbing for every cent in their wallets and purses, but by providing good food and good wages for our customers and workers!” - such a decent, solid business philosophy. Hope it survives the Colonel.
“Ross the Boss” - cool nickname! And congratz on re-election
Balanced Budget Amendment is now Constitutional. Going to tie the hands of a lot of govts going forward...
All those Bill in December 1990: its the small things that add up to big working changes
" is the meaning of life." - true words Colonel. True words.

RIP Colonel Harland Sanders - thank you for the chicken, and just being a decent Human being.


It is good he had a Huge send off- its what a diplomat and icon like Colonel Sanders deservers ITTL.

Dimension Travellers: 1. Roosevelt, 2. Sanders, 3. Johnson, 4. Truman, 5. Eisenhower, 6. Mondale, 7. Kemp, 8. Denton
Nice working on the Global population figures there.

Once again @gap80 - superb work.
I know that Broadway hasn't really been a thing touched on too much ITTL, but personally, I'd like to believe that Jim Henson ended up making his proposed Muppets Broadway show in 1973 and it went on to win Tony for best musical the next year. It feels right. With that said, for this world to be even better, Once On This Island has to win the best musical award next year.
OK, so I just had a thought. If Warner Brothers never sell Nickelodeon to Viacom as they did in OTL in 1986 and keep it separate from the MTV Networks brand, but still sell MTV and VH1, they get their own network to put their own kinda programming on, never moving beyond the silver ball phase and possibly making something akin to Toonami later on (It is Warner Calling the shots after all). This would have allowed MTV to make its own kinda programming block/channel for younger audiences sometime in the late 80s. Maybe even make a channel for preschooler shows, similar to Nick Jr IOTL, if that doesn't sound too OOC of them. (+ now, Antonucci doesn't have to send the Eds off to Nick since he already works at MTV. Same for Mina and the Count.) In the meantime, Overmyer can set up its own Cartoon Channel instead of Turner and even buy a library of toons of its own. After all, T.O.N is successful ITTL, why not capitalize? You could call the channel something catchy like, say, ''Ton O' Toons.'' It basically means that there's no need for a Fox Kids or anything like that, so iconic shows and unmade shows would probably get switched around and end up on different networks than IOTL. Doozy Bots and the Doom Patrol series would probably end up on Nick, Quasar and Defenders of Dynatron on Ton O'Toons and King Crab on MTV Kids, home for the more Gen X style programming along with Ren and Stimpy, Doug and others, The various anime dubs split between the three.

Also, how about this for a suggestion for the adult side of things? The Powerpuff Girls stays as Whoopass Stew past the unaired pilot and stays on MTV as an adult toon. That would partially fill the hole left by the Simpsons. Sorry if it feels like I'm giving you more work to do. I just like sharing any stray ideas I might have so they don't go homeless. :p

Edit: One last idea. Ultraforce has been, in my mind, tainted by the actions of Gerard Jones. So, instead, how about a Youngblood series aimed at older kids, by the same guys who did the Maxx animated series?
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Chapter 63: January 1991 – July 1991
Chapter 63: January 1991 – July 1991

“Only look back to see how far you’ve traveled”

– attributions vary

It was a sad departure of someone whose noticeable and notable presence and input was greatly cherished and valued, and would be greatly missed, but the time for them to go had come at last. After 22 years of heading the company, June Martino finally stepped down as the CEO of McDonald’s on January 4th, entering a long-awaited retirement. Having already assembled a new “lineup” of executives at the company’s head, the transition from Martino to Turner was smooth sailing as the fast-food juggernaut continues to head the pack of the burger-selling industry. Longtime Board Chairman Frederick Leo “Fred” Turner and his team of well-qualified supportive subordinates (most notably Michael Robert Quinlan, Jack M. Greenberg, and James Alan Skinner) seem all ready to keep their good times rolling…

Nation’s Restaurant News, monthly trade publication, January 1991 issue

“In the wake of the Colonel’s death, a noticeable drop in KFC’s stock market value occurred. The departure of McDonald’s CEO a few weeks later also weakened their own standing in the markets, but not nearly as badly as KFC. And KFC bounced back, but not nearly as quickly as McDonald’s did.”

– Pete Harman, 60 Minutes interview, early 1992


...The remark comes days after Palestinian officials met amicably with Israeli investors in Jerusalem in a well-publicized “sharing of ideas” which seemed to highlight the effectiveness of the 1978 Atlanta Peace Treaty… [1]

The Boston Globe, 1/4/1991

CLAUDIA: “Is it the 8th or the 9th?”

MARGARET: “It’s the 5th.”

CLAUDIA: “Oh good, because this expires on the 28th.”

MARGARET: “Ma, are you okay?”

CLAUDIA: “No, I don’t think so. [pause] Talking to Ladybird helps, but haven’t been really okay in weeks.”

MARGARET: “You should come with us to Las Vegas.”

CLAUDIA: “Vegas?”

MARGARET: “Yeah, clear your head. You keeping organizing this pantry over and over, you’ll get cabin fever soon enough.”

CLAUDIA: “You sure I wouldn’t be a burden or a third wheel?”

MILDRED: “Nonsense; we’d love to have you along!”

CLAUDIA: “You know, your father – rest his soul – he took me everywhere, but he never took me to Vegas. Too many vices for his taste.”

– Margaret Sanders, former First Lady Claudia Sanders, and Mildred Sanders, home security interior A/V camera transcript, Claudia Sanders' Corbin, KY home, 1/6/1991

Ben came running back with the emergency kit quicker than a dog coming back with a fetched ball. He treated the scratch with some liquid that made the young mother give out a whiney hiss of pain. Ben then applied a tourniquet to her scratched leg and then brought her over to jeep while I carried her boy. We were soon back at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, where Ben regaled his coworkers with the story. While typically found father north of Perth and farther inland, it was not entirely uncommon for emus to be spotted this far down from up there. And this emus in particular was a capricious two-legged devil sort of bird, who had gone after a woman and child in the park just as we were about to leave. Ben’s quick thinking saved woman’s life after attack from an emu. We found out the next day that a photographer had captured several slices of the event – Ben bolting to the scene as the mother was falling; Ben swinging a tree branch above his head like a caveman defending his meal; the demon-bird watching from the edge of the park, with only Ben aware of his still-lingering presence; the emu returning to the scene of the crime as out jeep drove away. The West Australian called him a hero, almost – and I do mean almost – exaggerating how he courageously fought off an emu trying to bring further harm a woman and her child. Still, by acting quick, Ben had likely saved the young woman’s life, and that was enough for us.

But not enough for Australia. Suddenly quite the celebrity, Ben was practically surrounded by people wanting some of his time. After initial resistance, Ben decided it was a sign, an opportunity to speak out on the medical issues facing the city and the surrounding areas. This brought him to the attention of local medical institutions, and that led to radio interviews, and then the cycle of contacts-and-publicity continued, as everyone, from local churches to the local branch of the National Party of Australia, whose party leaders really wanted to sit down with him and talk to him and listen to what Ben had to say.

– Candy Carson’s A Doctor In The House: My Life With Ben Carson, Penguin Random House, 2012 [2]

…In the same vein of Colonel Sanders, Mandela donated a large portion of his Presidential salary to various children’s charities. …Finding the position of President to be “lonely” and tiring,” Mandela declined to run for a second full time…


President Biko maintained many of Mandela’s policies when it came to land reform, anti-poverty initiatives, and sanitation measures to combat the SASIF Virus. Biko went even further when it came to healthcare, though, backing Universal Health Care legislation in late 1990. In regards to foreign policy, Biko made South Africa become a leading member of the Non-Aligned Movement, and he strengthened the already-strong ties the country had with Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana.

President Biko differed from former President Mandela the greatest, though, when it came to racial relations. When a minor traffic incident led to a white police officer shooting a black driver in late January 1991, the Biko government immediately condemned the officer, and called for him to be fired. The incident made Biko’s approval ratings among white drop even further.

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016

[vid: /watch?v=X_sAhB5m7xw ]
– KFC commercial for Super Bowl XXV, first aired 1/27/1991


…Nielsen, our gaffe-prone “goofball” of a PM still unable to get laws passed has hit a new low in both polls and in integrity. The case of frequent changes in leadership is often considered a sign of political instability [3]; Canada seems to have this infliction lately, going from Chretien to Copps in 1989 and from Copps to Nielsen less than a year later. But necessity flies in the face of political assumptions. Nielsen’s bungling of the budget, dangerous deregulating of natural gas operations in the western provinces, and inability to combat inflation or unemployment issues all signal the need for eligible Canadians to vote in a more competent leader as soon as possible. Speaking of which, this is the new low – Nielsen has come out in favor of passing a law this year to set all PM government terms to a fixed period of five years. If passed, Nielsen could end up sticking around until 1995! Our nation could not afford this blow. It is obvious that Nielsen is pushing this bill in order to not lose re-election in the next general election. Late last year, when asked why he refuses to resign from the office, Nielsen said, “I’ll let the voices of the voters be heard first and foremost.” Be careful what you wish for, Erik.

The Toronto Star, Canadian newspaper, 1/28/1991 opinion article


…“There’s a time to play ball, but right now Carol needs to remind Walker who’s the President, who’s the leader that America chose to have.” Since representing Anna Mason during the Lukens Hush Money Scandal of 1985, Fine has obtained a job teaching law at the Fordham University School of Law in NYC, and has worked the political campaigns of progressive congressional candidates in 1988 and 1990 as an advisor, organizer, and mobilizer. In 1991, Ms. Fine plan to work with Bellamy’s re-election campaign, on fundraising, PR, and other elements…

The Boston Globe, 2/2/1991

Michael Ignatieff was born in 1947 and raised primarily in Canada... [snip] ...After teaching as a professor of history at the University of British Columbia from 1976 to 1978, Ignatieff moved to the UK in 1978 to hold a senior research fellowship at King’s College in Cambridge. In 1984, he moved again, this time to Canberra, Australia for a higher-paying teaching post, as a professor of journalism. After moving yet again, to London, California, and France between 1987 and 1991, Ignatieff returned to Canberra in early 1991 for a more permanent writing position. Serving as both a part-time professor and a contributor for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in the nation’s capital exposed Ignatieff to “the fascinating world of Australian politics,” as he later put it…



…At the start of the Bellamy administration, the technet was, at least primarily, little more than an expensive virtual library with mail, a way of storing information, and communicating about storing information, via the text-based file sharing of data sets among colleges. An SMI (Social Media Image) or “simi” (also known as a "lafpic" when the simi is a humorous one) would not become a common feature found on “OCG”s, or ontech chat groups that are of less academic and professional content, for several more years. Despite efforts to utilize the technology’s capabilities in the field of commerce, the technet was primarily used for education purposes at the start of the 199s. This changed when President Bellamy began encouraging private and public sector businesses to utilize the technet’s capabilities. …Bellamy was first called its “mother” by documentary filmmaker Albert Gore Jr. in 1993, when discussing her praise of technological innovation during the 1991 State of the Union Address...

–, 2013 article

By 1991, over 80% of all US colleges, and roughly 10% of all US high schools, had computers in their libraries. The biggest hurdle to overcome in regards to making computers widely used by a majority of people was adapting the technology to widespread usability, and then reaching the next stage, affordability. President Bellamy and Vice President Litton, together with Secretary Kyros and US Senators Jay Kerttula (R-AS), Marilyn Lloyd (D-TN) and Jack Lousma (R-MI), worked on this, leading to the High Performance Computing Act of 1991. Introduced in 1990, this legislation was finally voted on in February 1991, first after being quickly passed in the Senate thanks to approval by the Senate Commerce, Science and Information subcommittee, and then after narrowly getting through the House. The legislation developed the National Data Infrastructure and provided funding for the National Education and Research Department, an agency with an overlooked acronym that fell under the Department of Energy ad Technology. Based on work developed with the government’s ARPANET system of the 1960s, the bill was a major factor in the creation of the modern technet, leading to many internet pioneers such as Vint Cerf, Bill Gates, Bob Kahn and Steve Jobs praising “the Big Five” (Bellamy, Kyros, Kerttula, Lloyd, and Lousma) for decades.

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018

It is very peculiar how weather and human activity can affect the spreading of disease. A notable example of this phenomenon began in January 1991 with a simple push to construct more affordable housing in New Mexico, a state with a high rate of homeless people. Such a construction project on the outskirts of Gallup, New Mexico, saw a man go from clearing away a field occupied by deer mice on February 5 to becoming Subject A on February 12. Upon entering Gallup Hospital that day, Subject A was soon wheeled into E.R., wiping their dirt-and-then-some-covered shoe onto another patient’s pants in the process. Said patient then wiped away the smear with his hand, and then adjusted his glasses with that same hand. With the transfer of the and-then-some from his shoes to her pants to her glasses and face and mouth, she became Subject B. Subject A died soon after, but not before the and-then-some particles from either Subject A or Subject B found their way onto at least one more patient in the hallway, one who was a particularly unsanitary fellow. On February 17, this fellow soon flew back to Louisiana, originally heading to the bustling city of New Orleans, only for engine trouble to ground the plane in Shreveport; by the time the plane landed, the unsanitary man, later known as Subject C, was already coughing up a storm as the and-then-some went after his lungs.

On February 18, Subject D of Durango, southern Colorado, was finally cleaning her long-neglected shed-turned-art studio when a deer mouse, a refugee from the wet outside, ran across her arm, causing her to shriek and slip, bruising her shoulder in the process. That same day, a man became Subject E when touching another deer mouse’s leavings while looking for hock-able heirlooms in his recently-deceased mother’s attic. Upon entering the hospital for the final time in his life, 12 days later and with flu-like symptoms, he reportedly said between long and labored breaths, “I must have really stirred up something awful.”

And in Farmington, New Mexico, another housing development site disturbed a large nest of deer mice...

– Allison Swanson’s The Hantavirus Epidemic, Signet Books, 1998

…And now we turn to sports, where H. Ross Perot, the billionaire former Governor of Texas has finally accomplished what fellow businessman Jerry Jones had failed to do three years earlier, and buy the Dallas Cowboys professional football team from businessman H. R. “Bum” Bright. The price ticket: a whopping $200million, which is $50million more than Mr. Jones was willing to pay for the team in 1989, according to our previous reporting…

– ABC News, 2/19/1991


…“documentation and vital records can be stored more easily on floppy disks,” says the regional manager of this establishment. “Shipping orders, medical concerns, bills, taxes – all such things can be organized cleanly and neatly and in a whole new way.” Instead of searching alphabetically through files, employees will now simply have type into the computer a word or phrase, and the computer’s relevant files will appear on the screen...

Time Magazine, mid-February 1991 issue


…with Hungary’s sudden post-Soviet privatization measures came a shock to the national economy. State subsidies needed to be reinstated to combat the severity of Hungary’s economic downturn in 1985. With the introduction of further privatization laws, a second, smaller recession hit the country last year. Says Hungary’s Deputy Minister of Justice, Ibolya David, “we’re figuring out how much the system can take, and we will get thigs under control soon.”...

The Guardian, 22/2/1991

Elections for the 13th Knesset were held in Israel on 27 February 1991 [4]. The election resulted in the formation of a minority government led by Shulamit Aloni of the Meretz Party, with Labor forming an alliance with them in order to make up a majority coalition in the Knesset. As in previous elections, most anti-treaty parties failed to pass the electoral threshold. Aloni was the second female PM in Israel history.


Aloni was the leader of the opposition from 1988 to 1991 and the leader of the then-recently-founded Meretz party, a left-wing/social-democratic/green political party. In previous election cycle, the parties that merged to create Meretz together took up over 15% of the votes cast. This time, they took up almost double, at 28% of the vote, with the two main parties of Labor and Likud dropping to 25% and 21%, respectively, with several other parties taking up the remaining percentage of the vote. The Labor (social democratic) party, led by former PM Yitzhak Rabin, and the Likud (conservative) party led by incumbent PM Yitzhak Shamir, both miscalculated the appeal of Aloni’s optimistic rhetoric and progressive platform… …The Shas (ultra-orthodox religious populism) Party only won over 3 seats…


See also:
Menachem Begin, 6th Israel PM 1977-1985 (Likud)
Yitzhak Shamir, 7th Israel PM 1985-1988/1990-1991 (Likud)
Yitzhak Rabin, 8th Israel PM 1988-1990 (Labor)


“Well, with my own political career long behind me and my dad doing fine in the Senate – he even was mounting another bid for the Presidency – I decided to finally make the move here in, oh, March first or second, 1991. I had had investments in companies down here for years. I had made millions in cattle, ranching, and while contributing to environmentalist causes was one thing, being on the ground and being more hands-on was more gratifying. So a moved here, here’s where I’ve made home. I like it here, I like living here, and I want to do all I can to make it a swell place to live for everyone who lives here!”

– Barry Goldwater Jr., 7 News, Seven Network, Australian TV news service, 1996 interview

In Colorado, a young woman who was hospitalized for trouble breathing. Doctors were surprised by the high amount of fluid found in the woman’s swollen lungs, the organs being almost completely filled with it. Upon her death hours after her admission, an autopsy revealed the woman’s lungs to be twice the normal weight for someone her age. The cause of her death could not be immediately determined, and the case was reported to the Colorado Department of Health, which had recently received massive funds cuts by Governor Andrews. [5]

By the time paramedics brought in Subject E to the Indian Medical Center emergency room, he had stopped breathing and the paramedics were performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The young man could not be revived by doctors and died. The physicians, surprised by the high levels of fluid in both lungs, reported his death to the New Mexico Department of Health. [5] The similarities between Subject A and Subject E were noticed, leading to the department notifying the C.D.C. on March 1st.

– Allison Swanson’s The Hantavirus Epidemic, Signet Books, 1998


– The New York Times, 3/2/1991

North Korea began the 1990s in one hell of a crisis. With only a fifth of the country’s mountainous terrain being arable, the nation was incapable of complete self-sufficiency. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1984 meant the collapse of Korea food aid from Russia, leading to Kim Il-Sung reluctant to rely on the People’s Republic of China, because he believed disapproved of China opening up its markets to capitalist nations. When food aid was finally secured from China in 1987, the help was minimal, as the PRC kept greater attention on the Uyghur Camp Economic Crisis of 1987-1989, and as such, things continued to worsen for the people of the Hermit Kingdom. According to US Defense files declassified in 2018, Kim Il-Sung possibly survived an aborted military coup in 1988. A bigger issue for the US at the time, though, was Kim’s interests in obtaining nuclear weapons.

North Korea showed an interest in developing nuclear weapons since the 1950s, with efforts at a nuclear program being traced back to about 1962, when North Korea committed itself to what it called "all-fortressization," which was the beginning of the hyper-militarized North Korea of the early 1990s. In 1963, North Korea asked the Soviet Union for help in developing nuclear weapons, but was refused. The Soviet Union agreed to help North Korea develop a peaceful nuclear energy program, including the training of nuclear scientists. Later, China, after its nuclear tests, similarly rejected North Korean requests for help with developing nuclear weapons. In the 1980s, North Korea began to operate facilities for uranium fabrication and conversion, and conducted high-explosive detonation tests. In 1985 North Korea ratified the NPT but did not include the required safeguards agreement with the IAEA. [6] Despite still maintaining interest in nuclear energy, Kim signed an accord with the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1988 to permit international inspections of their nuclear power plants.

Unfortunately for his people, Kim Il-Sung’s focus was not on the growing issue of famine. The impoverished masses were using outdated tools on small plots, with insufficient irrigation systems and some entire communities trying to survive on a single crop in a nation where much of the land is only frost-free for six months out of the year.

