Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

BTW, glad Steve Biko is still alive here; wonder how South Africa develops post-Apartheid, assuming Biko lives to see it...

Always wondered if a living Biko would alter the course of South African democracy and if that would play a force to reckon with. Maybe be a kingmaker between the ANC and some rump NP.

That being said, about Rhodesia, will it end up as OTL with Mugabe sinking the nation? Or will there be the compromise of some ATL Internal Settlement with the RF and African parties sharing power?
Chapter 47: July 1980 – January 1981
Chapter 47: July 1980 – January 1981

“Slavery is an evil of colossal magnitude and I am utterly averse to the admission of slavery into the Missouri Territories. It being among my first wishes to see some plan adopted by which slavery in this country may be abolished by law.”

– John Adams

Denton entered the US Naval Academy in 1943, and graduated in 1946, in the same class as future US Secretary of State Jimmy Carter. He is credited with developing the revolutionary “Haystack Concept,” a naval attack strategy, in 1957. At the start of the Cuban War, Denton served as a US Naval Aviator. In January 1964, 39-year-old Denton was shot down over western Cuba. Due to the successful POW escape led by future US Navy Admiral John McCain on the mainland several weeks earlier, Denton was immediately taken to the better-guarded Isle of Pines, an island used by Communist Cubans mainly for holding and torturing POWs. Denton is best known from this period of his life for the 1964 televised press conference in which he was forced to participate as an American POW by his Communist Cuban captors. He used the opportunity to send a distress message confirming for the first time to the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence and Americans that American POWs were being tortured on the Isle of Pines. He repeatedly blinked his eyes in Morse code during the interview, spelling out "T-O-R-T-U-R-E". He was also questioned about his support for the U.S. war effort in Cuba, to which he replied: "I don't know what is happening, but whatever the position of my government is, I support it fully. Whatever the position of my government, I believe in it, yes sir. I am a member of that government, and it is my job to support it, and I will as long as I live. [1] In September 1964, after leading a failed revolt against the island guards, Denton was tortured further with sleep deprivation, starvation, and being placed in solitary confinement – forced to stand in a hole dug into the ground for days on end. Eleven months after Denton was captured, the Communist Cuban government collapsed; a week later, he and the other prisoners were liberated from the island.

After recovering from war wounds, Denton returned to active military service in less than a year, and participated in the unsuccessful 1966 and successful 1967 invasions of North Vietnam. By 1968, he had been promoted to captain and had been awarded the Navy Cross. Following bombing missions over Laos in 1968, and over Cambodia from 1968 to February 1971, Denton was assigned to the Commander of Naval Air Forces’ Atlantic Fleet, becoming the commandant of the Armed Forces Staff College in Norfolk. Denton retired from the military at age 49 in early 1974 with the rank of Rear Admiral, having participated in the Cuban War and all three Indonesian Wars.

In 1973, Denton’s autobiography “When Hell Was In Session” was published; it was on the New York Times’ Bestseller list for several weeks, and its circulation in Alabama benefited Denton’s successful bid for governor of that state in 1974. The book was made into an NBC movie of the week in 1975, starring Hal Holbrook as Denton.


After Howard Baker ended his campaign, I joined the staff of Lamar Alexander (who pledged to stay in the race until the convention), roughly six years after working on his successful bid for governor. With [my husband] George [Stanley Clinton] returning from scoring music for the 1980 Dabney Coleman film “Pray TV” to look after [our 5-year-old son] Bill and [our 3-year-old daughter] Savannah [Paris Clinton, named after two cities in Tennessee], I oversaw coordination for the Appalachian division of the Denton/Alexander campaign. We zig-zagged across Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Pennsylvania…

– Hillary Rodham-Clinton (R-TN), in her autobiography The Decisions I Have Made, 2016

“We moved Microsoft from Albuquerque to Washington in January 1979. The company headquarters was in Bellevue, a safe distance away from both the Trojan Power Plant and Mount St. Helens, a pair of disasters locals now call “The Helen and Troy Kablamos,” or something like that. Maybe. I mean, to be honest, we never really paid that much to the regional colloquialisms. We focused instead on contributing however we could to the post-disaster cleanup. To encourage other regional entrepreneurs, for instance, I personally pledged roughly $250,000 to Oregon’s cleanup task force fund. At the time, I couldn’t do any more than that. I was only 25 – and I wouldn’t make my first million until I was 26. And Paul [Allen] was not any richer than me at the time, either.” [2]

– Bill Gates, KNN interview with Bill Gates and Kent Allen, 9/1/1995


The Washington Post, 7/27/1980


…Representative John M. Slack Jr. (D-WV) died in March from a heart attack, creating an even split in the House…

The Washington Post, 7/30/1980

The 1980 Summer Olympics ended on August 3. The higher number of Soviet victories dampened American spirits, but lifted those of the USSR’s citizens and government officials, as they came at a time of very low morale. Many Americans chucked the victories up to the Soviets’ home turf advantage, while others looked at the events from an optimistic viewpoint. Under Suslov, this was the warmest that US-USSR relations had gotten – instead of negotiations or meetings in stiffy boards rooms, both nations allowed Americans to participate in the games held in Kiev. Even more pundits were quick to remind everyone of the higher number of medals won by American athletes during the 1980 Winter Olympics held at the US’s Lake Placid in February 1980. …Once again, South Africa had been banned from the Olympics due to international condemnation of their continuation of Apartheid…

– Sports Illustrated, 2016 e-issue


…The manufacturing agreement with Brazil will provide “hundreds of thousands” of jobs for northern Ohio in a victory that clearly demonstrates the Governor’s ability to handle international diplomacy to bring jobs back to the Buckeye State…

– The Columbus Dispatch, Ohio newspaper, 8/8/1980

…As the dissipating Hurricane Allen dispersed this June and July’s heat, we can now see how destructive this summer’s heat truly was. The weather proved fatal to at least 1,000 people and cost the US billions of dollars in drought-related agricultural damage…

– NBC News, 8/10/1980 report


…officials claim that Iron Curtain tensions are not on the rise, but reports of increased mobilization of guardsmen and soldiers along the Communist side of the Berlin Wall argue otherwise…

Der Spiegel, left-leaning West Germany newspaper, 8/11/1980

[vid: ]
– The first KFC commercial to be filmed after the January 1980 attempt on the Colonel’s life (due to him still recovering, he remains seated during his scenes), first aired 8/12/1980


…the selection of Jake Butcher, the Governor of Tennessee since January 1979, may be an attempt to nullify Denton’s selection of Lamar Alexander – both running mates appeal to the South and are under the age of 45…

The Washington Post, 8/14/1980

“The progressives and doves were jointly pissed. Not only was to ticket too hawkish center-leaning for their taste, but so was the final party platform. Mike Gravel led the outrage at the DNC by causing a stir with a lukewarm endorsement on the last day of the Convention. Never once referring to Jackson by name, Gravel called for ‘pen-before-sword’ foreign policy and ‘putting people for politics.’ I remember how he told the convention audience and, uh, ‘the people watching this at home or listening to this on the radio – I implore all of you, vote or vote in the candidate that you yourselves have determined to be the best candidate for the job.’ Yeah. Several supporters of Gravel such as Congressman Ron Dellums and former US Ambassador to Canada Phil Hoff were caught on camera leaving the Convention hours early right after that.”

– Joe Trippi, floor manager at the 1980 DNC, 1995 interview

“I don’t trust Denton because you just can’t tell about this guy. He’s the kind of hawk that if you rubbed him the wrong way today, you could have tanks in your front yard tomorrow. Jackson, though, him I do trust.” [3]

– US Senator Harold Hughes (D-IA) defending Scoop Jackson’s selection of Jake Butcher for running mate, Meet the Press interview, 8/16/1980




– Gallup poll, 8/20/1980

“FORWARD AND FOR ALL!”: Fmr. Gov. Phil Hoff “Progressive” Presidential Bid

…Hoff, 56, claims the current ticket is not focused enough on “bread-and-butter” issues such as healthcare and both urban and rural development, and claims that the highly popular nationwide Negative Income Tax Rebate law “does not go far enough to eliminate unfair inequality” in the US… …Hoff previously served as the Governor of Vermont from 1963 to 1973. After unsuccessfully running for President in 1972, he served as the US Ambassador to Canada from 1973 to 1979, stepping down to join a Democratic think tank in Washington, D.C. Hoff intend to attempt to appear on the ballot in all 50 states on a brand-new “Progressive” Party ticket. This will be the fourth version of a Presidential “Progressive” party ticket in US history, the first three being in the Presidential elections of 1912, 1924, and 1948…

The New York Times, 8/21/1980


Assistant newspaper editor Karen Grammer of Colorado Springs married Buckhorn Petroleum geologist of Fort Collins today at St. Mary’s Church in Fort Collins after two years of dating. Karen’s brother, noted actor Kelsey Grammer, gave her away at the altar...

– The Fort Collins Coloradoan, celebrations section, 8/26/1980

…East Germans join the Poles and Romanians in rebelling against Communist rule, causing the threat of Soviet military intervention in those lands to continue to grow…

– BBC World News, 8/30/1980 report


…Lieutenant Governor Martha Layne Osborne is set to become Kentucky’s second female Governor…

The Washington Post, 8/31/1980



HOFF: 1%


– Gallup poll, 9/1/1980


…A special election for governor has been set for November 3rd, 1981… Per Article III, Section 18 of the Kentucky state Constitution, when a governor had more than two years left of their term at the time of their vacating the office, a special is held for the remaining two years. This last happened in 1900. [4]

The Louisville Times, 9/2/1980


[pic: ]
– Colonel Harland Sanders eats a slice of cake as he celebrates his 90th birthday in a citywide celebration held in Louisville; the Colonel commented the cake tasted “funny” due to it being a special "diabetic cake" that contained much less fats and sugar than typical cakes, 9/9/1980

…Hoff’s third-party candidacy won the support of some previous Gravel backers such as former Congressman Allard K. Lowenstein, Republican Congressman Pete McCloskey, Congressman Will Hensley, Detroit Mayor Coleman Young, Atlanta Mayor Maynard Jackson, Congressman Ron Dellums, and, most notably, two other Vermonters – outgoing Governor Stella Hackel and former Congressman William H. Meyer, the latter of the two launching an active surrogate campaign in the Green Mountain State. Dellums, meanwhile, worked to form a coalition of progressive supporters and financial backers, and reached out to progressive members of the African-American, Hispanic immigrant, labor union, and college student communities that had supported Mike Gravel back in 1968, 1972 and early 1980…

– Steven J. Rosenstone and Edward H. Lazarus’ Third Parties in America: Citizens Responding to Major Party Failures, Princeton University Press, 1992 (Second Edition)


…With the selection, Hoff explains “this is a bipartisan effort to make the major parties acknowledge that Americans are not content with perpetual warfare, with our boys in uniform coming home in boxes or as broken shadows of their former selves. Americans want their tax dollars to be spent on access to better healthcare and education and upward mobility, not on tanks and jets and nuclear bomb-carrying submarines.” McCloskey is not running for re-election this year, as he declined to run in order to seek the GOP nomination for the US Senate Seat being vacated by retiring incumbent Senator Thomas Kuchel (R-CA). McCloskey lost that race – one of many primaries held on June 4 – to political activist Maureen Reagan by a narrow margin…

The Burlington Free Press, Vermont newspaper, 9/15/1980

Dellums was Hoff’s first choice for running mate, but the African-American declined because he believed he would be more helpful to “their common cause” if he ran for re-election to Congress and worked as a surrogate in California. Through his efforts, Dellums convinced actors Harry Belafonte and Peter Duel, Congresswomen Yvonne Brathwaite Burke and Barbara Jordan, and even political activist Malcolm X to join the list of Hoff/McCloskey endorsers. Tumbleweed Magazine founder Bern Sanders was the media face friendliest to the campaign, his magazine formally endorsing them and helping to raise credibility, functions, and donations for the ticket.

By the end of September, however, Hoff was having trouble getting on some state ballots. He managed to appear under the Progressive banner in 38 states. In seven more, he ran as an independent. In California, he was the Natural Mind nominee; in Texas, his name was found under the banner of the La Raza Unida Party; and in all others, he ran a write-in campaign. This ad hoc coalition of left-wing and left-leaning parties led to news pundits dubbing it the “far-left coalition” that conservative L. Brent Bozell Jr. called “backers of big government, a welfare state, and various communistic and socialistic” philosophies.


In an extensive interview for Tumbleweed Magazine, Hoff explained that he believed he could win the election outright. “It’s an uphill climb, but it’s not impossible.” Being more realistic, he suggested that it was more likely that the ticket “could pick up enough Electoral College votes to send the election to the House, where one of two compromises will happen. Either we’ll force the leading candidate into making concessions, or we’ll convince the House to vote for us instead.”

– Steven J. Rosenstone and Edward H. Lazarus’ Third Parties in America: Citizens Responding to Major Party Failures, Princeton University Press, 1992 (Second Edition)


…former Governor Daniel J. Evans came in first place, while incumbent Governor Julia Butler Hansen barely won the second-place position over Republican County Executive John D. Spellman…

– The Yakima Herald-Republic, Washington state newspaper, 9/16/1980

Economic conditions in western Europe had recovered by mid-1980, while they remained stagnant in some soviets of the USSR, and worsened in other soviets. Anti-communist sentiments began to grow in the Baltic Soviets of the USSR as Suslov failed to address regional needs. Economic concerns combined with the threat of cultural Russification eroding away their language, culture, and identity led to student protests in Tallinn. Estonia’s youth soon began to mimic the actions of Poland’s own adolescents in that they began rebelling against their oppressors.

– John Kenneth Galbraith’s Prosperity Upended: The Causes and Effects of the 1978 Recession, Excelsior Publishers, 1993


– Jackson/Butcher campaign slogan, c. early-to-mid September 1980




HOFF: 2%


– Gallup poll, 9/17/1980


The Tennessean, 9/18/1980


…FBI Director Felt today revealed that a federal investigation into Butcher’s banking business practices has been ongoing since before he became Governor [5]. Felt says Butcher is officially a “person of interest” regarding his connections not only to unsecured loans, forged loan documents, and bank fraud that occurred between 1974 and 1978, but also his gubernatorial campaign’s use of finances in 1978, and his personal staff’s use of taxpayer money since his ascension to the governorship. “Federal offices are also working with state authorities to understand Butcher’s role in all this.”

…Butcher began acquiring banks twelve years ago, culminating in his controlling of 39% of Knoxville’s total banking reserves by 1974. As President of the United American Bank, Butcher became a millionaire and is one of the wealthiest governors in the country, complete with a mansion and two houseboats...

– The Washington Post, 9/20/1980

Butcher had not been properly vetted by the Jackson campaign due to his last-minute selection. In the weeks leading up to the DNC, Jackson was certain that Carter would eventually accept his offer for running mate. When Carter unexpectedly did not, Jackson was torn between Senator Daniel Inouye and Governor Walter Nixon. Shortly before the DNC, Jackson’s campaign began to consider Butcher due to his youth, geographic location, and – most tellingly – his wealth and connections to wealthy donors across the South.

Timothy Kraft, Jackson’s campaign manager, explained years later that “The FBI learned about our selection the same time as everyone else. They visited our headquarters the next day, but failed to contact anyone close to Scoop until the day he was officially nominated. And even then, the evidence was all circumstantial at the time, and, quite foolishly, I’ll admit, when asked about it the day after becoming the official Second Man Of The Ticket, we believed his claims that he had nothing to do with any it. It was a monumental misjudging of character that really damaged Jackson’s standing in the polls.”

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1980, Centurion Publishers, 2019

BUTCHER OUT, CARTER IN: Scandalous Running Mate Axed from ticket; Scoop picks Jimmy Carter As Replacement


[pic: ]
Above: Governor Butcher at a press event yesterday in which he claimed “I’m innocent, or else I wouldn’t be on this ticket.”

…at a press conference today, Senator Scoop Jackson, the Democratic nominee for President, announced that Governor Jake Butcher will no longer be his party’s candidate for Vice President. “It has come to our attention that Governor Butcher has not been honest, neither with this campaign, nor with the people of Tennessee. This sort of behavior cannot be tolerated and it will not be accepted by this campaign.” Likely still wanting to win over southern voters, Jackson has convinced Secretary of State Jimmy Carter to replace Butcher on the national ticket… It is worthy of note that Jackson opposes détente, while Carter supports it – the Secretary’s pick may be Scoop’s attempt to nullify the campaign of the pro-détente third-party candidate Phil Hoff… Some Democratic voters, however, are concerned that the scandal surrounding Butcher will damage Jackson’s image of being a wise and competent leader…

– The Associated Press, 2/24/1980




HOFF: 3%


– Gallup poll, 9/25/1980


…Despite the relatively slight rise in what has been dubbed "anti-treaty extremism," Israeli relations with her neighbors are still stronger than ever before…

– Time Magazine, special 9/25/1980 issue

26 September 1980: A hidden pipe bomb detonates at the 1980 Oktoberfest in Munich, killing 12 people and injured 195 more. Initial rumors of the explosion being some sort of Soviet attack, due to it occurring at a time of raised Cold War tensions, creates panic in the city and leads to a small riot at a nearby police station, in which two more people are injured. The situation cools after authorities determine that 21-year-old Gundolf Kohler, a right-wing Neo-Nazi killed at the scene, was the perpetrator of the attack.


“Scoop Jackson does not care about Black people.”

– Malcolm X on Meet the Press, 9/29/1980

“Contrary to the claims Mr. X made yesterday, the past twenty years have been a better time for African-Americans than any other time in history. In 1960, 55% of all Black people lived under the poverty line. By 1970, that number dropped to more than half of that – 21% – and now, thanks to legislation supported by Mr. Jackson, and legislation worked on by Mr. Jackson, that number is down to just 14%. A 41-point drop in 20 years proves that Scoop Jackson cares about all Americans, and that’s why he has my support – let’s keep working on that rate until it reaches zero.” [6]

– African-American US Senator George L. Brown (D-CO) endorsing Jackson/Carter over Hoff/McCloskey, 9/30/1980

KALAS: …It’s game 1 of the National League Championship Series, and it’s the Houston Astros versus the Philadelphia Phillies…


MUSSER: …And, uh…Uh-oh, looks like we’ve got a shouting match going on between two players.

McCARVER: Yes, I believe that’s players Don Trump of the Phillies and George Bush of the Astros down there. Probably arguing over the ref's call before, the Don seemed angry at that. Yep, they’re making unprofessional gestures to one another now and – whoa! – Trump just punched Bush in the face but Bush isn’t taking it, he’s got Trump in a chokehold!

KALAS: The other teammates are trying to pull them apart now, but – oh! – Trump just pummeled Bush to the ground. Oof!

McCARVER: Bush just punched Trump in the face! And the remaining teammates are rushing the field!

MUSSER: This is not professional behavior at all, folks, but it sure is entertainment.

KALAS: Trump just got socked in the jaw by, who was that? Oh, it’s a dog pile! The Astros and the Phillies are re-enacting a Spaghetti Western bar fight down there! All they need is a few chairs and bunch of bottles lined in front a bar mirror!


KALAS: Well it seems the managers and the references have broken it up down there.

McCARVER: …and it looks like, yes, yep, both Trump and Bush are out of here, they’ve just been rejected from the game for misconduct!

MUSSER: Man, look at Trump go, he’s shouting like nobody’s business while Bush has this sad pouty face. Very querulous.

McCARVER: Still using that new-word-a-day calendar of yours, huh?

KALAS: The coaches had to do it, Andy. This is baseball, not wrestling.


KALAS: …The Phillies lose, the Houstons win, the total score is 7-to-2…

– WPHL-TV’s announcers Harry Kalas, Andy Musser, Richie Ashburn and Tim McCarver, 10/8/1980 transcript

“We totally would have won if they’d kept me in the game. It would have been tremendous.”

– Donny Trump, 1981 interview

…Dad attended the Sixth Annual Chicken Dinner Summit, explaining when he arrived that “I just had to get my health in order – I’d already made reservations here and I don’t like cancellin’ things.” The peace treaty had been signed two years ago, but Dad insisted the summit continue to be held annually, even long after his death, in order to maintain peace in the region by keeping the lines of communication between different groups open… …Dad said that his near brush with death and the revelation that his days were truly numbered did not give him pause, instead, he insisted “new breath of life has entered these old bones of mine.” He would do as much as he could with whatever time he had left, and he began by visiting KFC locations much more frequently...

– Mildred Sanders Ruggles’ My Father, The Colonel: A Life of Love, Politics, and KFC, StarGroup International, 2000


…many Denton backers either supported or opposed the Cuban War. Both peaceniks and veterans, however, have done much growing up in the past 16 years. Most of them have become parents with children of their own, and their wish for their family to be safe and their paychecks to be heavy has led to many becoming reactionary conservatives, rejecting high taxes for financial security and national defense. It is debatable, however, whether or not the wars of the 1960s produced more liberal or conservative voters, as polls suggest an even division in both veteran and non-veteran voters born between 1937 and 1950. On one hand, this particular generation of voters – the Americans that came of age in the turbulent decades of the 1950s and 1960s – the War Babies and the Baby Boomers – historically have had liberal tendencies. On the other hand, the peaceniks and shoutniks are now in their 30s. They are beginning to have families of their own, and many are suffering health issues connected to the drugs and free love they once supported in the 1960s. In response, many have turned on the left-leaning ideas of their youth and are embracing the realistic objectives of Denton’s conservative campaign…

– Time Magazine article, early October issue


[pic: ]
…the Saudi Arabian government is cooperating with the American justice system persecuting this Saudi Arabian citizen [7] to the fullest extent of the law…

– KNN, 10/10/1980 broadcast on the trial of Osama bin Laden


– The Washington Post, 10/11/1980




HOFF: 4%


– Gallup poll, 10/12/1980

JACKSON: “When we have something we feel strongly about — and in this case it is civil liberties and freedom and what this nation was founded upon, that we should do something to implement international law — and it is international law now, the right to leave a country freely and return freely — that we should put that issue of principle on the table knowing that the Russians are not going to agree to it.” [8]

MODERATOR 1: “Former Ambassador Hoff, your rebuttal?”

HOFF: “Scoopy, it’s counterproductive to entice opponents. The Russian people are not the enemy here, the Russian people suffer the more we poke our sticks at the bear that is the Soviet government. Under a Hoff administration, the only big stick we’d use would be an olive branch and an ink pen to establish peaceful resolutions. I would slash our military’s budget. American blood would be spilled overseas no more under a Hoff Presidency. Because it is appalling that every single American generation seen casualties. That every family reunion has at least one relative that couldn’t make it not because he’s busy at work or transportation is difficult, but because he was hit by a bullet or a bomb in a war that could have been avoided if both governments had reached for pens instead of swords.”

JACKSON: “May I respond to that?”

MODERATOR 2: “You may.”

JACKSON: “I appreciate your sentiments, Phil, but we have to reasonable – we’re politicians after all, not magicians. We all want to put the brakes on the arms race...we all want to achieve arms control...but to those who say we must take risks for peace by cutting the meat from our military muscle, I say you are unwittingly risking war. [9]

HOFF: “No, putting a war-hawk in the White House is risking war.”

JACKSON: “I'm not a hawk and I'm not a dove. I just don't want my country to be a pigeon." [10]


DENTON: “A man does a lot of praying in an enemy prison. Prayer, even more than sheer thought, is the firmest anchor during the most trying of times. The Declaration of Independence has established certain moral confines, and governs in a manner consistent with the spirit under which our nation was founded: Love God; love thy neighbor as thyself. I will continue to uphold these principles as President as I have throughout my entire life and career.” [11]

MODERATOR 1: “Governor Denton, what do you say about concerns that your religious rhetoric will compromise this nation’s long-standing belief in and practice of the separation of Church and State?”

DENTON: “I say that you can have both elements in the same room without having to have the two combined. They are both powerful and important parts of this country, and that’s seen by our national symbols. For example, our coin bears the inscription: In God We Trust. And our Bible reassures us: The Lord is just and merciful. The trust the President to do the right thing, and so it is important that he is of a religion that supports morality. Is that not allowed? No! A person of God is always required to reside in government, for with the Lord thence our protector, whom or what shall we fear?” [11]

HOFF: “Prayer does not remove radiation poisoning – ”

MODERATOR 1: “Mister Ambassador, please do not interrupt – ”

DENTON: “It’s alright, I was finished anyway.”

HOFF: “May I rebuttal?”


HOFF: “Prayer may spiritually help the people displaced in Oregon, and it may comfort the widows and orphans that exist in every single state. But you treat radiation with medicine, not the Good Book. And you prevent families from losing their loved ones by assuring peace, not by launching warfare under the assumption that God is on your side.”

– Transcript snippets of the Denton-Jackson-Hoff Presidential debate, 10/14/1980

To the query “Who won last night’s debate?”:



HOFF: 11%

– Gallup poll, 10/12/1980





– NBC poll, 10/18/1980

“The pollsters are not including Hoff in many of their polls because Hoff has the support of many prominent Black progressives. They hate him because he doesn’t hate Black. Ergo, these pollsters are being racist and oppressive.”

