Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

Yay! I’m glad someone ran with Ollie’s Trolleys, I plain love the idea of Americans being exposed to spices so early and widely haha

As I think I’ve said all the detail work is great. Clearly you’re having tons of fun, I laughed out loud at the Walmart bit, but the more serious stuff around sexual pestering and global politics is also intriguing and well done.

I wish I had more to argue with you about lol but this is a fantastically weird America that makes utter sense.
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This is a strange America, but its still recognizable as America, and some of the career paths of OTL Americans are interesting (Sirhan Sirhan as a jockey, among others)...
Chapter 35: September 1971 – January 1972
Chapter 35: September 1971 – January 1972

“Try listening. You’ve got one mouth and two ears; there’s a reason for that.”

– Red Green, The Red Green Show, Episode 298 (11:49 mark), 2005

“The Colonel’s promotion of higher education greatly benefited the prep school [Lakeside School in Haller Laker, Seattle, WA], at least in the departments I was interested in. But I didn’t stick around to see the long-term benefits. Instead, after forming Traf-O-Data with Paul Allen in 1971, I took the summer of 1972 – the summer before my final year there – to serve as a congressional page. An old friend of my parents, Brock Adams, was now a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, and Adams thought the experience would do me so good – especially since experience as a page is a big boost for college graduates trying to be accepted into law school, and at the time, I did not know what I wanted to do for a career [1] As a House Page, I learned a lot, it was a formative experience [2].”

– Bill Gates, KNN interview with Bill Gates and Kent Allen, 9/1/1995


The Washington Post, 9/4/1971

…On September 5, 1971, Henry Kissinger left the State Department over disagreeing with Father on several ideas for foreign policy strategy one time too many. It was an amicable departure, with neither man really missing the other. I recall Kissinger even telling Secretary Rockefeller, “Truth be told, I get along much better with Senator Nixon.” Indeed, Kissinger had worked closely with the former Vice President from 1965 to 1967. Kissinger began serving as an Assistant Secretary of State starting in 1967, and served as a link of sorts between Nixon and the White House. However, Kissinger never rose to prominence or to a truly influential position inside the White House, instead always being on the outermost edges of Father’s inner circle of advisors.


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Above: Father shaking hands with Henry Kissinger in 1967

Kissinger’s departure led to speculation that he was preparing a run for a US Congressional seat, but Kissinger was not interested in being involved in politics in that particular way. Advising candidates was more his style. Instead, Kissinger returned to his career in academia, but also continued to work with Senator Nixon by branching out into the DC lobbying scene.

I mention him because he did leave behind one lasting idea – a term coined by 19th century writer Ludwif von Rochau to refer to the utilizing of pragmatism and practicality in the face of political and diplomatic challenges – a little concept known as “realpolitik,” which was adopted and used much more frequently by Father’s successors than by Father himself…

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991


Breaking from his administration’s normally fiscally conservative practices, Sanders today approved of expanding the use of below market interest loans for rehabilitating housing in designated urban renewal zones. H.E.W. Secretary Rockefeller will oversee the implementation of further programs under his department.

A “below-market loan” means that interest is payable on the loan at a rate less than the applicable Federal rate. According to a spokesperson for the H.E.W. Department, the move is currently affordable due to the currently healthy market interest rate, which is a rate of interest paid on deposits, which are determined by the interaction of the supply of and demand for funds in the money market [3]

This action means that more rents will be set at market rate after rehabilitation is completed. The move will focus on the rehabilitation of existing dwellings in urban renewal. Homes in competitive housing market areas are applicable for a loan to pay for existing home. The move may also assure more funds for insuring loans for multifamily projects in designated urban renewal areas.

– The Associated Press, 9/7/1971

George Jackson
(9/23/1941-8/21/1971) began his life in prison (initially for armed robbery) in 1961, and became a Maoist-Marxist revolutionary writer during the Cuba War. [snip] He subsequently openly opposed America’s presence in Indochina. In 1970, while being held in San Quentin Penitentiary in California, he was accused of murdering a prison guard to avenge the killing of two Black prisoners during a prison riot days earlier. On August 21, 1971, days prior to the start of the murder trial, Jackson and several conspirators smuggled a gun into the prison, to be used in a prison escape attempt. Upon killing five hostages and travelling to the prison yard, Jackson was shot from the observation tower and his accomplices surrendered. Jackson's death would be a catalyst for events that unfolded less than a month later...