Through the combination of economic mismanagement, the loss of outside support from 1984 to 1987 and insufficient outsider support after that, food production and imports declined rapidly, and the Hermit Kingdom’s centrally-planned government system was too inflexible to react to the subsequent humanitarian disaster. With a population of roughly 22 million, thousands of North Koreans became susceptible to starvation and hunger-related illnesses…

– Van Jackson’s Rival Reputations: Coercion and Credibility in the Post-Cold War Era, Cambridge University Press, 2016

…On March 9, the shuttleplane Excelsior took off from Cape Canaveral carrying instruments designed to study the details and effects of man-made Global Climatic Disruption, a phenomenon that was gaining attention as the decade of the 1990s began...

– mathematician Dorothy Vaughn’s Human Computers: Me and The Other Women at NASA, Langley Publishers, 1997

Within a week, a task force had formed in Albuquerque that included Bruce Tempest, chief of medicine at the Indian Medical Center. Tempest quickly discovered that seven people, including Subject A and Colorado’s case, all had experienced the same symptoms and all had died within a two-month period.

Tempest learned from
Subject A's family of the nature of his occupation, doing odd jobs around town, usually landscaping and construction. Seeking answers, Tempest pondered in his notes, “Deaths on the nearby Navajo reservations are not reported to the state health department because they are sovereign nations.” By March 10, Tempest had discovered, much to his shock, from Navajo medical officials that over a dozen Native Americans had contracted the mysterious illness, most of them young Navajos in New Mexico. This included two relatives of Subject A that had died within hours of one another.

– Allison Swanson’s The Hantavirus Epidemic, Signet Books, 1998


…featuring mild flu-like symptoms followed by a sudden onset of pulmonary edema requiring ventilators, most of the victims so far have been either Hispanic or Native American. ...Navajo leaders report that similar outbreaks of this nature have happened in the past, most notably in 1918, 1933, and 1934. Due to the presence of mice in the vicinities of many of the victims, this journalist was informed that Navajo tribal stories consider mice to be harbingers of bad luck and illness…

The Los Angeles Times, 3/11/1991

Hearing a news report, a physician notified health officials to say that the illness sounded a lot like hantavirus, which he had observed in Korea in the 1950s. The Centers for Disease Control tested for hantavirus even though Asia and Europe were the only documented places hantavirus had been known to occur. No known cases had ever been reported in the United States. In addition, all the cases in Asia and Europe had involved hantaviruses that caused kidney failure, never respiratory failure. The testing revealed a previously unknown hantavirus which was eventually named Sin Nombre virus, Spanish for "No Name" virus. The disease became formally known as
“hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome,” or simply “hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.” [7]


[pic: ]

Above: a deer mouse, a common carrier of HPS (Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome), a form of hantavirus that was not known of by US medical officials until 1991

Dr. Tempest’s notes show that there was much debate within the task force over the source of the HPS case, and several theories were advanced to explain the emergence of the new virus.

“It’s obviously a rise in contact between humans and mice due to some sort of ‘bumper crop’ in the deer mouse population,” said one physician.

Another countered with the theory that “something within the virus has changed, allowing it to jump to humans.”

“We would be seeing way more cases sprout up,” Dr. Tempest claims to have said.

“But we might yet,” the other scientist explained, “We haven’t determined how long is the virus’ incubation period,” or how long the virus remains dormant within its human host before “attacking” said host.

A third theory was that nothing had changed, that hantavirus cases had in fact occurred previously but had not been properly diagnosed. This last theory was based on the Korean variation of the virus, for which does not spread person-to-person. Instead, transmission occurs when humans are exposed to air contaminated with aerosolized mouse feces, usually within enclosed spaces. [7]

“But what if the virus has mutated, and can now go from person to person like my colleague said?” Dr. Tempest writes. “It could be disastrous for this region.” Upon the discovery of the unsanitary Subject C of Shreveport, Louisiana, though, gave rise to the possibility of the virus outbreak not being confined the just the Four Corners region of the United States…

– History of Hantavirus,, retrieved 2020-04-15

Under President Bellamy’s direction, the FDA and the federal Agriculture, Health and Welfare, Education and HHS Departments established a series of regulations dubbed “enforceable guidelines” for fast-food corporations and businesses to follow. For megacompanies like McDonald’s, the most “egregious” of these guidelines called for all foods directed toward, meant for, or consumed in great quantity by patrons under 18 to have to include ingredients listed on packaging and to adhere to a “cap” on going beyond the FDA’s recommended daily amount of sugar, saturated fat, trans fats, and salt that should be consumed by children under 18. These measurement were immediately opposed by the GOP-led house, with House Speaker Robert Smith Walker calling it “at the least an attempt to turn the government into a nanny state and at the worst an attempt to limit the freedoms of American consumers and the businesses with which they choose to interact.” Nevertheless, the “guidelines” went into effect via executive order in March, and opposing forces failed to have the court strike them down as Bellamy’s administration continued on…

– Eric Schlosser’s Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Mariner Books, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012


…This culmination of over two years of negotiations is major foreign policy accomplishment for the Bellamy administration, and could significantly improve US-Chinese relations, which would be a noticeable reversal of the animosity of the late 1980s…

– The Corvallis Gazette-Times, Oregonian newspaper, 3/16/1991

President Bellamy became aware of the possible gravity of the situation while flying back from Hawaii, having just signed a landmark extradition treaty with China there.

“Hantavirus, a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus of the Bunyavirales order, normally causes infection in rodents, but humans can become infected through contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces. This can lead to hemorrhagic fever and renal failure.” Dr. Anthony Fauci, immunologist and Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infection Diseases since 1984, informed the Commander-in-Chief.

“This has happened before,” added Dr. Tempest, “Researchers working with our task force have discovered a 38-year-old man in Utah succumbed to such symptoms in 1959. We’re still looking into claims by the Navajo Nation that similar cases occurred in the 1930s. But also,” flipping through his notes, “An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever among American and Korean soldiers during the Korean War was caused by Hantavirus infection. Over 3,000 troops got symptoms that included kidney failure and shock, with a 10% mortality rate. It’s the reason for its name, in fact – we named it after the Hanta River over there.”

“Ten percent, dear god,” Bellamy thought aloud, still listening intensely.

“And before all that,” Dr. Tempest concluded, “The sweating sickness that swept through England in 1485 was likely this too, same symptoms and everything.”

“Well that’s great for history class,” Vice President Litton chimed in, “But what about right now? For starters, how did y’all even discover the connection to the mice?”

“That would be the work of Yates and Parmenter, sir,” Tempest said while pointing with his pen over to two of his colleagues on his right. New Mexico University professor Terry Yates (born in Kentucky, circa 1952) had been part of the team with research assistant Robert Parmenter. “The two discovered it by testing numerous local animals. We discovered that mice had a higher than usual population in the region.”

“How comes,” Bellamy asked bluntly.

“Possibly due to a combination of factors – irrigation projects making water and water runoff luring them in, ZEDs,” or Zones of Economic Development, a kay accomplishment of the Kemp administration, “being redeveloped and thus dispensing mice that once took up residents in dilapidated buildings, and wet weather is typically the main factor.”

“Irrigation runoff provides more vegetation and thus food, leading to mice arriving and breeding faster than usual. Right?” Litton pondered.

“That is correct, sir. More mice, more chance of contact with humans,” Dr. Fauci answered.

“We’ve got to get the word out,” Bellamy unfolded her hands and sat farther upright in her chair at the end of the table. “If more cases outside of Subject C pop up in Louisiana, we’ll know it’s capable of going from person to person. We have to get the Governors to warn people how to avoid getting it. Keep houses clean, wear protection while gardening, renovating. Ten percent mortality rate. Dear God.”

“It’s even worse than that, ma’am,” Tempest spoke up again.

“How?” Bellamy inquired.

“If this new strand can indeed jump from person-to-person like the South American strand of the Hantavirus possibly can, we can see a higher mortality rate than 10%. Of the New Mexico cases, nearly half have passed away,” Tempest concluded with a slight gulp, “meaning this strand is by far the deadliest at a mortality rate of between 30% and 50%.”

“Oh sweet Jesus!” the Vice President rightfully exclaimed.

“Without any cure, patients need immediate help from oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, blood pressure medications, and, if needed, kidney dialysis,” Fauci stated.

“Do you have any good news, gentlemen?”

“Well, Mr. Vice President,” Yates answered this times, “We do know that chlorine bleach destroys the virus, and the snowfall can shut down virus transmission. The UV rays of sunlight will kill the virus if it is directly exposed to it as well.”

Litton shook his head dismissively, and stated, “Well, at least we’ll see how universal healthcare handles large-scale disasters.”

“Bit your tongue, Jerry!” Bellamy retorted.

“Yeah, that was blue, sorry.”

Fauci, hoping to add some hope to the somber room, finally noted “Well, at least the CDC and the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases,” or USAMRIID, “are working isolating the virus. To go from discovery of a new virus to isolation, though, typically takes at least a year,” Fauci had to confess.

“We can’t wait that long!” Bellamy exclaimed “Double your staff, double your hours. Use the most advance tech you’ve got. I’ll get the costs covered after the fact. Hell, I’ll pay for the overtime myself if I have to!”

– Thomas Hennen Carter’s Bellamyville: The Rise And Struggles Of An American President, Scribner publishers, 2018 [8]

“While attending the Boston University School of Law, from which I graduated in 1993, I founded Lemonade Inc., and investments-based business enterprise focused on technet-based accounting and other entrepreneurial ideas relating to the harnessing of the computer.”

– Judge Peter Rokkos of the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, KNN interview, 2007

President Bellamy immediately contacted the Governors of the relevant states, and decided to speak with the remaining Governors next month before the National Governors Association, upon request for an emergency meeting to be held on April 4 to discuss a worst-case scenario and plan for immediate needs in the event that this new hantavirus could indeed transfer from person-to-person.

“Look out for the symptoms: fatigue, fever, muscle aches, headaches, dizziness, chills, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, typically starting a week after the virus enters the body, but sometimes longer, up a month, and then it strikes and strikes fast,” Bellamy informed them.

Governors Donald Kennedy (D-CA), Carolyn Warner (D-AZ), Ben Lujan Sr. (D-NM) and Edith Kirkpatrick (D-LA) were supportive of implementing Bellamy’s proposals, as did the National Park Service. Government officials would launch immediate awareness campaigns informing people to stay clear or wear protective clothing such as gloves and face masks when in forests, fields, farms, garages, outbuildings, sheds, and all other areas that offered suitable habitats for rodent hosts. “If even cats catching mice can lead to the cat’s owners catching it, we need to inform pest control services and promote people hiring professionals to fumigate and inspect crawl spaces, vacant lots prone to mice infestations, things of that nature, yes?” asked Kennedy. [9]

“That’s correct,” Bellamy answered.

“And I’ll meet up with Native American leaders just in case,” said Warner.

“I’ll have my people help your people,” Lujan offered to Warner, who graciously accepted.

Governors John Andrews (R-CO) and Rick Perry (D-TX), however, were not convinced the number of cases merited such a massive public awareness campaign as suggested. “I think we’re taking this out of proportion,” Perry explained his opinion, “So far, only three cases have popped up in my state. And we don’t even know for certain if this virus can transfer from person to person.”

Unable to convince Perry to make an announcement like what the rest of the aforementioned Governors agreed to do, Bellamy soon made contact with Lieutenant Governor Henry Cisneros of Texas, who held more weight and sway over the state due to the unique nature of the Governor-Lieutenant Governor setup found in the Texas state constitution.

On March 21, 1991, the US Surgeon General joined Bellamy, Litton, Fauci, Tempest, Yates and others at a join press briefing to urge Americans living in the southwest to wear gloves and face masks whenever in public as a necessary safety precaution...

– Thomas Hennen Carter’s Bellamyville: The Rise And Struggles Of An American President, Scribner publishers, 2018

SUBJECT FA: Hey, welcome back, you old slugger! > slaps Subject CB on back, touching mud-covered jacket <

SUBJECT CB: Watch it, I’ve got a crick in my back ever since I fell out of the cab back in Shreveport.

SUBJECT FA: Oh yeah! How was the place?

SUBJECT CB: It sucked.

SUBJECT FA: It couldn’t have sucked worse than your trip to Missoula.

SUBJECT CB: There’s nothing to do, all the locals are either morons or real good at playin’ morons, and after our Lady-in-Chief’s press briefing on Thursday, uh > clearing throat < everyone was being told to ‘glove up’ and ‘mask up’ and sh*t. > clearing throat < Can’t remember why. Weird place, uh… > clearing throat <

SUBJECT FA: Say, you alright?

SUBJECT CB: Damn seasonal allergies, I swear they’re getting worse every year. > clearing throat < They’re especially bad today, it’s like I inhaled a bunch o’ cotton or somethin’.

SUBJECT FA: You should get that checked out.

SUBJECT CB: Naw, I just gotta drink lots of water is all.

SUBJECT FA: I don’t know, I don’t watch the news much, but I heard something bad’s goin’ around.

SUBJECT CB: Don’t worry, I’ll be fine.

– Transcript, A/V security recording outside bar in New Orleans, LA, 3/23/1991

The appearance of five more cases in Shreveport, the final place Subject C got to visit, and the appearance of two more virus victims in New Orleans gave momentum to the theory that the virus had evolved to being transferable between humans. This in turn led to increased calls for people to avoid heavy public concentrations of people when not wearing gloves and masks. Governor Edith Kirkpatrick (D-LA) went so far as to call for bars and dance halls to cease operations indefinitely, while theories concerning the Shreveport Five were investigated. The fact that the Louisiana Bayou has its own version of the hantavirus, the “Bayou virus” linked to rice rats, lead to some defenders of Governors Perry and Andrews – who had chosen not to order public mask-wearing on the grounds of violating personal freedoms – claiming that this proved that the New Mexico hantavirus had not mutated after all.

Public reaction to these developments was one of fear and confusion. Panic buying was soon followed by migration of people out of rural areas and into the apartments of urban friends and relatives. Governor Lujan (D-NM) soon had to implement a price freeze on sanitation products and housecleaning services and demand skyrocketed. On the lighter side of things, the virus’ vulnerability to sunlight led to a noticeable rise in public parks being visited across the southern and western states.

– Ben Hjelle’s article “The Hantaviral Disease in the Southern and Western United States,” Western Journal of Medicine, 1992


Harvey LeRoy “Lee” Atwater, a major architect of House Speaker Robert Smith Walker’s political ascension who also, albeit less successfully in the wake of the Lukens Hush Money Scandal, worked on the campaigns of several Republican candidates in 1986 and 1988, died this morning at George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C. Born in Atlanta on February 27, 1951, Mr. Atwater died after a yearlong fight against a brain tumor that struck him just as he was attempting to oversee several more GOP races in 1990. He was 40 years old and is survived by a wife and three children.

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 3/30/1991

The newest (and last) Prime Minister of independent Albania, Adil Carcani oversaw his country formally join Yugoslavia, with the government documentation officially being signed on March 31, followed by the swearing in of the new Yugoslavic state’s leader (Carcani, as a caretaker until new elections were held) on April 22, and the formal and official opening of trade and borders on May 19… [snip] In light of having another state to represent in the Presidential cycle, parliament agreed to shorten the terms of the Presidency from five years each to three years each...

– Leslie Benson’s Yugoslavia: A Concise History, Palgrave Publishers, 2001

“Back in 1991, the hantavirus was spreading and people were generally freaking out. At least, in the South and out west. Nobody was sure how it was spreading or how contagious it was, but they saw the fatality rate of, like, 40%, and so most did what the politicians and medical experts told them to do. And that all meant that Spring Break ’91 had been canceled for many students in southern and western Universities, as well as Steven’s plan to open his nautical Chuck-E-Cheese-style restaurant in time for Spring Break ’91. The virus and the new FDA guidelines, too. The Bellamy Guidelines probably more so, actually, now that I really think about it, since many people still went to the beaches nevertheless. But anyway, Steven, said, he said to me, ‘seafood and family togetherness are not seasonal. We can afford to open later. This is not a public enterprise. I have no stockholders. But I do have workers.’ And so he aimed for an autumn opening, and took the time given to him to work on renovations and recipes.”

– Bryan Hillenburg, 2019 interview

“Why is it called ‘SpongeBob’s,’ or, more specifically, ‘Spongebob’s Undersea Cuisine,’ when Mr. Krabs is the manager?”

“Because the workers run the show. They’re the ones that do the backbreaking work, the daily duties that keep the place up and running.”

“But wasn’t this enterprise hard for you to put together?”

“Yes, but the labor I put into building this all up does not diminish the hard work of the cashiers and the cooks that keep this all up.”

“Mr. Krabs is very generous naming his restaurant after a worker.”

“He’s just that good of a worker.”

“Must be! But how did you come up with a name as unique and eye-catching as SpongeBob?”

“We started out with several placeholder names like The Crunchy Crab and Krab King Burgers, when the Mr. Krabs character was the main focus of it, we called it Undersea Cuisine for a while, but to me it just sounded too posh on its own like that, and Dockside Classics and Offshore Delights were already taken. We tried Undersea King Cuisine, Krab King Cuisine, Sea King Burgers, the Sea King Shack, the Krabby Patty Shack, Crusty Crab Burgers, and Krabby Patty Cuisine. None sounded just right. But then one day when trying to draw a possible logo, I started doodling a little fish mascot. That was too clichéd, so I thought, ‘I want this to last, to stick around. What stays in one place?’ I asked myself, and the answer was the reliably sedentary sea sponge. Something nobody had ever used to promote a seafood restaurant before. Originally he was Sponge-Boy, and the restaurant was going to be called ‘SpongeBoy Ahoy,’ but my wife Karen found out that that was the name of a mop product that came out in the 1980s. So we changed it to Bob, like bobbing in water, in keeping with the nautical theme.”

– Stephen Hillenburg, 1997 interview


[ pic: ]
– The first “SpongeBob’s” outlet, under developed/renovation prior to its Grand Opening, c. April 1991

…We have an update on the hantavirus epidemic possibly sweeping parts of the South: a special C.D.C. Task Force has just arrived in Louisiana to further investigate hantavirus cases, or “lung lock,” as the locals are calling it down there...

– KNN News, 4/17/1991


…taking a page out of energy crises of yesteryear, certain schools in the city of New Orleans have opted to hold classes over the radio for the remainder of the school year… …The CDC is requesting anyone with the symptoms of hantavirus seek medical attention immediately in order to minimize spread of this powerful and deadly disease until it can be determined if it has indeed “made the leap” from being only transmittable from animals to human to being transmittable between humans…

– The Shreveport Times, local newspaper, 4/18/1991


…“People should ask themselves whether this hantavirus ‘epidemic’ could be a big hoax, with the actual danger of the disease massively exaggerated by those who seek to profit – financially or politically – from the ensuing panic,” Paul says. “That is not to say the disease is harmless. Without question people will die from hantavirus. Those in vulnerable situations and occupations should take precautions to limit their risk of exposure to deer mice, and to other people it has evolved like some alleged experts claim it may have. But we have seen this movie before. Government over-hypes a threat as an excuse to grab more of our freedoms. When the ‘threat’ is over, however, they never give us our freedoms back.” [10]

The Houston Chronicle, 4/22/1991

“UNFOUNDED AND DANGEROUS”: GOP Rep. Denounces Ron Paul’s “Hoax” Comment

…Representing Arizona’s First U.S. Congressional Seat since 1983, libertarian Republican Doug Wead, 45, went on Arizona radio earlier today to lambaste the former US Senator from Texas for “spreading fear and lies at a time when people need help the most.” He went on to state that “government interference is needed during times of crisis, be it earthquake or twister or a supervirus, because during such times, it is actually what keeps people safe and healthy, and thus allows them to better express and execute their individual freedoms. You can’t hunt a fox on your private property if you’re stuck in a hospital bed.” He concluded with the claim that “Ironically, Ron Paul’s claim threatens individual liberty by discouraging people from doing what is necessary for them to do right now so they can have their freedom virus-free.”