– African-American two-term Congressman Percy Ellis Sutton (D-NY), The Overmyer Network interview, 10/19/1980

…Game Six concluded the 1980 World Series on October 21. In the end, the Houston Astros (NL) defeated the Kansas City Royals (AL), 5 to 4…

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994




HOFF: 5%


– NBC poll, 10/21/1980

…Turning now to sports-related news, Jack Ramsey, the head coach of the Portland trailblazers, is leading the effort of several members of several NBA teams in a relief drive in Oregon to raise funds for those displaced by last year’s Trojan Tower Disaster and are still destitute and struggling to return to the ways of their pre-disaster lives. The decontamination process for the region includes removing trees, grass and the top inch of soil [12], to say nothing of the homes, streets and businesses that must be sanitized before it is safe for them to be used again. The entre process will take at least another ten months at the current rate of available volunteers and resources, but Mr. Ramsey believes that that time can be cut in half if the NBA’s effort bears fruit. Ramsey joins many celebrities and people of influence who have contributed to cleanup efforts such as millionaire media moguls Bern Sanders and Ted Kennedy, plus dozens of Hollywood celebrities….

– KNN, 10/22/1980 broadcast

DENTON AND JACKSON AGREE TO DEBATE WITHOUT HOFF: Both Campaigns Cite Hoff’s Low Polling For His Exclusion

The Sacramento Union, 10/23/1980

HOST: Denton’s standing in the polls is making the Presidential race highly favorable for Republicans down-ballot, so let’s talk about those races for a moment. Which races for Governor and for the US Senate are the ones we should be watching on November 4?

GUEST PANELIST 1: Well, going alphabetically, the Senate race in Alabama is a bit of a microcosm of the Presidential race in reverse, as the incumbent Senator running for re-election is a Republican in a state that, on one hand, is majority-Democrat, but on the other hand, is the home state Governor Denton, and so it’s not surprising that polls show it is going to be tight race against the incumbent and the Democrat challenging him.

HOST: So is that the closest Senate race this year?

GUEST PANELIST 1: No, that would be the one in South Dakota between first-time Senator McGovern and Republican challenger Frank Farrar. Farrar is one of many Republicans, though, that hope to ride on Denton’s coattails into the US Senate. The second-closest Senate race, I’d have to say, is most likely going to be the one in North Carolina, where Earl Ruth is challenging Democratic incumbent Nick Galifianakis. And another two Senate races we should watch closely are the one in Alaska, where one of the most vulnerable and poorly-approved members of the Senate chamber, Clark Gruening, is trying to fight off Republican opponent Frank Murkowski, and the one in Georgia, where longtime incumbent Democrat John William Davis is facing a well-funded Republican challenger.

HOST: So how many seats do you think the Republicans will pick up when all is said and done?

GUEST PANELIST 1: I’d say anywhere between 1 and 4, and given that the Republicans already control the Senate, this means the GOP will most likely widen their majority in that chamber. On the Congressional side of things, the composition also heavily favors the Republicans, so the GOP may actually be able to win back that chamber as well. Right now, Democrats hold a majority of just one seat, so even a net victory of one Republican seat is all they need, but they will very likely win a net gain of more than just one.

HOST: Interesting, thank you for that input. Now, how about the governorships?


HOST: Which candidates are most likely to win and lose, and which race are the closest?

GUEST PANELIST 2: Well, first of all, thanks for having me on the show, and second of all, as most states hold gubernatorial elections during midterm years, there’s only thirteen gubernatorial elections this year. So, let’s go in alphabetical order. In Arkansas, incumbent conservative Democrat Orval Faubus is still popular and is expected to coast to another term. In Delaware, 38-year-old Governor Biden will likely win a second term amid opposition being divided between a Republican Party nominee and a Conservative Party nominee. In Illinois, Republican John Anderson and Democrat Neil Hartigan are running neck and neck; the same could be said about Indiana’s contest between Republican Dan Quayle and democrat John Hillenbrand, except Quayle has the edge due to him effectively hitching his wagon to Denton’s. That can very likely push him over the top and win.


GUEST PANELIST 2: Now, Democrats might be able to gain control of the governor’s seat in Missouri with their rising star and former basketball star Bill Bradley. They might also be able to hold onto the governorship in Montana, too. In New Hampshire, polls suggest that the race between Democrat Tom Wingate and Republican Walter Peterson is basically dead-even. North Carolina is interesting as well, because, like their Senate race, a Democratic incumbent is being confronted by GOP nominee running a very negative campaign featuring more mud being thrown than at a demolition derby. This contrasts greatly this the next race on this list here, the one in North Dakota, where Democrat Ruth Meiers and Republican Ernie Sands are running to replace the retiring incumbent Governor and former Presidential candidate Aloha Pearl Taylor Brown Eagles. In Utah, Republican incumbent Vernon Romney is in all likelihood going to win re-election in a landslide, while in Vermont, the race between Jer Diamond, Democrat, and Rick Snelling, Republican, is pretty much neck-and-neck, but due to Denton polling well in the state, Snelling could pull off a win there. In Washington state, incumbent Governor Julia Hansen, who’s a Democrat, is facing off against Republican Dan Evans, who has been highly critical of her leadership skills during the Trojan Tower Disaster and 1978 economic crash. And finally, in West Virginia, incumbent Democratic Governor Jay Rockefeller is leading Republican challenger Arch Moore by roughly 4% in most polls. So all in all, as you can see by this chart right here, Democrats can either break even, or lose as many as 5 governorships on November 4.

– NBC Roundtable discussion, 10/24/1980 broadcast

CHRETIEN’S BACK: PC Blowout Gives Liberals Clear Majority

…in what turned out to be a chaotic year with three general elections, Jean Chretien seems to have learned from the mistakes he made earlier in the year… After only worsening economic conditions in the last several months, outgoing PM Robert Stanfield is stepped down from leading the PCs… …having decisively defeated the Progressive Conservatives and the Tommorrowists earlier tonight, Chretien is expected to return to the Prime Minister’s office at 24 Sussex Avenue on November 2nd…

The Ottawa Sun, 10/25/1980

…Osama bin Laden, the would-be assassin of former President Colonel Sanders, has been found guilty of attempted murder and has been sentenced to 25 years in federal prison… Due to the nature of bin Laden’s citizenship, this case will most definitely set a precedence for international justice laws…

– KNN, 10/26/1980

“Covering The Osama Trial and those radiation cleanup efforts in Oregon really helped put us on the map. I don’t think money alone would have done it. Did help, though.”

– Ted Kennedy, 1993 interview

DENTON: “More than 20 years ago, the leader of Russia looked at us and proclaimed ‘we will bury you!’ This was not a joke but a threat, a threat that must be answered in the form of a greater investment in the protection and preservation of our fellow countrymen and our fellow freedom-lovers from the scourge of oppression and harm.”

MODERATOR 1: “Thank you, Governor Denton. Senator Jackson, do you have a rebuttal?”

JACKSON: “Yes, yes I do. I agree with the Governor’s statements, but something that I think Jeremiah has overlooked is that mere preservation is not enough. A people also need the freedom to thrive, not just to survive, and that means ensuring the rights of all people to do what they want to do with their lives. That is why I support government programs that ensure the equal treatment of tenants, job applicants, and students, and the like, regardless of people’s color, gender, and affiliations. As Governor, Denton was not a supporter of the Equal Rights Amendment, and by the end of his term, less women and African-Americans could be found in the workforce of Alabama than before.”

DENTON: “Now hold on there, Scoop. Those statistics were the cause of President Mondale’s handling of the economy, after the liberal Democrats mishandled the job market so badly that companies in every state had to lay off workers.”


JACKSON: "Most Americans -- whether black, white or brown -- are hard-working wage-earners struggling to make ends meet, to get their kids through school, to acquire a decent home in a decent neighborhood, to clothe their families, to be respected as decent citizens, and to live out their lives with a measure of dignity that everywhere seems more difficult to attain these days. And if we can send people to the moon, then we can definitely send aid to those who need it. Now, when it comes to nuclear power, we have to be more careful with this technology, because when treated carefully, it is very beneficial. Any fool can bring about clean air by shutting down the economy and going fishing. It's fine for people who have made it to say we won't have any more economic growth. How about the poor, the unemployed, the underfed, the kids that are going hungry? What about the youngsters coming out of school who can't find a job? We have an obligation to them. I say we must have both -- a clean environment and a healthy economy." [10]

DENTON: “I agree. The nation is only as strong as the collection strength of its individuals. But our shared desire is precisely why I oppose Senator Jackson’s domestic agenda – because we cannot encumber their strength with the weights of even more federal red tape and regulating.” [11]

– Transcript snippets of the Denton-Jackson Presidential debate, 10/28/1980


The New York Times, 10/28/1980




HOFF: 5%


– Gallup poll, 10/29/1980


– Jackson/Carter campaign slogan, c. October 1980


– Denton/Alexander campaign slogan, c. October 1980


…As the Vermont native increases his number of stump speeches in the final days of the campaign, polls show him at 7%, with Jackson trailing Denton by roughly less than 7%...

– The Chicago Tribune, 10/31/1980

…The latest US employment report shows that – after the December 1978 peak of 12.4%, and plateauing at 11.6% from January to April of 1979 – the US unemployment rate has slowly and steadily dropped down to its current rate of just 7.5%...

The Wall Street Journal, 11/1/1980

“The economy and the American people cannot afford another four years of Democratic rule.”

– Jeremiah Denton at a campaign stop in Rockford, Illinois, 11/2/1980




HOFF: 5%


– Gallup poll, 10/18/1980


[pic: imgur, UawxU1t ]
All other votes: 449,851 (0.5%)

Total votes cast: 89,970,065


...The margin of victory was under 5% in several states. For example, in the ten closest states – Pennsylvania, Illinois, North Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, Oregon, California, Ohio, Maine, and Massachusetts, in that order – the margin of victory was less than 2.5%...


…Democrats were torn over why their candidate lost. Many pointed to the Butcher Banking Scandal, while many party leaders attempted to place the blame at the feet of Phil Hoff, claiming he had worked as a spoiler in several states in spite of exit polls showing that Hoff had also won over many liberal Republican voters due to having McCloskey for running mate. Hoff himself, meanwhile, blamed Jackson being “not liberal enough for a liberal nation” for his defeat, and also claimed the Democratic nominee was not “exciting” enough of a candidate to win over voters. Hoff supporters went further to claim that Hoff’s ultimate performance was a “success” in that he won over the state of Vermont and won over 5% of the vote in Massachusetts, Maine, Oregon, Alaska, Washington, California and Illinois. In Washington, D.C., by then over 60% Black, Hoff’s endorsements from several prominent African-Americans led to him winning and impressive 21%, versus Denton’s 20% and Jackson’s 59%. To progressive Democrats and Hoff supporters, these results highlighted the need for Democrats to adapt more a progressive party platform in 1984...

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1980, Centurion Publishers, 2019

United States Senate election results, 1980

Date: November 4, 1980
Seats: 36 of 100
Seats needed for majority: 51
Senate majority leader: Howard Baker (R-TN)
Senate minority leader: Robert Byrd (D-WV)
Seats before election: 52 (R), 46 (D), 2 (I)
Seats after election: 54 (R), 45 (D), 1 (I)
Seat change: R ^ 2, D v 1, I v 1

Full List:
Alabama: Walter Flowers (D) over incumbent James D. Martin (R) and Emory M. Folmar (Conservative)
Alaska: Frank Murkowski (R) over incumbent Clark Gruening (D)
Arizona: incumbent Paul Fannin (R) over Bill Schulz (D)
Arkansas: incumbent J. William Fulbright (D) over William Clark (R)
California: Maureen Reagan (R) over Tom Hayden (D/Natural Mind) and David Bergland (Liberty); incumbent Kuchel (R) lost re-nomination
Colorado: incumbent George L. Brown (D) over Mary E. Buchanan (R) and Earl Higgerson (Statesman)
Connecticut: Chris Dodd (D) over James L. Buckley (R); incumbent Abraham Ribicoff (D) retired
Florida: Paula Hawkins (R) over Bill Gunter (D); incumbent William Cato Cramer Sr. (R) lost re-nomination
Georgia: Mack Mattingly (R) over incumbent John William Davis (D)
Hawaii: incumbent Daniel Inouye (D) over Cooper Brown (R)
Idaho: incumbent Frank Church (D) over Steve Symms (R) and Larry Fullmer (Freedom)
Illinois: Alan J. Dixon (D) over David C. O’Neal (R); incumbent Adlai Stevenson (D) retired
Indiana: incumbent Richard Lugar (R) over Adam Benjamin Jr. (D)
Iowa: incumbent Harold Hughes (D) over James Leach (R)
Kansas: incumbent Bob Dole (R) over John Simpson (D)
Kentucky: incumbent Thruston Morton (R) over Wendell H. Ford (D)
Louisiana: incumbent Russell B. Long (D) over deLesseps Story “Toni” Morrison Jr. (D), Woody Jenkins (D) and Jerry Bardwell (R)
Maryland: incumbent Charles Mathias Jr. (R) over Edward T. Conroy (D)
Missouri: incumbent Thomas B. Curtis (R) over Robert Anton Young III (D)
Nevada: incumbent Barbara Vucanovich (R) over Mary Gojack (D)
New Hampshire: incumbent Norris Cotton (R) over John A. Durken (D)
New Hampshire (special): Wesley Powell (R) over Norman D’Amours (D) and incumbent Carmen C. Chimento (I)
New Mexico (special): Pedro “Pete” Jiménez (D) over Manuel Lujan (R); incumbent appointee Mary Coon Walters (D) retired
New York: Mario Biaggi (D) over incumbent Jacob K. Javits (R) and Bess Myerson (Natural Mind)
North Carolina: incumbent Nick Galifianakis (D) over Earl Baker Ruth (R)
North Dakota: Mark Andrews (R) over Kent Johanneson (D); incumbent Milton Young (R) retired
Ohio: incumbent William B. Saxbe (R) over Mary Rose Oakar (D) and John E. Powers (I)
Oklahoma: Marvin Henry “Mickey” Edwards (R) over Andrew Coats (D), Billy Joe Clegg (Conservative) & Charles R. Nesbitt (I); incumbent Henry Bellmon (R) retired
Oregon: John R. Dellenback (R) over Ted Kulongoski (D); incumbent Tom McCall (R) retired
Pennsylvania: incumbent Bob Casey Sr. (D) over Arlen Specter (R)
South Carolina: incumbent Fritz Hollings (D) over Marshall T. Mays (R)
South Dakota: Frank Farrar (R) over incumbent George McGovern (D)
Utah: incumbent Jake Garn (R) over Dan Berman (D)
Vermont: incumbent George Aiken (R) over Stella Hackel (Progressive) and Pete Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
Washington: Catherine Dean May (R) over Allen Byron Swift (D); incumbent Daniel J. Evans (R) retired
Wisconsin: incumbent Roman R. Blenski (R) over Lynn Ellsworth Stalbaum (D)



[pic: ]

…Javits’ attempts to downplay the obvious seriousness of his Lou Gehrig’s disease diagnosis proved unpopular and allowed Biaggi to effectively run on the slogan “Biaggi: The Honest One”… Biaggi became one of only two Democrats - both conservative - to defeat a Republican incumbent in the US Senate that night...


United States House of Representatives results, 1980

Date: November 4, 1980
Seats: All 435
Seats needed for majority: 218
New House majority leader: Robert H. Michel (R-IL)
New House minority leader: Morris K. Udall (D-AZ) (retiring)
Last election: 217 (R), 218 (D)
Seats won: 239 (R), 196 (D)
Seat change: R ^ 22, D v 22



…Adams, 54, will be the first African-American congresswoman elected from Mississippi… Adams, a longtime Democratic political activist, ran a successful grassroots campaign on the slogan “vote, vote, vote your way out of poverty”… Of the few Democratic gains of the night, Adams was one of the most left-leaning of the victors...

The Clarion-Ledger, Mississippi newspaper, 11/4/1980

United States Governor election results, 1980

Date: November 4, 1980
State governorship elections held: 13
Seats before: 29 (D), 20 (R), 1 (I)
Seats after: 26 (D), 23 (R), 1 (I)
Seat change: D v 3, R ^ 3, I - 1

Full list:
Arkansas: incumbent Orval Faubus (D) over Frank D. White (R)
Delaware: incumbent Joseph Biden (D) over Andrew Foltz (R) and George Cripps (Conservative)
Illinois: John B. Anderson (R) over Neil F. Hartigan (D); incumbent Paul Simon (D) retired
Indiana: Dan Quayle (R) over John A. Hillenbrand (D); incumbent Danny Lee Burton (R) retired
Missouri: incumbent Bill Bradley (D) over Bill Phelps (R)
Montana: Martin J. “Red” Beckman (D) over Jack Ramirez (R); incumbent Thomas Lee Judge (D) retired
New Hampshire: Walter Rutherford Peterson Jr. (R) over Thomas B. Wingate (D); incumbent Malcolm McLane (D) retired
North Carolina: incumbent Jim Hunt (D) over Jesse Helms (R)
North Dakota: Ruth Meiers (D) over Ernest Sands (R); incumbent Aloha Pearl Taylor Brown Eagles (R) retired
Utah: incumbent Vernon Bradford Romney (R) over David S. King (D)
Vermont: Richard A. Snelling (R) over M. Jerome Diamond (D), Daniel E. Woodward (I) and Bruce Cullen (I); incumbent Stella B. Hackel (D) retired
Washington: Daniel J. Evans (R) over incumbent Julia Butler Hansen (D)
West Virginia: incumbent Jay Rockefeller (D) over Arch A. Moore Jr. (R) and Jack Kelley (I)



The Boston Globe, 11/5/1980


The Las Vegas Review-Journal, 11/21/1980

1 December 1980: KNN, America’s first 24-hour news channel, covering “all the news, all the time,” unveils its official logo


[pic: ]


Divorce is tricky business. You have to determine what is in who’s best interest – and how your children will handle it. I gave Mike the courtesy of waiting until after the Presidential election, and then separated from him in December 1980. We finally signed divorce papers in September 1981...

– Rita Martin Gravel’s memoir, Through My Eyes, Simon & Schuster, 1995


…Denton will become the first President elected from the Deep South since Zachary Taylor was elected President from Louisiana in 1848, and Lamar Alexander will, at the age of 40, become the young person to begin serving as Vice President since John C. Breckenridge entered the office in 1860…

– Time Magazine, mid-December 1980 issue


– The Chicago Tribune, 12/18/1980

DENTON VISITS WHITE HOUSE, MEETS WITH MONDALE: Sources Say Transition Talks Are “Amicable” As Inauguration Nears

The Washington Post, 12/20/1980

“I think it’s important for us to remember how the African-American vote was divided in this race. African-Americans typically prefer the Democratic nominee over what that party did for them eighteen years ago, but Hoff won over many of them by talking about the issues they are concerned about now. And the Republican party won a decent portion of the African-American vote, too. My point is that African-Americans refuse be lumped into one category and vote en mass for the one party every time. I think Ed [Brooke] and I are proof that the Republican Party are winning over African-American voters.”

– US Senator James Meredith, 12/21/1980 interview

The Five Best and Worst Aspects of the Walter Mondale Presidency

The Best Aspects

1 Labor Union Strength – Mondale was the “dream” President of the unions as such organizations expanding in size and increased their voice in industrial decisions. Also, Mondale’s Attorney Generals worked diligently to punish violators of workplace safety laws

2 Foreign Affairs – Intervention was much more successful in Uganda and Ethiopia than in Angola, while his Secretary of State oversaw multi-party peace talks in the Middle East

3 Economic Inequality Reduction – Mondale tried to tie a boss’s salary to his company’s success, but found better success at this at the state level, and only prior to 1978.

4 Emergency Relief – federal organizations and departments swiftly went to work addressing multiple disasters in his second term.

5 Basic Needs Expansion – From health care to Social Security, Mondale took a moderate-to-liberal approach. His founding of an "Education Corps" to attract bright and dedicated young people to teaching careers, and help the teachers already in the classroom to sharpen their skills [13] was a game-changer.

The Worst Aspects

1 The Crash of ’78 – The drop in consumer confidence ushered in questions over the administration’s spending habits.

2 Budget Concerns – the runaway cost of welfare programs put the country in the red, which led to a reactionary affect in the 1980 election.

3 Business Regulations - subjectively “suffocating” business regulations increased sweatshops overseas, largely in South America and parts of India, as major corporations expanded clandestine methods for keeping expenses down and profits up, especially following the 1978 recession.

4 Attacks on NASA – disliking the idea of risking human lives, there were no new moon landings scheduled during the Mondale years, prompting the agency to focus more on unmanned missions at a time when the US-USSR Space Race was still going.

5 Political Infighting – public feuding between Mondale and his Vice President weakened the Democratic Party

– The President Walter F. Mondale National Historic Site website, c. 2025

With Speaker Mo Udall retiring, the Democratic Party’s new (minority) leader became Hale Boggs of Louisiana, with Congressman Nick Begich of Alaska becoming party’s new whip. …In the House GOP, the moderate Speaker-in-waiting Robert Michel successful repelled a leadership challenge from conservative and fellow Illinoisan Congressman Phil Crane. The Congressman chosen to be the new GOP whip was a much newer House member. Joseph John Polonko Jr., born July 24, 1939, was an Army Captain who was shot in the legs during the Cuban War in 1964. Turning to politics, Polonko was elected a Freeholder in his native New Jersey 1967, and then was elected to the US House in 1970…

– Gary C. Jacobson’s The Power and the Politics of Congressional Elections, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015

…we have just confirmed that Wesley Powell, the Republican freshman Senator and former Governor of New Hampshire, passed away last night from a sudden illness. He was 65 years old. Powell died just three days after being sworn into the US Senate to serve a term he had won this past November; this makes him one of the short-serving Senators in US history. …New Hampshire will likely hold a new special election for his seat this November for the remainder of his term…

– ABC Morning News, 1/7/1981

"Mr. Chief Justice, Mr. President, President Sanders, Vice President Alexander, Vice President Gravel, Speaker Udall, Reverend Moomaw, and my fellow citizens: …The time has come for the elimination of suppressive taxes and for Americans to finally benefit from the taxes they pay. A time for strong leadership on the world stage and in congress. As we enter a new era, we look at ourselves and the way we live, and look at how our fellow man lives oversees. And we see that all nations and civilizations share a universal truth – that the family is the engine that drives civilization. Throughout history, those cultures that have failed to found their rules and attitudes of society on the central importance of the family unit have decayed and disintegrated. [11] The next four, maybe eight years in this country are going to see hard work from only our factory workers and farmers no more – we are going to see hard work from this Capital Building, and from our military, and, I assure you, from a certain white house right down the road over that-a-ways. …Founded on faith in God, the United States has been blessed as no other nation. [11] And as we move forward in this decade, it is our duty and responsibility to share the freedoms that we are blessed with here to all the people of the world who wish to be free like us. Thank you all, God bless you, and may God continue to bless the United States of America!”