– (note: stub article)

At approximately 4;20 a.m. on Thursday, September 9, 1971, 5 Company lined up for roll-call. Hearing rumors that one of their companions was to remain in his cell after being isolated for an incident involving an assault on prison officer Tom Boyle after he was hit in the face with a full soup can by inmate William Ortiz, a small group of 5 Company inmates protested that they too would be locked up and began walking back toward their cells The remainder of 5 Company continued towards breakfast. As the protesting group walked past the isolated inmate Ortiz, they freed him from his cell. They then rejoined the rest of 5 Company and proceeded on their way to breakfast. A short time later, when the command staff discovered what had occurred, they changed the usual scheduling of the prisoners, but did not tell prison officer Gordon Kelsey, the correctional officer in charge of leading 5 Company to the yard. Instead of going to the yard after breakfast as they usually did, the prisoners were led there to find a locked door, puzzling them and the correctional officer Kelsey. Complaints led to anger when more correctional officers led by Lt. Robert T. Curtiss arrived to lead the prisoners back to their cells. Officer Kelsey was assaulted and the riot began.” [4]



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The New York Daily News, 9/9/1971

The rioting prisoners took control of the D-yard and the central control room, which the inmates called “Times Square.” They took 42 officer and civilians hostage, and produced a list of grievances demanding their conditions be met before their surrender. [4] The prisoners agreed to negotiate with Correctional Services Commissioner Russell G. Oswald. They made their demands clear in a hastily-assembly treatise entitled “The Attica Liberation Manifesto,” which called for better medical treatment, fair visitation rights, an end to physical brutality, better sanitation, and improved food quality.



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– Governor Biaggi at his desk, 9/10/1971

Expecting a reply of force, several prisoners began fortifying Attica. They dug trenches, electrified the metal gate, carved table ends into weapons, and poured gasoline on certain places “just in case”. The prison’s command center was fortified the most.

Biaggi saw the event as an opportunity to demonstrate the might of his mantra “law and order.” When we advised him to meet with the prisoners, he outright refused the notion. “We’re taking about criminals – not one-minor-misdemeanor type, we’re taking about cutthroat killers,” is what he said, “When you commit a crime that heinous, you don’t deserve the Governor visiting you.” Biaggi instead demanded the releasing of hostages under the threat, or “stressed warning,” as he called it, of using deadly force against them.

Even a telephone call from the President, Colonel Sanders, couldn’t change his mind. Biaggi respected the Colonel and the two men agreed on several things, but Biaggi did not take the Colonel’s advice of reaching out to the rioters; he believed the Colonel just didn’t know enough about the situation.

After three days of Oswald failing to negotiate the rioters into submission, Biaggi ordered the prison be retaken immediately. Oswald pleaded, practically begged for Biaggi to visit the prison, but to no avail. Biaggi was disappointed in the negotiations failing and demanded force to, in his words, “set an example of zero-tolerance of the dangerous criminal mind.”

– Former employee of the NY Governor’s office, 1981 KNN interview

So many of us died on the 12th. We were expecting them to try to take back the school, we were prepared for it, but they still got the drop on us. The bastards threw tear gas over the walls. Helicopters flew overhead to drop a s#!t-ton of tear gas into the courtyard. Then they breached the doors. Then they opened fire. They slaughtered us. We became sitting ducks as the pigs on the side and in the whirly-birds fired into the smoke. They didn’t give a s#!t if we were part of the rioters resisting them or not, if we were black or white, it didn’t matter because they didn’t care.

A hurricane of metal mosquitos from the guns from above and from the side.

I slammed myself down, right onto the ground, and I covered my head. After over three minutes it all went quiet, then I heard them barking. I heard them approach and the helicopters leave, and I just stayed there, scared s#!tless on the ground as the pigs checked out their victims.