– The Chicago Tribune, 4/24/1991

…Louisiana’s commerce department today announced that its unemployment rate has jumped from 5% to 8% this week in the wake of the hantavirus epidemic closing businesses in the state. Similar, but smaller, drops in employment have also been reported in the states of New Mexico and Arizona…

– CBS Evening News, 4/25/1991 broadcast

On April 26, 1991, a test engineer employed by the Anglo-French IT services company Sema Group used a lab computer to send the world’s first PTM (private text message), doing so through an international network, and to the phone of a colleague. [11]

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018


– The Fairbanks Daily News-Miner, 4/27/1991

To recap, the USSR’s Shelepin replacing First Secretary Antonin Novotny with Vasil' Bil'ak and Gustav Husak in 1968, though the latter became irrelevant once First Secretary Vasil’ Bil’ak consolidated power in 1973. Their administrations' strict regulations and oppressive police state fueled Czechoslovakian shoutnik activism enough for the 20 February 1975 inner-party coup to be a success, leading to reforms across the nation’s socio-economic systems under its new leader, Ota Sik. Sik presided over the collapse of the of the USSR and the Warsaw Pact in 1984. As anti-communist emotions flared in Czechoslovakia, Sik sought to implement democratic reform even faster in order to avoid a similar communist collapse. His efforts failed when peaceful demonstrations overwhelmed the capital, and Sik lost the confidence of the party. In a stunning moment, the “Gentle Revolution” altered the Czechoslovakian government system with zero casualties; only seven hospitalizations from police brutality – prior Sik ordering police to stand down – occurred in the largest assembly of citizens in the nation’s history. The transition of Czechoslovakia saw Sik step down after appointing a non-communist government – the first in the country since 1948 – and his second-in-command, Ludvik Vaculik, serve as interim President until a new leader was chosen in free elections held in August of that year.

The election was the apex of the career of Czech nationalist Vaclav Klaus, a 44-year-old banker who believed the nation was better off split into two, pointing to the independence of the USSR’s non-Russian soviets. However, all the opinion polls at that time showed that a vast majority of Czechs and Slovaks was in favour of the preservation of Czechoslovakia [12], and it turned out that these polls were overall very accurate. Thus, Klaus lost the election to pro-unity economist Valtr Komarek, but surprised foreign pundits by coming in second place.

By 1991, however, tensions between the two parts that made up Czechoslovakia – Czechia and Slovakia – were becoming more prominent. Slovaks, the less populous of the two regions, were upset at Czechs dominating congress and having greater influence in national politics, while Czechs felt like they were paying out of their own pockets for the economic and regional development of the poorer (and seemingly ungrateful) neighbour [12]. Komarek hoped that increasing Slovak autonomy, which was achieved in April 1991, would end the internal debate...

– Maskim Gorky’s After the Iron Curtain: Eastern Europe, 1984-to-Today, Academic International Press, 2010 edition

Plans for an entertainment resort in Europe began immediately after Tokyo Disneyland opened in 1983 and was instant success. The first major debate held was on the crucial element that was its location. Hundreds of locations were considered, ranging from Lisbon to Moscow, but Spain, Italy, France, Germany and the UK were the consistent favorites. All other places lacked the necessary flat land and a warm stable climate needed for a sprawling vacation center similar to conditions found in California and Florida: Greece was prone to Earthquakes, the Balkans were too mountainous, and both eastern and northern Europe were too cold for year-round operations.

An interesting exception to this rule, however, was Berlin. Resting on low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography as part of the Northern European Plain, Berlin’s outskirts were covered with woodlands and lakes that reminded some Disney surveyors of Florida. Euro-Disney being built in post-Cold War Berlin would be seen either a gesture of peace, or as a confirmation of sorts that “the West” and capitalism had won said war and/or were dominating Europe. The idea of it being seen as a form of “western suppression,” though, was not a popular thought, as many Germans, relishing their new post-war freedoms, supported the idea. Plans called for Disneyland Berlin to be built on a part of the former Border Wall region, or on a lake-front region east of the city. At the same time, two other locations – Barcelona, Spain and Ferrara, Italy – seemed promising. France, meanwhile, fell out of favor during the nationalist Le Pen administration, which opposed such an operation in either Paris or Toulon, near Marseilles in the south of France.

Location was everything; CEO Eisner understood this well. He supported locating Euro Disney Resort in Berlin due to it being closer to the center of Europe, and due to local support not found in Paris, even after Le Pen’s impeachment and removal from office in 1989. Locals in Ferrara opposing construction make the company shy away from that location by 1986. With France largely written off as too politically instable – ironic, given its stability since then – and due to Paris having too many competing sights (the Eiffel Tower, the Louvre, and Notre Dame just some of the places in the city to which Disney could lose tourists) and Toulon’s terrain being too difficult to do major construction on, Barcelona and Berlin became the final two in 1987.

In the end, deciding factor was climate. Berlin’s average high temperature in July was around 75 degrees Fahrenheit, while it’s average high temperature in January was only 37 degrees Fahrenheit. Barcelona, on the other hand, offered year-round operation capabilities. Disneyland Barcelona became official with the signing of contracts with Eisner and the Spanish government, the swift purchasing of 4,986 acres, and the hiring of local workers all before the end of 1987. After nearly four years of construction, the resort officially opened on April 30, 1991.

– James B. Stewart’s Disney War, Simon & Schuster, 2005


…The President of Iraq has always been elected by the nation’s Council of Representatives by a two-thirds majority – that is, until this year’s implementation of a new selection system, in which Iraqi citizens vote for pledged electors of an Electorate College, which, based on the popular results, officially vote in the new President the next day. These reforms were the culmination of retiring President Abdul Rahman Arif’s efforts to modernize the nation without losing the support of Iraq’s upper classes… Tonight’s election saw Abd ar-Razzaq Said al-Naif of the A.S.U.’s “Pro-West” faction, winning the popular vote by a comfortable plurality in a four-way race, over Arif Abd ar-Razzaq of the A.S.U.’s “moderate” faction, Independent 33-year-old Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer and Sa’dun Hammadi of the newly-reformed Iraqi Ba’ath party, ending a campaign season that officially began with the Ba’ath party’s nomination of Hammadi on March 20. Al-Naif received 45% of the vote, with ar-Razzaq winning 30%, al-Yawer winning 15%, and Ba’ath underperforming with only 10% of the vote… The Iraqi Electoral College will now assemble tomorrow to ether confirm or reject tonight’s victor…

The Washington Post, 5/1/1991


…the pro-American Abd al-Naif will be sworn in on the eighth…

The Detroit Free Press, 5/2/1991


The New York Times, 5/5/1991

In early 1991, while verifying North Korea's initial declaration, the IAEA concluded that there was strong evidence this declaration was incomplete. When North Korea refused the requested special inspection, the IAEA reported its noncompliance to the UN Security Council. A month later, North Korea announced its withdrawal from the NPT, [13] Turning inward even further. …In May 1991, investigative reporters from Japan and South Korea lead to a widely-circulated exposé revealing that the extent of famine in North Korea was even worse than initially thought, with the number of deaths in 1990 being 60% greater than suggested by original estimates…

– Van Jackson’s Rival Reputations: Coercion and Credibility in the Post-Cold War Era, Cambridge University Press, 2016

…The draw of Father’s KFC, Dave’s Wendyburger, and Hatton Salt’s Fish and Chips, and the rest of the Finger Lickin’ Good Inc. Family is our commitment to high quality and customer satisfaction. But with the latter point in mind, a dispute began to form on the KFC Board of Directors. Some members believed that, judging by the size and power of McDonald’s, KFC should embrace the quality of its competitors. This led to the creation of the KFC Double-Chicken Gravy Burger. Released in May 1991 in select stores in the American South and Midwest, the sandwich consisted of boneless chicken “slices” or flattened chicken breasts that were each stuffed with hot gravy and sandwiched between the top and bottom halves of a sesame seed bun, as were classic fixin’s like lettuce, tomato, cheese and condiments. Other board members believed the Gravy Burger’s somewhat lackluster but still profitable performance was prove that the company should go in the opposite direction and become a healthier alternative to our “greasy-spoon” dining competitors, a part of the “higher end fat food” industry spectrum. In an ironic twist, we actually became very curious as to what exactly was in the Ollieburgers of the niche Ollie’s Trolleys that made that franchise so popular during the 1970s and again in the early 1990s…

– Mildred Sanders Ruggles’ My Father, The Colonel: A Life of Love, Politics, and KFC, StarGroup International, 2000

...This just in from the Louisiana Department of Health: the number of Hantavirus cases in Shreveport have dropped dramatically for the first time since the health crisis was declared last month. While officials still are yet to confirm whether or not the hantavirus has mutated to being able to spread from human to human, the virus’ high fatality rate put this part of the state into a panic as residences went into emergency lockdown. The region’s citizens may be relieved to know a drop of 40% was reported by the Shreveport Department of Public Health, with surrounding towns reporting similar rates of decline. The drop is very likely due to residents adhering to safety procedures in the face of this severe crisis…

– NBC Special Report, 5/12/1991

Anchor BOBBIE BATTISTA: …In financial news, the US Department of Justice, under the direction of US Attorney General Amalya Kearse, is seeking to review the books of Chemical Bank and Manufacturers Hanover Corporation, two banks planning to merge, which, if it goes through, would be the largest bank merger in American history. Joining us now is a panel of financial experts…


GUEST #1, Former US Attorney General RAMSEY CLARK: …We have to keep the banks from becoming too big and powerful to control, regulate and inspect.

GUEST #2, Former US Secretary of the Treasury PRESTON MARTIN: But the perpetual harassment of such business by government agencies will only hurt stockholder investment confidence and that will damage the economy, which would hurt the very people banks want to help!

– KNN Headline News, 5/19/1991 broadcast

“Inflation is a natural side-effect of expanding government, while recession, often blamed on the incumbent leader, is actually as natural as the ups and downs of any relatively free market economic system. Economic minimization – a fancy was of describing cost-effective analyses – is needed when inflation is on the rise. Now, Democrats may blame this economic “double dip,” this second economic dip occurring so soon after the 1989-1990 recession, on the health scare created by the hantavirus running amok in Texas and Louisiana. It may be too soon to tell, but I for one believe it to be the result of Bellamy’s overreaching nanny-state programs being stretched-thin thanks to the balanced budget amendment.”

– US Senator John Raese (R-WV), 5/21/1991 CBS interview

…By 1991, child hunger rates in the United States had dropped back down to the low levels of the 1970s. The Hantavirus Epidemic of that year had helped bring in more food and aide, too. It seemed humanitarianism had become an increasingly prominent trend at the start of the decade thanks these kind of efforts picking up celebrity endorsements and because of the refreshingly-sincere philanthropic attitudes of the Bellamy White House…

– Jim McGovern, 2009 interview


…In the wake of several months of public opinion polls confirming statewide support for the measure, the Senate chamber of the new state legislature has voted in favor of replacing the North Star State’s current flag, derided by many flag experts for being boring, generic, and uninspiring, with a popular new design… Reverend William Becker and Mr. Lee Herold, native vexillologists, first proposed the North Star Flag in 1989. …Requests from conservative legislators and veteran rights advocacy groups for a thin red wave to be added to the bottom of the white wave of the original design, to represent those “who lost their lives building and defending” the Land of 10,000 Lakes, may stall the flag measure in the lower state house…


[pic: ]

– The St. Paul Pioneer Press, Minnesota newspaper, 5/24/1991


…the new assistance organization, dubbed the T.R.A.N.S.F.O.R.M. (Train, Reach, Aid, Nurture, Sanitize, Feed, Organize, and Rescue Many) Initiative, aims to collaborate with private and nonprofit sources to ship humanitarian aid through commercial sectors to various third-world nations and to areas hit by natural disasters. …Denton has maintained a quiet but active post-Presidency, working as a (private) consultant for the Christian Broadcasting Network and collaborating with his friend and ally Pat Robertson [14] on numerous “pro-family” endeavors – but not as the “face” of any of them…

The Birmingham News, 5/25/1991


The Guardian, 26/5/1991

Kentucky Governor Primary Election Results, 5/28/1991:

Democratic Primary:
Incumbent Governor Bucky Ray Jarrell – 284,703 (57.19%)
Former state Agriculture Commissioner L. Gatewood Galbraith – 132,569 (26.63%)
Lexington Mayor H. Scott “Scotty” Baesler (withdrew) – 44,405 (8.92%)
Attorney Floyd Poore – 36,142 (7.26%)
Total votes cast: 497,819 (100.00%)

Jarrell faced competition from his political right in the form of a conservative Mayor, only for pressing municipal matters and underwhelming polls statistics to lead to Baesler dropping out roughly one month ahead of the primary vote and setting his eyes on 1995. In the remaining time, Galbraith, who was to the left of Jarrell, was the Governor’s only noteworthy challenger, as Poore failed to garner prominence and media attention. Stumping across the state Galbraith criticized Jarrell for not supporting medical marijuana legalization, with Jarrell, when pressed on the issue, defending his decision by saying “the jury is still out. Further study is needed to make sure that Mary Jane – even medical Mary Jane – is not a gateway drug, which is what all the science seems to tell us right now. And I respect the scientists and my scientific advisor. I’ll take their word on it first before we do something that might be risky like legalizing medical Mary Jane.” Galbraith also criticized Jarrell for not being a “strong enough” supporter of the progressive US President Carol Bellamy (D-NY). While Galbraith received more than a quarter of the vote, Jarrell winning by a narrower-than-expected margin gave his donors pause as they questioned his ability to win over voters outside of the moderate lanes.

Republican Primary:
Former State Budget Director Larry Forgy – 263,439 (50.84%)
Businessman Joseph E. Johnson III – 128,353 (24.77%)
Businessman Leonard “Buck” Beasley – 109,541 (21.14%)
Former State Sen. Robert E. Gable – 10,882 (2.10%)
Perennial candidate Tommy Klein – 5,959 (1.15%)
Total votes cast: 518,174 (100.00%)

Forgy, known in local politics for feuding with both Jarrell and Bellamy policies, amassed the biggest war chest in the primary despite his two closest opponents hailing from the world of business investment. According to most psephologists who followed the race, these two opponents, both of whom were pro-business moderates challenging a conservative frontrunner, “essentially cancelled each other out” and allowed Forgy to win by a wide margin.


In 1991, the Grand Old Party was at a crossroads, and the five factions – libertarians, moderates, conservatives, populists, and liberals – each offered a different path. The past four Republican presidents – Ike, The Colonel, Denton, JFK (Jack French Kemp) – had all leaned to the right, but each to a different degree. Moderates, “compassionate” conservatives, and war-hawks praised the first two, while Denton, the most conservative of the bunch, was a detriment to hard-right prospective Presidential candidates such as Senator Richard Obenshain and John Raese heading into 1992. The saving grace to their wing was Speaker Robert Smith Walker, doing all he could to “minimize the damage brought forth by the Mayor in the White House,” as he controversial put it in 1993. For Libertarians, it was an even more crucial moment. Kemp had touted some 'libertarianistic' policies, and some within the faction wanted to capitalize on their positive effects. However, the likely candidacy of the increasingly divisive former Senator Ronald Paul made these same “rational libertarian Republicans,” also known as “compassionate libertarian Republicans,” hope for some other candidate from the libertarian faction, someone else to rise above the other GOP pieces and become the standard-bearer of their flank in the primaries, if not for the party in the general election.

– Anne Meagher Northup’s Chicken and Politickin’: the Rise of Colonel Sanders and Rational Conservatism in the Republican Party, 2015


…the award for Best Musical went to Broadway’s “Once On This Island” over The Will Rogers Follies, Miss Saigon, and The Secret Garden. [15]

Variety, 6/2/1991

Shortly after the epidemic reached the milestone of a total number of 150 cases, the summer temperatures seemingly “broke” the hantavirus “superflu” as the numbers of new cases decline dramatically. Despite this, Bellamy urged people to continue wearing masks and glove, especially in closed quarters, in order to prevent a resurgence of the virus, a real possibility from “society unmasking too quickly,” as Dr. Fauci put it…

– Allison Swanson’s The Hantavirus Epidemic, Signet Books, 1998

Leonid Kravchuk was elected President in the nation’s first post-soviet Presidential election, held on June 5, 1984. Seven years later, with the national “strongman” being limited to a single seven-year term, Viacheslav Chornovil was elected to succeed him. Upon being sworn in a month later, Chornovil continued Kravchuk’s neutral stance in geopolitics, seeking to “walk the line” between the slowly-but-surely-recovering Russia and the increasingly pro-American nations of western and central Europe. Volkov accepted this with an air of indifference due to the high number of ethnic Russians in the Ukraine who still supported Russia, suggesting that relations would likely remain friendly between the two nations for quite a long while.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


…the Bank of Credit and Commerce International has been indicted for purportedly committing the largest bank fraud case in history, with depositors being defrauded of $5billion. [snip] …“If you need proof that big banks need more regulation, this is it,” says media mogul Bern Sanders…

The New York Times, 6/6/1991

“The first board meeting without Sanders was in June the next year. It was a sad occasion but not chaotic. Still, really, the most productive aspect of 1991 for the company was the changing of our logo, shrinking the size of the Colonel’s head to bring the eye’s attention more to our name than to the recently-deceased founder. Other than that one change, we, uh, the company, basically decided to stay the course. It was about six weeks, maybe less than that, before the factions began to form, and at another meeting in July, too. So, uh, yeah, there was a clear leadership void. Voices were raised, with members almost fighting over what directions to make, decisions to decide, and it seemed really uncertain who should lead. It was the start of the company’s post-Colonel, uh, well, ‘lull’ is really what I’d call it.”

– Pete Harman, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1999


[pic: ]

– KFC’s logo before (L) and after (R) its 1991 design change

The NBA playoffs of 1991 began on April 25, 1991 and ended on June 12, 1991. Michael Jordan of the Oregon Trailblazers was named NBA Finals MVP on June 12; in the Western Conference, Jordan lead his teammates to victory over Seattle in the first bracket, Utah in the second bracket, and the L.A. Lakers in the third bracket. From there, the Trailblazers went on to defeat the Chicago Bulls in the finals of 1991, which began on June 2, 1991 and ended on June 12, 1991. The final score was 3-to-2.

– Team Rivalry Finder (Bulls vs Trailblazers) feature at, retrieved 2009


Premiered: June 13-16, 1991
Genre (s): post-apocalyptic/action/adventure/fantasy/suspense/horror
Directed by: George A. Romero (with Mick Garris co-directing)
Written by: Stephen King (with Edward Hume co-writing the screen treatment, uncredited)
Produced by: Robert Papazian and Nicholas Meyer

Robert Duval as Randall Flagg
Emilio Estevez as Stu Redman
Heather Laurie Holden as Fran Goldsmith
Ruby Dee as Mother Abagail
Marshall Crenshaw as Larry Underwood
Hume Cronyn as Glen Bateman
Rob Lowe as Nick Andros
Rob Rist as Tom Cullen
Heather Graham as Nadine Cross
Josh Brolin as Harold Lauder
Thomas Haden Church as Lloyd Henreid
Jim Carrey as Trashcan Man
Ted Shackelford as Ralph Brentner
Jennifer Aniston as Lucy Swann
Barry Pepper as Barry Dorgan
Moses Gunn as Judge Farris
Elizabeth Montgomery as Susan Stern
Mimi Rogers as Lucy Swann
Eva Gabor as Rita Blakemoor
John Travolta as The Kid
Shannen Doherty as Julie Lawry
Tang Haibin as Joe/Leo Rockway
See Full List Here


Trivia Facts:

Trivia Fact No. 1:
ABC greenlit the ambitious plan to present King’s novel through a 4-part miniseries, with each episode being 2 hours long, making for a total running time of 8 hours and 22 minutes, due to the success they had with the impactful 1983 TV movie “The Day After.”