– Jeremiah Denton, 1/20/1981


[pic: ]
Jeremiah Andrew Denton Jr., the 38th President of the United States of America


Secretary of State: former Governor Donald Edgar “Buz” Lukens (R-OH)
Secretary of the Treasury: former Undersecretary of the Treasury Thelma Stovall (R-KY)
Undersecretary of the Treasury: banker and former C.O.O. of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board Preston Martin (R-DC)
Secretary of Defense: retired US Navy Admiral John Sidney “Jack” McCain Jr. (I-HI)
Attorney General: Providence Mayor Vincent Albert “Buddy” Cianci Jr. (R-RI)
Postmaster General: incumbent Postmaster General William F. Bolger (D-WI)
Secretary of the Interior: former Governor Jay Hammond (R-AK)
Secretary of Agriculture: US Representative Richard Roudebush (R-IN)
Secretary of Commerce: banker and former President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York Alfred Hayes Jr. (I-NY)
Secretary of Labor: former White House Chief Domestic Policy Advisor Whitney Young (R-KY)
Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare: retiring US Representative Robert John Cornell (D-WI)
Secretary of Transportation: outgoing US Senator James D. Martin (R-AL)

Cabinet-Level Positions:
Director of Central Intelligence (the CIA): former US Representative and former RNC Chairperson George H. W. Bush (R-TX)
Director of the Federal Bureau of Information (FBI): incumbent Director William Mark Felt Sr. (D-ID)
US Trade Representative (TR): US Representative and former car salesman Hugh Gallen (R-NH)
Administrator of the Small Business Administration (SBA): US Representatives Thomas Beverley Evans Jr. (R-DE)
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): former Administrator of the National Roadways Safety Administration, former Secretary of Transportation, and incumbent EPA Administrator Ralph Nader (I-CT)

The President’s Executive Office:
White House Chief of Staff: former White House Counsel and political strategist F. Clifton “Cliff” White (R-NY)
Deputy White House Chief of Staff: political organizer Paul Michael Weyrich (R-WI)
White House Counsel: political organizer and 1980 GOP nominee for Governor of North Carolina Jesse Helms (R-NC)
Counselor to the President: former RNC Chairperson Mary Louise Smith (R-IA)
Chief Domestic Policy Advisor: professor of surgery at the Boston University School of Medicine and political activist Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson (R-MA)
Chief Economic Policy Advisor: banker and former Undersecretary of the Treasury for International Affairs Paul Adolph Volcker Jr. (D-NJ)
Chief Foreign Policy Advisor: retired US Army Colonel and former advisor to California Governor Ronald Reagan Louis O. Giuffrida (R-CA)
Chief National Security Advisor: retired US Air Force General and former US Air Force Chief of Staff Curtis Emerson LeMay (R-OH)
Director of the Office of Management and Budget: former Governor Crawford Fairbanks Parker (R-IN)
White House Communications Director: political activist and GOP nominee for a US Congressional seat in 1978 and 1980 Newton Gingrich (R-GA)
White House Press Secretary: journalist and syndicated columnist for The Washington Times Donald Lambro (R-MA)

Other Notable Members:
Solicitor General (representative of the Federal Government before the US Supreme Court): Dean of the J. Reuben Clark Law School Rex Edwin Lee (R-UT)
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: US Army Major General John Kirk Singlaub (R-CA)
Federal Reserve Chairman: academic heterodox economist and political theorist Murray Newton Rothbard (R-NY)
NASA Director: incumbent Director Harold Brown (D-NY)

Notable US Ambassadors (in alphabetical order):
To China: former state party chair, former Undersecretary of Health, Education, and Welfare, and former Undersecretary of Defense Caspar Willard Weinberger (R-CA)
To France: diplomat Joan Margaret Clark (I-NJ)
To Indonesia: former Ambassador to Ghana Shirley Temple Black (R-CA)
To Iran: former Ambassador to Malta Lowell Bruce Laingen (I-MN)
To Ireland: former Boston Mayor John L. Saltonstall Jr. (R-MA)
To Mexico: former US Representative and political activist Benjamin “Boxcar Ben” Fernandez (R-CA)
To Nicaragua: former US Representative Bert Nettles (R-AL)
To Turkey: diplomat, professor, geopolitical theorist and former Ambassador to Sir Lanka and the Maldives Robert Strausz-Hupé (R-DC)
To the UK: outgoing US Representative J. Herbert Burke (R-FL)
To the UN: outgoing Counselor of the US State Department on European Affairs and former US Ambassador to Finland Rozanne Lejeanne Ridgway (R-MN)
To the USSR: foreign policy analyst and Georgetown University professor Earl Cedric Ravenal (R-DC)
To Yugoslavia: former US Congressman and former Administrator of the Small Business Administration Marshall Joyner Parker (R-SC)


[1] Italicized parts are directly from Denton’s Wikipedia article
[2] Mentioned here:
[3] Italicized parts of quote found in “Kim McQuaid’s The Anxious Years, 1989, p. 245”
[4] Found here:
[5] Pulled from wiki: “Knoxville federal and state bank investigators had long suspected that Butcher was engaged in unlawful banking practices [prior to rumors that began to circulate in 1982].” (Tapped Out, Time magazine, February 28, 1983)
[6] Similar to OTL results created by the Great Society programs according to this: and, more directly,
[7] Legal!:
[8] OTL Scoop Jackson quote
[9] Ibid., found here:
[10] Italicized parts are from OTL:
[11] Italicized parts are from OTL:
[12] According to this page on decontaminating irradiated parks:
[13] Italicized bits from here:

Next thing you know, Richard Ramirez kills Henry Lee Lucas.
Hmm, now there's an idea...
Not gonna lie, I'd like Scoop picking Jimmy Carter. He's a southerner, populist, could bring the religious vote, reliable for advice especially foreign affairs as he is the SecState, he needs a good relationship unlike Mondale and Gravel which I think that Carter could give, and I think he would be good as the Republican nominees are both southern thus using Carter as a bullet against them.

But it depends on you @gap80
Thank you very much for the input! It is greatly appreciated!

How badly is Portland impacted by the number of people leaving, I wonder. Do Paul Allen and Bill Gates, from somewhat nearby Seattle, get involved to try to help the area? Do the Trail Blazers of the NBA consider a move? Perhaps Allen - who owned them and the Seattle Seahawks at the time of his death - invests in them early to keep them around, though I don't know if he'd have much money in 1980.

The Kennedy News Network, being closer to the accident, may get their first major breakthrough covering it, just as ABC's NIghtline put several people on the map with the hostage crsisis. Or, one could argue that TTL Nightline starts in order to cover the nuclear accident.

Good points - I'll cover them in the next chapter!
1) Nice chapter there @gap80

2) Very glad the Colonel is still alive! Wonder if he’d like a trip to sort out South Africa?

3) American and Soviet nuclear disasters so close together, plus St Helens on top of that? Environmental concerns should be very high this election indeed.

4) Has PM Foot made any moves re leaving NATO and disarmament, or is the still strong Cold War tempering his hand?

That’s one hot summer!
1) Thanks!

2) Great idea!

3) Indeed!

4) Still in NATO due to concerns over Suslov's bellicose/anti-detente reign.
I may think that the Colonel may be a star for this TL, but I don't think he could have turned back the clock. That was his 90th birthday, not 70th
Dude, it's his daughter's birthday.

Anyhoo, here's the next chapter's E.T.A.: soon!
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Here's a little something to hold y'all over until the next update (E.T.A.: TBD):

World Leaders from the countries discussed the most in this TL so far (1961-1981)​

7/21/1957-11/18/1965: 13) John George Diefenbaker (Progressive Conservative-SK)
April 8, 1963: Diefenbaker (PC) over Lester B. Pearson (Liberal), Robert Thompson (Social Credit) and Tommy Douglas (New Democracy)
11/18/1965-12/17/1969: 14) Paul Theodore Hellyer (L-ON)
November 8, 1965: Hellyer (L) over John Diefenbaker (PC), Tommy Douglas (ND), Réal Caouette (Ralliement créditiste) and Robert N. Thompson (SC)
12/17/1969-1/26/1980: 15) Robert Lorne Stanfield (PC-NS)
December 1, 1969: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Hellyer (L), Tommy Douglas (Progressive Tomorrow – new party (merger of ND and SC)) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
July 12, 1973: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Martin Sr. (L), Ed Broadbent (PT) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
May 19, 1976: Stanfield (PC) over Paul Martin Sr. (L), Ed Broadbent (PT) and Réal Caouette (Rc)
1/26/1980-6/25/1980: 16) J. J. Jean Chretien (L-QC)
January 13, 1980: Chretien (L) over Robert Stanfield (PC) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
6/25/1980-11/2/1980: 15) Robert Lorne Stanfield (PC-NS)
June 14, 1980: Stanfield (PC) over Jean Chretien (L) and Ed Broadbent (PT)
11/2/1980-present: 16) J. J. Jean Chretien (L-QC)
October 25, 1980: Chretien (L) over Robert Stanfield (PC) and Ed Broadbent (PT)

3/20/1943-11/24/1975: Chairman: Mao Tse-Tung (Communist)
Vice-Chairman: Zhou Enlai (C) (since 1969)
11/24/1975-12/1/1975: Zhou Enlai (C)
Vice-Chairman: none
12/1/1975-present: Deng Xiaoping (C)
Vice-Chairman: Bo Yibo (C) (since 1977)

9/17/1961-7/24/1966: Jose Miro Cardona (Independent)
7/24/1966-7/24/1972: Rufo Lopez-Fresquet (Conservative)

1966: Lopez-Fresquet over Pepe San Roman (Stability) and Carlos Prio Socarras (New Authority)
7/24/1972-7/24/1978: Erneido Oliva (Conservative)
1972: Oliva over Aureliano Sanchez (NA) and Manuel Artime (S)
7/24/1978-present: Pedro Luis Boitel (Stability)
1978: Boitel over Andres Rivero Aguero (C) and Eulogio Cantillo (NA)

8 Jan 1959 – 16 Jan 1965: 18) Charles de Gaulle (Union for the New Republic (UNR))
21 Dec 1958 (no runoff needed): de Gaulle over George Marrane (French Communist Party (PCF)) and Albert Chatelet (Union of the Democratic Forces (UFD))
16 Jan 1965 – 7 Mar 1965: Acting) Alain Poher (Popular Republican Movement (MRP))
7 Mar 1965 – 7 Mar 1979: 19) Francois Mitterrand (Convention of Republican Institutions (CIR)), Unified Socialist Party after 1 May 1965)

14 Feb 1965 (1st round): Mitterrand (CIR) over Charles de Gaulle (UNR), Jean Lecanuet (Popular Republican Movement (MRP)), Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour (Miscellaneous far right (DVED)), Pierre Marcilhacy (European Liberal Party (PLE)) and Marcel Barbu (Miscellaneous left (DVG))
28 Feb 1965 (2nd round): Mitterrand (CIR) over Charles de Gaulle (UNR)
14 Feb 1972 (1st round): Mitterrand (USP) over Georges Pompidou (UNR), Alain Poher (MRP), Jacques Duclos (French Communist Party (PCF)), Gaston Deffere (French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO)), Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour (DVED), and Gaston Monnerville (L’Réforme)
28 Feb 1972 (2nd round): Mitterrand (USP) over Georges Pompidou (UNR)
7 Mar 1979 – present: 20) Pierre Mauroy (USP)
14 Feb 1979 (1st round): Mauroy (USP) over Michel Jean-Pierre Debré (UNR), Valery Giscard d’Estaing (MRP), Jean Royer (Conservative), Arlette Laguiller (Workers’), Rene Dumont (Reform), Jacques Duclos (PCF), Gaston Defferre (SFIO), and Bertrand Renouvin (New Royalist Action)
28 Feb 1979 (2nd round): Mauroy (USP) over Michel Jean-Pierre Debré (UNR)

5/17/1958-9/20/1961: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ERE)
9/20/1961-11/4/1961: Konstantinos Dovas (Independent)
11/4/1961-6/18/1963: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ERE)
6/18/1963-11/8/1963: Panagiotis Pipinelis (ERE)
11/8/1963-6/10/1965: Georgios Papandreou (EK)
6/10/1965-6/22/1965: Ilias Tsirimokos (Independent)
6/22/1965-10/9/1972: Grigoris Lambrakis (EK/EDA alliance)
10/9/1972-3/5/1977: Konstantinos Karamanlis (ND)
3/5/1977-5/8/1977: Georgios Mavros (ND)
5/8/1977-12/12/1978: Andreas Papandreou (PASOK)
12/12/1978-present: Alexandros Panagoulis (Centre Union)

10 Jan 1957 – 18 Oct 1963: Harold Macmillan (Conservative)
1959: Macmillan over Hugh Gaitskell (Labour) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
18 Oct 1963 – 27 Aug 1965: Alec Douglas-Home (C)
1964: Douglas-Home over Harold Wilson (Labour) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
27 Aug 1965 – 15 May 1968: George Brown (Labour)
1965: Brown over Alec Douglas-Home (C) and Jo Grimond (Liberal)
15 May 1968 – 10 Oct 1968: John Stonehouse (Labour)
10 Oct 1968 – 3 Dec 1968: Michael Foot (Labour)
3 Dec 1968 – 28 Mar 1973: Enoch Powell (C)

1968: Powell over Jeremy Thorpe (Liberal) and Michael Foot (Labour)
28 Mar 1973 – present: Dingle M. Foot (Labour)
1973: Foot over Enoch Powell (C) and David Steel (Liberal)
1975: Foot over Edward Heath (C) and David Steel (Liberal)
1979: Foot over Edward Heath (C), David Steel (Liberal) and Mary Whitehouse (Moralist)

1/20/1961-1/20/1965: 35) Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic-TX)
VP: 37) Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D-MN)

1960: Johnson/Humphrey over Richard Nixon/Walter Judd (R)
1/20/1965-1/20/1973: 36) Harland D. “Colonel” Sanders (Republican-KY)
VP: 38) William Scranton (R-PA)

1964: Sanders/William Scranton (R) over Lyndon Johnson/Hubert Humphrey (D) and John M. Patterson/C. Farris Bryant (Heritage and Independence Party)
1968: Sanders/Scranton (R) over Jack Kennedy/Grant Sawyer (D)
1/20/1973-1/20/1981: 37) Walter Frederick “Fritz” Mondale (D-MN)
VP: 39) Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel (D-AS)

1972: Mondale/Gravel (D) over William Scranton/Mike Stepovich (R)
1976: Mondale/Gravel (D) over Ronald Reagan/William Westmoreland (R)
1/20/1981-present: 38) Jeremiah Andrew Denton Jr. (R-AL)
VP: Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. (R-TN)

1980: Denton/Alexander (R) over Scoop Jackson (D)/Jimmy Carter (replaced Jake Butcher) (D) and Phil Hoff/Pete McCloskey (Progressive/“Far-Left coalition”)

14 Oct 1953 – 5 Feb 1963: Nikita Khrushchev (Communist)
5 Feb 1963 – 10 Dec 1968: Alexander Shelepin (C)
10 Dec 1968 – 21 Apr 1969: Gen. Aleksi Inauri (C)
21 Apr 1969 – 7 Dec 1976: Alexei Kosygin (C)
7 Dec 1976 – 12 March 1977: Nikolai Tikhonov (C)
12 March 1977 – present: Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov (C)

Governors in this TL (1/1/1961-2/5/1981)​

Governors of Alabama
1959-1963: John Malcolm Patterson (D)
1958: William Longshore (R)
1963-1967: George Wallace (D)
1962: Frank P. Walls (I)
1967-1971: Ryan DeGreffenried Sr. (D)
1966: John M. Patterson (HIP) and Arthur Glenn Andrews (R)
1971-1971: George Wallace (D)
1970: Bull Connor (I), Asa Carter (HIP) and Bert Nettles (R)
1971-1975: Sam Engelhardt (D, then HIP in 1972)
1975-1979: Jeremiah Denton (R)

1974: Richmond Flowers Sr. (D)
1979-TBD: Elvin McCary (R)
1978: Melba Till Allen (D)

Governors of Alaska
1959-1962: William A. Egan (D)
1958: John Butrovich Jr. (R)
1962-1970: Mike Stepovich (R)
1962: William A. Egan (D)
1966: Wendall P. Kay (D) and John Grasse (I)
1970-1978: Jay Hammond (R)
1970: W. Eugene Guess (D) and Ralph M. Anderson (I)
1974: Chauncey Croft (D) and Joe Vogler (I)
1978-TBD: Bill Clinton (D)
1978: Lowell Thomas Jr. (R), Don Wright (I) and Mike Colletta (Alaskan Libertarian Party)

Governors of Arizona
1959-1969: Paul Fannin (R)
1958: Robert Morrison (D)
1960: Lee Ackerman (D)
1962: Samuel Goddard (D)
1964: Art Brock (D)
1966: Norman Green (D)
1969-1971: Jack Williams (R)
1968: Samuel Goddard II (D)
1971-1975: Raul Hector Castro (D)
1970: Jack Williams (R) and Evan Mecham (HIP)
1975-TBD: Sam Steiger (R)
1974: Raul Hector Castro (D) and Jack Ross (I)
1978: Jack Ross (D)

Governor of Arkansas
1955-1965: Orval Faubus (D)
1954: Pratt C. Remmel (R)
1956: Roy Mitchell (R)
1958: George W. Johnson (R)
1960: Henry M. Britt (R)
1962: Willis Ricketts (R)
1965-1972: Winthrop Rockefeller (R)
1964: Orval Faubus (D)
1966: James Douglas Johnson (D)
1968: James Douglas Johnson (D)
1970: Virginia Johnson (D)
1972-1973: Footsie Britt (R)
1973-1975: Dale Bumpers (D)

1972: Footsie Britt (R)
1975-1979: David Pryor (D)
1974: Frank D. White (R)
1976: Leon Griffith (R)
1979-TBD: Orval Faubus (D)
1978: Lynn Lowe (R) and Nancy Pearl Johnson Hall (Independent)
1980: Frank D. White (R)

Governors of California
1959-1971: Pat Brown (D)
1958: William F. Knowland (R)
1962: Joe Shell (R)
1966: Ray Kroc (R) and Tim Leary (NM)
1971-1979: Ronald Reagan (R)
1970: Jesse Unruh (D), Tim Leary (NM) and Max Rafferty (HIP)
1974: Robert Moretti (D) and Elizabeth Keathley (NM)
1979-TBD: Phillip Burton (D)
1978: Ronald Reagan (R)

Governors of Colorado
1957-1963: Stephen McNichols (D)
1956: Donald G. Brotzman (R)
1958: Palmer L. Burch (R)
1963-1975: John Arthur Love (R)
1962: Stephen McNichols (D)
1966: Robert Lee Knous (D) and Walter R. Plankinton (HIP)
1970: Mark Hogan (D) and Albert Gurule (La Raza Unida)
1975-1979: Dick Lamm (D)
1974: John David Vanderhoof (R) and Earl Dodge (Prohibition)
1979-TBD: Bill Daniels (R)
1978: Dick Lamm (D), Roy Peister (Tea) and Earl Dodge (Prohibition)

Governors of Connecticut
1955-1963: Abraham Ribicoff (D)
1954: John Davis Lodge (R)
1958: Fred R. Zeller (R)
1963-1971: John N. Dempsey (D)
1962: John deKoven Alsop (R)
1966: E. Clayton Gengras (R)
1971-1975: Fiske Holcomb Ventres (R)
1970: Attilio R. Frassinelli (D)
1975-1980: Ella T. Grasso (D)
1974: Fiske Holcomb Ventres (R)
1978: Ronald Sarasin (R)
1980-TBD: William Ross Cotter (D)

Governors of Delaware
1961-1965: Elbert N. Carvel (D)
1960: John W. Rollins (R)
1965-1969: David P. Buckson (R)
1964: Chalres L. Terry Jr. (D)
1969-1977: Russell W. Peterson (R)
1968: Charles L. Terry Jr. (D)
1972: Sherman W. Tribbitt (D) and Virginia M. Lyndall (HIP)
1977-TBD: Joseph R. “Joe” Biden Jr. (D)
1976: Pete du Pont (R)
1980: Andrew Foltz (R) and George Cripps (Conservative)

Governors of Florida
1961-1965: C. Farris Bryant (D)
1960: George C. Peterson (R)
1965-1967: LeRoy Collins Sr. (D)
1964: Charles R. Holley (R)
1967: Robert King High (D)
1966: Claude Kirk (R)
1967-1971: Verle Allyn Pope (D)
1971-1979: Louis Bafalis (R)

1970: Verle Allyn Pope (D)
1974: Wayne Mixson (D)
1979-TBD: Jack Eckerd (R)
1978: Buddy McKay (D)

Governors of Georgia
1959-1963: Ernest Vandiver (D)
1958: unopposed
1963-1967: Carl Sanders (D)
1962: unopposed
1967-1971: Bo Callaway (R)
1966: Jimmy Carter (D) and Lester Maddox (HIP)
1971-1975: Lester Maddox (D)
1970: James Bentley (R) and Udolpho Sikes Underwood (I)
1975-1977: Bert Lance (D)
1974: Ronny Thompson (R)
1977-1979: Benjamin W. Fortson Jr. (D)
1979-TBD: John Skandalakis (D)

1978: Rodney M. Cook (R) and J. B. Stoner (I)

Governors of Hawaii
1959-1962: 1) William F. Quinn (R)
1959: John A. Burns (D)
1962-1970: 2) John A. Burns (D)
1962: William F. Quinn (R)
1966: Randolph Crossley (R)
1970-1978: 3) Thomas Ponce Gill (D)
1970: Samuel Pailthorpe King (R)
1974: Randolph Crossley (R)
1978-TBD: 4) Alema Leota (Independent)
1978: Frank Fasi (D) and John R. Leopold (R)

Governors of Idaho
1955-1963: Robert E. Smylie (R)
1954: Clark Hamilton (D)
1958: Alfred M. Derr (D)
1963-1966: Vernon K. Smith (D)
1962: Robert E. Smylie (R)
1966-1967: William Edward Drevlow (D)
1967-1975: Charles Herndon (D)

1966: Don Samuelson (R), Perry Swisher (I) and Philip Jungert (I)
1970: Jack M. Murphy (R)
1975-TBD: Jay S. Amyx (R)
1974: Vernon Ravenscroft (D)
1978: John V. Evans (D)

Governors of Illinois
1961-1965: Otto Kerner Jr. (D)
1960: Wiliam Stratton (R)
1965-1973: Charles Percy (R)
1964: Otto Kerner Jr. (D)
1968: Samuel H. Shapiro (D)
1973-1981: Paul Simon (D)
1972: Richard B. Ogilvie (R)
1976: J. R. Thompson (R)
1981-TBD: John B. Anderson (R)
1980: Neil F. Hartigan (D)

Governors of Indiana
1961-1965: Crawford Fairbanks Parker (R)
1960: Matthew E. Welsh (D)
1965-1969: Richard O. Ristine (R)
1964: Roger D. Branigin (D)
1969-1973: J. Irwin Miller (R)
1968: Robert L. Rock (D) and Melvin E. Hawk (Prohibition)
1973-1977: Robert L. Rock (D)
1972: Otis Bowen (R), Berryman S. Hurley (HIP) and Finley N. Campbell (NM)
1977-1981: Danny Lee Burton (R)
1976: Robert L. Rock (D)
1981-TBD: Dan Quayle (R)
1980: John A. Hillenbrand (D)

Governors of Iowa
1961-1963: Norman A. Erbe (R)
1960: Edward J. McManus (D)
1963-1967: Harold Hughes (D)
1962: Norman A. Erbe (R)
1964: Evan L. “Curly” Hultman (R) and Robert Dilley (HIP)
1967-1967: Robert D. Fulton (D)
1967-1971: Robert D. Ray (R)

1966: Robert D. Fulton (D) and David B. Quiner (HIP)
1968: Paul Franzenburg (D)
1971-1979: Armour Boot (D)
1970: Robert D. Ray (R)
1974: Arthur Alan Neu (R)
1979-TBD: Chuck Grassley (R)
1978: Jerome D. Fitzgerald (D)

Governors of Kansas
1961-1965: John Anderson Jr. (R)
1960: George Docking (D)
1962: Dale Saffels (D)
1965-1967: William H. Avery (R)
1964: Harry G. Wiles (D) and Kenneth L. Myers (HIP)
1967-1975: Robert B. Docking (D)
1966: William H. Avery (R) and Rolland Ernest Fisher (Prohibition)
1968: Rick Harman (R)
1970: Kent Frizzell (R)
1972: Morris Kay (R)
1975-TBD: Robert Frederick Bennett (R)
1974: Vern Miller (D) and Marshall Uncapher (Prohibition)
1978: John W. Carlin (D) and Frank W. Shelton Jr. (American)

Governors of Kentucky
1947-1950: 47) Earle Clements (D)
1947: Eldon S. Dummit (R)
1950-1955: 48) Lawrence Wetherby (D)
1951: Eugene Siler (R)
1955-1959: 49) Harland David “(The) Colonel” Sanders Sr. (R)
1955: Happy Chandler (D)
1959-1967: 50) Bert T. Combs (D)
1959: Edwin Denney (R)
1963: Louie Nunn (R)
1967-1975: 51) John M. Robsion Jr. (R)
1967: Ed Breadthitt (D) and Christian Glanz (HIP)
1971: Happy Chandler (D) and William Smith (HIP)
1975-1979: 52) Mary Louise Foust (R)
1975: Wendell H. Ford (D)
1979-1980: 53) John B. Breckinridge (D)
1979: Mary Louise Foust (R)
1980-TBD: 54) Martha Layne Osborne (nee Hall) (D)

Governors of Louisiana
1960-1964: Jimmie Davis (D)
1959: Francis Grevemberg (R)
1964-1968: Gillis Long (D)
1963: Charlton Lyons (R)
1968-1972: John J. McKeithen (D)
1967: Charlton Lyons (R) and John Rarick (HIP)
1972-1976: Jimmie Davis (D)
1971: Robert Max Ross (R)
1976-1980: Edwin Edwards (D)
1975: Robert G. Jones (D) and Wade O. Martin Jr. (D)
1980-TBD: James Edward “Jimmy” Fitzmorris Jr. (D)
1979: Edgar Gonzague “Sonny” Mouton Jr. (D)

Governors of Maine
1959-1959: Clinton A. Clauson (D)
1958: Horace A. Hildreth (R)
1959-1971: John H. Reed (R)
1962: Maynard Dolloff (D)
1966: Kenneth M. Curtis (D)
1971-1979: Peter N. Kyros (D)
1970: James S. Erwin (R)
1974: James B. Longley (I) and James Erwin (R)
1979-TBD: Linwood E. Palmer Jr. (R)
1978: Joseph Brennan (D)

Governors of Maryland
1959-1967: J. Millard Tawes (D)
1958: James P. S. Devereux (R)
1962: Frank Small Jr. (R)
1967-1971: Spiro T. Agnew (R)
1966: Hyman A. Pressman (D) and George P. Mahoney (HIP)
1971-1977: Marvin Mandel (D)
1970: Spiro T. Agnew (R) and Robert Woods Merkle Sr. (HIP)
1974: Louise Gore (R)
1977-TBD: F. P. Blair Lee III (D)
1978: John Glenn Beall Jr. (R)