– Attica Prison Riot Survivor “Eye-Dog McGrath,” 1981 KNN interview


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– A police helicopter circles overhead moments before the start of the siege, 9/12/1971

MASSACRE IN ATTICA!: Prison Standoff Ends With State Police Killing “At Least” 60

– The Times-Union, 9/12/1971

“Mario’s response to the hostage crisis is an outrageous and irresponsible abuse of his gubernatorial powers.”

– Former Governor Nelson Rockefeller, 9/12/1971


Breakouts of Violence Hit Chicago, NYC, Boston; Accusations of Racist Prison System Fly

The Houston Chronicle, 9/13/1971

One of the victims was 21-year-old Elliott James “E.J.” Barkley, an ardent orator whom played a key role during the pre-massacre negotiations. The riot began just days away from his scheduled release date. A “Justice for E. J.” campaign formed in his home town… [snip]

Despite forming a special committee to investigate the actions of Attica’s warden leading up to the riot and subsequent hostage crisis, beatniks, peaceniks and shoutniks continued to protest outside Biaggi’s office and home. His September 14 utterance of “good riddance to bad rubbish” continued to offend a public horrified by the newspapers’ photographs of the dead inmate. He repeatedly tried to spin the events, but all people could see were the blood the the bodies.

Still wanting to run for President, though, Biaggi tried to find someone else to, as he put it, “credit to” the events. At one point, he blamed California’s Governor, uh, Ronald Reagan, by claiming the riot was the result of a prison hostage crisis that had happened in San Quentin just about, uh, I want to say, about a month or so earlier. Reagan claimed the prison conditions were still in effect from the previous Pat Brown administration, and pointed out how, as Biaggi had been governor since 1967, “Mario really should take credit for the results of his own policies.”

– Former employee of the NY Governor’s office, 1981 KNN interview

The Attica Prison Massacre, also known as the Attica Prison Riot, Attica Prison Uprising, and Attica Prison Crisis, occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, in 1971. The incident, stemming from prisoner demands for better accommodations, remains the most prominent deadly prison riot in US history. Occurring two weeks after the killing of George Jackson at California’s San Quentin State Prison, roughly half of the prison’s 2200 inmates rioted and took control of the prison, take over 40 staff members hostage [5]

The Governor of New York at the time, Mario Biaggi, refused to visit the prisoners, controversially saying “you waiver your rights when you deprive someone else of theirs” about the prison’s murderer inmates. On September 12, after 3 days of negotiations between the prisoners and the warden, an impasse had formed. After US President Colonel Sanders refused to send in the National Guard, Governor Mario Biaggi ordered state police to retake the prison. By the end of the “retaking,” 94 people laid dead: 75 prisoners, 2 state troopers, 7 correctional officers, and 10 civilian employee hostages.


By the end of the year, the New York State Attica Prison Riot Special Commission called the police assault, “with the exception of Indian massacres in the late 19th century, …the bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans since the Civil War.” Investigations also determined the prison had been violating state regulations, as the jail held over 2,200 prisoners despite the structure being designed to hold no more than 1,200 prisoners.


Prison officers retaliated against surviving prisoners with actions of the physical abuse variety, such as beating them, and forcing them to crawl through mud naked, among other acts. Doctors inspecting prisoners just one month later noted how brutality in the prison had increased since the riot. The Special Commission subsequently subpoenaed several officers. The prison warden promised to reform the jail at a December 2, 1971 court hearing.


An unseen benefit of the Attica Massacre was that the devastating event led to a much-greater push for communication between all parties involved.


Charges of violations were made against the state’s prison system. Racial prejudice was reportedly rampant in the prison; a majority of the prisoners were Black, but most of the correctional officers were white. [snip] Within four years, over 50 inmates involved in the rioting, hostage-taking, and priosn-fortifying were charged in indictments totaling over 900 separate counts, while only two state troopers were indicted for reckless endangerment. The families of inmates killed sued the State of New York for many more years.



– The Burlington Free Press, Vermont newspaper, 9/15/1971


– The Rutland Herald, Vermont newspaper, 9/16/1971


– The Arizona Republic, 9/17/1971

…In international news, the Dominican Republic’s government has officially been reformed into a tri-cameral legislature. The Caribbean nation now has not only a President and a Supreme Court, both also three chambers of congress – an Enarooclia (First Senate), a Deorooclia (Second Senate), and a Triarooclia (Third Senate)…

– CBS Evening News, 9/18/1971 broadcast


…Black had been struggling with poor health for “several weeks” or “several months,” pending on the source...