Trivia Fact No. 2:
Robert Duval agreed to play Flagg after Bruce Dern and Christopher Walken passed over the role, Willem Defoe and Robin Williams were unavailable, and Clint Eastwood flat-out refused the role; meanwhile, Marshall Crenshaw was cast as Larry Underwood after Bruce Springsteen refused the role due to Underwood’s “jerky” personality traits. [16]

Trivia Fact No. 3:
The miniseries aired on June 13, 14, 15, and 16; the series airing at the height of the Great Hantavirus Health Scare of 1991 made the premise seem eerily plausible for many audience members, but also “too close to home” for other watchers (Variety, 1991).

To go from discovery of a new virus to isolation in a matter of only five months was quite extraordinary, [17] but it happened. Upon said accomplishment being announced, the Bellamy administration and the Governors simply had to wait another four months to discover how the virus was being transferred…

– Allison Swanson’s The Hantavirus Epidemic, Signet Books, 1998

In March 1991, while verifying North Korea's initial 1988 declaration to join the NPT, the IAEA concluded that there was strong evidence this declaration was incomplete. When North Korea refused the requested special inspection, the IAEA reported its noncompliance to the UN Security Council. In June 1991, North Korea responded to this report by announcing its withdrawal from the NPT...

– [18]

…In financial news, the Wall Street Journal has published an extensive review of the quality of the world markets that reveals the US’s mass-production-based market economy is worsening in regards to domestic product consumption and worker involvement, while Japan’s lean-production-based market economy is still going strong in both cases. For those of you who are not financial aficionados, this means that Japan’s way for producing items is leading to more American companies doing business with them than with other American companies, which has the potential to be bad for American workers…

– The Overmyer Network, 6/22/1991

“I’m genuinely concerned about how little attention President Bellamy is giving to Japan right now. Inflation and wage levels that priced older American industries out of the world market were caused by annual productivity rises of 3 percent and wage rises of 11 percent over the last 30 years. I would like to see our President tie the upper limits on wage and price rises, directly or indirectly, to the annual growth in the gross national product. But, sadly, the thing is, Washington is wrong to think the well-paid auto or steel worker is a lazy, absentee-prone ne’er-do-well. Maybe Bellamy doesn’t think that personally, but enough bigwigs in Washington think that. That all but about 5 percent are hardworking. And trying to cut wages suddenly to compete with Japanese pay would be counterproductive. On this, I think that the President has to reform antitrust laws. US firms can’t compete in the world market if the Justice Department requires each auto manufacturer to conduct separate research on, for instance, pollution-control devices. US industry groups should be able to share research and development costs on projects that are public benefits and don’t essentially affect competition. She’s got to step up her game and get this situation under control, or else, uh, somebody else is going to have do so instead.” [19]

– Lee Iacocca, KYMX 96.1 Sports Radio program, 6/25/1991


Premiered: June 28, 1991


Trivia Fact No. 1: During the opening scene (in which Michelle Pfeiffer cameos as President Bellamy attending a White House state dinner that devolves into a brawl after one too many guests mistake her for a First Lady and ask her where the President is), Leslie Nielsen appears in a double role, playing both Frank Drebin and the unnamed Prime Minister of Canada, who prattles on even more oblivious to the anarchy around him than Drebin typically is, only to knock out everyone in an off-screen brawl upon becoming aware of his surroundings. This scene was Nielsen’s attempt to “correct the record” concerning his brother, Erik Nielsen, who has then the Prime Minister of Canada, and was unpopular for being ineffective leader; Leslie Nielsen stated in a 1992 interview “I hoped to show people that Erik would rise to the occasion and that it would just take him a while to do so.” Instead, the footage of the Prime Minister character prior to him addressing the issue was famously used by Canadian media to highlight Erik Nielsen’s ineffectiveness. This sadly led to Erik Nielsen refusing to speak to his brother for nearly five whole years.



– The Los Angeles Times, sports section, 6/30/1991

“I oppose quote-unquote ‘free’ school lunch and breakfast programs because they are a burden on poor taxpayers. If you can’t even do the most basic part of child-rearing – making sure your child gets food – then you need to go to an employment agency and find a better job, or let someone else be that child’s guardian before they starve to death under your alleged care, at least until you’ve got your act together. It’s easy to blame the government – but lazy people never blame themselves for being lazy!”

– Estus Washington Pirkle, Baptist minister and Presidential candidate (R-MS), 7/1/1991

In 1991, South Korean journalist Koo Bum-hoe traveled to the border area in China and wrote a series of articles about what he learned. Reporting from Tumen City, a few miles from the North Korean border, Koo described severe food shortages that were driving families across the Tumen River into China in search of something to eat. His articles were among the first to report the coming famine and the outpouring of North Koreans to China. The trickle of refugees that he described would soon become a flood.

The articles also provided rare glimpses of ordinary life in North Korea, where many were starving. He wrote about North Koreans who ate “red noodles,” an imitation noodle made by grinding up the bark of a pine or acacia tree and mixing it with a small amount of corn powder. Red noodles tasted like sawdust and lacked nutrition, but they were filling.

[SNIP] The starvation stories are legion. One survey of North Korea refugees in China asked whether they had family members who had starved to death. Of the respondents, 23 percent of men and 37 percent of women said yes. A commonplace observation of North Koreans who reached China was that Chinese dogs ate better than North Korean humans. The hungry refugees marveled at watching dogs devour scraps that were more nutritious than anything they had seen for years. They also marveled at seeing dogs. In North Korea, most of the dogs had been eaten. [20]

– Park Sung-min’s Nothing to Envy: Loss And Survival in the People’s Republic, Rhee-Pak Press, 2016

On 11 July 1991, the path of the record totality of the 1991 solar eclipse passed directly through Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. The eclipse was been by millions across the country. Retrospectively, many local inhabitants saw the eclipse as bad omen…



[pic: ]

– Governor Rick Perry (D-TX) at a political fundraiser, 7/15/1991


The Wall Street Journal, 7/16/1991

…and with this latest legislation measure, Boss Ross, our beloved Governor, has now doubled the total square mileage of our state’s natural parks, nature reserves, and Native American reservations to more than double what they were in 1986...

– KAEB 91.9 FM radio, 7/19/1991 broadcast


The Washington Post, 7/21/1991

“Never fall into debt. Never, never, never.” – Lee Iacocca

WORDS OF WISDOM: What Others Have to Say About Lee:

“Iacocca would be able to pull the party together and would make a good president.” – RI Chairman Sal Mancina, mayor of North Providence

“I would do handsprings all down Main Street in Cullman if Iacocca became a candidate!” – AL Chairman Jimmy Knight

“He would be a very strong candidate in Michigan” – MI Chairman Richard Weiner

“Iacocca would be the kind of candidate who would have a special appeal to the working man as well as to top management.” – AR C. Lilburn Carlisle

– Quotes section of an Iacocca’92 brochure (back flap), c. mid-July 1991 [21]


…President Bellamy, calling it “a humanitarian must,” is attempting to convince North Korean dictator Kim Il-Sung to accept foreign aid – mainly food and medicine – which is reaching roadblocks from the North Korea government that “just won’t admit there’s a problem,” as Secretary of State Pete Flaherty puts it. The grave situation in the small Asian nation is receiving more news coverage lately, heightening calls for government action. A recent Gallup poll reveals 60% of the American people support US intervention. Some on Capitol Hill, however, are reluctant to respond. “When every farmer, miner and city folk in our own country can be fed, then we’ll send them stuff, not before,” asserts Republican US Senator John Raese of West Virginia.

The Washington Post, 7/22/1991

Mississippi Governor Primary Election Results:

Democratic Primaries:

Initial, 7/9/1991:
Incumbent Governor Raymond Edwin “Ray” Mabus Jr. – 644,737 (88.75%)
Activist Gilbert Fountain – 42,935 (5.91%)
Activist Charles M. Deaton – 38,793 (5.34%)
Total votes cast: 726,465 (100.00%)

Runoff, 7/23/1991:
Not held due to Initial Primary victory receiving a majority (50%+1 or more) in that contest

Mabus sailed to an easy victory amid minor opposition. While the GOP primary season was negative and full of mud-slinging, the Democratic primary season was positive and optimistic. Even Mabus’ challengers thanked him for participating in a pair of debates with them despite their negligible polling (even if Mabus treated the event more like a town hall discussion with two constituents more so than a debate against two primary opponents). The “smooth” competition bolstered the notion that Mabus has strengthened MS-DEM party unity during the past four years.

Republican Primaries:

Initial, 7/9/1991:
State Auditor Patrick H. “Pete” Johnson – 157,031 (29.78%)
State Rep. Thomas Collins – 154,289 (29.26%)
Businessman Jack Reed Sr. – 152,654 (28.95%)
Former State Rep. George “Wagon Wheel” Blair – 22,147 (4.20%)
Activist Bobby Clanton – 21,672 (4.11%)
Activist Doug Lemon – 10,441 (1.98%)
Activist Billie H. Taylor – 5,958 (1.13%)
Perennial candidate Helen Perkins – 3,112 (0.59%)
Total votes cast: 527,302 (100.00%)

Runoff, 7/23/1991:
State Auditor Patrick H. “Pete” Johnson – 249,192 (51.8%)
State Rep. Thomas Collins – 231,874 (48.2%)
Total votes cast: 481,066 (100.00%)

Initial frontrunner Pete Johnson’s most prominent primary opponents had smaller war chests but stronger and better-organized grassroots networks, resulting in the race being much closer than expected between the top three candidates (with the remaining candidates failing to gain much media attention). Collins presented himself as a compromise candidate between the “elitist” Johnson and the “inexperienced” Reed; when Collins advanced to the runoff, he shifted focus to Johnson’s wealthy connections and added more populism to his campaign. The race seemed to be dead-even until Johnson released a string of attack ads; before Collins could counter ad, another one was already airing. Despite this seemingly derailing Collins’ campaign, he only lost by a narrow margin and by merely 18,000 votes. The contest saw less Republican votes than the Democratic primary saw; this was because of the state having less registered Republicans. This statistic did not concern the MS-GOP, though, because the Republican support was rising across the region, and as a result, many registered Democrats were beginning to vote Republican in many general contests. As a former Democrat, Johnson sought to appeal to these conservative and dissatisfied Democratic voters as the November election approached.


…and in eastern Europe, bilateral unification talks between the nations of Romania and Moldova are finally bearing fruit after just over a year of negotiations. It appears that the two nations will allow for the small anti-unification region of Transnistria to become independent if a referendum to be held later this year in both relevant nations leads brings back a pro-unification mandate in both countries. …Interest in the two ethnically homogenous lands merging renewed in the wake of Albania joining Yugoslavia…

– BBC World News, 24/7/1991 broadcast

[1] See September 1978 ITTL for details
[2] Carson lived in Australia for a while IOTL, but here opted to stay; see 1983 Chapter for details
[3] Based on observation by @Ogrebear: “Is it me or are the Canadians changing leaders a lot?” Political instability can lead to economic instability, so PM Nielsen here is resisting calls for another general election, hoping to put it off for as long as he can in order to improve the economy.
[4] Held in 1992 IOTL.
[5] Italicized parts are from the wiki article for hantavirus
[6] From
[7] Concerning the italicized parts: all from wiki:
[8] All OTL info on hantavirus mentioned here found in the 2013 article “The Virus That Rocked the Four Corners Reemerges,” found here:
[9] No joke, this man actually died from coronavirus the very day I was writing this passage.
[10] Italicized segments are from OTL!:
[11] The first text message was actually sent on 12/3/1992 in RL
[12] Italicized part found here:
[13] Italicized segment is from here:
[14] OTL friendship, exact source pending.
[15] And @Igeo654, consider your “Jim Henson’s The Muppets on Broadway” idea to be canon (it runs from 1973 to 1975, and is the surprise winner of the 1974 Tony Award for best musical ITTL; the movie “The Muppets Take Manhattan” is the film version of it here, too).
[16] King himself described a movie version of this book in the 1990 republishing of it, and suggests De Niro play Flagg and Crenshaw play Underwood; specifically, King describes this in the forward of the expanded edition of the book (pages xiv-xv) (I have a paperback copy of the 1990 printing of it – and it took me only 17 days or so to read all of it, if I may be so allowed to boast)!
[17] Italicized bits are from here: “The Virus That Rocked the Four Corners Reemerges,” found here: It actually took them only six months IOTL, but they have even better federal funding here, so it ends up being even quicker than IOTL!
[18] The Italicized parts are from here:
[19] source:
[20] This entire paragraph was pulled from the OTL book “Escape from North Korea: The Untold Story of Asia’s Underground Railroad,” found on Google Books
[21] All quotes and sources of said quotes are OTL!

Also: @Ogrebear, Penn Station was already being demolished in 1963 after rail passenger volumes dropped due to the highways built in the 1950s. The election of LBJ in 1960 wouldn’t change this, sorry. Look on the bright side: it was a catalyst for the historic architecture preservation movement in the US; without this sacrifice, how many other beautiful locations would have fallen instead?
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Chapter 64: July 1991 – February 1992
Chapter 64: July 1991 – February 1992

“We didn't start the fire.” – Billy Joel


…The moment of truth arrived early this morning at the labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The Center of Disease Control can now confirm that testing has proven that the hantavirus outbreaks in the western US states were the result of several isolated incidents of humans coming into contact with rodents carrying hantavirus as a result of a combination weather and human activities. More specifically, ZED projects near the Navajo Nation – a technically-sovereign Native American nation spanning much of northern New Mexico – flushed rodents out of certain areas, and irrigation projects created water runoff that lured many of the rodents into new areas, who likely reproduced quickly in the more favorable conditions.

The CDC has also announced that the hantavirus cases that were reported in New Orleans were from the local variation of the virus, and thus were unrelated to the cases found in the American southwest. The Bayou Hantavirus having a major outbreak the same time as the southwestern variant appears to simply be “an amazing but unfortunate coincidence,” according to Dr. Terry Yates...

The New York Post, 7/24/1991


…the governors in the four states hit hardest by the hantavirus epidemic have declared their respective states of emergency to still be in place until the number of cases drop “as a safety precaution,” as put by Gov. Kirkpatrick… …hot summer temperatures and federal government agencies spreading information on how to avoid contact may just have proved instrumental in minimizing the spreading of hantavirus…

The New York Times, 7/24/1991

…As state sanitation departments clear away underbrush and hose down old buildings in Arizona and New Mexico, no new hantavirus cases have been confirmed since the 6th of July… 194 people are confirmed to have contracted the virus; the current mortality rate: 41.1%...

– KNN News, 7/28/1991

“My gut, you know, my instincts, they told me that this hantavirus was no big deal. It turns out I was right! And the D.C. fat cats simply overreacted. That’s Washington for you – always looking for some overblown excuse to limit your freedoms.”

– Governor James Richard “Rick” Perry (D-TX), 7/30/1991


The Los Angeles Times, 8/4/1991


[pic: ]
– Iacocca’92 logo, first used 8/4/1991

“Iacocca is tough where it matters most. He’s tough on red tape, protecting personal freedoms, and defending democracy. He’s tough on crime, he’s tough on budget spending, and tough on injustices everywhere. It is this sort of toughness that we need in the White House. We need someone with a clear goal, a clear mission in mind, a clear plan for the country. …Another benefit that Lee would bring to the table is his ability to respond well to crises. Lee responded swiftly and admirably when Chrysler was set to go belly-up; his reaction and response is proof that he is a man of action and not just words.”

– George Steinbrenner endorsing Lee Iacocca for President, 8/5/1991

The White House’s handling of the hantavirus outbreak received both praise and criticism. While some defended her immediate coordination with state governors as a preventative measure, others believed this was an overreaction. Radio personality Rush Limbaugh notably stated “Our Lady-in-Chief overreacted like an inexperienced dunderhead,” for which he was derided and condemned by many. Conservative politicians such as Governors Andrews and Perry who disagreed with implementing mask-and-glove measures and subsequently accused of endangering the people of their respective state, felt vindicated when it turned out that the hantavirus strain of New Mexico and Louisiana were not transmittable from human to human. Nonetheless, “it was still irresponsible that they didn’t play it safe like the President wanted them to,” as then-US Health and Welfare Secretary Dunham put it in an August 6th Meet the Press interview…

– Thomas Hennen Carter’s Bellamyville: The Rise And Struggles Of An American President, Scribner publishers, 2018

On August 11, Bellamy and Volkov signed the Russian-American Nuclear Arms Proliferation And Monitoring Treaty, often shortened to the RANAPAM Treaty. The bilateral agreement emboldened previous treaties opposing nuclear stockpiles, limited strategic nuclear weapons development further, and outlined a plan to halve the current nuclear stockpiles of both countries by the year 2000. Privately, Bellamy was hopeful that this and other relations-strengthening moves would lead to her having Russia’s support in addressing “the issue concerning North Koreas.”

– Andrew S. Natsios’ The Famines of North Korea, Institute of Peace Press, 2001

When the Civil Rights bill of 1991 finally made its way out of the Senate, House Republican leadership packed themselves into an elevator and hit the “stop elevator” sign as soon as a doors closed. Members-only elevators in the capitol building are one of the very few places on Capitol Hill where a congressman can speak to his colleagues in confidence. Packed into this claustrophobic cage with his two subordinates, Speaker Walker addressed the House majority leader first. David F. Emery of Maine, a liberal-minded second-in-command, was impatiently waiting for his moment to rise to the occasion – and to rise to the speakership. Emery’s journey through House leadership had been slow while the conservative Walker’s had been fast, and many a time, the moderate Edward Madigan, third in line as Majority Whip, had to play peacemaker. With this in mind, Madigan, the third man in the elevator, watched his two superiors closely while filling the small room with the smell of tobacco, his mouth and nose still smoking like a chimney as always.

“I couldn’t care less about what the latest batch of jejune mouth breathers making up the cast of SNL will have to say about me, we have to crush this bill,” Walker remarked. A hawk on deficit spending determined to keep Bellamy from violating the BBA, Walker had been pushing to reduce federal spending since entering office two years after Emery had. Something rarely discussed, though, was that he and Bellamy agreed on funding NASA, as both leaders supported science, space programs, and weather research. Emery remembered how Walker had even eased the establishing of the Department of Energy and Technology, making it a new cabinet position in a matter of mere weeks in 1989. But that was where the comradery had ended. A fierce and unapologetic defender of the war on recreadrugs, Emery knew that that was next on the agenda after the killing of this bill.

“This miserable excuse of a bill would establish quotas for businesses and schools. How is that equal opportunity, when every mom and pop shop has to have an equal number of men and women in it? When every car shop, every sausage factory, and every single f*cking beauty-salon would have to be half-and-half?” Walker inquired.

“And don’t forget places as white as Wyoming or Vermont,” Madigan came to Walker’s defense, surprising Emery. “They will have to overturn every rock in every corner of every town in every county until they find enough non-whites to fill their quotas.”

“Right,” Walker nodded and turned back to Emery. “And all to avoid costly litigation on charges of perceived discrimination? Your liberal friends have gone too far here, David!”

Emery defended his prior backing of more moderate laws by saying “Businesses use that as an excuse to be prejudice anyway and you know it. Next thing you know they’ll be claiming their hiring practices are due to ‘customer preference,’ and so fair employment violates the rights of customers.”

“The phrase ‘take your business elsewhere’ comes to mind,” Madigan mused with another drag of his cigarette, making the elevator even stuffier. Emery wondered if he was violating the building’s fire code.

“Yeah,” Emery replied.

“Wrong!” Walker reacted swiftly, “How can they take their business elsewhere if everyone has to adhere to unreasonable quotas to protect themselves from the possibility of litigation?”

“Uh, I guess, if the bill passes, those customers will just have to learn to be less racist?” Emery answered weakly.