Governors of Massachusetts
1961-1963: John Volpe (R)
1960: Joseph D. Ward (D)
1963-1965: Endicott Peabody (D)
1962: John Volpe (R)
1965-1971: John Volpe (R)
1964: Endicott Peabody (D)
1966: Edward J. McCormack Jr. (D)
1971-1977: Pierre Salinger (D)
1970: Francis W. Sargent (R)
1974: John Frederick Collins (R)
1977-TBD: Michael Dukakis (D)
1978: Lou Nickinello (R)

Michigan Governors
1961-1963: John Swainson (D)
1960: Paul D. Bagwell (R)
1963-1971: George W. Romney (R)
1962: John Swainson (D)
1964: Neil O. Staebler (D)
1966: Zolton Ferency (D)
1971-1979: Martha Griffiths (D)
1970: William Milliken (R)
1974: Marvin Leonel Esch (R)
1979-TBD: Soapy Williams (D)
1978: William Milliken (R)

Governors of Minnesota
1955-1963: Orville Freeman (DFL)
1954: C. Elmer Anderson (R)
1956: Ancher Nelson (R)
1958: George MacKinnon (R)
1960: Elmer L. Andersen (R)
1963-1967: Donald Orr Wright Sr. (R)
1962: Orville Freeman (DFL)
1967-1975: Coya Knutson (DFL)
1966: Harold LeVander (R)
1970: Douglas M. Head (R)
1975-1976: Odin Langen (R)
1974: Edward J. Gearty (DFL)
1976-1979: Clark MacGregor (R)
1979-TBD: Coya Knutson (DFL)

1978: Clark MacGregor (R) and Richard Pedersen (American)

Governors of Mississippi
1960-1964: Ross Barnett (D)
1959: unopposed
1964-1968: Paul B. Johnson Jr. (D)
1963: Ruben Phillips (R)
1968-1972: Ruben Phillips (R)
1967: William Winter (D)
1972-1976: Walter Nixon (D)
1971: Gil Carmichael (R) and Charles Evers (I)
1976-1980: William Winter (D)
1975: Gil Carmichael (R)
1980-TBD: Evelyn Gandy (D)
1979: Charles Evers (R) and Arthur Eaves Sr. (I)

Governors of Missouri
1957-1965: James T. Blair Jr. (D)
1956: Lon Hocker (R)
1960: Edward G. Farmer (R)
1965-1973: Ethan A. H. Shepley (R)
1964: Warren E. Hearnes (D)
1968: Thomas F. Eagleton (D), Lawrence K. Roos (Missourian) and Bill Beeny (HIP)
1973-1977: James W. Symington (D)
1972: Christopher S. “Kit” Bond (R)
1977-TBD: Bill Bradley (D)
1976: Harvey F. Euge (R) and Helen Savio (I)
1980: Bill Phelps (R)

Governors of Montana
1961-1962: Donald G. Nutter (R)
1960: Paul Cannon (D)
1962-1973: Tim Babcock (R)
1964: Roland Renne (D)
1968: Forrest H. Anderson (D) and Wayne Montgomery (New Reform)
1973-1981: Thomas Lee Judge (D)
1972: Ed Smith (R)
1976: Stanley G. Stephens (R)
1981-TBD: Martin J. “Red” Beckman (D)
1980: Jack Ramirez (R)

Governors of Nebraska
1959-1960: Ralph G. Brooks (D)
1958: Victor E. Anderson (R)
1960-1961: Dwight W. Burney (R)
1961-1971: Frank B. Morrison (D)

1960: John R. Cooper (R)
1962: Frederick A. Seaton (R)
1964: Dwight W. Burney (R)
1966: Philip Hart Weaver (R) and Philip C. Sorensen (Liberal)
1971-1979: J. James Exon (D)
1970: Albert C. Walsh (R)
1974: Richard D. Marvel (R) and Ernie Chambers (I)
1979-TBD: Charles Thone (R)
1978: Gerald T. Whelan (D)

Governors of Nevada
1959-1971: Grant Sawyer (D)
1958: Charles H. Russell (R)
1962: Oran K. Grayson (R)
1966: Wilford Owen Woodruff (R) and Lloyd E. Gilbert (HIP)
1971-TBD: Rex Bell Jr. (R)
1970: Mike O’Callaghan (D) and Charles Springer (I)
1974: Henry W. “Hank” Thornley (D)
1978: Robert E. Rose (D)

Governors of New Hampshire
1959-1963: Wesley Powell (R)
1958: Bernard L. Boutin (D)
1960: Bernard L. Boutin (D
1963-1967: John William King (D)
1962: John Pillsbury (R)
1964: John Pillsbury (R)
1967-1973: Harrison Reed Thyng (R)
1966: John William King (D)
1968: Emile R. Bussiere (D)
1970: Meldrim Thomson Jr. (HIP) and Roger J. Crowley (D)
1973-1981: Malcolm McLane (D)
1972: Chester Earl Merrow (R)
1974: David L. Nixon (R)
1976: Walter Rutherford Peterson Jr. (R)
1978: Mabel Everett (R)
1981-TBD: Walter Rutherford Peterson Jr. (R)
1980: Thomas B. Wingate (D)

Governors of New Jersey
1954-1962: 44) Robert B. Meyner (D)
1953: Paul L. Troast (R)
1957: Malcolm Forbes (R)
1962-1970: 45) Richard J. Hughes (D)
1961: James P. Mitchell (R)
1965: Wayne Dumont (R)
1970-1978: 46) Francis X. McDermott (R)
1969: Alexander Buel “Sandy” Trowbridge III (D)
1973: Ann Klein (D)
1978-TBD: 47) James J. Florio (D)
1977: Raymond Bateman (R)

Governors of New Mexico
1961-1962: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1960: John Burroughs (D)
1962-1963: Tom Bolack (R)
1963-1967: Jack M. Campbell (D)

1962: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1964: Merle H. Tucker (R)
1967-1971: David F. Cargo (R)
1966: Jack M. Campbell (D)
1968: Mack Easley (D)
1971-1975: Bruce King (D)
1970: David F. Cargo (R)
1975-1979: Jerry Apodaca (D)
1974: Pete Domenici (R) and Gene Gonzales (La Raza Unida)
1979-TBD: Joe Skeen (R)
1978: Bruce King (D)

Governors of New York
1/1/1959-1/23/1965: 49) Nelson Rockefeller (R)
1958: W. Averell Harriman (D)
1962: Robert Morgenthau (D)
1/23/1965-12/31/1966: 50) Malcolm Wilson (R)
1/1/1967-1/3/1981: 51) Mario Biaggi (D until 1978, Conservative 1978-1979, D after 1979)

1966: Malcolm Wilson (R) and Franklin D. Roosevelt Jr. (Liberal)
1970: Steven Boghos Derounian (R), Arthur J. Goldberg (Liberal) and Norman Mailer (Natural Mind)
1974: Peter A. Peyser (R/Liberal)
1978: Hugh Carey (D), Nelson Rockefeller (R/Liberal) and Mary Jane Tobin (Independence)
1/3/1981-TBD: 52) Mario Cuomo (D)

Governors of North Carolina
1961-1965: Terry Sanford (D)
1960: Robert L. Gavin (R)
1965-1969: Daniel K. Moore (D)
1964: Robert L. Gavin (R)
1969-1973: James Carson Gardner (R)
1968: Robert W. Scott (D)
1973-1977: Walter B. Jones Sr. (D)
1972: James Holshouser (R), Hargrove “Skipper” Bowles (Independent Democrat), and Arlis F. Pettyjohn (HIP)
1977-TBD: Jim Hunt (D)
1976: David Flaherty (R) and Herbert F. “Chub” Seawall Jr. (Country)
1980: Jesse Helms (R)

Governors of North Dakota
1961-1973: William L. Guy (D)
1960: Clarence P. Dahl (R) and Herschel Lashkowitz (Independent)
1962: Mark Andrews (R)
1964: Donald M. Halcrow (R)
1968: Robert P. McCarney (R)
1973-1981: Aloha Pearl Taylor Brown Eagles (R)
1972: Arthur A. Link (D)
1976: Sophus Vernon Trom (D)
1981-TBD: Ruth Meiers (D)
1980: Ernest Sands (R)

Governors of Ohio
1959-1963: Michael V. DiSalle (D)
1958: C. William O’Neill (D)
1963-1971: Jim Rhodes (R)
1962: Michael DiSalle (D)
1966: Frazier Reams Jr. (D)
1971-1979: Buz Lukens (R)
1970: Robert E. Sweeney (D), Roger Cloud (IR) and Edward T. Lawton (HIP)
1974: Robert E. Sweeney (D)
1979-TBD: Jim Rhodes (R)
1978: Dick Celeste (D)

Governors of Oklahoma
1959-1963: J. Howard Edmondson (D)
1958: Phil Ferguson (R) and D. A. Jelly Bryce (I)
1963: George Patterson Nigh (D)
1963-1971: Henry Bellmon (R)

1962: W. P. Bill Atkinson (D)
1966: Preston J. Moore (D)
1971-1979: David Hall (D)
1970: Dewey F. Bartlett (R) and Reel Little (HIP)
1974: Jim Inhofe (R)
1979-TBD: George Patterson Nigh (D)
1978: Ron Shotts (R)

Governors of Oregon
1959-1967: Mark Hatfield (R)
1958: Robert D. Holmes (D)
1962: Robert Y. Thornton (D)
1967-1975: Tom McCall (R)
1966: Robert Straub (D)
1970: Robert Straub (D)
1975-1979: Edith Green (D)
1974: Wendell Wyatt (R)
1979-TBD: Victor Atiyeh (R)
1978: Edith Green (D)

Governors of Pennsylvania
1959-1963: David Lawrence (D)
1958: Art McGonigle (R)
1963-1965: William W. Scranton II (R)
1962: Richardson Dilworth (D)
1965-1967: Raymond Shafer (R)
1967-1971: Robert Casey Sr. (D)

1966: Harold Stassen (R)
1971-1975: Milton Shapp (D)
1970: Raymond Shafer (R) and Andrew J. Watson (Constitution)
1975-1979: Martin P. Mullen (D)
1974: Drew Lewis (R)
1979-TBD: Milton Shapp (D)
1978: Dick Thornburgh (R)

Governors of Rhode Island
1961-1965: John A. Nolte Jr. (D)
1960: Christopher Del Sesto (R)
1962: John Chafee (R)
1965-1971: John Chafee (R)
1964: John A. Nolte Jr. (D)
1966: Horace E. Hobbs (D)
1968: Frank Licht (D)
1971-1979: J. Joseph Garrahy (D)
1970: John Chafee (R)
1974: James Nugent (R)
1979-TBD: Lincoln Almond (R)
1978: Thomas Ross DiLuglio (D) and Joseph A. Doorley (I)

Governors of South Carolina
1959-1963: Fritz Hollings (D)
1958: unopposed
1963-1965: Donald Stuart Russell (D)
1962: unopposed
1965-1967: Robert McNair (D)
1967-1971: Joseph O. Rogers Jr. (R)

1966: Robert McNair (D) and Alfred William “Red” Bethea (HIP)
1971-1975: John West (D)
1970: Albert Watson (R)
1975-1979: William Westmoreland (R)
1974: William Jennings Bryan Dorn (D)
1979-TBD: Richard Riley (D)
1978: Edward Lunn Young (R)

Governors of South Dakota
1961-1963: Archie Gubbrud (R)
1960: Ralph Herseth (D)
1963-1967: Ralph Herseth (D)
1962: Archie M. Gubbrud (R)
1964: Nils Boe (R) and John F. Lindley (I)
1967-1971: Frank Farrar (R)
1966: Ralph Herseth
1968: Leath Carroll Fullerton (D)
1971-1975: George S. McGovern (D)
1970: Frank Farrar (R)
1972: Carveth Thompson (R)
1975-TBD: Benjamin “Ben” (Lone Feather) Reifel (R)
1974: Richard F. Kneip (D) and John E. Olson (Country)
1978: Roger D. McKellips (D)

Governors of Tennessee
1959-1963: Buford Ellington (D)
1958: Jim Nance McCord (I) and Tom Wall (R)
1963-1967: Frank G. Clements (D)
1962: William Anderson (I) and Hubert David Patty (R)
1967-1971: Buford Ellington (D)
1966: H. L. Crowder (HIP), Charlie Moffett (I) and Charles Gordon Vick (I)
1971-1975: Frank G. Clements (D)
1970: Winfield Dunn (R)
1975-1979: Lamar Alexander (R)
1974: Ray Blanton (D)
1979-TBD: Jake Butcher (D)
1978: Hubert David Patty (R)

Governors of Texas
1957-1967: Price Daniel (D)
1956: Bill Bryant (R) and W. Lee O’Daniel (I)
1958: Edwin S. Mayer (R)
1960: William Steger (R)
1962: Jack Cox (R)
1964: Jack Crichton (R) and John C. Williams (HIP)
1967-1971: John Connally (D before 1969, R after 1969)
1966: T. E. Kennerly (R) and Ed Walker (HIP)
1968: Paul Eggers (R) and John Trice (HIP)
1971-1974: Waggoner Carr (D)
1970: Roger Martin (R)
1972: Henry Grover (R) and Ramsey Muniz (La Raza Unida)
1974-1979: Frances Farenthold (D)
1974: Jim Granberry (R) and Ramsey Muniz (LRU)
1979-TBD: Bill Clements (R)
1978: Frances Farenthold (D) and Mario Compean (LRU)

Governors of Utah
1957-1965: George Clyde (R)
1956: L. C. “Rennie” Romney (D) and J. Bracken “Brack” Lee (Independent)
1960: William Arthur Barlocker (D)
1965-1973: Mitchell Melich (R)
1964: Calvin L. Rampton (D)
1968: Nicholas L. Strike (D)
1973-1977: K. Gunn McKay (D)
1972: Nicholas L. Strike (R)
1977-TBD: Vernon Bradford Romney (R)
1976: K. Gunn McKay (D)
1980: David S. King (D)

Governors of Vermont
1961-1963: F. Ray Keyser Jr. (R)
1960: Russell Niquette (D)
1963-1973: Phil Hoff (D)
1962: F. Ray Keyser Jr. (R)
1964: Ralph A. Foote (R)
1966: Richard Snelling (R)
1968: Deane C. Davis (R)
1970: John S. Burgess (R)
1973-1975: Consuelo Bailey (R)
1972: Randolph T. Major (D) and Pete Diamondstone (Liberty Union)
1975-1977: Harry H. Cooley (D)
1974: Walter L. Kennedy (R)
1977-1981: Stella Hackel (D)
1976: William G. Craig (R)
1978: Walter L. Kennedy (R) and Earl S. Gardner (LU)
1981-TBD: Richard A. Snelling (R)
1980: M. Jerome Diamond (D), Daniel E. Woodward (I) and Bruce Cullen (I)

Governors of Virginia
1958-1962: James Lindsay Almond Jr. (D)
1957: Ted Dalton (R)
1962-1966: Albertis S. Harrison Jr. (D)
1961: H. Clyde Pearson (R)
1966-1970: Linwood Holton (R)
1965: Mills Godwin (D) and William J. Story Jr. (HIP)
1970-1974: Vince Callahan (R)
1969: Henry Howell (D) and William J. Story Jr. (HIP)
1974-1978: Elmo Zumwalt (D)
1973: Mills Godwin (R)
1978-TBD: John N. Dalton (R)
1977: William Battle (D)

Governors of Washington
1957-1965: Albert Rossellini (D)
1956: Emmett T. Anderson (R)
1960: Lloyd J. Andrew (R)
1965-1975: Daniel J. Evans (R)
1964: Albert Rosellini (D)
1968: John J. O’Connell (D) and Ken Chriswell (HIP)
1972: Albert Rosellini (D) and Vick Gould (Taxpayers)
1975-1977: Arthur Fletcher (R)
1977-1981: Julia Butler Hansen (D)

1976: Arthur Fletcher (R)
1981-TBD: Daniel J. Evans (R)
1980: Julia Butler Hansen (D)

Governors of West Virginia
1961-1965: Wally Barron (D)
1960: Harold E. Neely (R)
1965-1969: Cecil Underwood (R)
1964: Hulett C. Smith (D)
1969-1977: Arch A. Moore Jr. (R)
1968: James Marshall Sprouse (D)
1972: Jay Rockefeller (D)
1977-TBD: Jay Rockefeller (D)
1976: Cecil H. Underwood (R)
1980: Arch A. Moore Jr. (R) and Jack Kelley (I)

Governors of Wisconsin
1959-1963: Gaylord A. Nelson (D)
1958: Vernon Wallace Thomson (R)
1960: Philip G. Kuehn (R)
1963-1965: John W. Reynolds (D)
1962: Philip G. Kuehn (R)
1965-1967: Warren P. Knowles (R)
1964: John W. Reynolds (D)
1967-1975: Patrick Lucey (D)
1966: Warren P. Knowles (R)
1968: William Kaiser Van Pelt (R)
1970: Jack B. Olson (R) and Georgia Cozzini (Natural Mind)
1975-TBD: Bronson LaFollette (D)
1974: Bill Dyke (R)
1978: Lee S. Dreyfus (R)

Governors of Wyoming
1961-1967: Jack R. Gage (D)
1962: Clifford P. Hansen (R)
1967-1975: Teno Roncalio (D)
1966: Stanley K. Hathaway (R)
1970: William H. Harrison (R)
1975-TBD: Thyra Thomson (R)
1974: Edgar Herschler (D)
1978: Edgar Herschler (D)

US Senators in this TL (1/1/1961-1/5/1981)​

US Senators from Alabama’s Class 2 Seat
1946-1973: John J. Sparkman (Democratic)
1946 (special election): unopposed
1948: Paul Parsons (Republican)
1954: J. Foy Guin Jr. (R)
1960: Julian E. Elgin (R)
1966: John Grenier (R)
1973-1976: John L. LeFlore (D)
1972: Winston “Red” Blount Jr. (R)
1976-TBD: John J. Sparkman (D)
1978: Jerome B. Couch (Prohibition)
US Senators from Alabama’s Class 3 Seat
1938-1963: J. Lister Hill (D)
1938 (sp): unopposed
1938: J. M. Pennington (R)
1944: John A. Posey (R)
1950: John G. Crommelin Jr. (Independent)
1956: unopposed
1963-1981: James D. Martin (R)
1962: John G. Crommelin Jr. (D) and J. Lister Hill (I)
1968: John M. Patterson (Heritage & Independence) and James Allen (D)
1974: Clair Chisler (D) and Sam Engelhardt (HIP)
1981-TBD: Walter Flowers (D)
1980: James D. Martin (R) and Emory Folmar (Conservative)

US Senators from Alaska’s Class 2 Seat
1959-1968: Bob Bartlett (D)
1958 (sp): R. E. Robertson (R)
1960: Lee L. McKinley (R)
1966: Lee L. McKinley (R)
1968-1970: Ted Stevens (R)
1970-1973: Mike Gravel (D)

1969 (sp): Ted Stevens (R)
1973-1979: Eben Hopson (D)
1972: Howard Wallace Pollock (R)
1979-TBD: Hazel P. Heath (R)
1978: Eben Hopson (D)
US Senators from Alaska’s Class 3 Seat
1959-1974: Ernest Gruening (D)
1958 (sp): Mike Stepovich (R)
1962: Ted Stevens (R)
1968: Elmer E. Rasmuson (R)
1974-1975: Ted Stevens (R)
1975-1981: Clark Gruening (D)

1974: Ted Stevens (R)
1981-TBD: Frank Murkowski (R)
1980: Clark Gruening (D)

US Senators from Arizona’s Class 1 Seat
1953-TBD: Barry Goldwater Sr. (R)
1952: Ernest McFarland (D)
1958: Ernest McFarland (D)
1964: Roy Elson (D)
1970: Renz L. Jennings (D)
1976: Dennis DeConcini (D) and Sam Grossman (Independent Democrat)
US Senators from Arizona’s Class 3 Seat
1927-1969: Carl Hayden (D)
1926: Ralph H. Cameron (R)
1932: Ralph H. Cameron (R)
1938: Burt H. Clingan (R)
1944: Fred Wildon Fickett Jr. (R)
1950: Bruce Brockett (R)
1956: Ross F. Jones (R)
1962: Evan Mecham (R)
1969-TBD: Paul Fannin (R)
1968: Roy Elson (D)
1974: Jonathan Marshall (D)
1980: Bill Schulz (D)

US Senators from Arkansas’s Class 2 Seat
1943-1977: John L. McClellan (D)
1942: unopposed
1948: R. Walter Tucker (I)
1954: unopposed
1960: unopposed
1966: unopposed
1972: Wayne H. Babbitt (R)
1977-1979: Kaneaster Hodges Jr. (D)
1979-TBD: Dale L. Bumpers (D)

1978: Tom Kelly (R) and John J. Black (I)
US Senators from Arkansas’s Class N Seat
1945-TBD: J. William Fulbright (D)
1944: Victor M. Wade (R)
1950: Unopposed
1956: Ben Henley (R)
1962: Kenneth Jones (R)
1968: Charles T. Bernard (R)
1974: John H. Jones (R)
1980: William Clark (R) and Walter McCarty (I)

US Senators from California’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1964: Clair Engle (D)
1958: Goodwin Knight (R)
1964-1965: Alan Cranston (D)
1965-TBD: Richard Nixon (R)

1964: Alan Cranston (D)
1970: Tom Hayden (D) and Robert Scheer (Natural Mind)
1976: George E. Brown (D) and David Wald (NM)
US Senators from California’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1953: Richard Nixon (R)
1950: Helen Gahagan Douglas (D)
1953-1981: Thomas Kuchel (R)
1954 (sp): Sam Yorty (D)
1956: Richard Richards (D)
1962: Richard Richards (D)
1968: Anthony C. Beilsenson (D) and Paul Jacobs (NM)
1974: Kenneth Frederick Hahn (D)
1981-TBD: Maureen Reagan (R)
1980: Tom Hayden (D/NM) and David Bergland (Liberty)

US Senators from Colorado’s Class 2 Seat
1955-TBD: Gordon L. Allott (R)
1954: John A. Carroll (D)
1960: Robert L. Knous (D)
1966: Byron Johnson (D) and Henry Olshaw (HIP)
1972: Floyd K. Haskell (D), Secundion Salazar (Raza Unida)
1979-TBD: William L. Armstrong (R)
1978: Floyd Haskell (D)
US Senators from Colorado’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1963: John A. Carroll (D)
1956: Dan Thornton (R)
1963-1975: Peter H. Dominick (R)
1962: John A. Carroll (D)
1968: Stephen L. R. McNichols (D) and Gordon G. Barnwall (HIP)
1975-TBD: George L. Brown (D)
1974: Peter H. Dominick (R)
1980: Mary E. Buchanan (R) and Earl Higgerson (Statesman

US Senators from Connecticut’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Thomas J. Dodd (D)
1958: William A. Purtell (R)
1964: John Davis Lodge (R)
1970: Antonina P. Uccello (R)
1971-TBD: Antonina P. Uccello (R)
1972 (sp): Gloria Schaffer (D)
1976: Gloria Schaffer (D)
US Senators from Connecticut’s Class 3 Seat
1963-1981: Abraham Ribicoff (D)
1962: Horace Seely-Brown Jr. (R)
1968: Edwin H. May Jr. (R)
1974: James H. Brannen III (R) and Arthur F. Capozzi Jr. (Country)
1981-TBD: Chris Dodd (D)
1980: James L. Buckley (R)

US Senators from Delaware’s Class 1 Seat
1947-1970: John J. Williams (R)
1946: James M. Tunnell Sr. (D)
1952: A. I. DuPont Bayard (D)
1958: Elbert N. Carvel (D)
1964: Elbert N. Carvel (D)
1970-TBD: William Victor Roth Jr. (R)
1970: Jacob Zimmerman (D)
1976: Thomas C. Mahoney (D)
US Senators from Delaware’s Class 2 Seat
1961-TBD: J. Caleb Boggs (R)
1960: J. Allen Frear Jr. (D)
1966: James M. Tunnell Jr. (D)
1972: Joseph Biden (D)
1978: Emily Womach (D)

US Senators from Florida’s Class 1 Seat
1946-1971: Spessard Holland (D)
1946: J. Harry Schad (R)
1952: unopposed
1958: Leland Hyzer (R)
1964: Claude R. Kirk Jr. (R)
1971-TBD: Lawton Chiles (D) – incumbent
1970: Lawton Chiles (D) over G. Harrold Carswell (HIP), Raymond Claiborne Osborne (R) and Claude R. Kirk Jr. (Conservative)
1976: Jack Eckerd (R) and John Grady (HIP)
US Senators from Florida’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: George Smathers (D)
1950: John P. Booth (R)
1956: Unopposed
1962: Emerson Rupert (R)
1969-1981: William Cato “Bill” Cramer Sr. (R)
1968: George A. Smathers (D) and C. Farris Bryant (HIP)
1974: LeRoy Collins Sr. (D) and Thomas Burton Adams Jr. (HIP)
1981-TBD: Paula Hawkins (R)
1980: Bill Gunter (D)