“‘If’ is the key word, David,” Walker retorted. “Tell your liberal cohorts to f*ck off and get ready to make the rounds.” He slammed on the “open elevator” button and left. Madigan left next, his head practically encased in a cloud of smoke that slowly drifted apart as he followed after Walker. David began the round, which means he began to meet with liberal House members and convince them to abstain from voting yes on the bill.

Across the aisle, Minority Leader Dick Gephardt, having succeeded Hale Boggs upon his retirement in 1989, and Gephardt’s new “first mate” of sorts, the more liberal Minority Whip Barbara Kennelly, were certain they could win over enough left-leaning Republicans to pass the bill. Meanwhile, Madigan sat down with moderates while Walker discussed the matter with conservative Democrats, just to be on the safe side.

The House had 223 Republicans, 210 Democrats and 2 Independents (Sorrell of Vermont and Cherney of New York, both former Democrats who caucused with said party). On August 16, despite being passed 54-46 in the Senate just before the summer break, the Civil Right bill of 1991 failed to pass in the House, 227 to 208; five conservative Democrats crossed the aisle, while only two liberal Republicans voted in favor of passing the bill.

– Julian E. Zelizer and David F. Emery’s Burning Down The House, Penguin Publishing Group, 2020

On 17 August 1991, Hurricane Bob hits the eastern seaboard of the United States, killing 9 people and causing over $1 billion in damages.


…Ollie stuck to what he did best – seasoning a third of a pound of lean beef with a blend of 32 spices for his delicious Ollieburgers.

By the 1990s, KFC’s Wendyburgers firmly held onto silver as McDonald’s gripping onto gold in the burger Olympics that was the 1980s, as brands such as Red Barn and Burger King began to drop in prominence due to mismanagement and other factors. But through all that, Ollie’s stuck around. The franchise even experienced a resurgence, a revival of sorts, a bit after the 1990s decade had begun, as a new generation of young Americans, born between 1981 and 1998 – the centurions – became aware of the would-be Colonel’s niche offering.


The early 1990s music technology industry saw the CD quickly replace audiocassette tapes, making them go by way of the 8-track, the record player, and the phonograph, but the biggest music scene of the early ’90s was undoubtedly the neo-feminist punk rock movement “Riot Grrrl.” With early RG pioneers like Kathleen Hanna, Moly Neuman, Allison Wolfe, The Slits, Bratmobile and Tobi Vail leading the way in the wake of the Ms. Arkansas Wave of 1986, and given strength and courage by both major political parties nominating women in the 1988 Presidential election, women rockers fought back against the sexism that had enveloped the punk rock music scene, with acts like The Sex Pistols reaching national prominence while female bands were largely confined to the underground circuit. The movement continued to gather momentum under the inspiring President Carol Bellamy. …The RG movement made further impact on the national scene with an indie music festival held by K Records from August 20 to August 25 called the International Pop Underground Convention in Olympia, Washington, the nexus of the punk, reeflex and indie rock scenes. The event elevated several Riot Grrrl band to national attention and influenced American music styles and genres for years…

Tumbleweed Magazine, December 1999 End-Of-The-Decade Review issue

[vid: /watch?v=L0oeqAQ1qE8 ]
– “Rebel Girl,” a classic early Riot Grrrl song by Bikini Kill, first performed as early as 1991 [1]

Life in Heck And Other Fun Places first aired on The Overmyer Network’s “TON-o’-TV” or “TON-TV” on September 4, 1987 and switched to the Overmyer “Ton o’ Toons” lineup when Overmyer expanded. The show – about a family of mutant rabbits living in an exaggerated version of “post-meltdown” Oregon, gave us iconic and memorable characters, from Binky and his family to their neighbor, the semi-retired Krusty the Clown. But the Matt Groening series that made an even bigger impact on pop culture in and out of the US was Futurama. …I traveled to Oregon to ask Groening about the show’s legendary behind-the-scenes drama.


GROENING: The network wanted me to make another show for them, so I started working on Futurama in earnest in ’91, about two years before the pilot aired and three years before the series finally premiered, in ’94, about a year before Life in Heck finally wrapped up and went off the air.

JONES: Did the network want that Life in Heck crossover episode from, I believe, 1995, or did you?

GROENING: That was in reaction to the network demanding more creative control. That episode’s a metaphor for people trying to invade someone else’s project the way the characters of Futurama barge in on already-hectic lives of the Life-in-Heck gang.

JONES: Did they get the message?

GROENING: It dawned on them eventually.


JONES: Why did you name the characters after your family members when they’re nothing like them?

GROENING: Because they started out as placeholder names. Maggie the student from Mars, Patty the Robot, Bart the troublemaking wiseass, Earth President-in-exile Marjorie Wiggum, all temporary names that became permanent. The only one that really were apt were Markey M. “Key” Martin, time-traveling main character named after my brothers, and Homer Simpson, the overly-enthusiastic, patriotic, high-cultured, art-loving Mayor of New New York who was named after my dad. Their personalities matched the people they were named after. Simpson, a former newspaper tycoon and philanthropist often used as a serious straight man, has a personality and even, kind of, an appearance based almost entirely on my father. Harry Shearer dos a great job voicing him.


JONES: How much fact lies behind the rumors that Life In Heck is going to brought back soon?

GROENING: It is a fact that we are thinking about it. But the thing is, though, is that the show was made before everything was done on computers, and the animation for that show, I believe, works better when it’s crude, hand-drawn, raw. Smooth, slick, high-definition doesn’t at all click with the basic, blurry world of those episodes, so bringing it back with the tech of today, it just wouldn’t be the same show.

JONES: But it would be a show.

GROENING: But would it really be the show the fans want?



[pic: ]
Above: An early promotional drawing (hence the line errors and discoloration present) for “Futurama,” c. 1994. Characters left to right: Houseley Penfield Grubbs [2], a friend of Bart, falling off into space; Willie the Janitor; Professor Farnsworth; Zapp Branigan; Dr. Zoidberg; Taranga Marie Leela; Bender Rodriguez; Bart Farnsworth, the professor’s Dennis-the-Menace-like half-clone/son; Key, a delivery boy from our present; Lisa Wong; Mayor Homer Simpson; Hermes the accountant; Police Chief Clancy Corvallis.

–, 2009 interview

…Bob enthusiastically supported President Bellamy expanding military veteran health benefits, due to his past private health issues, in connection to his state’s implementation of the 1990 UHC law. …For the state budget, Bob used cost-effective analysis to create room for the arts, “Native needs,” and “Nature needs.” …Governor Ross’ anti-alcoholism campaign was proving to be a success by the fall of 1991. The campaign centered on three prongs: awareness, action, and assistance – reform state regulations for marketing and pricing; address drunk-driving and public incidents such as bar fights and brawls; establish more support groups. Opposed to the idea of running any sort of “police state,” Boss Ross did not clamp down on availability any more than the teetotaler activists demanded, and even then within reason. Instead of installing surveillance cameras, Ross encouraged the establishing of community information-sharing committees. To nip the problem in the bud, such groups sought to warn young drinkers of the consequences of overindulging.

But the most effective way to combat alcohol consumption and subsequent alcoholism was creating more homeless shelters and providing more economic relief for people barely managing to pay for a roof over their heads, let alone heating costs if a fireplace was unavailable as was the case in many urban areas. The drink used to warm up the body, and is often turned to when one is jobless or bored. As unemployment rates dropped (thanks to Ross, for incentivizing businesses to invest in the state, and for establishing a statewide jobs guarantee (albeit most of the work being manual labor jobs)), so did alcoholism rates…


[pic: ]
Above: Ross in Juneau, shortly after signing a landmark land conservation bill into law, April 27, 1991

– R. Lynn Rivenbark’s With the Stroke of a Brush or Pen: The Life of Bob Ross, Brookings Institution Press, 2012

HOST: Governor, Commissioner Iacocca said yesterday that, if elected President, he’d relax banking regulations to create trust and openness between the government and banks and, in theory, lower corruption. In your experience, do you think that would work?

SOGLIN: It wouldn’t at all. This kind of thinking typically leads to the bailout of big business at the expense of the working people, not the lowering of corruption. And what’s worse, Iacocca’s economic plan, of blaming the 1989-1990 recession on Japan, is heavily flawed, will likely lead to welfare cuts in order to get nation out of any financial problems he faces if he somehow gets elected President. Because remember, that’s what happened under Jeremiah Denton, the last Republican elected President.

– CBS roundtable discussion with Governor Paul Soglin (D-WI), 9/5/1991 broadcast


…the current Commissioner of Major League Baseball (since 1987) and the former CEO of the Ford Motor Company (1979-1994) is an energetic old rascal with big plans for US – plans that may be broad enough to win over enough factions within the GOP to win the party’s nomination. His campaign at the time seems to be focusing mainly on transportation, technological innovation, and urban development, with a great focus on the world economics. “I want to get the American workforce back into shape, like what I did for the auto industry,” the businessman said in a recent radio interview. His dislike of Japan’s booming industry “siphoning consumers away from American products” has led to several Rust Belt politicians, most notably Senator Jack Lousma of Michigan, already joining the Iacocca bandwagon to sing his praises…

The New York Times, 9/10/1991

IACOCCA – Promises You Can Count On?

…Iacocca says that one way to approach industrial policy would be to have an independent industry-labor-government board look at the five industries that are the biggest job producers – auto, steel, electronics, aircraft, and textiles. And, in a nonpartisan way, ‘see if they bring something to the party.’ For example, he said, discover whether a troubled company in one of these industries would use loan guarantees to increase productivity, introduce an efficient new process, or improve the environment. Lee’s campaign think tank, John Gargan and Ed Rollins, passionately back the idea, with Gargan stating that “Under existing industrial policy…the government may give the steel industry favorable treatment, such as trigger prices, to counter foreign steel dumping. But it doesn’t get anything in return.” Iacocca claims that he would have a nonpartisan federal board decide not to aid a steel company that diverts funds into buying Marathon Oil. Instead, he said the board should aid steel companies that install oxygen furnaces to become more competitive with foreign producers. Properly focused government policy can also influence labor costs. Iacocca cites a case where Felix Rohatyn (Wall Street investment banker, financial rescuer of New York City, and advocate of industrial policy) was helping Eastern Airlines chief Frank Borman weather his company’s recent crisis. Mr. Rohatyn told Iacocca that if Eastern had only been able to borrow another $50 million to million in wage concessions from his unions, instead of the $300 million he did get. He explains, “Union leaders simply weren’t willing to give up more unless they felt Eastern could invest in new facilities and equipment that would pay off in future for all concerned [sic]”… [3]

– Time Magazine, mid-August 1991 issue


Anyone remember “The Doozy Bots”?

It aired on the Warner Bros’ Nickelodeon lineup and premiered in September 1991

Here’s an old promo for it to refresh your memory:

[vid: watch?v=e8um1N78AhY ]

The show ran for three seasons – three! – most likely for the toy lines that came with them. Looking back on it, I think it had an interesting premise, but its one-dimensional characters and stereotyping seemed very outdated even for 1991. For example, the only female Doozybot is a stereotypical cheerleader despite then-President Carol Bellamy being an inspiration for millions of young girls at the time it first aired. But despite that, I still think it was an okay show. Anyone else remember it?

It still has a cult following but it is a smoll one. The lack of girls made it an almost exclusively male-oriented show, but in their defense, attempts to change this in the second season with greater focus on the scientist’s daughter upset the male audience, so they quickly abandoned it do you remember that .

WTF? Did I just watch a robot ostrich lay eggs?? Why would you ever need a robot bird that lays eggs??!!!
>>REPLY 1 to REPLY 2:
So you can make egg puns? Why else wud you make an egg-laying robot?

I remember watching this when I was little. It was weird but a good kind of weird. Fun!
>>REPLY 1 to REPLY 3:
Me too this show was awsome!

Needed more robots

–, a public pop-culture news-sharing and chat-forum-hosting netsite, 2009 posting [4]


The Chattanooga Times Free Press, 8/20/1991

…With most nations cooperating with one another in order to not be “left out of the big game,” as Shimon Peres put it, [5] the situation in Iran remained peaceful as their Shah continued to walk that thin line between adopting “practical westernization” (i.e. technological and social modernization) and still honoring and retaining Islamic tradition. The people of Oman, meanwhile, was becoming the “Switzerland” of the region by being the go-to place for formal peace talks and by luring in financial investors with economic incentives, and died quite well for themselves throughout the decade. Meanwhile, Egypt’s President Hosni Mubarak, while a reluctant ally of Israel, was an ally nevertheless due to their shared disliking of Islamic fundamentalism. [6]


Because of the high demand to participate in the highly-publicized and world-watched Chicken Dinner Summits held annually in Jerusalem, debate began over the possibility of thresholds on speakers and guests being raised. The main problem with this was that the organizing for the summits was very informal, almost ad hoc in nature. Previously, they were hosted by Colonel Sanders in an independent capacity – meaning not as a representative of any company or state – but since his death, future of the summits remained uncertain. Radical (as in quietly “pro-war”) elements of the Middle East hoped that the Colonel’s death would make for the perfect time to strike a match and light a part of the region that they hated on fire. Instead, recurrent summit participants met in August to forge an acceptable organization structure. An agreement was reached to rotate hosting duties – a community organizer from each treaty-signing country. As for the high demand to be on the guest list, the well-respected then-US Senator Harley Sanders supported using larger venues in the Holy City and setting a cap for the list that would ensure no group would “excessively outnumber” another group. Most notably, though, Sanders insisted that the Summit Speakers represent “the people, not the wealthy or the elite. They can be wealthy, but they must not be in it for themselves. They must be proven humanitarian-minded promoters of goodwill.”


The September 1991 summit was another massive success. While the Colonel’s infectiously optimistic presence was greatly missed, it was celebrated and honored by the guest speakers, with Harley Sanders’ eulogy-like speech receiving a four-minute-long standing ovation. …Other American speakers included Jimmy Carter and Rev. Jerry Brown… Another memorable speech of the festivity came from Egypt’s President Mubarak. His call for an intifada (an Arabic word meaning “an uprising,” or, specifically, “a jumping up as a reaction to something”) against radicalism – “we must shake off the war-hungry howls of blood-craving fire starters who wish to imprison and enslave all who oppose their narrow vision of the world. We must stand together, and let them know that there are more peace-makers than war-makers in the world” – was met with a thunderous applause. Mubarak basked in the limelight…

– James L. Gelvin’s Lines In Sand: The History of The Modern-Day Middle East, Oxford University Press, 2010 edition


…talks promoted by the US’s President Bellamy between opposing forces have disintegrated amid a wide M-19 counteroffensive unfolding in the nation’s easternmost provinces… United States ground forces have had a “low-intensity” presence in the nation since 1984, and President Bellamy had hoped that these talks would finally be the “key” to their return home. “We have to being able to leave without everything collapsing once they do so,” says Sam W. Brown Jr., Chief Foreign Policy Advisor for the US White House...

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 27/9/1991

Two years ago, in September 1991, when I was in assistant Chief of Staff at Senator Williams’ office, I received the news from my sister Joan [born in 1973 and named after First Lady at the time] via telephone call. After 37 years of marriage, our parents had filed for divorce. It soon became apparent that they had waited until after Joan had moved out to go to college at the age of 18 to make official what they had been thinking about for years. According to Mother’s high school friend Susan Blake, “[she never dated] the crew-cut white boys [back then]. She had a world view, even as a young girl. It was embracing the different, rather than that ethnocentric thing of shunning the different. That was where her mind took her.[7] Despite Mother’s yearning to try new cultures and explore nontraditional ideas, though, she stayed with Pop over their shared interests. Both had been from often-moving families and both believed in honor, but Mom had wanted to interact with foreign and exotic cultures, and in a way that did not involve overseeing the dropping of bombs from a plane. Her ideal trip was to a tropical UNSECO site; Dad’s was to an iconic American landmark. And with Father’s career lecturing at military academies and advising the US Defense Department on this or that, and Mother’s career as the US Health and Welfare Secretary, the two had simply grown apart from one another. It was inevitable, but it was still shocking and saddening to the both of us, especially Joan. Thankfully, their parting was amicable, and they are still very close – even if that closeness more in line with the kind found between two life-long friends, and not the kind found between husband and wife…

– Barack McCain’s Lessons From my Fathers, Sunrise Publishers, 1993

When SpongeBob’s finally opened, Steve could tell that hard work had been worth it.

The extra months had led to us developing an impressive menu, or “Galley Grub,” as the menus call it, with there being choices clearly for kids, clearly for adults, for either, for both, for a family eating together, food for anyone and everyone.

For more adult eaters, we had Linguini in White Clam Sauce, delicious-looking stew-like Smoked Cod Chowder! (like a stew), Wild Alaska Pollock, a.k.a. “Alaska’s Best-Kept Secret” (delicious and nutritious), Pretzel-Crusted Catfish, Honey Walleye (a main dish), Marinated Grilled Shrimp, Baked Dijon Salmon, and Orange Tilapia, Seaweed Salad, Kelp Shakes, Super Seaweed Shake, Oyster Skins, Sponge Patty Newburg, the Sea Sir Salad, and the Barnacle Bruschetta.

For kids, you had Salmon Cakes – flaked salmon, bread crumbs, parsley, chopped green onion, parmesan cheese (optional), lemon juice, garlic powder, black pepper, olive oil, and Old Bay Seasoning and served with ketchup, mustard, mayo and tartar sauce – Crab Cakes, Salty Sea Dogs (hotdogs made with fish meat), Buttered Barnacles (butter cookies), Shrimp Scampies, Hushpuppies, Powdered Driftwood (originally, misshapen powdered donuts purchased from the bakery down the street from us, then our own once that shop caught on to what we were doing and stopped selling them to us), the Sailor Surprise, the Crying Johnny, the Jelly Patty, the Jelly Relish Patty, the Nasty Patty (basically a Sloppy Joe made with fish meat, because Sloppy Joes were really big with kids back then), Kelp Rings, Barnacle Rings, Crunchy Cod Cuts, Nacho Oyster Skins, Bobby Fries, Bobby Chili Kelp Fries, and various chowders.

The signature dish, enjoyed by children and adults, was, of course, the Krabby Patty, also called the Bobby Patty or the Sponge Patty in some places. Two buns with sesame seeds; two slices of cheddar cheese; 3 ¼ cups of chopped onions; 1 teaspoon of salt; 2 patties of crab meat; 2 tomato slices; lettuce or kelp; and seasoning. [8] The way Steve makes it, I can’t get enough of it. Back then, the only kind of Krabby Patty on the menu was one with cheese and one without. Now the menu’s got those and Bobby Patty Combo; Patty Deluxe; Jumbo Krabby Patty; single, double, or triple Bobby Kid’s Meal, Krabby Meal; the Double Patty Patty; the Krabby Junior Junior; the Jumbo Small Patty; Triple Decker Patty; Monster Krabby Patty; the Junior Senior Sophomore Patty; the Quarter Ounce Double Pounder, thanks to that lawsuit ending in our favor; the Super Double Triple Patty; the Jumbo Patty Super Jumbo; the Pipsqueak Patty; the Double Triple Bossy Deluxe; the Krabby Patty Double Deluxe; the King Size Ultra Krabby Supreme (regular, on a stick, or double battered and fried on a stick); Triple Krabby Supreme; Veggie Pattie; Captain Olaf’s Special, and, um, you know what I think that’s all of them.

Good thing I had those lists handy, huh? I never could have remembered all of that off the top of my head!

Anyway, I remember how Steve beamed with pride at the sight of all those customers coming in, intrigued by the nautical décor and entertained by the statues of the characters welcoming them to have fun.

But at that time, it still did not yet have that special oomph that it needed for it to really make it big on the seafood scene...

– Bryan Hillenburg, 2019 interview [9]


[pic: ]
– SpongeBob’s, soon after its 9/2/1991 Grand Opening

On September 3, 1991, the Republic of Vevcani, a micronation within Yugoslavia, found on the border of the Yugoslavian nation-states of Albania and Macedonia, declared independence for the purpose of garnering publicity and, ultimately, revenue from tourism.


…Due to the large presence of ethnic Russians in Latvia during the collapse of the USSR, the pro-independence group Popular Front of Latvia called for all permanent residents to be made eligible for Latvian citizenship in 1983. This won the support of ethnic Russians in the soviet, giving weight to its independence declaration the next year. The PFL almost negated on their universal citizenship promise after achieving independence, but when protests calling for its implementation persisted as 1984 became 1985 and 1985 became 1986, the young moderate President, Anatolijs Gorbunovs, yielded to the rising calls, and the process was completed by 1991. This ultimate keeping of the PFL’s promise lead to ethnic Russians becoming strong loyalists of Gorbunov’s Latvian Way political party. This was a deciding factor in the nation’s October 1991 Presidential Election, which saw Gorbunovs win a second and final six-year term. Of course, the nation’s economy finally improving and the establishing of Russian as an optional secondary language taught in schools were contributing factors…

– Andrejs Plakans’ The Latvians: A Study of Nationality, Hoover Institution Press, 2005 edition


…US Congressman Ben Nighthorse Campbell has officially switched from the Democratic Party to the GOP, reportedly over his disapproval of the national Democrats’ embracing progressive measures Campbell believes are “dangerously disuniting.” Always an independent-minded maverick, Campbell often supports Republican-led legislation and more right-leaning political positions than do most Democrats…

– The Fort Collins Coloradoan, 10/5/1991


…Disgraced former Governor Tom Fink, after openly discussing the possibility for months, today declined to run for President. Fink cited an unspecified “health concern” as the official reason, despite friends of the former Governor claiming he “is in great shape” as recently as last week. …Fink had claimed after the state gubernatorial recall election that his removal from office was part of a “liberal plot” to “oppress the voices of the conservatives, the religious, and the unduped [sic] working class,” but failed to gain much media attention outside of Alaska since being booted from office…

The Juneau Empire, Alaska newspaper, 10/7/1991


…Bishop Sean Patrick O’Malley joins former Jesuit priest James Talbot, John Geoghan, Paul Richard Shanley and a host of other disgraced members of the cloth serving time in prison for their sexually abusing minors throughout their careers or, in O’Malley’s case, actively trying to cover up such actions. …The Second Ark Wave of 1986 exposed the activities of sexual pesterers in politics and Hollywood, but outside the glitzy glamour of those two realms, revelations were hard admissions of gritty overlooked truths, previously silenced by years of intimidation and trauma. As this paper reported five years ago, child abuse cases were connected to high-ranking cardinals across New England, only for the courage of key victims to blow the lid off the church’s activities... In the years since, the Catholic Church has sought to uphold multiple changes, but the Globe continues to keep a tirelessly dutiful eye out for any and all new or overlooked injustices...

– The Boston Globe, 10/10/1991

Yes, the 1980s were good overall for the people of Ghana and the Ivory Coast. But that was the thing – overall. Many Ivory Coast citizens – particularly, the people belonging to impoverished ethnic minorities – ended up left out. Their roads were unpaved, their education and health systems were severely outdated, and their quality of life was even worse than before; the oil led to many salaries being raised, which in turn led to merchants raising their prices to the detriment of those left out of the gains, not feeling either the effects of the 1985 oil boom in Ghana or the influx of European investments into the Ivory Coast, almost as if the good fortune of urban dwellers and local elites could not infect the people of say, Sanwi, in the southeastern pocket of the Ivory Coast.

The people of Sanwi – roughly under a million in total in 1990 – considered their homeland to be a kingdom, and that when they “merged” with the Ivory Coast in 1959, they maintained its monarchy despite their “governor”-like King now answering to a President. Their ruler in the 1990s, King Amon N’Douffou IV, took this arrangement to mean that the Kingdom of Sanwi was permitted to secede from the rest of the Ivory Coast. Citing the I.C.’s “neglectful ruler,” and a lack of a “fair share” of the economic prosperity, N’Douffou declared independence on October 12, 1991. The announcement was treated lightly by the I.C. President, then-85-year-old Felix Houphouet-Boigny, only for the situation to take a more serious turn in 1992...


[pic: ]
Above: Sanwi in red on a map of the Ivory Coast

– Historian Roger Gocking’s The Modern History of Ghana, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005

Phillips was at the front of the pack of video game industry in 1991, dominating video game console sales in the US, with Sega not too far behind. …Some American businessmen, such as then-presidential candidate Lee Iacocca, found the company’s market position “embarrassing” because of Phillips’ reliance on Japan’s Sony. Sega being based in Japan was another sticking point for Iacocca as well, saying in a TV interview, “If we’re going to let our children’s minds be occupied by these gizmos, then they should be American gizmos. If our markets are to have video game companies, then I want to see more home-grown video game companies – less ‘Hurry the Rabbit’ and more ‘Mickey the Mouse,’ so to speak.”

– Steven L. Kent’s The Complete History of Video Games, Random House, 2009 edition


…Jacek Kuron, 57-year-old activist educator-turned-political prisoner-turned-politician, became the President of Poland in 1984, after co-leading the Solidarity movement with current PM Lech Walesa... The introduction of liberal shopping laws, tenant ownership, and religious freedom has transformed the formerly communist nation. …One of the government’s earliest investments, medical research and study, has produced several new proposals for surgery and new products for pharmacies…

The Chicago Tribune, 10/21/1991


The Arizona Daily Sun, 10/23/1991


The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 10/27/1991

3 November 1991: the “Halloween Blizzard” ends, after beginning on the 31st and sweeping across the upper Midwestern United States, ultimately killing 18 people and causing $100million in damages.


…Tonight’s elections yielded good signs for the national Democrats as next year’s Presidential election nears. In Kentucky, incumbent Democratic Governor Bucky Ray Jarrell won re-election over the Republican former state budget director Larry Forgy, though the state legislature did flip to the GOP. In Mississippi, incumbent Democratic Governor Ray Mabus narrowly edged out a win over his Republican challenger, state auditor Pete Johnson, who is the grandson of a former Governor and the nephew of a second former Governor. The Mississippi Democrats also retained control of the state legislature, though the state GOP did gain several seats...

– CBS Evening News, 11/5/1991 broadcast


…William Oliver “Bill” Lipinski, representing Illinois’ 5th U.S. Congressional seat since 1983, has decided to challenge President Bellamy for the Democratic nomination for President next year, running on an anti-abortion, “war hawk” conservative platform…

The Chicago Tribune, 11/11/1991

“I really started to pay more attention to politics after my good friend, my very good friend, Lee [Iacocca] decided to run. He wasn’t the first businessman to get into politics, won’t be the last, maybe, but he was very impactful. He had the image, the style. In many ways he was the Colonel Sanders of the car world. And I guess you could call me the Colonel of the baseball world, because, you know, I’m an honorary Colonel just like President Sanders was [10]. I got the honor last year after I built that sports stadium in Louisville. That was a tremendous job, I’m talkin’ big-league success, I’m telling you. That stadium is beautiful! What were we talking about?”

– Donald Trump, 2008 interview

FOX BEATS KAT!: McKeithen Bests Blanco For Governor’s Seat

…in tonight’s runoff election for governor, Louisianans voted for W. Fox McKeithen (R), the state secretary of state and the son of a former Governor, over Public Service Commissioner Kathleen “Kat” Blanco (D) by a margin of approximately 4%. Incumbent Governor Kirkpatrick was term-limited. Blanco and McKeithen advanced to the runoff after defeating Sam S. Jones (D), Dorothy Mae Taylor (Green), T. Lee Horne III (Independent), former US Rep. David Conner Treen Sr. (R), Anne Thompson (R), Fred Dent (D) and Ed Karst (I) in the jungle primary held last month…

– The Beauregard Daily News, Louisiana daily newspaper, 11/16/1991

Global Warming (later adopting the official phrase “Global Climate Disruption”) was a minor political topic of debate as the ’90s dawned. …In a GOP Presidential debate held on November 23, 1991, Presidential candidate Ron Paul (R-TX) came out as being “doubtful” of the world-wide phenomenon’s existence by saying the following: “Scientists in the 1970s thought that because of aerosol particles in the atmosphere, either weather would cool or the particles would balance out the CO2 and greenhouse gases. We now know that ain’t right. You would think that with all the grant money and funding these eggheads have that they’d be better at their jobs, because to me it seems they have no clue what they’re doing or even talking about!” Paul’s campaign manager and his former Senate chief of staff, Lew Rockwell, sought to defend the candidate’s stance by telling reporters the next day that “What Paul meant to say was that the jury is still out of how responsible human actions are for the weather.”

Paul’s comment, however, was overshadowed by the rhetoric of Baptist minister and prominent presidential candidate Estus Washington Pirkle (R-MS), who defended Paul’s position and went even further on his own, claiming “this G.C.D. thing is pure nonsense meant to destroy our nation and enslave us all!” Other prominent politicians, on the other hand, were not willing to let Paul off the hook so easily; even those within his own party condemned the ex-Senator for “fearmongering,” as Senator Jim Martin (R-NC) put it…

– historian Henry Franklin Graff’s Bellamy: An Analysis of A Historic President, Scholastic, 2005

[vid: watch?v= PTOOyoFq5mg ]
– snippet of an Estus Pirkle sermon, c. early 1991

A United Nations Secretary-General selection process occurred from November 18 to November 21, 1991. The winner selected for the position would begin their term on January 1.

Max Jakobson of Finland, was elected the 4th UN Secretary-General in 1971 and re-elected in 1976. His successor, Salim Ahmed Salim of Tanzania and endorsed by the Non-Aligned Movement, retired in 1986 over criticisms that he was biased against the US during the invasion of Libya. The sixth and then-current UN Secretary-General, Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan of Iran and Switzerland, had won over Salim supporter Olara Otunnu of Uganda, Carlos Ortiz de Rozas of Argentina and other less successful candidates in 1986.

Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan – incumbent UN Secretary-General and the former UN High Commissioner for Refugees (nominated by the U.S.)
Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt – Former Minister of Foreign Affairs for Egypt
Bernard Chidzero of Zimbabwe – Chairman of the Development Committee of the World Bank
Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria – Former President of Nigeria
Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway – Prime Minister of Norway
Jean Chretien of Canada – former Prime Minister of Canada
Krzysztof Skubiszewski of Poland – Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland

Prince Sadruddin defended himself against criticisms from a large and divided opposition prior to the Security Council voting via secret ballot while in a closed session; a candidate required 9-vote majority to win. The incumbent UN Secretary-General, who was popular within the organization, won a second five-year term on the first ballot by a wide margin. He began his second term on January 1, 1992.


…Big news in the world of geopolitics tonight: the North Korean Ambassador to the United States has just revealed that, after months of national and international diplomatic pressure, North Korea’s government, facing an unprecedented food shortage crisis, is now, quote, open, unquote, to a food aid deal with the United States. The announcement comes after weeks of cold weather has wreaked havoc on the citizens of the Hermit Kingdom, with at last over 1,000 people dying from either starving or malnutrition in the past four months alone…

– KNN, 11/23/1991 broadcast

Recent development in US-North Korean relations was a potential game-changer for the race, as it allowed Bellamy to defend her handling of foreign affairs. Less “international” candidates, however, took the same development to criticize her. “Her focus on other countries instead of her own,” claimed Estus Pirkle (R-MS)...


..In a GOP debate held in Georgia on November 24, 1991, ultraconservative candidate Rep. Bob Dornan (R-CA) criticized fellow candidate Barry Goldwater for being “willing to send our kids to fight but not your own,” and described his son Barry Jr’s use of a medical deferment in 1961 at the age of 23 to “get out of serving” during the Cuban War as “cowardly.” Goldwater fought back by describing his opposition to the “wars launched by the government” during the previous ten years…

– Richard Ben Cramer’s What It Takes: Roads to The White House, Sunrise Publications, 2011 edition


…Vyacheslav Kebich (Independent) defeated the nation’s first President, incumbent Stanislav Shushkevich (also Independent) [11], by a 7% margin. Shushkevich had lost the support of many Belarusians for favoring both scientific investments social democratic reforms in the face of a constrained economy affecting worker wages. During the election, Shushkevich touted with 1989 agreement with Russia to destroy the amount of USSR nuclear stockpile left behind in Belarusian territory after the breakup of the USSR as a sign of his foreign policy chops, while Kevich went after his failure to implement austerity measures “when it mattered most.” Both candidates ran on pro-Russia platforms…Belarus was the soviet most hesitant to split from the USSR in 1984, leading to the establishment of its own constitution being delayed until 1986, after several months of bilateral talks over potential reunification, which ultimately broke down. Relations between the two nations, however, remain amicable…

– The Washington Post, side article, 11/24/1991

Alexander Grigoryevich Lukashenko
(b. 30 August 1954) is a Belarusian politician. [snip] In 1979, he joined the ranks of the CPSU, but left the military soon afterwards to become the deputy chairman of a collective farm in 1982. In 1985, he was promoted to the post of assistant director of the Gorodets State Farm and Construction Materials Plant in the Shklou District. After rising to director in 1987, he entered politics by running for the position of Deputy to the Supreme Council of the Republic in 1990. However, despite an eloquent speaking style and running on a mostly-negative attention-grabbing campaign with a fierce anti-corruption platform, his prior opposition to Belarus splitting from the USSR in 1984 became an issue. Claims that he committed fraud concerning leasing contracts connected to the Gorodets farm arose in the final weeks of the election, and he lost by a 10% margin, with a requested recount confirming the loss. A 1991 court case found insufficient evidence behind the fraud claims, and the case was dismissed soon after. Lukanshenko then returned to farming, and worked his way up to Minister of Agriculture in 2001, only to be fired for undisclosd reasons in 2005. He ran for President again in 2006 and 2011, both times on pro-Russia platforms noted for their “negative” themes, and lost both times. He remains politically active.

–, Russian website c. 2012

…Despite the government’s efforts, Indonesia’s financial crisis was only worsening. By the end of November 1991, the exchange rate was 2,000 rupiah to 1 US dollar. Indonesian businessmen worsening things by, among other tactics, buying back their own stock to keep their companies solvent were confronted by Suharto, who was hoping to placate the people beginning to riot by blaming the conditions on the upper class, and by seeking to arrest that nation’s wealthiest to keep them in Indonesia until the crisis was over. This was a very fateful mistake for Suharto, as businessmen soon began to use their influence to increase call for Suharto’s overthrowing and the financial calamity continued...

– Adrian Vickers’ A History of Modern Indonesia (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 2015


…with retiring President Gheorghe Apostol staying neutral, the people Romania today voted overwhelmingly in favor of the sovereign nation of Moldova becoming a part of Romania in a nationwide referendum held concurrent with a referendum in Moldova asking the same question. Moldovans voted 63% to 37% in favor of unification, while Romanians voted for it 76% to 24%…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 1/12/1991


…100,000 coal miners and their families took part in today’s good-natured but impassioned march in London in opposition to PM Goodlad’s plans to close coal mines and reduce the number of coal miners. …Meant to adjust and modernize economy, Labour leader John Lennon has gone on record stating while he likes the idea behind the move to shift to a greener economy, he is “severely critical” of Goodlad not creating “an actual plan for the miners,” he told reporters this morning. Lennon has called for a government “jobs guarantee” program, and a training program for the miners so they can “find work first and close the mines then, but not before.”…

The Sun, UK newspaper, 4/12/1991

[John Lennon’s first wife] Cynthia [Powell] divorced him in 1979, 2 years after the breakup of the Beatles, as he wouldn’t stop cheating on her. With one last try at reconciliation ending in failure, their three children felt the effects of a home long-broken, but now officially so. Their older son Julian continued to live with Cynthia until he turned 18 in April 1981, while the couple agreed to share custody of their younger son, James, born in 1971, and their only daughter, Mary Elizabeth, born in 1973. …After working on a duet with Philomena Begley, an Irish country music singer from Northern Ireland, in 1980, the two briefly dated. John next had a brief “innocent love affair” with Clodagh Rodgers, a singer and actress, also from Northern Ireland, in early 1981. On December 8, 1982 – a date John chose due to his feeling that he was “somehow linked” to it – the musician remarried, tying the knot with a one Lyn Cornell. Lyn, born in 1940 in Liverpool like John himself, was an English pop and jazz singer who, after a nearly three-decades-long career that saw her chart hits as a member of The Vernons Girls, The Carefrees, and The Pearls, but without the spotlight being solely on her, had finally left the industry and entered retirement in the late 1970s. At the age of 43, on August 19, 1983, after a difficult eight-and-half-month pregnancy, Lyn gave birth to the couple’s sole child, a daughter they named Annie.

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

A minor kerfuffle unfolded in the Caribbean on December 5, 1991, when Antigua and Barbuda experienced a minor political crisis. Feeling that his home island was going unrepresented by the government, led by the nation’s elitist and (allegedly) corrupt 81-year-old incumbent Prime Minister, Vere Bird, a radical 32-year-old politician named Arthur Nibbs, decided that, in the wake of previous unsuccessful runs for public office, a “bolder approach [was] necessary.” Inspired by the Colombia’s M-19 Movement, Nibbs led a bloodless political coup attempt on Barbuda, forcing city officials out of their offices at the island’s government building at gunpoint with a band of 28 followers. Three security officers received gunshot wounds, each receiving one bullet graze to their respective right hands, in the ensuing melee. Nibbs declared the island independent from Antigua and the UK, and dubbed it “The Socialist Republic of Barbuda.” Nibbs’ “government” went unrecognized by all – including local law enforcement – and his actions were condemned by all major politicians on the island. However, despite the lack of allies, Nibbs and his loyal supporters managed to continue to occupy the island’s government building for the next seven months…

– Carrie Gibson’s Empire’s Crossroads: A History of the Caribbean from Columbus to the Present Day, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2020 edition


…In announcing the award winner in Oslo, the Norwegian Nobel Committee praised Rev. Brown, 53, for his “exceptional dedication” to humanitarian causes, which have been diverse in his nearly-three-decades-long career as a man of the cloth, from helping refugees in Florida during the Cuba War of the 1960s, to helping in post-war recovery efforts in Nigeria in 1967, and to charity work in several Latin American countries during the 1970s and 1980s. This award, though, is specifically for his recent work in organizing charity efforts in post-war Nicaragua…

The New York Times, 12/10/1991


The New Haven Register, 12/11/1991


...The next general election is not a few weeks, but Maxwell wants more people to “look into” Lennon’s ideas. …Lennon is looking to win over moderates as conservatives backing PM Goodlad attack his post-MP years and persona life, claiming his prior comments – the most infamous one being the 1966 claim the Beatles were “more popular than Jesus” – and his past treatment of his wife and children “disqualify” him from the office of Prime Minister. …Support for Lennon is especially high in coal country, as seen by the turnout for Lennon’s speech in Kent last Saturday. There, Lennon said, “The blokes in charge need to see the people, and I mean really see and understand and know them. They have names and faces and families. They are not just numbers on a chart or statistics on a graph and they never should be. …While it is unfortunately true that no job is safe in an ever-changing world economy, the fact remains that the security and well-being of the people is the responsibility of both its people and their government. To keep their families financially secure, the miners are doing the best they can. They are doing their part, but is the government doing theirs?” The crowd answered with a passionate “No!”…

The Daily Mail, 13/12/1991

…As 1991 came to a close, the health insurance and pharmaceutical drug industries increased their lobbying activities on the hill even further, as American UHC continued “busting their kneecaps and emptying their wallets,” as Rep. Fred Upton (R-MI) put it in a December 1991. …One consequence of the landmark change in American healthcare was the laying off of over 150,000 employees of health insurance companies within the first year of AUHC’s implementation. Despite anti-UHC politicians repeatedly claiming this to be the start of some major economic catastrophe, public support for the new healthcare system was overwhelmingly high; a Gallup poll published December 14, 1991 revealed public approval was at 67%, public disapproval at 23%, and uncertain at 10%...