US Senators from Georgia’s Class 2 Seat
1933-1971: Richard Russell Jr. (D)
1933 (sp): unopposed
1936: unopposed
1942: LeVert Dwyer Shivers (I)
1948: Larkin Marshall (I)
1954: unopposed
1960: unopposed
1966: J. B. Stoner (HIP)
1971-1973: Ernest Vandiver (D)
1973-1977: Jimmy Carter (D)

1972: Fletcher Thompson (R) and J. B. Stoner (HIP)
1977-TBD: Sam Nunn (D)
1978: Fletcher Thompson (R)
US Senators from Georgia’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1963: Herman E. Talmadge (D)
1956: unopposed
1963-1981: John William Davis (D)
1962: Herman Talmadge (I)
1968: E. Earl Patton (R)
1974: Jerry Johnson (R)
1981-TBD: Mack Mattingly (R)
1980: John William Davis (D)

US Senators from Hawaii’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1977: Hiram Fong (R)
1959 (sp): unopposed
1964: Thomas Ponce Gill (D)
1970: Cecil Heftel (D)
1977-TBD: Patsy Mink (D)
1976: William F. Quinn (R)
US Senators from Hawaii’s Class 3 Seat
1959-1963: Oren E. Long (D)
1959 (sp): unopposed
1963-TBD: Daniel Inouye (D)
1962: Ben Dillingham (R)
1968: Wayne C. Thiessen (R) and Oliver M. Lee (Natural Mind)
1974: James D. Kimmel (R)
1980: Cooper Brown (R)

US Senators from Idaho’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1962: Henry Dworshak (R)
1950 (sp): Claude J. Burtenshaw (D)
1954: Glen H. Taylor (D)
1960: R. F. “Bob” Mclaughlin (D)
1962-1963: Len Jordan (R)
1963-1964: Gracie Pfost (D)

1962 (sp): Len Jordan (R)
1964-1973: Len Jordan (R)
1964 (sp): Vernon K. Smith (D)
1966: Ralph Harding (D)
1973-1979: Richard H. Stallings (D)
1972: Len Jordan (R)
1979-TBD: George Vernon Hansen (R)
1978: Richard H. Stallings (D)
US Senators from Idaho’s Class 3 Seat
1957-TBD: Frank Church (D)
1956: Herman Welker (R)
1962: Jack Hawley (R)
1968: George V. Hansen (R)
1974: Robert L. Smith (R)
1980: Steve Symms (R) and Larry Fullmer (Freedom)

US Senators from Illinois’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Paul Douglas (D)
1948: Charles W. Brooks (R)
1954: Joseph T. Meek (R)
1960: Samuel W. Witwer (R)
1966: Lawrence J. S. “Lar” Daly (R) and Robert Sabonjian (HIP)
1973-TBD: Charles Percy (R)
1972: Roman Pucinski (D)
1978: Alex Seith (D)
US Senators from Illinois’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: Everett Dirksen (R)
1950: Scott W. Lucas (D)
1956: Richard Stengel (D)
1962: Sidney R. Yates (D)
1968: William G. Clark (D)
1969-1970: Ralph Tyler Smith (R)
1970-1981: Adlai Stevenson (D)

1970 (sp): Ralph Tyler Smith (R)
1974: George M. Burditt (R)
1981-TBD: Alan J. Dixon (D)
1980: David C. O’Neal (R)

US Senators from Indiana’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Vance Hartke (D) – incumbent
1958: Harold W. Handley (R)
1964: Russell Bontrager (R)
1970: Richard Roudebush (R)
1976: Earl F. Landgrebe (R)
US Senators from Indiana’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1963: Homer E. Capehart (R)
1944: Henry F. Schricker (D)
1950: Alex Campbell (D)
1956: Claude R. Wickard (D)
1963-1975: Birch Bayh (D)
1962: Homer E. Capehart (R)
1968: William Ruckelshaus (R)
1975-TBD: Richard Lugar (R)
1974: Birch Bayh (D)
1980: Adam Benjamin Jr. (D)

US Senators from Iowa’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1973: Jack Miller (R)
1960: Herschel C. Loveless (D)
1966: E. B. Smith (D) and Robert D. Dilley (HIP)
1973-1979: Dick Clark (D)
1972: Jack Miller (R) and William A. Rocap Jr. (HIP)
1979-TBD: Roger Jespen (R)
1978: Dick Clark (D)
US Senators from Iowa’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1965: Bourke Blakemore Hickenlooper (R)
1944: Guy Gillette (D)
1950: Albert J. Loveland (D)
1956: R. M. Evans (D)
1962: E. B. Smith (D)
1965-1967: Henry Oscar Talle (R)
1967-TBD: Harold Hughes (D)

1966: Henry Oscar Talle (R)
1968: David M. Stanley (R)
1974: David M. Stanley (R)
1980: James Leach (R)

US Senators from Kansas’ Class 2 Seat
1949-1962: Andrew F. Schoeppel (R)
1948: George McGill (D) and C. Floyd Hester (Prohibition)
1954: George McGill (D) and David C. White (Prohibition)
1960: Frank Theis (D)
1962-1979: James B. Pearson (R)
1962 (sp): Paul L. Aylward (D)
1966: George W. Snell (HIP), James Floyd Breeding (D) and Earl Dodge (Prohibition)
1972: Arch Tetzlaff (D) and Gene Miller (Conservative)
1979-TBD: Nancy Landon Kassebaum (R)
1978: William R. Roy (D)
US Senators from Kansas’ Class 3 Seat
1950-1969: Frank Carlson (R)
1950 (sp): Paul Aiken (D)
1950: Paul Aiken (D) and Verne L. Damon (Prohibition)
1956: George Hart (D)
1962: K. L. Smith (D)
1969-TBD: Bob Dole (R)
1968: William I. Robinson (D)
1974: Bill Roy (D)
1980: John Simpson (D)

US Senators from Kentucky’s Class 2 Seat
1952-1955: John Sherman Cooper (R)
1952 (sp): Thomas R. Underwood (D)
1955-1956: Alben W. Barkley (D)
1954: John Sherman Cooper (R)
1956-1956: James Stephen Golden (R)
John Sherman Cooper (R)
1956 (sp): Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)
1960: Keen Johnson (D)
1966: Gaines P. Wilson (D)
1973-TBD: Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)
1972: Jesse Nicholas Ryan Cecil (R), Louie Nunn (I) and Helen Breeden (HIP)
1978: Louie Nunn (R)
US Senators from Kentucky’s Class 3 Seat
1950-1957: Earle Clements (D)
1950: Charles I. Dawson (R)
1957-TBD: Thruston Morton (R)
1956: Earle C. Clements (D)
1962: Wilson W. Wyatt (D)
1968: John Y. Brown Jr. (D)
1974: Wendell H. Ford (D)
1980: Wendell H. Ford (D)

US Senators from Louisiana’s Class 2 Seat
1937-1972: Allen J. Ellender (D)
1936: unopposed
1942: unopposed
1948: unopposed
1954: unopposed
1960: George W. Reese Jr. (R)
1966: unopposed
1972-TBD: Jack P. F. Gremillion Sr. (D)
1972: B. C. Toledano (R) and Hall M. Lyons (HIP)
1978: Woody Jenkins (Independent)
US Senators from Louisiana’s Class 3 Seat
1948-TBD: Russell B. Long (D)
1948 (sp): Clem S. Clarke (R)
1950: Charles S. Gerth (R)
1956: unopposed
1962: Taylor W. O’Hearn (R)
1968: unopposed
1974: unopposed
1980: DeLesseps Story “Toni” Morrison Jr. (D), Woody Jenkins (D) and Jerry Bardwell (R)

US Senators from Maine’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Ed Muskie (D)
1958: Frederick G. Payne (R)
1964: Clifford McIntire (R)
1970: Neil S. Bishop (R)
1976: Robert A. G. Monks (R)
US Senators from Maine’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Margaret Chase Smith (R)
1948: Adrian H. Scolten (D)
1954: Paul A. Fullam (D)
1960: Lucia M. Cormier (D)
1966: Elmer H. Violette (D)
1973-1979: William Hathaway (D)
1972: Margaret Chase Smith (R)
1979-TBD: William Cohen (R)
1978: William Hathaway (D)

US Senators from Maryland’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1971: James Glenn Beall (R)
1952: George P. Mahoney (D)
1958: Thomas D’Alesandro (D)
1964: Joseph D. Tydings (D)
1971-1977: Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (R)
1970: Carlton R. Sickles (D) and James Glenn Beall (Independent Republican)
1977-TBD: John Sarbanes (D)
1976: Rogers Clark Ballard Morton (R)
US Senators from Maryland’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1963: John Marshall Butler (R)
1950: Millard E. Tydings (D)
1956: George P. Mahoney (D)
1963-1969: Daniel J. Brewster (D)
1962: Edward T. Miller (R)
1969-TBD: Charles Mathias Jr. (R)
1968: Daniel J. Brewster (D) and George P. Mahoney (HIP)
1974: Barbara Mikulski (D)
1980: Edward T. Conroy (D)

US Senators from Massachusetts’ Class 1 Seat
1953-1961: John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy (D)
1952: Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R)
1958: Vincent Celeste (R)
1961-1962: Benjamin Smith (D)
1962-TBD: Eunice Kennedy-Shriver (D)

1962 (sp): George Cabot Lodge II (R) and H. Stuart Hughes (I)
1964: Howard Whitmore Jr. (R)
1970: John Volpe (R) and Josiah A. Spaulding (Independent)
1976: Michael S. Robertson (R)
US Senators from Massachusetts’ Class 2 Seat
1945-1967: Leverett Saltonstall (R)
1944 (sp): John H. Corcoran (D)
1948: John I. Fitzgerald (D)
1954: Foster Furcolo (D)
1960: Thomas J. O’Connor (D)
1967-TBD: Ed Brooke (R)
1966: Endicott Peabody (D)
1972: John J. Droney (D)
1978: Paul Tsongas (D)

US Senators from Michigan’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Philip Hart (D)
1958: Charles E. Potter (R)
1964: Elly M. Peterson (R)
1971-TBD: George W. Romney (R)
1970: Philip Hart (D)
1976: Donald Riegle (D)
US Senators from Michigan’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1966: Patrick V. McNamara (D)
1954: Homer S. Ferguson (R)
1960: G. Mennen Williams (R)
1966-TBD: Robert P. Griffin (R)
1966: Richard F. Vander Veen (D)
1972: Frank J. Kelley (D), Jerome P. Cavanaugh (I), Patrick Dillinger (HIP) and Barbara Halpert (Human Rights)
1978: Carl Levin (D)

US Senators from Minnesota’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Eugene McCarthy (D)
1958: Edward John Thye (R)
1964: Wheelock Whitney (R)
1971-TBD: Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D)
1970: Clark MacGregor (R)
1976: Gerald W. Brekke (R) and Paul Helm (I)
US Senators from Minnesota’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1960: Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. (D)
1948: Joseph H. Ball (R)
1954: Val Bjornson (R)
1960: P. Kenneth Peterson (R)
1960-1961: Roy Weir (D)
1961-1972: Walter Mondale (D)

1961 (sp): Elmer L. Andersen (R)
1966: Robert A. Forsythe (R)
1972: Phil Hansen (R)
1972-TBD: Bob Short (D)
1973: Phil Hansen (R)
1978: Harold Stassen (R)

US Senators from Mississippi’s Class 1 Seat
1947-TBD: John C. Stennis (D)
1947 (sp): unopposed
1952: unopposed
1958: unopposed
1964: unopposed
1970: William R. Thompson (I)
1976: unopposed
US Senators from Mississippi’s Class 2 Seat
1943-1979: James Eastland (D)
1942: unopposed
1948: unopposed
1954: James A. White (R)
1960: Joe A. Moore (R)
1966: Prentiss Walker (R) and Clifton R. Whitley (I)
1972: James H. Meredith (R) and Prentiss Walker (I)
1979-TBD: James H. Meredith (R)
1978: Maurice Dantin (D)

US Senators from Missouri’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1961: Stuart Symington (D)
1952: James P. Kem (R)
1958: Hazel Palmer (R)
1961-1963: Albert S. J. Carnahan (D)
1963-1977: Leonor Sullivan (D)

1962 (sp): William C. Cole (R)
1964: Jean P. Bradshaw (R)
1970: John Danforth (R) and Gene Chapman (HIP)
1977-TBD: Jerry Litton (D)
1976: John Danforth (R)
US Senators from Missouri’s Class 3 Seat
1960-1975: Edward V. Long (D)
1960 (sp): Lon Hocker (R)
1962: Crosby Kemper (R)
1968: Thomas B. Curtis (R)
1975-TBD: Thomas B. Curtis (R)
1974: Edward V. Long (D)
1980: Robert Anton Young III (D)

US Senators from Montana’s Class 1 Seat
1953-1977: Mike Mansfield (D)
1952: Zales Ecton (R)
1958: Lou Welch (R)
1964: Alex Blewett (R)
1970: Harold E. Wallace (R)
1977-TBD: John Melcher (D)
1976: Stanley C. Burger (R)
US Senators from Montana’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1973: Lee Metcalf (D)
1960: Orvin B. Fjare (R)
1966: Tim M. Babcock (R)
1973-1979: Henry S. “Hank” Hibbard (R)
1972: Lee Metcalf (D)
1979-TBD: Larry Williams (R)
1978: Paul G. Hatfield (D)

US Senators from Nebraska’s Class 1 Seat
1954-1971: Roman Hruska (R)
1954 (sp): James F. Green (D)
1958: Frank B. Morrison (D)
1964: Raymond W. Arndt (D)
1971-TBD: Ted Sorensen (D)
1970: Roman Hruska (R)
1976: John Y. McCollister (R)
US Senators from Nebraska’s Class 2 Seat
1955-1965: Carl Curtis (R)
1954: Keith Neville (D)
1960: Robert B. Conrad (D)
1965-1973: Dwight W. Burney (R)
1966: C. Armstrong Callan (D)
1973-TBD: Orrin Hatch (R)
1972: Philip C. Sorensen (D) and Terry Carpenter (I)
1978: J. James Exon (D)

US Senators from Nevada’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Howard W. Cannon (D)
1958: George W. Malone (R)
1965-TBD: Paul Dominque Laxalt (R)
1964: Howard W. Cannon (D)
1970: Howard W. Cannon (D)
1976: James David Santini (D)

US Senators from Nevada’s Class 3 Seat
1954-1974: Alan H. Bible (D)
1954 (sp): Ernest S. Brown (R)
1956: Cliff Young (R)
1962: William B. Wright (R)
1968: Edward Fike (R)
1974-TBD: Barbara Vucanovich (R)
1974: Mike O’Callaghan (D) and Jack C. Doyle (HIP)
1980: Mary Gojack (D)

US Senators from New Hampshire’s Class 2 Seat
1937-1961: Styles Bridges (R)
1936: William N. Rogers (D)
1942: Francis P. Murphy (D)
1948: Alfred E. Fortin (D)
1954: Gerard L. Morin (D)
1960: Herbert W. Hill (D)
1961-1967: Maurice Murphy (R)
1962 (sp): Thomas J. McIntyre (D)
1967-1973: Thomas J. McIntyre (D)
1966: Maurice J. Murphy (R) and Chester Earl Merrow (Independent)
1973-1979: Harrison Reed Thyng (R)
1972: Thomas J. McIntyre (D)
1979-1981: Carmen C. Chimento (I)
1978: Gordon J. Humphrey (R) and Thomas J. McIntyre (D) – inconclusive
1979 (sp): Gordon J. Humphrey (R) and Thomas J. McIntyre (D) – inconclusive
1981-1981: Wesley Powell (R)
1980 (sp): Norman D’Amours (D) and incumbent Carmen C. Chimento (I)
1981-TBD: Lane Dwinell (R)
US Senators from New Hampshire’s Class 3 Seat
1954-TBD: Norris Cotton (R)
1954 (sp): Stanley J. Betley (D)
1956: Laurence M. Pickett (D)
1962: Alfred Catalfo Jr. (D)
1968: John W. King (D)
1974: John A. Durkin (D) and Carmen C. Chimento (HIP)
1980: John A. Durkin (D)

US Senators from New Jersey’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Harrison A. Williams (D)
1958: Robert W. Kean (R)
1964: Bernard M. Shanley (R)
1970: Nelson G. Gross (R)
1976: David A. Norcross (R)
US Senators from New Jersey’s Class 2 Seat
1955-TBD: Clifford P. Case (R)
1954: Charles R. Howell (D)
1960: B. B. Thorn Lord (D)
1966: Warren W. Wilentz (D)
1972: B. B. Thorn Lord (D)
1978: Ray “Buttercup” Rollinson (D)

US Senators from New Mexico’s Class 1 Seat
1935-1962: Dennis Chavez (D)
1936 (sp): M. A. Otero Jr. (R)
1940: Albert K. Mitchell (R)
1946: Patrick J. Hurley (R)
1952: Patrick J. Hurley (R)
1958: Forrest S. Atchley (R)
1962-1964: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1964-1978: Joseph Manuel Montoya (D)

1964 (sp): Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1964: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1970: Anderson Carter (R)
1976: Harrison Schmitt (R)
1978-1981: Mary Coon Walters (D)
1981-TBD: Pedro “Pete” Jiménez (D)

1980 (sp): Manuel Lujan (R)
US Senators from New Mexico’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1973: Clinton Presba Anderson (D)
1948: Patrick J. Hurley (R)
1954: Edwin L. Mechem (R)
1960: William Colwes (R)
1966: Anderson Carter (R)
1973-TBD: Roberto Mondragon (D)
1972: Pete Domencini (R) and Jack Daniels (Independent Democratic)
1978: Pete Domencini (R)

US Senators from New York’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Kenneth Keating (R)
1958: Frank S. Hogan (D)
1964: Samuel S. Stratton (D)
1971-TBD: Paul O’Dwyer (D)
1970: Kenneth B. Keating (R), James L. Buckley (Conservative) and Allard K. Lowenstein (Liberal/Natural Mind)
1976: James L. Buckley (Conservative) and William E. Miller (R)
US Senators from New York’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1981: Jacob Javits (R)
1956: Robert F. Wagner Jr. (D)
1962: James B. Donovan (D)
1968: Joseph Y. Resnick (D)
1974: Lee Alexander (D) and Barbara A. Keating (Conservative)
1981-TBD: Mario Biaggi (D/Conservative)
1980: Jacob K. Javits (R/Liberal) and Bess Myerson (Natural Mind/Progressive)

US Senators from North Carolina’s Class 2 Seat
1958-1973: B. Everett Jordan (D)
1958 (sp): Richard C. Clarke Jr. (R)
1960: Kyle Hayes (R)
1966: John S. Shallcross (R)
1973-TBD: Terry Sanford (D)
1972: Jesse Helms (R)
1978: George Wimbish (R)
US Senators from North Carolina’s Class 3 Seat
1954-1975: Sam Ervin (D)
1954 (sp): unopposed
1956: Joel A. Johnson (R)
1962: Claude L. Greene Jr. (R)
1968: Robert V. Somers (R)
1975-TBD: Nick Galifianakis (D)
1974: Wood Hall Young (R) and William Stevens (Country)
1980: Earl Baker Ruth (R)

US Senators from North Dakota’s Class 1 Seat
1960-1965: Quentin N. Burdick (D)
1960 (sp): John E. Davis (R)
1965-1971: Thomas S. Kleppe (R)
1964: Quentin N. Burdick (D)
1971-TBD: Arthur Albert Link (D)
1970: Thomas S. Kleppe (R)
1976: Robert Stroup (R)
US Senators from North Dakota’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1981: Milton R. Young (R)
1946 (sp): William Lanier (D) and Gerald P. Nye (Independent)
1950: Harry O’Brien (D)
1956: Quentin N. Burdick (D)
1962: William Lanier (D)
1968: Herschel Lashkowitz (D)
1974: James R. Jungroth (D) and Kenneth C. Gardiner (Country)
1981-TBD: Mark Andrews (R)
1980: Kent Johanneson (D)

US Senators from Ohio’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Stephen M. Young (D)
1958: John W. Bricker (R)
1965-1971: Robert A. Taft Jr. (R)
1964: Stephen M. Young (D)
1971-TBD: John Glenn (D)
1970: Robert A. Taft Jr. (R)
1976: Richard B. Kay (R)
US Senators from Ohio’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1969: Frank J. Lausche (D)
1956: George H. Bender (R)
1962: John M. Briley (R)
1969-TBD: William B. Saxbe (R)
1968: John Gilligan (D), Frank J. Lausche (I) and John M. Briley (HIP)
1974: Howard Metzenbaum (D)
1980: Mary Rose Oakar (D) and John E. Powers (I)

US Senators from Oklahoma’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1963: Robert S. Kerr (D)
1948: Ross Rizley (R)
1954: Fred M. Mock (R)
1960: Hayden Crawford (R)
1963-1965: J. Howard Edmondson (D)
1965-TBD: Bud Wilkinson (R)

1964: J. Howard Edmondson (D)
1966: Fred R. Harris (D)
1972: Ed Edmondson (D) and William G. Roach (HIP)
1978: David L. Boren (D)
US Senators from Oklahoma’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1969: A. S. Mike Monroney (D)
1950: W. H. Bill Alexander (R)
1956: Douglas McKeever (R)
1962: Hayden Crawford (R)
1969-1981: Henry Bellmon (R)
1968: A. S. Mike Monroney (D)
1974: Ed Edmondson (D)
1981-TBD: Marvin Henry “Mickey” Edwards (R)
1980: Andrew Coats (D), Billy Joe Clegg (Conservative) and Charles R. Nesbitt (I)

US Senators from Oregon’s Class 2 Seat
1960-1967: Maurine Brown Neuberger (D)
1960 (sp): Elmo Smith (R)
1960: Elmo Smith (R)
1967-TBD: Mark Hatfield (R)
1966: Robert B. Duncan (D)
1972: Edith Green (D)
1978: Vernon Cook (D)
US Senators from Oregon’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1974: Wayne Morse (D since 1955, I 1952-1955, R before 1952)
1944: Edgar W. Smith (D)
1950: Howard Latourette (R)
1956: Douglas McKay (R)
1962: Sig Unander (R)
1968: Wendell Wyatt (R)
1974-1975: Earl T. Newbry (R)
1975-1981: Tom McCall (R)

1974: Betty Roberts (D)
1981-TBD: John R. Dellenback (R)
1980: Ted Kulongoski (D)

US Senators from Pennsylvania’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1977: Hugh Scott (R)
1958: George M. Leader (D)
1964: Genevieve Blatt (D)
1970: William G. Sesler (D)
1977-TBD: Bill Green (D)
1976: Elmer Greinert “Bud” Shuster (R)
US Senators from Pennsylvania’s Class 3 Seat
1957-1969: Joseph S. Clark (D)
1956: James H. Duff (R)
1962: James E. Van Zandt (R)
1969-1975: Herman T. Schneebeli (R)
1968: Joseph S. Clark (D) and Frank W. Gaydosh (HIP)
1975-TBD: Bob Casey Sr. (D)
1974: Herman T. Schneebeli (R)
1980: Arlen Specter (R)

US Senators from Rhode Island’s Class 1 Seat
1950-1977: John Pastore (D)
1950 (sp): Austin T. Levy (R)
1952: Bayard Ewing (R)
1958: Bayard Ewing (R)
1964: Ronald R. Lageux (R)
1970: John McLaughlin (R)
1977-TBD: Robert Owens Tiernan (D)
1976: Donald P. Ryan (R)
US Senators from Rhode Island’s Class 2 Seat
1961-TBD: Claiborne Pell (D)
1960: Raoul Archambault Jt. (R)
1966: Ruth M. Briggs (R)
1972: John Chafee (R) and John Quattrocchi Jr. (Independent)
1978: James G. Reynolds (R)

US Senators from South Carolina’s Class 2 Seat
1954-1956: Strom Thurmond (Independent Democrat)
1954: Edgar A. Brown (D)
1956-1956: Thomas Wofford (D) – appointee; retired
1956-TBD: Strom Thurmond (D until 1962/R after 1962)
1956 (sp): unopposed
1960: unopposed
1966: Bradley Morrah (D)
1972: Eugene N. Zeigler (D)
1978: Charles D. Ravenel (D)
US Senators from South Carolina’s Class 3 Seat
1945-1965: Olin D. Johnston (D)
1944: James B. Gaston (R)
1950: unopposed
1956: Leon P. Crawford (R)
1962: W. D. Workman Jr. (R)
1965-TBD: Fritz Hollings (D)
1966 (sp): unopposed
1968: Marshall Parker (R)
1974: Gwenyfred Bush (R)
1980: Marshall T. Mays (R)

Senators from South Dakota’s Class 2 Seat
1948-1973: Karl Earl Mundt (R)
1948: John A. Engel (D)
1954: Kenneth Holum (D)
1960: George McGovern (D)
1966: Donn H. Wright (D)
1973-1979: James Abourezk (D)
1972: Robert W. Hirsch (R)
1979-TBD: Larry Pressler (R)
1978: Don Barnett (D)
Senators from South Dakota’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1962: Francis H. Case (R)
1950: John A. Engel (D)
1956: Kenneth Holum (D)
1962-1975: Joseph H. Bottom (R)
1962: George McGovern (D)
1968: Wayne Peterson (D)
1975-1981: George McGovern (D)
1974: Joseph H. Bottom (R)
1981-TBD: Frank Farrar (R)
1980: George McGovern (D)