– Thomas Hennen Carter’s Bellamyville: The Rise And Struggles Of An American President, Scribner publishers, 2018

…On December 15, Estonia became the third post-Soviet republic to decriminalize homosexuality, following similar non-hetero decriminalization announcements and acts made and undergone by Ukraine in 1989 and by Latvia in 1990…

– Matthew Wayne Shepard’s Unmasked And Unafraid: A History of the BLUTAGO Rights Movement, Pressman Publications, 2020


…The President of United Turkestan is limited to three nonconsecutive 3-year terms, commands the military, can introduce legislation but not vote on it, and can sign executive orders that can be overruled by a 3/4ths majority in the National Gathering (their version of a federal congress)... With incumbent President Mukhtar Ablyazov of Kazakhstan term-limited, after winning a hastily-held election in 1983, a much more official one in 1986, and third one in 1989, the rules state that he cannot be succeeded by someone from his own “nation,” giving the politicians of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan the chance to win the Central Asian country’s highest office in December 1992. …One of the most powerful members of the NG is Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan’s Samarkand seat. As deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Uzbek SSR at the time United Turkestan declared independence, Karimov quickly switched to UT allegiance and worked his way up the political ladder to replace Inomjon Usmonxo‘jayev as “General Secretary” of the UT “nation” of Uzbekistan in 1985, only to determine that true national power and influence laid in the National Gathering. He soon won an NG seat in 1987. Karimov’s pro-isolation stances, especially toward “the West,” has a very small but very passionate band of followers in this landlocked nation. If Karimov’s still-unofficial run to replace Ablyazov is successful (his third-place showing in early straw polls, behind Turkmenistan’s Chary Karriyev and Kyrgyzstan’s Ishenbai Kadyrbekov, suggest he may not survive the nation’s primary-runoff system, but then again, the same was said about France’s Le Pen in 1986), it would have major ramifications for the UT’s space travel and energy trade deals with Russia…

The Guardian, 16/12/1991

…With their superior offerings, Zantigo and Chi-Chi’s may have just fully replaced Taco Bell. The Zantigo franchise touts its place in the “practicality” category of fast-food industry, while Chi-Chi’s proudly promotes itself as a fun family-oriented entertainment experience, like a Mexican Chuck E. Cheese, or like a less-ambitious-but-more-successful nationwide alternative to the Colorado-based Casa Bonita franchise. Both franchises seem to have become replacements for Taco Bell, the once-prominent chain now down to just 21 locations, most of which retain operations due to local demands (though many may close down as well if their profits continue to drop)...

Nation’s Restaurant News trade publication, end-of-year review, late December 1991 issue

He’s a registered Republican who often votes Democratic. He’s a sometimes profane hard-driver who interrupts a conference to take a call from his daughter and talk to her in unabashedly soft and gentle phrases. He’s a tough capitalist who so admires former United Automobile Workers president Douglas Fraser that he recommended him to Denton as a negotiator, telling him ‘He’d be a top negotiator on anything – missiles, warheads, oil.’ And he’s a man on the run to Washington and New York who can still take time out to cook northern Italian gourmet meals, ‘with either red or white sauces,’ he’ll tell you every time. He and his daughters spent a week in cooking classes in Italy last year, you know.” [12]

– Robert McNamara, retired Ford Motor Company executive and close friend of Lee Iacocca [12], KNN interview, 12/19/1991

…Bellamy ran with Assistant Director Myer’s 1989 call for exploring Mars’ polar caps and, two years later, on March 7, 1991 – the 22-year anniversary of Apollo 10 and Gus Grissom landing on the moon – announced the Mars Exploration Initiative, a plan for the sending of manned missions to Mars after a 10-year period of test flights and unmanned probes (some flying by and others landing) studying the Red Planet ahead of a 2001 launch. The initiative was immediately met with opposition from fiscally conservative members of congress led by Speaker Walker. The 1990 recession, the 1991 hantavirus mini-recession, and the Balanced budget Amendment all worked against Bellamy’s plan to briefly go into the red in 1991 with multiple investments in order to close 1992 with a national surplus. Instead, in subsequent fights with Walker on the 1992 fiscal budget for NASA, Bellamy agreed to tie NASA’s budget closer to the economy in exchange for Walker “calling off his dogs,” as Secretary Kyros put it, and allow congress to allocate the funds needed for further probe launches. …While the argument that increasing funding for us would stimulate the economy and keep American industry strong failed to win over people such as Walker, the average American was more supportive of the notion. Especially the Baby Boomer generation that came of age during Apollo 10; nostalgia for the days of stargazing accomplishments has been doing wonders for NASA’s public approval in this decade so far...

– NASA Director Farouk El-Baz’s Up and Away: How The Cold War Competition Pushed Us Into The Stars, MacFarland & Company, 1994

The Finger Lickin’ Good Inc. Restaurant Manager Convention – an annual black-tie gala event held to give out awards for best managers, general, regional, assistant, and the rest – was something my oldest granddaughter called “KFC prom night.” The 1991 convention, though, was more somber than those before it, and it was obvious why. It was the first gala event without my father the Colonel, and many were worried for the future of the company. Chick-fil-A and El Pollo Loco were picking up steam. To the increasingly prominent competition, the Colonel would say something like, “bring it, ya knuckle-draggin’ youngin’s, I’ll tenderize ya something awful!” Ol’ Hardcore Harland, the dealmaker with an uncompromising commitment to high quality and directed by a never-bending moral compass. Those were some big shoes to fill, even if two or more people stepped into them together. But show must go on, as the saying goes.

As keynote speaker, I gave my speech with artificial aplomb. The rumors of job cuts, which had never happened in the company’s history, not even during the Crash of ’78, were making their rounds, even in this exclusive event. McDonald’s CEO June Martino had had to cut salaries 10% to compensate for losses in 1979, though she did stick to her promise of rehiring them within the year. But now, things were different. There seemed to be a power void of some kind, even with Collins unquestionably at the helm. It was more of a void in the marketing department more so than anywhere else, though. The boys and girls in R & D were at a loss for how to replace a company “mascot” – a term Dad had always disliked – as iconic as “The Colonel.” Questioned buzzed about, emphasizing the sobering uncertainty. Should we cease using his likeness, ending the use of his image him without explanation, without a proper send-off, like the Cooky Crisp wizard? Should we air unused footage of the Colonel in future commercials, or would it be more forward-thinking to use the growing wonders of computers to somehow manipulate the footage to some uncertain end? Nobody seemed to have an answer. Too shell-shocked, perhaps. Still mourning.

And still, the traditional band played on, the food was served and eaten, and the award ceremony went on. Harland Jr.’s short memorial video received a rounding applause. A number of Silver Wing Awards for Innovation were handed out to our managers from South America for tapping into local flavors for special regional offers. Hey, maybe there was something we could use there! Maybe. But that was the thing, wasn’t it? The suspicion of impending doom still lingered in the backs of our minds. Some new ideas were needed if we were to keep the company as is – a landmark, a success story, a legacy to someone who was a man and also more than just a man.

– Mildred Sanders Ruggles’ My Father, The Colonel: A Life of Love, Politics, and KFC, StarGroup International, 2000

The issue of abortion culminated in the closely-watched Moseley v. Van Dam Supreme Court decision in 1992. The Utah Supreme Court’s early 1990 ruling – that a woman residing in a state where abortion is illegal can be arrested and tried in said state if said woman has abortion outside of said state – led to direct Supreme Court appeal by Moseley’s lawyers on the grounds of said ruling violating her rights. The Supreme Court agreed to hear the case in late 1990.

Initially, Chief Justice Frank Johnson favored retaining abortion on a state-by-state level, similar to dry and wet counties; Associate Justices Joe Sneed, Herb Fogel, Gene Levi and Sylvia Bacon seemed to favor this idea as well. After the first round of full oral arguments on April 12, 1991, though, Bacon and Levi began to agree with the opinions of Justices Leon Higginbotham, Bill Nealon, Miles Lord and Mary Schroeder, that states outlawing abortion were in violation of the 14th Amendment, which protect ones “right to privacy.” Following a second and final round of arguments being made before the court on October 12, 1991, Chief Justice Johnson began to reconsider his earlier stances as well. Private discussions on the matters of trimesters, viability analysis, waiting periods, spousal notice, parental consent for minors, and other sensitive details of this nature complicated the situation, delaying the ruling even further.

After three months of deliberations, the Supreme Court ruled 7-to-2 (with Sneed and Fogel dissenting) struck down the Utah Supreme Court decision. The Supreme Court ruled that women in the United States have a fundamental right to choose whether or not to have an abortion, that it was illegal for any state government to deny the establishing of abortion centers within said state, and that the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment protects a woman’s right to choose to have an abortion. However, this ruling, while still vital to the preservation of women’s rights, did not prohibit states from determining how to defend said right, thus allowing conservative states to implement first-trimester restrictions and other pro-life measurements in subsequent years. These, of course, led to further Supreme Court decisions as the years continued on...

– Mary Ziegler’s Abortion: A History, Harvard University Press, 2015

The landmark Moseley v. Van Dam Supreme Court ruling that essentially legalized abortion in all U.S. states and territories was a boon for the Presidential candidacy of Estus Pirkle, who touted a staunchly socially-conservative campaign platform. “The Supreme Court’s ruling is an illegal affront on state-by-state policies and is proof that the Love of God and the Life of His Creations are in grave danger of being exterminated from the very fiber of our nation,” he told a group of supporters on January 8. “It is proof that the Democratic elites do not care about American lives!”

– Richard Cramer’s What It Took: The Path to Victory in 1992, Sunrise Books, 2010

On 9 January 1992, the first confirmed detection of exoplanets is revealed via a report by scientists Dale Frail and Aleksander Wolszczan published in Nature magazine, describing the exoplanets as being within “A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar.”


…According to the International Monetary Fund’s latest reports, the Asian nation of Indonesia has lost 15.2% of its GDP in the past two years. Indonesia’s President Suharto has fired several cabinet members in recent weeks, only for such action to be perceived by the citizens as admission that his inner circle was behind the crisis. Protestors in the country’s major cities, especially the capital of Jakarta, are openly claiming that Suharto is, quote-unquote, either too old, too senile, or too out of touch with the needs of the common citizen. In light of these protests, foreign investments into Indonesia are dropping fast, which are, more likely than not, worsening the effects of the country’s recession-related financial crisis...

– BBC World News, 11/1/1992 broadcast


…From 1980 to 1992, low-debt states grew at a higher rate in GDP, personal income, population, and employment than did high-debt states. Data set after data set help a clear theme emerge in regards to the size of government necessary for the maintaining of both social order and social freedoms. Supporters of tax-and-spend policies may try to downplay these stark facts, pointing out that many bigger government states like New York enjoy larger populations and higher average family incomes than smaller government states like Nevada. While this is true, the New York’s of America also have higher costs of living than the Nevada’s of America, rendering an absolute comparison useless. Instead, growth is the fairest way to measure policy success since the measurement is relative to the size and wealth of each state.

While it’s easy to get lost in a sea of statistics, it’s important to remember that behind each number are living, breathing human beings whose livelihood are largely influenced by the governments they pay taxes to.
Because of this blatant economical fact, policy makers should be weary to embrace higher taxes and greater spending since every dollar taken out of a taxpayer’s wallet is one less dollar that could be used in the private sector fueling the markets’ engine of prosperity. [13] And if policy makers go forth with such policies anyway, then it is the duty of the citizens to vote them out of office.

Take, for instance, incumbent Governors Gaston Caperton (D-WV), Jan Backus (D-VT), Harvey Gantt (D-NC), and Evan Bayh (D-IN), all of whom are up for re-election this November. Their respective unwillingness to cut spending plans contributed to the economic recession of 1990, and the voters of these states would benefit greatly from them being voted out this autumn…

The Wall Street Journal, 1/19/1992 op-ed

Bellamy’s efforts to create a national surplus by raising taxes on the upper classes had mixed results – the taxes managed to take the US out of the red, only for its total surplus to be practically negligible. Her Treasury Secretary opposed the suggestion of printing more money to pay for further spending, though, as more money in the system would lead to businesses raising prices. As the money supply needs to be tightened to stop inflation, Bellamy suggested ordering the US mint to freeze money printing for six months. This led to a debate within her cabinet over whether or not this would spur a surge in demand, thus creating demand-pull inflation. Only exporters and people who took out loans benefit from the US dollar losing value.

The Federal Reserve’s monetary policy aims to tighten or relax the money supply, pending the situation, its inflation target being 2%. This percentage was connected to energy prices, commodities trading, food prices, and other aspects of the national economy. When inflation exceeded 2%, the Federal Reserve pumps funds into the banking system via bank reserves that do not go into circulation. If banks loan too much money, then the Federal Reserve will raise the amount to be reserved in order to tighten the aforementioned money supply.

Additionally, by January 1992, banks and lenders were voicing their concern over her tax hikes on the upper classes. The wealthy were responding by fighting back harder against labor, attempting to lower wages to compensate for gains lost from these new taxes. Bellamy defending labor counteracted such attempts, but only most of the time. For example, in January 1992, workers at fire hydrant factory in New Hampshire that were forced into going on strike ended up being fired and replaced by workers more willing to work for the lower wages. Bellamy’s inability to pressure New Hampshire’s governor, Bob Smith, into withdrawing his support of management led to a 14% drop in her approval ratings in that state.

– Thomas Hennen Carter’s Bellamyville: The Rise And Struggles Of An American President, Scribner publishers, 2018

In an interview at The National Theatre in 1968, John Lennon was quoted saying “I think our society is run by insane people for insane objectives, and I think that’s what I sussed when I was 16 and 12, way down the line. But, I expressed it differently all through my life. It’s the same thing I’m expressing all the time, but now I can put it into that sentence that I think we’re being run by maniacs for maniacal ends. If anybody can put on paper what our government, and the American government and the Russian, Chinese, what they are actually trying to do and what they think they’re doing… I’d be very pleased to know what they think they’re doing, I think they’re all insane!” [14] Twenty-four years later, however, John found himself on the opposite side of UK politics. Looking out from the inside, he now knew, after a decade in parliament, how things really worked, as stated in a 1998 interview “I can now confirm that I was half-true about the people who run our society: only half an insane – some insane in a good way, some insane in a bad way – and the other half are either lazy, evil, or stupid.”

Nevertheless, John played ball with his coworkers, most often those that were lazy, stupid and insane-in-a-good-way. By doing so, his “Global Village Initiative,” which was to serve as a pro-technology platform for the UK, became a reality in 1986. Outside of parliament, and in order to win over voters in his MP seat critical of his massive wealth, John donated his entire salary to causes ranging from voter registration such as the Election Year Strategy Information Center, to college education, healthcare, music and the arts, and daycare services. His reprimanding for Prime Minister Goodlad allowing for the raising of taxes on the middle class and defending management over labor more than once was one thing – eye candy for captivated television watchers – but his ability to get along well with fellow Labour MPs such as Tony Benn allowed him to get legislation passed. This gradual buildup of rapport with parliament, more than the speeches and humanitarianism-based publicity stunts, was essential in making MPs believe that he had developed the legislative skills necessary to be an effective leader.

However, John’s “outsider” speaking style persisted onward despite becoming a politician. In a 22 January stump speech, John exclaimed “I’m sick and tired of hearing things from uptight short sided narrow minded hypocrites. I don’t use a teleprompter because I’ve had enough of reading things instead of speaking from the heart and from the mind. Our government is overwhelmed by neurotic psychotic pigheaded politicians, who care more for bigwigs than the hard-working, back-breaking, brow-sweating, family-loving Britons.” Borrowing from a one of his own classic songs from 1978, he bellowed on: “I’m sick to death of seeing things from tight-lipped condescending mama’s little chauvinists. Haven’t you?”

The crowd shouted back a collage of confirmations, from “yeah” and “yes” to “yep” and “you bet.”

John shouting, “I’ve had enough of watching scenes from schizophrenic egocentric paranoiac primadonnas. [17] Haven’t you?”

Another audial wave of approval.

“We want transparency and honesty from our government! We want the truth! Give us the truth! What’s that we want?”

“The truth!” The people answered.

“Just give us the truth about things, about how much out leaders value us. How much they wish to screw us over! What do we want?”

“The truth!” They repeated.

“Yes! Just give us the truth!”

– Jacqueline Edmondson’s A Legend’s Biography: The Lives And Times of John Lennon, London Times Books, 2010


[pic: ]
Prime Minister Goodlad suffered from his poor handling of the early 1990 recession, from which unemployment reached 2.1 million at its peak in September 1990 before dropping down in December. Lennon claimed Goodlad worsened the situation by refusing to cut interest rates by any more than 20%, which the Labour believed was not enough “at all” to combat the recession. Goodlad supporters, meanwhile, called Lennon a hypocrite for being “absurdly wealthy” despite his financial generosity in recent years. Meanwhile, Lennon’s biggest detriment ahead of the election was that his candidacy was uninspiring to moderate suburban and middle-income voters supportive of family-oriented policies due to Lennon’s record of wife abuse, neglecting his children, and for being publicly known to smoke certain recreadrugs. As a result, many Lennon supporters hoped that his fans from his music career in the 1960s and 1970s, now with families of their own, “would still be fans now,” as MP and Lennon backer Neil Kinnock later put it. As for the rest of the people formerly known as The Beatles, the hatchet-burying of the 1980s led to McCartney, Harrison and Starr all stumping for Lennon in the final weeks of the campaign. Billy Preston, an African-American musician often labeled the fifth Beatles due to his many collaborations with them, joined as well to champion Lennon’s pro-immigration and ground-up socioeconomic improvement plans, which may have helped win over minority voters.


In the end, Goodlad’s milquetoast, shallow, vague and uninspiring campaign failed to mobilize enough traditional Conservative voters to go to the polls, while his controversial and unimpressive record as Prime Minister failed to win over undecided voters…


After coming up short of a majority, instead obtaining a plurality by a margin of just 4 seats, Lennon formed a minority government with the Intrepid Progressives (with their 9 seats led by Jeremy Corbyn) and the Liberal Democrats (with their twelve seats led by Paddy Ashdown)…



The Washington Post, 1/31/1991


…Linda Ellerbee has represented Corpus Christi since 1987. Previously she was a journalist and reporter for NBC and several papers, and a news announcer and, ultimately, co-anchor of her own program, “Overmyer Overnight,” before mounting an unsuccessful and short-lived bid for the Presidency in 1984. …In the wake of a diagnosis of breast cancer earlier this year, Ellerbee, 47, has announced the end of her re-election bid, wanting to instead “spend more time with family while combating this internal menace” as the year continues on…

– The Corpus Christi Caller-Times, 2/2/1992

While already a prominent subgenre in Washington by the end of the 1980s, Grunge took on more attention, prominence and influence with the rise of Riot Grrrl. Despite technically coming into existence first, observers dubbed many male Grunge bands to be part of a “Riot Boi” music scene, as coined by the editors of Tumbleweed magazine in a 1992 interview. [17]

Across the Atlantic, the U.K. was going through the early heydays of The Scene That Celebrates Itself, a social and musical scene originating in the early 1990s within London and the Thames Valley area. TSTCI was coined by Melody Maker’s Steve Sutherland in 1990 to describe how U.K. bands were engaging in comradery instead of rivalries in order to devote more time to their passion. Bands like Chapterhouse, Lush, and Moose, along with New Wave bands, and indie bands such as Blur, See See Rider, and Thousand Yard Stare, participated in friendliness that was soon replicated in other parts of British music by 1992.

– Caroline O’Connor’s The Scene That Celebrates Itself, London Times Press, 2011

“…Instead of fighting and going after one another, we’ve put it all aside in the face of our common enemy – the grim specter of failure. This is a great time to be in the music scene right now. We’ve playing together at gigs, drinking with each other afterwards, I mean, at a concert in Maidstone just last night, Stereolab guitarist Tim Game played for Moose, and Moose’s Russell Yates played for Stereolab. That never could have happened even four years ago…

– John Peel’s BBC Radio 1 show “Keeping It Peel,” 5/2/1992 Interview

The invasion that began in the 1980s reached its zenith in the early 1990s, as American culture took on more international flavors, influenced by nostalgia for the invasion of the 1960s, and, also, by the international aid efforts led by the US as the decade began. The music paper NME described the STCI movement as one in which “the good times keep on coming” accumulatively, because each time a band had a successful record, the other bands shared the publicity and a part of the limelight. This contrasted a bit with the market-driven competition found among American musicians from all genres, from rap to country…

– Colin Larkin’s The Second British Invasion, Guinness Publishing, 2002


…After the initial round of voting on 16 January, centrist candidate Elisabeth Rehn of the Swedish People’s Alliance defeated twelve-year incumbent President Mauno Koivisto of the Social Democratic party, becoming Finland’s first female President, and the nation’s tenth President overall…

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 6/2/1992

“Economy, recession, inflation, and the BBA. Those were the GOP talking point in 1992. Legitimate commercial banking functions, state pension funds, derivatives, speculative activities, all of them got clamped down under Bellamy. The Balanced Budget Amendment was highly controversial because it allows the federal government to increase spending and lower taxes when times are good and force cutbacks during recessions – exactly when doing so would weaken economic activity and thus worsen the recession. On the other hand, by 1992 the BBA did decrease interest rates, possibly lead to an increase in investments, and shrink trade deficits, but none of it led to faster economic growth as promised. There were kinks in the system; show me a system that doesn’t and someone will find them for you.


The BBA requires a federal balance between the projected receipts and the expenditures of the government. Exceptions are only for times of war, national emergency, and depression but not recessions measuring less than three straight quarters of negative GDP growth, and even then it can only be suspended, uh, waived, and only for a year, by vote of 2/3rds of congress or by executive order upheld by 2/3rds of congress. So there was really no way around it Bellamy.


Bellamy refused to dip into the Social Security Trust Fund to pay off S.S. benefits, but the system wasn’t taking in enough cash from payroll taxes, which is how the SSTF financed in the first place. We tried to solve the matter legislatively, but Speaker Walker axed a bill that would have raised taxes even further on upper class brackets. So, Bellamy had to dip into the SSTF – ‘just until employment rates rise,’ I remember her saying with a noticeable strain of reluctance in her voice. It was a move the GOP forced into taking, but the fact remained that it was an unpopular move – and during an election year, no less!”

– Former US Secretary of the Treasury Gerald E. Corrigan (D-MN), 60 Minutes interview, 2012


…With the games split between the cities of Zagreb and Belgrade, Yugoslavia’s patchwork of multiculturalism is on full display for the world to see…

The Tampa Bay Times, 2/8/1992

…Overseas, British parliament is working on a 3-billion-pound package which would create over 500,000 jobs in 12 months and establish a nationwide “jobs guarantee” training program for the unemployed and those who are destitute but able-bodied...

– NBC News, 2/9/1992


…The self-described “ultra-sexist” attempted mass shooter Marc Lepine was apprehended in 1989 while attempting to fire a gun at Vancouver East politician Margaret Anne Mitchell, leader of the Progressive Tomorrowists since 1987 and leader of the opposition since 1990… The incident was a contributing factor in parliament passing the Violence Against Women Act of 1991…

The Globe and Mail, 2/17/1992

“Yes, we are still willing to agree to facilitate the supply of two light water reactors,” assured US Secretary of State Pete Flaherty.

“Those are considered to be more proliferation-resistant?” asked his North Korean counterpart.

“More than your graphite-moderated reactors.”

“The Supreme Leader will be very pleased with this.”

“I hope so,” Flaherty’s tired eyes drifted on to the view of Manila outside as the final meeting wrapped up.

After three years of back-channel and clandestine bilateral talks, first proposed by North Korea under President Kemp in 1987, the North’s most recent bout of food shortages had spurred Pyongyang into agreeing to the suspending of the Hermit Kingdom’s unchecked domestic nuclear energy programs in exchange for shipments of grain from the United States along with light water nuclear reactors, and the gradual normalization of relations between the U.S. and the DPRK.

“Only I didn’t do this for your leader,” Flaherty told his translator as the North Korean diplomat left for the telephone, “I did this for mine.” Flaherty no doubt thought about the look on his boss’s face, a distraught look of horror and woe, as she looked upon the latest photographs of the lives of children in North Korea. Their emaciated arms and extended stomachs reminded Flaherty of the starving people of Biafra, India, Ethiopia, Botswana, all places inflicted by war, drought, and the like. Their crying faces reminded him of his own children when they were young. “And for me, too,” he uttered.

Both translators present nodded slightly, glanced at one another, and did not relay the message to Kim’s subordinate upon his return.


The “Agreed Framework” of 1992 was a landmark deal that went into effect immediately upon Kim and Bellamy signing the documentation for it at a ceremony held in Manila on February 20, less than a month after the final negotiation meeting.

Back home, the grain deal received mixed responses. Supporters of the President praised her for being Kim to accept foreign aid in order for his people to not starve. Meanwhile, the Republicans both in the Hose and on the campaign trails immediately sought to undermine the grain deal by denouncing it was “a weak bowing and kowtowing to a despotic dictator,” as Speaker Walker put it. Several lawmakers aimed to impose new sanctions on North Korea, while others sought to hinder the Bellamy administration’s procuring of funding and supplies that were part of the Agreed Framework.

– Thomas Hennen Carter’s Bellamyville: The Rise And Struggles Of An American President, Scribner publishers, 2018

Several GOP candidates, but Pirkle, Dornan, Raese and Obenshain most notably, reeled from the grain deal. Even former Democratic conservative warhawks such as Larry McDonald accused Bellamy of being a “foolish radical” who was “kowtowing to maniacs.” Dornan went beyond rhetoric and introduced articles of impeachment, calling for her immediate removal from office on the grounds of treason. The House referred these resolutions to the House Judiciary Committee days later, and no further action was taken of them [18].

– Richard Ben Cramer’s What It Takes: Roads to The White House, Sunrise Publications, 2011 edition

[1] According to this song’s wikipedia page
[2] Named after character actor Houseley Stevenson, US Senator Penfield Tate (R-CO), and US Senator James Grubbs Martin (R-NC). TTL’s Futurama’s casting list is to be included in a future chapter.
[3] Italicized passages are from here:
[4] A big shoutout to @Igeo654 for bringing this show to my attention!
[5] OTL quote found on …oh dang it, some relevant wiki page, I’ll find the exact one later I guess…
[6] OTL according to his wiki page
[7] Italicized part of quote is from an article found through Ann wiki page (um, I’ll figure out which one eventually…)
[8] Ingredients from an OTL recipe for Krabby Patties that I found online via a simple and quick Google search.
[9] Nearly all menu item names are pulled from the SpongeBob SquarePants wikia. More on "SpongeBob's"'s development still to come.
[10] He really is!:
[11] Fun Fact from both OTL and TTL: in 1960, Shushkevich was the instructor that taught Lee Harvey Oswald how to read, write and speak Russian when Oswald lived in Minsk!
[12] Italicized quote, and McNamara being his friend, are both found here:
[13] Italicized portions are found in this short stub of an article here:
[14] OTL quote, as quoted on
[15] Lyrics from Lennon’s 1978 song “Gimme Some Truth”

[16] Speaking of which, ahead of the 1992 GOP primaries, I made a preference poll for y’all! It’s found here:
And here’s a quick breakdown of the 20 candidates, both officially running and likely to run, found in the poll:
“Country Conservative” (i.e. deeply conservative) wing (4):
Richard Obenshain, 57, has served in the US Senate from Virginia since the late 1970s, and is best known for favoring “cautious immigration measures” among other socially-conservative stances.
Estus Washington Pirkle, 62, is a high-profile Baptist minister from New Albany, Mississippi; he is the loudest opponent of UHC in the field and has already been endorsed by Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson, Pat Buchanan, Billy Ervin McCormack and Billy Graham.
John Raese, 42, is a US Senator from West Virginia and former businessman touting his experience in both fields, and his self-described ability to “piss off them peaceniks Demmies” in his bid for the White House; he is a fierce defender the coal industry of his home state.
Bob Dornan, 59, is a colorfully controversial character serving in the US House of Representatives from California since 1985, and previously from 1977 to 1983; he is giving up his current, increasingly-liberal seat to seek the Presidency on a socially-conservative platform.
“Colonel Conservative” (a.k.a. “rational conservative” and “small-c conservative”) wing (5):
Norma Paulus, 59, since becoming Governor of Oregon in 1987, has established an impressive pragmatic record.
(Unofficially) J. J. Polonko Jr., 53, the former Vice President and former US Representative with some blue collar appeal, is not officially running, and may not run at all the Draft Kemp movement gathers enough momentum.
Susan Engeleiter, 40, is the junior US Senator from Wisconsin with strong regional appeal and a record reflecting tendencies that can be described as along the lines of “libertarian conservatism”; however, her campaign currently lacks a clear message other than “‘generation change’ for the GOP,” but there may be time enough for her to rise above the crowded field.
Bob Dole, 69, is a high-ranking US Senator from Kansas who has confessed that this election cycle may be his last chance at winning the Presidency.
James H. Meredith, 59, is the highly independent US Senator from Mississippi, focusing on preserving the US Constitution, protecting “the people’s rights and liberties,” and, more specifically, economic development, Black political power, and education – the same policies he has maintained focus on since his first election to the US Senate in 1978; he has ruffled feathers with the GOP more than once for crossing the aisle to support a bill, but has also supported “Country Conservatives” at times as well. He has already been endorsed by Alveda King, whose brothers are backing Bellamy (though, because their father is less iconic here, said backing is not as impactful as it is in OTL).
Libertarian wing (5):
Barry Goldwater, 84, the senior US Senator from Arizona, is mounting “one last bid” for the Oval Office over his disapproval on former Senator Ron Paul.
Ron Paul, 57, the former US Senator from Texas and former OBGYN physician, has become a divisive figure in recent years, but his supporters believe that either he has a support base strong enough to carry him to the nomination, or that his base is large enough to rise above a crowded field.
Doug Wead, 46, a retiring four-term US Representative from Arizona, is critical of Ron Paul opposing of all forms of government intervention, both bad and good; Wead is calling for a more “reasonable and pragmatic” form of libertarian governance instead. An early critic of the War on Recreadrugs, he favors decriminalizing marijuana at the federal level. He has already been endorsed by Congressman Tom Campbell (R-CA).
Earl Ravenal, 61, the former US Ambassador to the Soviet Union from Washington, D.C., is running primarily on his foreign policy chops.
Russell Means, 53, is an Native Rights activist from South Dakota running for President on the promises of cutting funding for the US military in half, implementing prison reform, and repealing most federal taxes.
Centrists & Moderates wing (3):
Lee Iacocca, 68, the MLB Commissioner and former CEO of the Chrysler Corporation, is running primarily over fears of Japan’s dominance in American markets, but is also critical of Bellamy’s handling of the economy as well; he has libertarian and conservative streaks that could unite the party behind him. He is currently the frontrunner.
(Unofficial) Jack Kemp, 57, former President, former Vice President and former US Representative, may jump into the race, but for now, is privately promoting a niche draft movement.
Buddy Cianci, 51, the incumbent Governor of Rhode Island, plans to run an energetic anti-corruption “reformist” campaign, only for a state Department of Justice “query” of his connection to certain business dealings to currently be giving donors pause.
“Rockefeller” (i.e. very left-leaning) wing (3):
William Scranton III, 45, the incumbent Governor of Pennsylvania and son of a former Vice President, is calling for a flat tax and for stronger US-led peace efforts abroad.
John B. Anderson, 70, the Governor of Illinois for ten years and a US Representative for twenty, is running on the campaign proposal of raising gas taxes to cover massive tax cuts elsewhere (based on the relative success of such a move undertaken while Governor), and on election finance reform.
Merrill Cook, 46, the retiring Mayor of Salt Lake City, Utah, is a former “Country Conservative” known for his moderate-to-independent streaks and for making “reluctantly left-leaning” actions while in office. He has been criticized for calling himself liberal despite previous conservative-leaning comments, such as calling Ed Brooke “too socially liberal” for the GOP; furthermore, his campaign may be forced to address reports of “attacking” mayoral staff members in obscenity-laced tirades, alleged paranoia, and other unusual behavior.

[17] Credit for the name “Riot Boi” goes to @Igeo654 ; thanks, dude!
[18] Similar to what Dennis Kucinich did in 2008:

EDIT: @HonestAbe1809, good eye! That meant to say "Homer," not "Seymour," thanks!
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Well, to start with, I think it's safe to say that this was well worth the wait. I'm happy to see my ideas being part of this and I'm very glad I could help. :) (especially with the whole Broadway Muppets and Once on this Island aspects) I definitely see Nickelodeon being more like an amalgamation of Fox Kids and Kids WB ITTL in terms of programming like Doozy Bots, Samurai Pizza Cats, Looney Tunes, Tiny Toons, Animaniacs, Bobby's World, AYAOTD, Hey Dude, DC Superheroes and maybe even Power Rangers later on down the line if MTV Kids doesn't get there first. I see there being this big kinda ''Civil War'' between Riot Bois and Grrrls for dominance for the face of the decade back then, a million miles away from the Shoegazers and Teen Pop Dance Bands of ''The Scene'' Which should, probably, change the face of the British invasion scene from this point on. In terms of Hip Hop in the early 90s, I'm seeing Less MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice and more of a turn towards the Gangsta. The mainstream Party scene can come In the middle of the decade. Maybe instead of that Calypso theme, Sesame Street will head towards a rap theme for when the genre turns towards more family appeasing marketable stylings.

Great to See SpongeBob's doing well in its early years. I know for a fact that I'd eat there without question. (if I wasn't such a fussy eater as a kid. :p) If Steven and Bryan are looking for an extra ''Oomph'', they could always follow the Casa Bonita/Chuck E. Cheese model to more of a T. I know that they probably have something akin an indoor arcade and ball pit planned already, not to mention the probability of a costumed live show and mascots walkin' around the restaurant entertaining kids, maybe even a free outdoor playground for parents who prefer to let their darlings play outdoors, similar to McDonalds in the 80s. However, if the Hillenburg's want to up the ante after all that, they could always wait a few years more until Klasky Csupo gives them a call. ;)

Have to say, I was kinda concerned about the whole Hantavirus crisis, given the current state of the world IOTL, but while I'm glad it got cleared up quickly, It just sucks that the GOP is using it as a weapon against President Bellamy. Sher really is getting just as wretched a treatment as Obama got IOTL. Hopefully, she won't be confined to one term and will overcome her adversaries the same way he did. In fact, I'm highly confident that she can get past all this bullshit against her. Suffice it to say, this won't be the GOP's year no matter what kinda shit they try to pull. The voters won't go back to the Denton Days so willingly. Give it four more years and guaranteed, It'll either be Wead or Paul in the WH. I personally lean towards the former because the latter is kind of a dick and will probably destroy America as well as the best years of the 90s as a decade. Till then, I'm voting for Pirkle just because I want to see the GOP fail with him and try to move away from that kind of rhetoric. Janice Fine is right though, Carol needs to be more willing to assert the authority of her position and push that imbecile speaker Walker around. It's her leadership, not his. John Lennon as PM is great thing for the UK. I predict that he will keep TechNet services Nationalized, maybe Regionalize and Decentrilize public transport, reopen the branch lines, etc. Aside from that, I have no idea what else he could do, aside from providing more foreign aid and social programs.

Very happy to See Carol bringing back manned space missions again. Hopefully, this works out in her favor. The one thing that gives me pause is the deal with North Korea. It seems like a good idea and very humanitarian, but I fear that most of that food is going to go to the Party 's upper ranks rather than to the starving masses. It could be, IMO, that NK could easily become a more active threat, either during this decade or the turn of the century. Hopefully, I'm wrong but with the cold war over earlier than usual, anything could happen between now and 2002 and who knows what sort of Bastard(s) could end up threatening the free world next?
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Excellent updates. Iacocca as a Republican is interesting. He sounds like a more coherent (and thus more dangerous) Ross Perot. The primary in 92 will certainly be entertaining. There are a lot of crazy figures running. I had to look into Perkle, and I may have to watch some of his films. Seems to be a very specific type of crazy. If I had to make a prediction now....I think a Iacocca/Meredith ticket covers all of the bases needed to beat Bellamy (who sadly I don't see getting a second term at this point).

I loved the stuff on Futurama and Riot Grrrls being more influential in grunge scenes. And of course PM Lennon and Nobel Laureate Moonbeam!
If I had to make a prediction now....I think a Iacocca/Meredith ticket covers all of the bases needed to beat Bellamy (who sadly I don't see getting a second term at this point).

I absolutely disagree. Bellamy gave America universal healthcare and fought to help starving citizens in an isolated, nightmarish dystopian hell. Not to mention her services to military families, reviving NASA and expanding the Technet to all American households. Americans won't forget those kinds of things in a hurry. Plus the memory of Denton and Kemp's terms will still be fresh in many a voter's minds. They won't forgive the Republicans that easily, as I said. Remember how they pulled all the stops to stop Obama from getting a second term in 2012 IOTL? It didn't work then and even with the net being less advanced than that year in particular, there's no way it'll work now. The younger voters will see to that because they sure as fuck won't allow the Elephants to take away their UHC and a better chance at a future. Give it four more years when it's too late to reverse Americare and then the GOP has a chance of taking over.
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The workers run the show. They’re the ones that do the backbreaking work, the daily duties that keep the place up and running.”
-The Communist manifesto ,1848

But in all seriousness ,great updates
PM John Lennon is a very unique idea
And, for the record, Estes Perkle made this movie (he didn't direct it, but he was a prime movie behind it):,_What_Will_Horses_Do?

That movie, among other things, features a Phil Silvers-lookalike (this is after America has been taken over by the godless Communists) forcing children to help torture their father (I am not making this up) and--hell, I'll let the Cinema Snob explain this (he's a reviewer I like, and his review is far more entertaining than the actual movie):

It's also on YouTube (as is the other two movies Perkle was involved in--The Burning Hell and The Believer's Heaven; yeah, the Cinema Snob reviewed those movies, too)...

Honestly, it makes Red Dawn look like Citizen Kane--and that's saying something (and Red Dawn was enjoyable)...

Good updates, @gap80, and welcome back...
gap80 said:
GROENING: Because they started out as placeholder names. Maggie the student from Mars, Patty the Robot, Bart the troublemaking wiseass, Earth President-in-exile Marjorie Wiggum, all temporary names that became permanent. The only one that really were apt were Markey M. “Key” Martin, time-traveling main character named after my brothers, and Homer Simpson, the overly-enthusiastic, patriotic, high-cultured, art-loving Mayor of New New York who was named after my dad. Their personalities matched the people they were named after. Simpson, a former newspaper tycoon and philanthropist often used as a serious straight man, has a personality and even, kind of, an appearance based almost entirely on my father. Harry Shearer dos a great job voicing him.

  1. I'm guessing that the names in this quote are the "canon" ones and the names under the concept art were ones that were replaced.
  2. I do like using the name "Homer Simpson" with Principal Skinner's OTL design since I've seen a pic of Groening's father that resembles Skinner more than OTL Homer.
  3. My idea of exiled Earth President Marjorie Wiggum is that she's a mix of Marge Simpson, Leela, and Zapp Brannigan. She's a former leader who can be a badass but can let her ego get the better of her.
  4. Is Maggie the TTL version of Amy?
  5. Personally I feel like something along the lines of Dot Matrix from Spaceballs works for Patty. Especially with Bart being the resident Ne'er-do-well of the crew.