US Senators from Tennessee’s Class 1 Seat
1953-TBD: Albert Arnold “Al” Gore Sr. (D)
1952: Hobart F. Atkins (R)
1958: Hobart F. Atkins (R)
1964: Dan H. Kuykendall (R)
1970: Bill Brock (R)
1976: Bill Brock (R)
US Senators from Tennessee’s Class 2 Seat
1949-1963: Estes Kefauver (D)
1948: B. Carroll Reece (R)
1954: Tom Wall (R)
1960: A. Bradley Frazier (R)
1963-1964: Herbert S. Walters (D)
1964-TBD: Howard Baker (R)

1964: Ross Bass (D)
1966: Frank G. Clement (D)
1972: Ray Blanton (D)
1978: Joseph L. Evins (D)

US Senators from Texas’s Class 1 Seat
1957-1971: Ralph Yarborough (D)
1958: Roy Whittenburg (R)
1964: George H. W. Bush (R) and Bruce Alger (HIP)
1971-TBD: Lloyd Bentsen (D)
1970: John Connally (R) and Jack Carswell (HIP)
1976: Alan Steelman (R) and Pedro Vasquez (Socialist Workers/La Raza Unida)
US Senators from Texas’s Class 1 Seat
1949-1961: Lyndon B. Johnson (D)
1948: Jack Porter (R)
1954: Carlos G. Watson (R)
1960: John G. Tower (R)
1961: William A. Blakley (D)
1961-1967: John G. Tower (R)

1961: William A. Blakley (D)
1967-1975: Lyndon B. Johnson (D)
1966: John G. Tower (R) and Bruce Alger (HIP)
1972: Bruce Alger (R)
1975-1979: J. J. Pickle (D)
1976 (sp): George H. W. Bush (R) and Frank Tejeda (LRU)
1979-TBD: Ron Paul (R)
1978: J. J. Pickle (D), Wingate Hezekiah Lucas (Big), and Luis A. Diaz de Leon (LRU)

US Senators from Utah’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Frank E. Moss (D)
1958: Arthur V. Watkins (R)
1964: Ernest L. Wilkinson (R)
1970: Laurence J. Burton (R) and Clyde B. Freeman (HIP)
1976: Sherman P. Lloyd (R)
US Senators from Utah’s Class 3 Seat
1951-1975: Wallace F. Bennett (R)
1950: Elbert D. Thomas (D)
1956: Alonzo F. Hopkin (D)
1962: David S. King (D)
1968: Milton N. Wellenmann (D)
1975-TBD: Jake Garn (R)
1974: Wayne Owens (D), Utah Phillips (I) and Kenneth Rex Larson (HIP)
1980: Den Berman (D)

Vermont Senators from the Class 1 Seat
1959-1971: Winston L. Prouty (R)
1958: Frederick J. Fayette (D)
1964: Frederick J. Fayette (D)
1970: Fiore L. Bove (D) and William H. Meyer (Liberty Union/Natural Mind)
1971-1973: Thomas P. Salmon (D)
1973-TBD: Robert Theodore Stafford (R)

1972 (sp): Thomas P. Salmon (D)
1976: Scott Skinner (D) and Nancy Kaufman (Liberty Union)
Vermont Senators from the Class 3 Seat
1941-TBD: George Aiken (R)
1940 (sp): Herbert Comings (D)
1944: Harry Witters (D)
1950: James Bigelow (D)
1956: Bernard O’Shea (D)
1962: W. Robert Johnson (D)
1968: unopposed
1974: Nathaniel Frothingham (D)
1980: Pete Diamondstone (Liberty Union)

US Senators from Virginia’s Class 1 Seat
1933-1965: Harry F. Byrd Sr. (D)
1933 (sp): Henry A. Wise (R)
1934: Lawrence C. Page (R)
1940: Hilliard Berstein (I) and Alice Burke (I)
1946: Lester S. Parsons (R)
1952: H. M. Vise Sr. (Independent Democratic) and Clarke T Robb (Social Democratic)
1958: Louise Wensel (I)
1964: Richard A. May (R) and James W. Respess (Independent)
1965-TBD: Harry F. Byrd Jr. (D before 1970/I after 1970)
1966 (sp): Lawrence M. Traylor (R) and John W. Carter (I)
1970: George Rawlings (D) and Ray Garland (R)
1976: Martin H. Perper (D)
US Senators from Virginia’s Class 2 Seat
1946-1971: A. Willis Robertson (D)
1946 (sp): Robert H. Woods (R)
1948: Robert H. Woods (R)
1954: Charles W. Lewis Jr. (ID) and Clarke T. Robb (SD)
1960: Stuart D. Baker (ID)
1966: James P. Ould Jr. (R) and F. Lee Hawthorne (HIP)
1971-1973: William Lloyd Scott (R)
1973-1979: John Otho Marsh Jr. (D)

1972: William Lloyd Scott (R) and Horace E. Henderson (Independent)
1979-TBD: Richard Dudley Obenshain (R)
1978: John Otho Marsh Jr. (D)

US Senators from Washington’s Class 1 seat
1953-TBD: Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson (D)
1952: Harry P. Cain (R)
1958: William B. Bantz (R)
1964: Lloyd J. Andrews (R)
1970: John Ehrlichman (R)
1976: George M. Brown (R)
US Senators from Washington’s Class 3 Seat
1944-1975: Warren G. Magnuson (D)
1944: Harry P. Cain (R)
1950: Walter Williams (R)
1956: Arthur B. Langlie (R)
1962: Richard G. Christensen (R)
1968: Jack Metcalf (R)
1975-1981: Daniel J. Evans (R)
1974: Warren G. Magnuson (D)
1981-TBD: Catherine Dean May (R)
1980: Allen Byron Swift (D)

US Senators from West Virginia’s Class 1 Seat
1959-TBD: Robert C. Byrd (D)
1958: Chapman Revercomb (R)
1964: Cooper P. Benedict (R)
1970: Elmer H. Dodson (R)
1976: unopposed
US Senators from West Virginia’s Class 2 Seat
1958-TBD: Jennings Randolph (D)
1958 (sp): John D. Hoblitzell Jr. (R)
1960: Cecil Underwood (R)
1966: Francis J. Love (R)
1972: Louis Leonard (R)
1978: Arch Moore Jr. (R)

US Senators from Wisconsin’s Class 1 Seat
1957-TBD: William Proxmire (D)
1958: Roland J. Steinle (R)
1964: Wilbur N. Renk (R)
1970: John E. Erickson (R)
1976: Stanley York (R)
US Senators from Wisconsin’s Class 3 Seat
1939-1967: Alexander Wiley (R)
1938: F. Ryan Duffy (D)
1944: Howard J. McMurray (D) and Harry Sauthoff (Progressive)
1950: Thomas E. Fairchild (D)
1956: Henry W. Maier (D)
1962: Gaylord Nelson (D)
1967-1973: Philleo Nash (D)
1968: Jack B. Olson (R)
1973-1975: Gaylord Nelson (D)
1975-TBD: Roman Blenski (R)

1974: Gaylord Nelson (D)
1980: Lynn Ellsworth Stalbaum (D/Progressive)

US Senators from Wyoming’s Class 1 Seat
1959-1965: Gale W. McGee (D)
1958: Frank A. Barrett (R)
1965-TBD: John S. Wold (R)
1964: Gale W. McGee (D)
1970: Edness Kimball Wilkins (D)
1976: Peter M. Jorgensen (D)
US Senators from Wyoming’s Class 2 Seat
1961-1962: John J. Hickey (D)
1962-1967: Milward L. Simpson (R)

1962 (sp): John J. Hickey (D)
1967-TBD: Gale W. McGee (D)
1966: Clifford P. Hansen (R)
1972: Keith Thomson (R)
1978: Alan K. Simpson (R)

Merry Holidays, everybody!​
What a world, where Donald John Trump and George Walker Bush are athletic and talented enough to play Major League Baseball...
I sure hope the Phillies win a pennant sometime - they haven't won since 1950 and never won a World Series till 1980. The Athletics did win several, last in 1930, when they were in PHilly.

Of course, TTL they might not have Steve Carlton due to free agency and either his not being traded from the Cardinals or being traded and made a free agent the next year.

I do want to see MIke Schmidt won one; maybe next year. This was his peak, and if there's no baseball strike next year he would hit over 50 home runs. (This year he hit 48 and he hit 31 in about 105 games in 1981, and missed the middle two months which are the hottest and best for offense normally.) But, Schmidt might not have been drafted by the PHillies for all we know.

Then again if they have them they started out 34-21 before the strike OTL, or somethingclose, so they may have had a better chance in 1981 than they had in 1980. The last 4 games of that NLZCS all went extra innings, clearly the Astros could have won. And the Expos were kind of far back but won the 2nd half and the vidision round. (ANd could have lost to the Cardinals in the 2nd half.)

Or, there might not be a strike, especially if Sanders is still around. Like I said in Completed Game, 1981 was more easily avoidab le, it was just harder to find a reason to have someone mediate it. If Sanders lives longer - and he doens't die yet unlike OTL in late '80 - he could be called on.

Did Brett end up hitting .400?

It is fun to see Trump and Bush both pro baseball players.

I hate domes (and Astroturf but you couldn't avoid it as much in the '80s) but love those unusual Astros uniforms. I'm not qite purist enough to say "If a cow won't eat it I won't play on it" (DIck Allen) but I do prefer baseball be outdoors (or at least a retractable roof).

You really put a lot of work into the 20 years from 1960-1980 in the timeline. I can see why the next update is TBD - you deserve a break :) (Plus it's near Christmas and the new year and I imagine you will be quite busy then.)
Good update!

The Bush vs Trump baseball brawl was very amusing.

No Reagan 80's should be very interesting. Much smaller Republican swing than OTL?

Glad the Chicken Dinners are continuing- hope the Sanders family stays invested even once the Colonels gone. How many KFC's in Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Syria etc now?

Hows pop culture reacting to the start of the 80's and the hippies/shoutniks growing up?
Denton doesn't seem entirely like Regan. However, his Christian Moralism could still lead to a War on Drugs.

Well Reagan's belief in Christianity seems to have been more of an act. He did divorce after all.

Jeremiah Denton was far more directly connected to the Moral Majority than Gipper. In the Senate, he sponsored a bill promoting abstinence education.

He would be more of a cultural warrior from the Oval Office rather than just an anti-drugs guy.
Well Reagan's belief in Christianity seems to have been more of an act. He did divorce after all.

Jeremiah Denton was far more directly connected to the Moral Majority than Gipper. In the Senate, he sponsored a bill promoting abstinence education.

He would be more of a cultural warrior from the Oval Office rather than just an anti-drugs guy.

That is not good. Here's hoping for someone sharply to the left of all that come 1989.
Well Reagan's belief in Christianity seems to have been more of an act. He did divorce after all.
No, it was very real throughout his entire life. If you read his diary it's mentioned quite Abit and he even went all the way trying to convert his dying Father in Law in a letter. Also on the divorce with Wymann,that wasn't Reagan's idea actually
and He was shocked when she told him she wanted to.
That is not good. Here's hoping for someone sharply to the left of all that come 1989.

The main concern is whether or not Denton actually believes in Christianity or just wears the cross on his sleeve for political purposes.

The fact that he references D A F A M I L Y in a speech makes me think he veers toward the latter.
Chapter 48: February 1981 - December 1981
Chapter 48: February 1981 – December 1981

“Only enemies speak the truth; friends and lovers lie endlessly, caught in the web of duty.”

– Stephen King

Denton laid out an ambitious agenda before his inner circle, a collection of diverse lawmakers, policy pros and wheeler-dealers from across the political spectrum. Leading State was the bulldog-ish and brash Buz Lukens, but Denton made history by selecting the battle-worn Thelma Stovall for Treasury – the highest-ranking position ever given to a woman at the time. In fact, Denton’s administration had a fair number of female workers; the most notable one, though, may have been the African-American neophyte Dr. Mildred Fay Jefferson, Denton’s Chief Domestic Policy Advisor. Jefferson would later recant how during White House meetings “[Labor Secretary] Whitney Young kept me from being the only Black in Denton’s inner circle, and counselor Mary Louise Smith kept me from being the only woman in Denton’s inner circle, but I was still the only Black woman in said inner circle. White house Counsel Jesse Helms didn’t makes things easy for me. Every time we found ourselves in the same room, he would behave most unprofessionally, sneering at my presence, quietly signing offense songs as if to taunt me, and other putdowns and forms of borderline workplace pestering that had no place anywhere, especially the White House.” Helms led the conservative voice, while Jefferson joined the liberals vying for the President ear…

…Denton wanted to bring America back to the prosperity of the 1950s, even if that meant bringing in supporters deemed by others to be too radical for the White House. As the harsh realities of the Presidency sank in, Denton found himself quickly learning which ideologies worked and which did not. Nevertheless, Denton was determined to keep Communism at bay, but also “crazy domestic heads” who he believed endangered personal freedoms. In one cabinet meeting, Denton proclaimed “I support the so-called Triple-R Front, the “Radical” Religious Right, because teen hoodlums do nothing to help the economy, the military, our even their families! Too many teens are just underage bums!” He exclaimed before ranting about the decline in “family values” in the states.

“Is he always like this?” Jefferson once asked WH Chief of Staff and political strategist Cliff White.

White replied simply, “He found God in a Cuban POW camp. What do you think?”

But Denton also had an effervescent interest in foreign affairs. He believed it was one’s onus to protect one’s country, especially if one is the President. He told his first Secretary of Defense, Jack McCain, that under his administration, “Our military will never slummock!”...

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

Under Denton, the US Defense Department began to study the possibility of intervention in communist-leaning nations such as Myanmar, Indonesia, and Mozambique. Angola, however, topped the list. Ever since President Mondale had quietly withdrawn troops in 1978, after three years and no progress, warhawks urged the new President to “finish the intervention we started.” However, Defense Secretary McCain believed in would be more beneficial to keep focus on the developments in the Soviet Union itself, rather than on “minor” third-world nations that, in his view, posed no risk to either the nation’s security or the Domino Effect.

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

The rise of Japan being hailed as this “economic miracle” for expanding its GDP and maintaining prosperity in the post-“Crash of ’78” world economy gave me pause. I decided we had to study what was keeping them so well-off to figure how they were outpacing us of customer satisfaction, safety and sales… In early 1981, to keep American markets from being flooded with foreign cars, we decided to adopt the Japanese method of “lean production,” and applied it to factories to dredge up ideas on how to improve the cars – improves that would cover the Big Four: the cars needed to be fast, sexy, safe, and affordable.

– Lee Iacocca (with William Novak)’s Iacocca: An Autobiography, Bantam Books, 1984

The early 1980s saw John Y. Brown Jr. attempt one more endeavor to make a name for himself in the fast-food industry. In contrast to his experience with McDonald’s, KFC, and Ollie’s Trolleys – in which he attempted to control another person’s passion projects – Brown founded his own food venture, which he called “JYB Chicken.” Found in January 1981, the JYBC chain was meant to rival both KFC and Chick-fill-A in the fried chicken market, but the effort faced trouble from the beginning. Not only did Brown fail to stand out above competitors, but his food was considered to be of low quality – even by fast-food standards – and, arguably more heinously for the customers, overcharged. Once again, Brown’s care for only potential profits yielded him none. Several lawsuits over alleged violations of worker rights culminated in Brown closing all JYB Chicken locations by the end of 1984 to pay off fines and court fees.

From then on, Brown stuck strictly to sports and politics, dabbling in several basketball and football teams alongside serving on political panels as a news guest on the Overmyer Network during the next several Kentucky elections…

– e-article “John Y. Brown Jr.: A Case For Quality,”, 2012

Washington sought to develop allies on the city council to keep his vetoes from being overturned. Alderman Edward Vrdolyak attempted to de facto run the city during Washington’s first term by founding a coalition of 28 like-minded aldermen who opposed Washington’s appointments. Fortunately, the group often lacked the 30 votes needed to override mayoral vetoes, allowing Washington to pass legislation to increase trash pickup, expand police responsibilities, and establish “Communication Meetings” between local police stations and the communities they protected in order to lower police brutality incidents. In the 1979 elections, supporters of Washington concentrated on the 29 “opponents of change” by leading a grassroots collection of progressive and moderate Democrats and Democratic candidates supportive of Washington. On election night, a more friendly city council was voted in, clearing out many of Vrdolyak’s allies and leaving him with a coalition of just 11 anti-Washington aldermen. Washington spent much of his second term working with the city school board to lower school violence and raise test scores in low-income areas…

– Gary Rivlin’s Fire on The Prairie: Chicago’s Harold Washington, Henry Holt & Company Publishing, 1992

Foot took a moderate approach to Ireland, walking what he called “the delicate tightrope” established by the treaties, negotiations and resolutions passed during the 1970s. He credited the efforts of US Senator Kennedy-Shriver as being instrumental in normalizing relations with Ireland in 1981 and 1982. …The United Kingdom was certainly not the “sick man” of Western Europe any longer by the start of the 1980s. Income per head and expendable income were on the rise, and, subsequently, consumer spending was rising as well, making the ’80s out to be a rather materialistic time in UK history. The coal industry died with an unenthusiastic whimper as North Sea gas and oil, export revenues, and early investments in wind and solar power yielded suitable results and made for acceptable replacements. However, trade union power and the nationalization of several industries was inhibiting growth, and inflation was beginning to rise by the end of 1982. Gradual tax hikes and Foot’s increasingly left-leaning positioning on social issues angered former moderate supporters and led to an overall drop in his popularity within the Labour party...

– Kenneth O. Morgan’s Putting Our Foots Down: The Days of Michael And The Years of Dingle, Guardian publications, 2011


…According to Bernard Taupin, the writer of John’s famous songs and a friend of the late singer and prominent member of the BLUTAGO community, John possibly overdosed on cocaine, a drug that John one overdosed on in 1975 [1]

– The New York Times, 2/12/1981

“This loss of life should not go into the records of history without leaving an impression. Mr. John is being buried today because of dangerous narcotics that are too harmful and unsuitable for average citizens to obtainment. These drugs – marijuana, cocaine and the like – are the new alcohol, tobacco and opium. They are the new vices of modern America. And if we do nothing about them, then the deaths of Mr. Jon and the all other souls taken from us by these dangerous narcotics will be in vein.”

– President Denton, 2/15/1981


The Washington Times, 2/26/1981



[pic: / wxHDd9R ]
Above: Colonel Sanders in an interview last year

...with the final nominees of Denton's cabinet being approved this week, the former President supports Denton's compilation of "diverse" and "professional" individuals...

The Birmingham Post-Herald, Alabama newspaper, 2/2/1981


…the decision comes as Denton attempts to “reign in the irresponsible spending habits” of the Mondale administration with budget cut packages and a planned tax “readjustment” bill…

The Chicago Tribune, 3/6/1981

It is debatable whether or not Denton was truly fiscally moderate at heart. His tenure as governor was more conservative-leaning, while his Presidency was more to the center. An often-overlooked explanation is the quiet behind-the-scenes power of House Speaker Michel. With a mix of grace, humor and battle-tested bravery,” [3] Michel spearheaded bipartisan deficit-reduction bills with genuine respect for his fellow lawmakers that effectively translated into collaborative work efforts. …Another example of Michel’s powerful influence was the deregulation of radio programming that occurred in 1981. The FCC ceased enforcing the Fairness Doctrine, devolving it into a guideline of sorts, allowing one-sided radio stations to form as the years went by…

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005


…Upon arriving in Cape Town, Sanders explained that he had discussed the anti-Apartheid warfare with several experts on both sides of the issue in order to “fully understand” situation. “Well folks, because I don’t want to give any of y’all diabetes, I won’t sugarcoat it. The situation ravaging South Africa is dire, and everyone who can do something about it has the responsibility to get hoppin’ like a frog on a hot plate and go do it,” he explained for entering the House of Assembly building. When Colonel Sanders spoke before an almost-full House of Assembly, he demanded the nation’s white-led government negotiate with rioters in order to end the increasingly unpopular Apartheid system “quickly and peacefully.” …When asked about his continuous activism at the age of 91, the Colonel explained, “I’ve got no idea when I am going to retire. Whenever they pick me up and take me to the funeral home, I guess. Sitting in a rocker never appealed to me, and golf or fishing isn’t as much fun as working.” He also humorously stated “I don’t fear that a man will wear out as quickly as he will rust out.” [4]


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The Colonel, outside the airport at Cape Town

The Daily Telegraph, 14/3/1981


…based on a successful program he established while Governor, President Denton has gotten Congress to agree to establish an international aid initiative to allow donors to use space available on military cargo planes to transport humanitarian goods and agricultural equipment to countries in need [5]

The Houston Chronicle, 3/16/1981

The level of public hostility toward government appears to have been particularly high during the ’twenties and the ’fifties – the two decades in this century when corporate political hegemony was most secure. [6] Under President Denton, history repeated the trend a third time in a way not seen under Colonel Sanders, most likely on account of Denton leaving more aspects of the economy to his more business-friendly cabinet members, while Sanders had engaged in some aspects of the economy – most notably when it came to fair wages. …Denton’s economic advisors seemed to fail to remember that the New Deal was due to the idea of a self-regulating market failing in 1929 worse than the Reagan ’76 campaign and the Ford Edsel unveiling combined.

– Michael Stewart Foley’s Front Porch Politics: American Activism in the 1970s and 1980s, 2013 net-book edition


The Washington Post, 3/22/1981


…despite continued fears of nuclear meltdowns, the Denton administration has cut federal funding for research into the use of Thorium as a safer nuclear-based energy source…

The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 3/28/1981


[pic: imgur / vT5TKq1 .png ]

– Colonel Sanders making a brief cameo in the Jerry Lewis film “Hardly Working”; filmed in 1979, the film was released in Europe in 1980 but not in the United States until 4/3/1981


…After its introduction in January, followed by a smooth bicameral committee consideration and scheduling period in February, and floor presentations in each chamber last month, Denton signed into law one of the biggest pieces of legislation worked on in his first 100 days…

The Washington Post, 4/5/1981

In Botswana, Abram O. Tiro continued to coordinate operations with Steve Biko. On the side, however, the teacher-activist also began working with local leaders in Namibia over possible public works projects for Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Major water transportation and railroad projects seemed impossible at a time of war, but the ideas nevertheless stayed with both Tiro and Biko…

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016


– The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union, USSR news agency, 4/15/1981 announcement

HOST: …Also today on Capitol Hill, President Denton signed a bill into law that will deregulate the American beer industry by making it legal for American sellers to sell hops, malt, and yeast to American home brewers, which has been prohibited at the federal level since 1920 as a lasting legacy of the nation’s Prohibition era… When asked for his opinion on the passage of the bill, former President Sanders had this to say:

SANDERS (in footage): “I ain’t for it. You can’t legislate morality, but you can influence it with legislation. And this here bill will only encourage more folk to take to makin’ the vice on their own. And liquor is already dangerous without inexperienced folks blowin’ off their faces with backyard stills.”

HOST: The Colonel reportedly talked to Senator Nixon soon afterwards, who then was seen visiting the White House. Tellingly, just minutes ago, the White House Press Secretary told reporters that the President is now considering pushing for an amendment to the bill that will require safety features to be in place prior to home brewery commencing…

– The Overmyer Network’s Political Parlay, 4/20/1981 broadcast

…Crazy news item here, just in from the Caribbean Island of Dominica, where apparently, a group of white supremacists have been arrested for attempting to overthrow that country’s Government. And get this – the leader of this band of neo-Nazis is Don Black, the current Grand Wizard of the KKK. Now this story is ridiculous. Apparently, Black and eight others traveled from Louisiana to Dominica on a boat full ammo – we’re talking autos, semi-autos, rifles, dynamite – and a Nazi flag. But Dominican and American officials got wind of their plan because someone they had approached told the cops about them, and when they got into port, they immediately were arrested…

– WDRC-AM’s 4/27/1981 radio broadcast

“The President would like to thank law enforcement for their quick action during this situation, and the people of Dominica’s law enforcement offices. They were very helpful in our efforts to prevent what very could have become a very terrible turn of events.”

– White House Press Secretary Don Lambro, 4/27/1981

With President Denton “distracted” by legislation, Suslov believed, the Soviet Premier invested money, weapons and agents into assisting pro-Ayatollah Khomeini rebel armies in Iran. Maybe it was meant to distract hardliners in the Soviet military from Suslov’s poor handling of Romania and other Warsaw Pact members. Maybe it was meant to renew a national sense of the USSR’s conquest capabilities. Either way, Suslov believed that Iran was vulnerable to Soviet influence. In April 1981, Suslov announced that he would be sending aid to Iran, claiming that radiation from Aktau spreading into Iran required Soviet troop deployment to Iran’s northern coast. Additional claims that the Shah was performing human rights violations against supporters of the Ayatollah muddied the waters, though, and maybe that was the point of it. Regardless, the “aid” reached the Ayatollah’s followers in Iran in earnest…

– Victor Cherkashin’s Adamant: The Rulers of the USSR and the KGB, Basic Books, 2005

In his memoirs, the unofficial leader of the mass uprising during the start of the 1980s, the 25-year-old pastor Laszlo Tokes of the western city of Timisoara explains how after Suslov tried to remove Eleni from power to quell the riots, she refused to stepdown and the rioters refused to stay under the yolk of the USSR. “We knew what would happen if we accepted a changing of the guard. We would return to starving for days instead of for weeks. We’d have to watch what we said and thought aloud only most of the time instead of all of the time. But the revolution had given each of us a taste of freedom, of voicing our complaints as loudly as we could, and we were not going to give it up so easily.”

Suslov responded by sending Red Army tanks into Romania, entering the country to both remove Eleni and to suppress the riots. “But the Romanian people,” Tokes writes, “whether urban or rural, mountain folk or plains dwellers, Transylvanian or Wallachian – even most of the Romanian military, with many of its commanding officers being trained by Soviet Union – all fought back with everything they had. Even after Elena fled from the lavish Presidential Palace, the fighting against Soviet Troops continued, now Eleni’s replacement, who we called ‘Suslov’s latest puppet.’”

– Vladimir Tismaneanu’s Stalinism For All Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism, University of California Press, Third Edition, 2023

“With this legislation, we are taking the first steps necessary to get rid of harmful drugs. Not the clean, over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, but the dangerous and deadly drugs that our nation’s young are foolishly using for recreational purposes. These recreational drugs – the recreadrugs – can ruin our children’s lives and tear families apart. They are an enemy of sorts in that they are weakening our nation. And when an enemy threatens you, you declare war on that enemy. Recreadrugs are the enemy, and this is our declaration of war. …I support the start of a nationwide campaign to stop our children from taking narcotics, to nip this problem in the bud. We have to educate our young on the dangers of smoking weed, pot, crack, cocaine, and all the other junk out there, so when someone tries to get them to take some, not only will they just say no, but they’ll know why to just say no. With strong anti-drug programs and efforts nationwide, when our children think of drugs, they’ll think ‘No, and here’s why’.”

– President Denton upon signing the Drug Abuse Prevention bill into law, 4/28/1981


[pic: ]
– President Denton is presented with a “Tax Ax” while celebrating the passing of the 1981 Tax Reform Act, 4/28/1981

…In regards to economic policy, within his first 100 days Denton worked with congress and economic advisors such as Murray Rothbard to establish a 1981 budget meant to produce a budget surplus within a year. To contextualize what this means, remember that 1973 was the last time the budget was a surplus, not a deficit, as Mondale’s investments into social programs raised the national debt, especially after the 1978 economic crash occurred. Denton seeks to reverse this by cutting taxes in order to raise consumer spending, which should increase manufacturing and lower employment. Budget cuts to several federal departments means that state governments will be picking up the slack, and have more responsibility for the effectiveness of state-centric services. …The current deficit is 3.4 percent of the national GDP, while the US public debt counts for over 25 percent of the nation’s GDP…

The New York Times, 4/29/1981

THIS SUMMER’S BREAK-OUT STARS: LAWRENCE HILTON-JACOBS AND DENZEL WASHINGTON; Interviews: Rising Fame And Expanding Role Possibilities For Blacks In Hollywood!

Jet, weekly magazine, early September 1981 issue


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Above: Dad, with me in the background (I’ve always had the same style of glasses – if Dad can keep the suit, I can keep the glasses!)

I had been running the Finger Lickin’ Good Inc. Corporation since 1964. After fifteen years, I decided to scale back my involvement. The company was doing better than ever in 1981. Younger Americans, both liberal and conservative, were returning to the 30-years-old franchise; whatever they thought of Dad’s policies, they could all agree that his chicken was the best. Of course, Dad was a bit confused as to why I’d scale back my workload. I explained “I want to focus exclusively on our KFC restaurant chains and leave the ‘big umbrella’ stuff to a younger and more energetic go-getter.”

“Who do you have in mind?” he asked.

“I want to keep it in the family. That’s why I’m getting the board of directors to go for Lee Cummings.”

Lee Cummings was a nephew of Dad and the operator of KFC-Midwest (operations from Ohio to Minnesota) since 1963. He was the one who created a special “Lip-Smackin’ Good” Alternate Recipe based on “Lee’s Secret Recipe” that he offered exclusively in Midwest KFC outlets. While the Alternate Recipe never caught on, he kept it on the menu “in case it’s too ahead of its time,” he argued. Overweight and greying, he looked the part of someone old enough to know his way around the business but still young enough to be open to fresh new ideas.

“I remember how he would occasionally come with me during my road trips, back when I would drive from place to place selling my chicken at four cents a bird,” Dad revealed. “Around ’54 or so, I believe.”

“Really? I don’t remember that.”

“Heh, well, ya never asked,” he smiled [7]. After showing him my plans to reorganize the executive teams for the KFC outlets in the US and to improve the quality of KFCs in Mexico by working with smaller local chicken farms, Dad gave it all his blessing of approval.

Below: Lee in 1984

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– Mildred Sanders Ruggles’ My Father, The Colonel: A Life of Love, Politics, and KFC, StarGroup International, 2000

Denton picking Alexander to be his running mate changed the dynamic of the President-VP relationship. Typically, the President and Vice President were rarely on friendly terms at the start of their shared terms, and by the end of their time together would be at each other’s throats. In 1928, for example, Calvin Coolidge, a typically silent man, went out of his way to discourage that year’s RNC from re-nominating VP Dawes for a second term. …VP Alexander had more power and influence than any VP since Nixon. Several Alexander-led initiatives such as allowing prayer in public schools if students called for it were supported by both Alexander and Denton. Unlike Eisenhower’s infamous 1960 criticism of his VP, Denton appreciated Alexander’s own ideas and experience as Governor. As a result, Alexander would always sit in on cabinet meetings, and worked as an unofficial advisor of sorts for the President on both foreign and domestic issues.

– Jules Witcover’s The American Vice Presidency: From Irrelevance to Power, Colonial Press, 2014

In May 1981, the Denton administration defunded both food stamps and WIC. They said the programs were vestigial due to the alleged success of the Negative Income Tax, but it cut off thousands of people, entire families, from food they badly needed. One of the first big names to step up the plate and decide to do something about it was Jeff Bridges, who was already a two-time Academy Award nominee by this point in time.

– Jim McGovern, 2009 interview

…Support for South Africa’s Apartheid was collapsing, and with it, the political careers of longtime anti-apartheid activists such as Helen Suzman and Harry Schwarz rose to national prominence. Suzman and Schwarz, both members of South African Parliament, proved instrumental in orchestrating the first of several meetings and negotiations between Prime Minister Botha, State President Marais Viljoen, Steve Biko, and Nelson Mandela, which lasted from 1981 to…

– Julian Brown’s The Road to Soweto: Resistance & Revolution in Post-Soweto South Africa, Jacana Publishers, 2016


New York City, NY – US Ambassador to the UN George H. W. Bush, the father of Astros pitcher George W. Bush, has called out the Soviet Union for its military combatting of mostly-peaceful anti-communist rebellions rising in prominence across several Warsaw Pact nations such as Romania, Poland, and Estonia. Ambassador Bush condemned the behavior, only for the Soviet Ambassador to the UN to cry “hypocrite,” and accused the United States of ousting “peaceful regimes” in Cuba, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. In light of this claim that the dictatorship of Fidel Castro, Ho Chi Minh, and the Pol Pot were “peaceful,” Bush shouted back “That’s a dirty rotten lie and everyone here knows it, even you!” The UN Secretary-General worked as a referee in cooling the situation…

– The Washington Post, 5/30/1981


...Former President Harland “Colonel” Sanders today became 90 years and 248 days old, surpassing John Adam’s record as America’s longest-lived President… The Colonel claims he has “a second secret” that, unlike the one regarding certain herbs and spices, he is allowed to disclose. He claims the secret to living so long despite having served for eight years in one of the most stressful occupations on the planet is routine and staying active. Every day, former President Sanders rises at 4:30 AM and works a 14-hour day. “Farm-work makes a man or an invalid out of you,” he explains that he has taken to tending to the chickens on the farms owned by the KFC Corporation, officially entitled “Finger-Lickin’ Good Inc.,” across Kentucky, as well as to touring nationally and internationally to promote his world-famous chicken. He former President will also work as an unofficial goodwill ambassador when asked.

The Colonel sticks to not only an active daily schedule, but to a hearty-yet-healthy diet. For breakfast, he gulps down cornbread, cottage cheese, and sorghum molasses – “the same diet I had as a boy,” he recalls – but nevertheless keeps a watchful eye on his blood sugar levels. “I got my diabetes back into its corner, not I’m just gonna try and keep it there until I’ve done all I can possibly do. Then it’s my time to go, not before.” [8]

– The Lexington Herald-Tribune, 6/4/1981


The New York Times, 6/12/1981

Suslov was clearly funding the increase in pro-Khomeini cam bombs going off across Iran. The Soviets claimed that any detection of Soviet troops in the country were not there to train an anti-Western rebel army in an ad hoc enemy-of-thine-enemy alliance between the Soviets and the Ayatollah Khomeini, but to assist the locals to addressing nuclear fallout cleanup. The lie was not only insulting to the people who truly were suffering from radiation poising in the Turkestani soviets, but only worsened Russia’s standing on the world stage. Even with all of this considered, Denton would sit idly by and do nothing. He soon mirrored Suslov in sending in American forces “to also help the Shah remove radiation from area.”

The proxy war began quickly, with the most rural parts of the country seeing the heaviest of fighting between US-backed monarchist forces and USSR-backed conservative forces…

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002

With warfare breaking out overseas distracting many Americans, President Denton quietly signed into law a tax “readjustment” bill that lowered the marginal income tax on the highest incomes from 70-to-90 percent to 50-to-70 percent. America’s middle class shared the brunt of this, but when asked about it, Denton replied by claiming ‘this will actually benefit them in the long term by creating rapid growth and more jobs as more money is freed up.” The claim that the rich would be compelled to give back to society, though, did not mesh with the fact that they already were giving back to society before via the 70-to-90% taxes. This fact, coupled with the fact that wealthy Americans had greater influence over where their money goes via fundraising and lobbyists, gave many Americans pause. Denton experienced a 5-point dip in his approval ratings for the next two weeks...

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005


“I want to spend more time with my grandchildren while I’m still in good health.”

The Washington Post, 6/18/1981

Welcome Back, Kotter
was an American television series created by Gabe Kaplan that ran for five seasons, from September 1976 to June 1981. It followed a teacher named Gabriel Kotter as he attempts to educate a group of low-grade students called “the Sweathogs” with humor and understanding. The series was controversial in its first season for highlighting New York City’s education issues and for the more violent aspects of the show’s characters, as the city also suffering from a rise in violence and crime at the time. Kaplan defended these elements, deciding that these aspects of society needed to be portrayed in order for them to be addressed, and believed doing this via comedy was the best way to do so. [snip] The series’ second season included a 1978 crossover episode with characters from “Barney Miller,” a show that was also owned by ABC, despite Woodman (not present in said episode) once mentioning watching the show in Season One. The same episode also featured characters from the ABC TV show “Soap.” In said episode, the audience learns that Soap’s Danny is now a police officer working as an understudy of sorts for Barney Miller’s “Wojo” character, who inspects a burglary at Welcome Back, Kotter’s James Buchanan High School. [snip] Season 4 ended with actor John Travolta leaving the show; his character subsequently drops out of school at the start of the next season, and he makes some appearances afterward. [snip] The start of Season 5 saw the remaining Sweathogs having to repeat the twelfth grade; despite Kotter’s best efforts, their grades only improved from “F-“ to “F.” Despondent, Kotter considers quitting teaching, but, in a twist, is convinced to keep working by Woodman. [snip] The series ended with Arnold Horshack marrying Mary Johnson (a character introduced in Season 4), Juan Epstein becoming a cop’s apprentice (the character appearing sporadically in Barney Miller’s final three seasons, which aired from 1981 to 1984), and Freddie Washington receiving a college basketball scholarship from Seattle. The final scene is of Mr. Kotter saying goodbye to his students and closing up his classroom.,_Kotter

After serving as a member of thru National Assembly from 1956 to 1962, Jean-Marie Le Pen directed the unsuccessful 1965 Presidential campaign of right-wing politician Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour before founding a law firm and working in the music industry. In 1972, Le Pen ran for President on his own newly-formed party, the National Front (NF); he came in 7th place with just under 1%. His brand of nativism began to gain a small group of supporters following the 1978 recession, which Le Pen blamed squarely on Mitterrand. In the February 1979 election, the National Front won enough of the vote for him to be sent back to the National Assembly. There, Le Pen focused heavily on immigration, criticizing the EEC and, later, the European Union, and advocated for “traditional” French culture and values. The “law and order” platform of the National Front led to US Senator Mario Biaggi (D-NY) initially supporting Le Pen in May 1981, only to distance himself from Le Pen less than a month later due to political backlash in the states. Nevertheless, Le Pen’s calls for policies that would lower unemployment and eliminate poverty earned him a small-but-loyal following by the start of the 1980s. As a result, in France’s 21 June 1981 elections, The National Front achieved several victories in local and municipal elections, particularly in the south and east of France...

– Jonathan Marcus’ Le Pen: The Impact of The National Front on French Politics, Second Edition, New York University Press, 1999

Over in East Germany, the secret police went from being everywhere to being everywhere and then some. Figures followed anybody who acted even slightly unusual, and the number of people with minds of their own who disappeared rose. There was no way at all to fix, or to even voice opinion on, the horrible labor conditions that seemed to only worsen each year. Only the rich and/or well-connected could actually do anything, and even then, unless they were at the very top, there were limitations as to what one can actually do. Everyone else destitution and starving.

We had nothing. Thus, we had nothing left to lose.

What began as a fight on the docks at Rostock on July 3rd quickly grew into a campaign of following the figures who followed others, and “disappearing” those who would have others disappear. Soon the people trapped in East Berlin joined the list of those rebelling against Soviet oppression.

– Hester Vaizey’s Born in the GDR: Living in the Shadow of the Wall, Oxford University Press, 2016

Firstly, In order for foreign intervention to work, it must obtain the backing of a native organization – a major political party, a tribe, any influential authority that’s respected by the locals. Look at American intervention in Grenada, for example. Back in mid-July ’81, our Armed Forces executed a high-intensity, quick operation that was unrelated to major cultural or ethnic differences there. They simply went in, ousted the President they didn’t like, and quickly replaced him with a more US-friendly government. Uncle Sam felt secure, and Premier Suslov was outraged that his country couldn’t even keep an ally on an island nation not even a quarter the size of Rhode Island.

Secondly, only if the disruption of the incumbent political structure by violent force is legitimate can it be justified, because in these kind of cases – Grenada, Indochina, and the like – the American military isn’t defending America. Sure, the CIA and the USAF can make it look like an indigenous civil war is going on, if that’ll help, but the US will still provide our allies there with our First World expenses: intel, communications, logistics, medics, air support, and then let the people we are backing reach their own city gates. We let the local troops take the lead in victory parades. Let them have it – the defeat of the enemy is enough for the American war hawks. Especially since afterwards, the US controls the regime by giving ’em firepower, aide, and propaganda to promote, heh, their new leaders. That’s how it went down in places like Grenada and such.

– Anti-war activist David Cline, The Overmyer Network’s Political Parlay, 1999 broadcast


The Star-News, North Carolina newspaper, 7/23/1981

LEOTA CONVICTED: State Senate Finds Governor Guilty In impeachment Scandal, Removing Him From Office

Honolulu – Weeks of investigations into months of scandals have culminated in the state legislators removing Independent Governor Alema Leota from office. After the House formally impeached Leota of abuse of power and obstruction of justice last month, the Senate returned from Summer Break to vote to convict…

So likely ends the short but colorful political career Alema Leota. Born to Samoan immigrants, Leota allegedly headed Hawaii’s organized crime during the late 1960s. In 1974, Leota was acquitted of federal tax conspiracy charges. Two years later, Leota embarked on a self-described “crusade” against state corruption, vehemently denying criminal connections and claiming criminal organizations had the cooperation of the incumbent government (ironic, as this very thing has unfolded over the past three years). Upon election to the state senate on a “nonpartisan” banner, Leota defeated two controversial and gaffe-prone candidates to become Hawaii’s first Independent Governor...

…In another twist, though, the “smoking gun” that led to the fateful investigations against Leota was instead connected to nepotism, staff members’ connections to organized crime, and, most concretely, attempts to hide an improper use of campaign funds in 1978 to refurbish the governor’s office… Lieutenant Governor Tokio Ige is to succeed Leota immediately…

– The Honolulu Star-Advertiser, 7/25/1981


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…Over 750 million people worldwide tuned in to watch the royal wedding between Charles Prince of Wales and Lady Sarah Spencer [9]

The Daily Express, 29/7/1981


…The owner’s attempts to curb the extent of free agency was achieved with a compromise of restricting players from free agency until after two years [10] of major league service, but the victory came at the cost of losing the support of fans who blamed the owners for the strike in the first place. Labor leaders nationwide supported the players after the MLB Players Association voted unanimously to strike on May 29 over the owners’ attempts to challenge the free agency rules upheld in a federal court case twelve years ago…

– The Philadelphia Daily News, 7/31/1981

August 1, 1981: the music video television channel MTV is launched in the United States as music videos began growing in prominence in the record industry, with music artists such as Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Diana Ross, Led Zeppelin, Prince, Duran Duran, Madonna and Cyndi Lauper becoming major early utilizers of the channel’s potential.


…In response to no less than 50,000 people, including women and children, taking to the streets over food rations shortages in Lodz, Poland, Suslov finally sent in the Red Army on August 7th. For the third time in history, the USSR had invaded Poland. The Solidarity trade union, with its millions of members, defied the Polish government’s subsequent “emergency measures” such as martial law, raids, mass arrests and other crackdowns. As Solidarity members continued the broad, often non-violent social movement, they began to gain more sympathy from citizens across the rest of Europe…

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


…the move may impede the effectiveness of these emergency services, which most pundits agreed proved invaluable in the immediate aftermath of the “Helen and Trojan” disasters that struck the American northwest in 1979 and 1980…

The Wall Street Journal, 8/12/1981

Since 1973, Libya had claimed the Gulf of Sidra of the central coast of the country to be entirely within their territorial waters despite international law arguing otherwise. This led to Libyan forces confronting other nations over the despite several times; the US had to minor run-ins in 1973 and 1980. While largely ignored under President Mondale, President Denton was more belligerent, and increased U.S. Air Force flights and operations in the region to indicate that the US would no longer tolerate the nation’s disregard for international agreements.

On August 19, Libyan Air Force responded by shooting down two US Air Force planes (of the combat air patrol variety), the Libyans on duty claiming later they believed they were being attacked. Being hit prompted the two planes (each carrying two officers) to fire back, injuring both vehicles. The damaged taken to their own planes, though, forced all four pilots to eject from their seats, to be picked up by the US Air Force. However, likely due to lingering anger over Atlanta Treaty, one Libyan pilot shot at the parachutes, killing two of the four men and injuring the other two.

In D.C., White House Press Secretary Donald Lambro attempted to calm reporters by reminding them of ongoing search-and-rescue operations to recover the downed officers and that the President was meeting with his new Secretary of Defense, William Westmoreland, along with Counselor to the President Mary Louise Smith and Chief National Security Advisor Curtis Emerson LeMay.

“This means war!” Westmoreland predicted, “Gaddafi’s been trying our patience long enough, and this time, he’s gone too far.”

Smith, the least militant of the four, instead offered “I think we should demand Libya punish the pilot, have him apologize, step down from, be court-martialed, something along those lines.”

LeMay disagreed, “Are you nuts? They killed two Americans – you can’t say ‘sorry’ to something as heinous as that.”

Playing defense, Smith said “A declaration of war over two deaths is much of an overreaction and its will just lead to more deaths.”

Around this time, a new report came in from our diplomats in Sirte, where the injured Libyan pilots had been taken. “An eye for an eye was made, Mary,” Denton confirmed, “Two of the Libyan pilots just croaked from the sluggers we gave ’em.”

While Denton later confessed that he secretly agreed with Westmoreland that the Libyans had “been let them off easy” from the incident, the “Sidra Showdown” (as the media called it) only worsened US-Libyan connections…

– Paul Kengor and Peter Schweizer’s The Denton Presidency: Assessing the Man and His Actions, Simon & Schuster, 2005

The 1981 strike returned to headline news months later when an investigation linked pitcher Donald Trump to an alleged scheme to work with other free-agency players to avoid competitive bidding for their services and to instead jointly negotiate with team owners for them. This is the textbook definition of an illegal practice known as “baseball collusion.” Upon the story breaking, Trump was quick to deny the story, swearing loyalty to the Phillies and infamously shouting “there was no collusion” several times at a gathering of reporters on August 20th. Trump’s claims, however, did not mesh with confessions from two other free agency players and three assistant coaches that had supported management during the strike that revealed that Trump sought to join the Yankees through a “package deal” of sorts. The MLBPA immediately filed collusion charges against Trump and four of the six others for violating the 1980 season’s collective bargaining agreement. The MLBPA won the cases, leading to owner fines being collected and the two free agency players being banned from the game for two seasons. Trump, though, was banned for five. In light of this, Trump announced that he was permanently retiring from Major League Baseball in order to pursue “other interests” that he did not wish to disclose at the time…

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994

…In the Middle East, an Israeli design company has unveiled a new oil pump design that may prove to be far superior to current models. The pump design is the result of the company collaborating with power and energy companies in Egypt for a, quote, “mutually beneficial” harnessing of the regions fuel. The pump technology is being sold at a special discount for all “signatory nations,” that’s all nations to have signed the multi-lateral peace treaty, also known as the Atlanta Peace Treaty, back in ’78…

– Peter Jennings, ABC World News Tonight, 8/28/1981

…The start of September marks the start of the school year, and this school year, high school students in several states are to be taught a subject new to their schools’ health class curricula – abstinence education. In accordance with the federal law passed with the support of President Denton, state legislatures are to respond to parents concerned over pre-marital sex by having teachers educate their students how to not indulge in the adult activity…

– NBC News report, 9/1/1981

was an American TV series that ran from 1981 to 1983. A spinoff of “Welcome Back, Kotter,” the series centered around the character Arnold Horshack (played by Ron Polillo), who becomes the “man of the house” after his mother disappears in South America while trying to find a(nother) husband to help her raise her four children. The series followed Horshack navigate the responsibilities of raising three siblings while becoming an adult in New York City. As such, episodes showed Horshack mature as the series progressed, as he learns the details of the adult world through humorous mishaps while keeping his siblings out of trouble and trying to start a family of his own with Mary Johnson, another character from “Welcome Back, Kotter” (though here, Mary was recast and played by Kate Mulgrew). Several actors and characters from “Welcome Back, Kotter” had multiple cameos throughout the series. Horshack! premiered on September 3, 1981 and ended in May 1983 after two complete seasons aired.



1: Episode 4 of Season 2, which first aired on October 5, 1982, received praise and criticisms for its plot. It involved Horshack reprimanding his younger brother for bullying a recently “outed” fellow freshman at James Buchanan High School. While lauded by many (especially after Polillo officially “left the closet” in 1986), the episode led to a conservative backlash that mirrored the one that overwhelmed the TV series “Soap,” and after several sponsors withdrew from the series over the following months, the series was not renewed for a third season.!


…With Mexico still struggling with the effects of the Crash of ’78, President Denton announced “for the sake of both of our economies, and in the vein of President Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy, we must help our neighbors to the south fend off not only inflation and other economic despairs, but also the scourge that is the drug dealers that are plaguing parts of Mexico as of late.”

– The El Paso Times, 9/3/1981

“Aww, he just wants to stem the flow of immigration, man. He thinks that if Mexico’s getting along better, there won’t be any more Mexicans becoming Mexican-Americans.”

– Musician and activist Cheech Marin, 9/4/1981


…after several weeks of considerations and subsequent Senate hearings, Fogel was given a 68-32 approval vote in August… the 52-year-old self-described “somewhat conservative” Republican was appointed Justice of the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania by President Colonel Sanders in December 1971…

The Washington Post, 9/5/1981

Jack would be disheveled, depressed and have trouble sleeping after moments of tension and anxiety. He would lose weight when his health was in decline; his cheeks would look a bit deflated, and he’d look skinnier. Taking steroids to combat back pain inflated his face with puffiness while also weakening his bones, and possibly worsening the Addison’s disease. He was a complete mess and a shadow of his former self – until he started regularly using marijuana. A friend of a friend, though Ted’s California connections, re-introduced Jack to Mary Jane at the start of the 1980s, when the legality of recreational drugs – dubbed recreadrugs by President Denton – was becoming a big political talking point. Jack figured “Why not? I’m not in elective politics anymore.” Indeed, since losing the 1968 election, “Gentleman Jack” had, apart from joining a few D.C. think tank discussions from time to time, retired to his den at the family compound to compose books upon books concerning American history and politics. And with their three children grown, Jackie did not object to Jack using marijuana. “If it gets Dr. Feelgood away from him, I’ll tolerate it,” she told me once.


[ pic: ]
Above: Jack, weary-eyed and white-haired by his mid-60s, smoking a blunt to relieve him of his Addison's disease and back pain, c. September 1981.

– Harris Wofford Jr.’s autobiography Don’t Speak American With Just English Words: My Life In Washington, Simon & Schuster, 1999

CHICKEN DINNER SUMMIT ’81 CONCLUSIONS: New Trade Deals For Israel And Jordan; Iraqi Religious Leaders Receive Warm Welcome; Warring Lebanon Factions Agree to “Nation Over Party” As Negotiations Resume

The Morning Star, UK newspaper, post-C.D.S.J. analysis, 9/23/1981

…Under President Denton, the tax code was simplified yet again, changing the tax bracket system from nine brackets to six...

– Anne Meagher Northup’s Chicken and Politickin’: the Rise of Colonel Sanders and Rational Conservatism in the Republican Party, 2015


Montgomery, AL – Elvin Columbus McCary, our Governor since 1979, has passed away, most likely from natural causes, at the age of 74. The Anniston-native real estate businessman-turned-politician had run for public office numerous times since 1946, but was elected Governor in 1978 at the age of 71 by modeling his campaign off of the populist and energetic campaigns that Colonel Sanders ran on in 1964 and 1968, creating an air of nostalgia and optimism as Election Day near. McCary was often described as being “frank” and “full of candor.” He leaves behind two daughters and two ex-wives.

McCary’s successor to the office of governor is the Democratic Lieutenant Governor, Charles Woods, a WWII veteran businessman and broadcaster known for being the survivor of a terrible fire in 1944 that left his face and hands permanently disfigured. His election to Lieutenant Governor was considered a fluke, and his ascension to the governor’s seat two days before his 62nd birthday is in the same vein. Politically-speaking, though, Woods and McCary agreed on several issues, and thus it is likely that Woods will continue many of McCary’s policies.

– The Alexander City Outlook, Alabama newspaper, 9/28/1981

…earlier today, President Denton signed a bill into law that will amend the 1973 Immigration and Nationality Act to provide preferential treatment in the admission of stateless, orphaned, or refugee children and their families, and of children born overseas to at least one parent of American citizenship and their families. While the bill was criticized by conservative Republican Senator Dick Obenshain of Virginia, Denton spoke in defense of it today by explaining, quote, “it will help keep families together and help keep children safe,” unquote…

– ABC News, 10/1/1981


[pic: / 7qOevRn.png ]

– US Senator Barry Goldwater (R-AZ) looks through the telescopic sight on a dart gun displayed by the CIA Director to the US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence activities in Cuba during the early 1960s, 10/2/1981


…Ron Palillo of “Welcome Back, Kotter” fame cameoed in the latest episode of the satirical dramedy series “Soap,” which is currently airing its fifth and final season… In a pivotal scene, Palillo’s character, Sal Vadore, declines the advances of Jodie Dallas, portrayed by Billy Crystal, and explains “being gay together doesn’t mean being gay… together,” and explains “You’re not my type.” Upon voicing frustration over being undecided over what his sexual preferences are, Dallas exclaims “What am I?” To this, Vadore answers “You’re you.” While explaining to Dallas – and, by extension, the audience – what it means to be bisexual, the episode also promotes the notion of not letting anyone define you and who you are…

The San Francisco Chronicle, opinion article, 10/3/1981


…Amid rising political tension, Sadat has announced that he will step down from power and resign from the office of the Presidency in December. The subsequent vacancy of the office will trigger a new election, which will be held in January. …The announcement comes at a time when Sadat is very unpopular within Egypt despite his improving of the economy. Sadat caused a stir in his home country and across the Middle East by opening relations to Israel in 1977; many of his critics point to him being praised by western leaders as proof that Sadat is “too west-loving” for Egypt, or at least for Egypt’s conservatives and radicals who have opposed Sadat ever since the 1977 and 1978 peace talks…

The Columbus Evening Dispatch, 10/4/1981

…Sanders has always preferred to bypass the news media in order to stay on his chosen message. That is why he hosted his own cable access show in the late 1970s, alongside his own talk radio show and, in retrospect, his own media empire. [11] In early 1981, Sanders took advantage of President Denton’s reform of America’s radio programming laws that stipulated equal airtime for both sides of disputes. In October of that year, shortly after turning 40, Sanders expanded his base of influence by founding Tumbleweed Radio, a platform for discussing the political and cultural issues of the day with an unashamedly progressive-leaning bias...

– Michael O’Connor’s Bern Sanders: The Biography of a Multimillionaire (Democratic) Socialist Maverick, Greenwood Press, 2009

FEDERAL ELECTION RESULTS: Manfred Cross To Become 21st Prime Minister

…after defeating challengers Bill Hayden and Bob Hawke to become the new leader of the Labor party in January, Manfred Cross has soundly bested incumbent Prime Minister Doug Anthony…

The Daily Telegraph, Australian newspaper, 10/23/1981

REFORMS LIKELY BEHIND CAMDEN’S SLOW RISE IN LIFE QUALITY: Mayor Optimistic City Will Be “NJ’s Philadelphia” in 10 Years

…the state’s income aid dividend system for all adult residents has led to an increase in business activities, community events, and innovation. Universities such as Rutgers and Princeton have seen an uptick in grades as students can afford supplies and better living quarters near campus. Real estate and housing industries are still performing well after initially booming in the mid-1970s as more and more people move in to capitalize on the dividend law. …However, elderly residents complain of highschoolers “loafing around” as many teenagers decide to forego both college and employment. “This allegedly free money is allowing these hoodlums to spend their time cookin’ trouble with their good-for-nothin’ idle hands,” observes one Morristown resident concerned over the work ethic of the next generation of New Jersey residents…

Newsweek, weekly magazine publication, late October issue

In the 1981 World Series, the Phillies won the Pennant over the Yankees 4-to-3, and Mike Schmidt was rightly named M.V.P….

– John Helyar’s Lords of the Realm: The Real History of Baseball, Ballantine Books, 1994


…while the Caribbean island nation was granted independent status, the Queen is still technically its head of state…

The Guardian, 1/11/1981



[pic: ]
Above: Martha Osborne upon becoming Governor in 1980

…Democratic incumbent Martha Layne Hall Osborne won a special gubernatorial election to complete the remaining two years of deceased Governor Breckinridge’s 1979-1983 term… Osborne, who previously served as Lieutenant Governor from 1979 to 1980, won over Republican nominee Thurman Jerome Hamlin by a comfortable margin…

The Washington Times, 11/3/1981


…The embattled incumbent Democratic Governor James Joseph "Jim" Florio, 44, won over Republican challenger Walter H. Jones by a 1.5% margin, with all other gubernatorial candidate winning a combined total of 0.7% of the total vote… Florio faced a difficult job in his first term – he had to improve the post-Crash of ’78 economy and lower the crime rate. He controversially raised taxes in his first year to cover more state-level services and several “community development” programs to lower violence in both urban and rural areas. Fortunately for his re-election campaign, those taxes saw results in the form of lowered crime rates and greater services, allowing him to repeal most of said tax hike bill late last year…

The Trentonian, New Jersey newspaper, 11/3/1981

HISTORY IN THE MAKING: Harrison Wilson Jr. Becomes First African-American Elected Governor in U.S. History

…Wilson, 56, worked as an educator and as a college basketball coach before serving as the second President of Norfolk State University from 1975 until earlier this year, during which time the university’s student body numbers and funding increased tremendously. As a Democrat, Wilson ran as a political outsider in his party’s primary, and as a moderate in the general. His campaign called for greater cooperation between all political factions to give the people of Virginia a “topnotch state government that works and works well,” saying last month in a speech on government responsibility, “We must continue to broaden our horizons in all we do in Richmond. We need to raise the bar for ourselves, set higher goals and work for excellence. All the people of this state deserve nothing less than representing ourselves at the highest level of effort” [12]. Wilson defeated the GOP nominee, state Attorney General Marshall Coleman, by a almost-1-percent margin that verged on the cusp of requiring a recount in some counties. While Coleman himself has conceded, some of Coleman’s supporters have not received the election’s results so graciously – already police have reported acts of violence – mainly vandalism – breaking out in several communities…

The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/3/1981


…New York City went for a rising political star in the form of 39-year-old Carol Bellamy. With an impressive resume – a former Peace Corp worker, an anti-war activist, a former state senator, and the President of the New York City Council – Bellamy won yesterday’s mayoral election on the Democratic and Liberal tickets. Bellamy’s election over Republican nominee Roy M. Goodman and Conservative nominee Barry Farber to succeed retiring four-term Mayor Joey Pericone, a Liberal Republican, may bring a tumultuous era in city politics to a close, and be the beginning of a new era.

Riding a wave of youth voters who oppose the conservative streaks of Denton, Cuomo, and Biaggi, Bellamy campaigned on a “Gravel-lite” platform that included making college more affordable and improving the mental health and women’s physical health programs of the city.


...While the Democratic victories in Virginia and New Jersey are not god signs for the GOP as the 1982 midterms near, their campaigns do indicate that Americans do approve of the President’s “wars” on recreadrugs and high taxes. New Jersey’s Governor Florio won re-election by lowering taxes, while Wilson became the Democratic nominee for Governor by defeating Lieutenant Governor Chuck Robb, the son-in-law of deceased President Lyndon Johnson, after rumors concerning Robb’s alleged use of cocaine at parties in Virginia Beach caused him to lose support in the weeks before the primary…

The New York Times, 11/4/1981

BACK TO SPACE! NASA Returns to Manned Missions With Start of Year-Long Twin Study!

…the launch of the first manned space mission approved under new President Denton is a rebuke of the unmanned years of President Mondale, and its mission is arguably NASA’s most ambitious biology-related study to date. Astronauts Janet and Marion Dietrich are identical twin sisters born in 1926… With Janet aboard the space shuttle “Dauntless,” and Marion grounded in Texas, NASA will monitor the physical characteristics of both 55-year-old sisters for the next six months to determine how space travel affects the human body… If completed, Janet will spend more time in space consecutively and continuously than any other person in history...

– The Tampa Bay Times, 11/12/1981

“A FRAGILE RESOLUTION”: Peace Treaty Finally Signed In Lebanon; Civil Discourse Dissipating

…the annual Chicken Dinners seem to have done it again! After weeks of negotiations, overseen by the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, began anew in September, the multiple warring sides – pro-West, pro-Soviet, Christian, and Muslim groups – have signed a non-aggression treaty that stipulates are signatory groups will respect the existence and customs of each other, and provides for a more equal distribution of power in the country. The agreement also calls for amnesty for all political crimes committed prior to the treaty’s enactment. …With the breakthrough made and the deal reached, militias are shutting down operations and people across Lebanon are beginning to celebrate in the streets…

– The Guardian, 24/11/1981

The decade saw a thinning of the saturated markets of the fast-food industry. Red Barn and Sambo’s declines culminated in the former falling to only 200 locations nationwide (though management claims they will “bounce back” soon) and the notorious latter declaring bankruptcy in November 1981 and shutting down all locations within the next year.

However, several new faces did emerge onto the fast-food stage. Most notably, Chi-Chi’s, the Mexico-and-salsa-themed restaurant chain founded in 1975, has become a major competitor of Glen Bell’s “Taco Bell” franchise since expanding operations and marketing strategies in the early 1980s.

Nation’s Restaurant News trade publication, end-of-the-decade review, late December 1989 issue


La Repubblica, Italian newspaper, 12/9/1981

…the conflict engulfing Iran grew in intensity as 1981 came to a close. However, while Iranians despised his father, the people of Iran largely favored the reign of Shah Reza Pahlavi. He was seen as fair, and, while a bit naïve and idealistic, his intentions were backed by actions. His public works and food distribution policies were immensely popular with the people, and so the main fight was with radicals who hoped that they could scare the populace into submission – that repeatedly “cam bombing” major community centers would make the people turn their backs on their young ruler…

– John Ehrman and Michael W. Flamm’s Jeremiah: The Denton Presidency, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc., 2002



Number of locations:

Total: 7,039 in 45 countries [13]

Per Region:

Africa (3 countries): 31 (Djibouti: 6, Egypt: 17, Ethiopia: 8)

Asia (7 countries): 157 (China: 52, Indonesia: 3, Japan 14, Malaysia: 32, Philippines: 24, South Korea 20, Vietnam: 12)

Caribbean/Central America/South America (10 countries): 162 (Bahamas: 3, Barbados: 6, Costa Rica: 12, Cuba: 30, Dominica: 14, Dominican Republic: 21, Ecuador: 35, Panama: 21, Trinidad and Tobago: 12, Venezuela: 8)

Europe (11 countries): 523 (Belgium 15, Denmark 23, France 34, Italy 21, Ireland: 39, Netherlands: 33, Norway 17, Portugal 30, Spain: 11, United Kingdom: 263, West Germany: 37)

Middle East (9 countries): 136 (Bahrain: 14, Israel: 7, Jordan: 4, Kuwait: 22, Oman: 35, Qatar: 23, Saudi Arabia: 16, Syria: 4, United Arab Emirates: 11)

North America (3 countries): 5,729 (Canada: 528, Mexico: 276, United States: 4,925)

Oceania (2 countries): 301 (Australia: 259, New Zealand: 42)

Note: we are retaining the policy of not doing business in war-torn locations. As such, plans to expand into Iran, South Africa and other locations are still on hold amid ongoing warfare and hostilities.


Overview Of Latest Sales Report: Quality Rates Steady; Sales Rates Still Rising Among New Locations, Steady Among Old Ones.

– KFC internal report, 12/19/1981


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders, c. December 26, 1981; in his later years, the Colonel became increasingly religious, and read passages from his Bible every night before going to sleep

…As anti-Moscow sentiment spread in Estonia, Romania, and Poland, the same was occurring in the Central Asian soviets of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Each Soviet spoke a distinct language that nevertheless could be partial understood by their neighbors. Uzbekistani and Turkmen had similarities to each other, but less so with Kyrgyz and Kazakh, to say nothing of Tajiki [14]. While the groups were divided by their Turkic languages’ differences, they found themselves in agreement over the belief that life under Soviet rule could be tolerated no longer. The Aktau Disaster contaminating the Caspian and Aral Seas was contributing to draught and radiation poisoning plaguing Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. In December 1981, leaders from these three soviets gathered in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to discuss an idea: to unite the five soviets into a single united nation, joined by the shared religion, goals, and – due to Russian control of their ways of life for over sixty years – the ability for most people of each soviet to speak the same language (Russian) declare independence from the Soviet Union. They agreed that a united front was the best course of action until independence was achieved, as the defeat of the Hungarians in 156 and the perceived defeat of Poland and Romania soon enough made the leaders believe that their soviets could not fight Moscow separately. They soon began working out the details…

– Ke Wang’s Turkestanis Unite!: The Rise And Execution of An Idea, Cambridge University Press, 2013

In 1981, Deng announced four cities – Beijing, Hangzhou, Suzhou, and Guilin – were culturally important enough for them to undergo massive historic and cultural preservation efforts, focusing on restoring buildings and repairing infrastructure to make these cities more appealing to overseas investors. Subsequently, Deng decided that, as Han Chinese citizens were needed in order for expansion into the PRC’s westernmost regions to work, the poorest living in these cities were encouraged to “go west” and free up space in the urban areas – as soon as the Chinese government “relocated” the locals…

– Li Song and Julia Garnett’s Unlikely Partners: China And Its Relations With the US During The Years of Deng And Yibo, Harvard University Press, 2017

For the generation of Americans who came of age during the ’80s, changes to daily life came in the form of communication and information-sharing technology. The computer was quickly coming onto the scene and companies such as Motorola and Microsoft led the charge. Inventors such as Bill Gates and Steve Jobs capitalized on the entrepreneurial funding programs that were founded under President Sanders to promote their products, transforming the way that major companies communicated and compiled data by the end of the decade…

– Joy Lisi Rankin’s Computers: A People’s History of the Information Machine, Westview Press, 2018

[1] Sadly OTL, according to Wikipedia
[2] OTL, this bill became law in December 1980
[3] Quote found here:
[4] OTL quotes!
[5] He got a bill concerning this passed in the Senate IOTL:
[6] Italicized sentence is a quote from David Vogel’s treatise “Why Businessmen Distrust Their State: The Political consciousness of American Corporate Executives” (I had to read it for grad school back in 2017).
[7] Lee who? This guy:
[8] Italicized parts are from here:
[9] Prince Charles actually dated Diana Spencer’s older sister first IOTL!:,_Princess_of_Wales
[10] 6 years in OTL
[11] Italicized segments are from a passage found here:
[12] Italicized bits of this quote are OTL:
[13] In 1983, there were roughly 5,800 KFC locations in 55 countries:
[14] Well, at least, according to this:

Happy Boxing Day, everbody!

Mostly good, but...

From what I heard, it is Kazakh and Kyrgyz that are really similar. Not so much between Uzbek and Turkmen (different branches of Turkic). Tajik is not even a Turkic language.

Also, take a look at the 1989 Kazakh SSR Census. Kazakhs barely outnumber Russians by a margin of 307 thousand (6.535 million vs. 6.228 million), and Turkic peoples only number 7.565 million against 7.306 million East Slavs. I don't exactly see all of Kazakhstan wanting to leave Russia, not the north at least (what happened in Aktau would likely swerve the south out of Russia).
Excellent observations, thank you very much for pointing them out! I'll cover these and the situation unfolding over there in better detail in the next chapter!

I fully insist and expect that Carol Bellamy will be in in the running for the Democratic Nominee come 1988.
Lots of fun stuff.

Timi9ng of the strike in baseball can still include a tentative settlement till the real one kicks in, but more importantly, this is dated before Johnny Bench's injury. He had one of his best seasons in '81, and the Reds OTL had the best winning percentage but lost by 1/2 games to the Dodgers in the first half and 1 1/2 to the Astros in the 2nd half. Here, even if they are further back when it begins, they can probably win the division. And then the PHillies beat them in the NLCS before going on to win the World Series.

I love what you did with Welcome Back Kotter - a B rney Miller crossover is lots of fun. I love Epstein becoming a policeman - I think all of their futures sound good, and the spinoff - which I believe was considered OTL - was fun, too. Would I have watched it? At the start, I was dropping quite a few shows from my lineup as I had more homework in Junior High, by choice, but would have at least sporadically watched it. Probably checking the TV Guide each week to see if it sounded interesting.

Denton will hopefully fight AIDS effectively. If he learns early it's transmitted through blood, he might actually use that to attack drugs because of tainted needles.

Is Sarah Spencer Diana's sister?

FFree agency after 2 ful years of major league service now - wow. You've eliminated arbitration now and maybe laid some groundwork for having there not be a strike in 1994. And I wonder if Trump took the fall but was in league with some owners, who might have tried to work with replacement players.

The 1982 NFL strike is around the corner for next year. I presume the nFL has been mostly the same? With same or similar Super Bowls. Did Warren Moon, with a slightly better racial atmosphere, get drafted as a quarterback or did he still have to go to Edmonton and win 5 Grey XCups before coming back to the NFL - well, USFL first.

Hmmm, I wonder if Trump will try to work in TTL's USFL - not enough money quite yet to own a team now, but that might actually help as they would start smaller.
Glad to see you liked the Kotter ideas!
Good idea with Denton!
Yep, IOTL Prince Charles dated Sarah before dating and marrying Diana!

The NFL's history been mostly the same as OTL so far. Except I guess for Warren Moon. With the 1970s lacking any the racial tension of OTL, it's make sense that he gets drafted as a quarterback.
Trump can simply get "a small loan of a million dollars" from his dad if he decides to build up anything. I imagine he'd want to construct some major sports stadium somewhere. IOTL, he got NYC's Wollman Rink renovated at a quicker pace and lower cost than it was taking before he got the project. Maybe something like that happens here but for some sports stadium?

I'm glad you are enjoying this TL! Thanks!

I hope the 7)’s hendonistic culture has died off somewhat and folk like Freddie Mercury don’t fall victim to AltAIDS. Does NASA have a space station? No Star Trek II yet?
I'll cover Freddie and Star Trek in the next update! NASA's getting a higher budget under Denton, so we'll see how things turn out for them, too!

What a world, where Donald John Trump and George Walker Bush are athletic and talented enough to play Major League Baseball...
All I will say, I am curious to see what happens in Japan with their economic miracle...
I sure hope the Phillies win a pennant sometime - they haven't won since 1950 and never won a World Series till 1980. The Athletics did win several, last in 1930, when they were in PHilly.

Of course, TTL they might not have Steve Carlton due to free agency and either his not being traded from the Cardinals or being traded and made a free agent the next year.

I do want to see MIke Schmidt won one; maybe next year. This was his peak, and if there's no baseball strike next year he would hit over 50 home runs. (This year he hit 48 and he hit 31 in about 105 games in 1981, and missed the middle two months which are the hottest and best for offense normally.) But, Schmidt might not have been drafted by the PHillies for all we know.

Then again if they have them they started out 34-21 before the strike OTL, or somethingclose, so they may have had a better chance in 1981 than they had in 1980. The last 4 games of that NLZCS all went extra innings, clearly the Astros could have won. And the Expos were kind of far back but won the 2nd half and the vidision round. (ANd could have lost to the Cardinals in the 2nd half.)

Or, there might not be a strike, especially if Sanders is still around. Like I said in Completed Game, 1981 was more easily avoidab le, it was just harder to find a reason to have someone mediate it. If Sanders lives longer - and he doens't die yet unlike OTL in late '80 - he could be called on.

Did Brett end up hitting .400?

It is fun to see Trump and Bush both pro baseball players.

I hate domes (and Astroturf but you couldn't avoid it as much in the '80s) but love those unusual Astros uniforms. I'm not qite purist enough to say "If a cow won't eat it I won't play on it" (DIck Allen) but I do prefer baseball be outdoors (or at least a retractable roof).

You really put a lot of work into the 20 years from 1960-1980 in the timeline. I can see why the next update is TBD - you deserve a break :) (Plus it's near Christmas and the new year and I imagine you will be quite busy then.)
Good baseball info here
Thanks - I took the past several days off to relax over the Holidays and recharge my batteries. I hope your holiday season was a great one! :)

No Hoff is from Vermont while McCloskey is from CA.

Though the wikibox here says Hoff is from CA so I get why you’re confused.

D'oh! That is so embarrassing, my apologies, I will fix that ASAP!


Good update!

The Bush vs Trump baseball brawl was very amusing.

No Reagan 80's should be very interesting. Much smaller Republican swing than OTL?

Glad the Chicken Dinners are continuing- hope the Sanders family stays invested even once the Colonels gone. How many KFC's in Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Syria etc now?

Hows pop culture reacting to the start of the 80's and the hippies/shoutniks growing up?
Thank you!

I thought so too!


I've list the digits in this chapter for ya!

I've mention what it is like at the start of the decade in this chapter, too!

Next Chapter's E.T.A.: January 2nd, 2020
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Mostly good, but...

From what I heard, it is Kazakh and Kyrgyz that are really similar. Not so much between Uzbek and Turkmen (different branches of Turkic). Tajik is not even a Turkic language.

Also, take a look at the 1989 Kazakh SSR Census. Kazakhs barely outnumber Russians by a margin of 307 thousand (6.535 million vs. 6.228 million), and Turkic peoples only number 7.565 million against 7.306 million East Slavs. I don't exactly see all of Kazakhstan wanting to leave Russia, not the north at least (what happened in Aktau would likely swerve the south out of Russia).
Lots of fun stuff.

Timi9ng of the strike in baseball can still include a tentative settlement till the real one kicks in, but more importantly, this is dated before Johnny Bench's injury. He had one of his best seasons in '81, and the Reds OTL had the best winning percentage but lost by 1/2 games to the Dodgers in the first half and 1 1/2 to the Astros in the 2nd half. Here, even if they are further back when it begins, they can probably win the division. And then the PHillies beat them in the NLCS before going on to win the World Series.

I love what you did with Welcome Back Kotter - a B rney Miller crossover is lots of fun. I love Epstein becoming a policeman - I think all of their futures sound good, and the spinoff - which I believe was considered OTL - was fun, too. Would I have watched it? At the start, I was dropping quite a few shows from my lineup as I had more homework in Junior High, by choice, but would have at least sporadically watched it. Probably checking the TV Guide each week to see if it sounded interesting.

Denton will hopefully fight AIDS effectively. If he learns early it's transmitted through blood, he might actually use that to attack drugs because of tainted needles.

Is Sarah Spencer Diana's sister?

FFree agency after 2 ful years of major league service now - wow. You've eliminated arbitration now and maybe laid some groundwork for having there not be a strike in 1994. And I wonder if Trump took the fall but was in league with some owners, who might have tried to work with replacement players.

The 1982 NFL strike is around the corner for next year. I presume the nFL has been mostly the same? With same or similar Super Bowls. Did Warren Moon, with a slightly better racial atmosphere, get drafted as a quarterback or did he still have to go to Edmonton and win 5 Grey XCups before coming back to the NFL - well, USFL first.

Hmmm, I wonder if Trump will try to work in TTL's USFL - not enough money quite yet to own a team now, but that might actually help as they would start smaller.