– The New York Times, 9/19/1971


…According to one of Harlan’s aides, the death of Justice Black prompted Justice Harlan to plan on vacating his seat on the Supreme Court “as soon as a successor has been confirmed.” Harlan reportedly does not wanted his “poor health” to “impede his judgement on the bench.”

– The Washington Post, 9/22/1971


…with President Sanders’ backing, the bill, if it becomes law, would mirror the Civil Rights Act of 1962 in prohibiting age-based discrimination during housing, public utilities, and employment actions. The bill would also provide states with federal funding for adequate housing and medical care meant for retirees and people requiring assisted living essentials, with exact qualifications for people to obtain such funds to be determined at the state level…

– The Washington Post, 9/23/1971


…the situation appears to be polarizing New Yorkers on political and racial lines, as a clear majority of white residents in rural New York and New York City surveyed by Gallup this week approved of the Governor’s “tough-on-crime” response to the Attica hostage crisis, while most non-white residents in both regions surveyed in the same poll disapproved of said response by wide margins…

The New York Post, 9/30/1971


…the new Revenue Act includes a new sales tax and a new income tax, both of which will replace the state property tax and several other taxes. Furthermore, the massive omnibus narrowly approval by the unicameral legislature will create a new department of economic development along with a state personnel office… “The way is now open for a surge in Nebraskan jobs for Nebraskan workers,” says the Governor, “we are going to construct more highways and better sewage treatment plants. We are going to improve our state’s healthcare facilities and enhance our fair housing practices.” The bill package also includes the state’s first-ever minimum wage law…

The Grand Island Independent, Nebraska newspaper, 10/1/1971


...we aim to make the Presidential selection process more open and inclusive to all registered Democratic voters...

The Washington Post, 10/8/1971



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Life Magazine, 10/15/1971 issue

…George was not by any means a perfect man, but, even still…I miss him. I remember, the last thing I ever said to George was “I love you, George. And be careful.” He replied back, “Relax, honey – Weather forecasts are just horoscopes with numbers! I’ve got to go now. I love you,” then he hung up the phone. Their plane was ready to take off. Dangerous conditions like poor visibility never intimidated George. They should have, but they didn’t.

– Lurleen Wallace (1926-1996), 1989 interview


– The New York Times, 10/5/1971

…Wallace had proven to be instrumental in the implementation of racial integration in Alabama, one of the most conservative and pro-segregation states in the Union when the practice was abolished in 1962... The Governor of Alabama was travelling with the native-Alabaman Civil Rights leader Ralph Abernathy in a private aircraft. They and two interns, a pilot, and a co-pilot, were flying from Atlanta, where Wallace had met with political donors, possibly ahead of a planned Presidential campaign. They were heading to a charity fundraiser being held in Pittsburgh. While travelling over Beckley, West Virginia, it seems that their plane either ran into some sort of engine problem or weather problem, and the pilot attempted an emergency landing. Instead, the plane crashed into a patch of forestry… There were no survivors… The state’s Lieutenant Governor, a notably more conservative Democrat named Samuel Martin Engelhardt Jr. [6], will officially succeed Wallace into the governorship upon being sworn in “as soon as possible,” according to an official at the capital. Now, as this is a developing story, the information available to us at the moment is limited. Stay tuned as the details of terrible tragedy continue to come in…

– CBS Evening News, 10/5/1971 broadcast


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– The Chicago Defender, 10/9/1971


– The Guardian, 10/10/1971

Of course, the changes the industry felt in the early 1970s were not all positive. The exposure of its filthy underside during the decade truly began with Jimmy Savile. While accusations of child abuse were made against the 45-year-old radio personality and TV programme host as early as 1963, it was the social climate of the early 1970s made the 1971 allegations of assaulting young children become widely publicized feed for a public hungry for “celebrity dirt.” Being a regular visitor of the Duncroft Approved School for Girls in Surrey, Savile came under fire for lewd conduct on the premises in October 1971. At a time when prominent public figures were falling from grace left and right, reporters, keen on getting the latest addition to the “hottest” trend of the era, descended upon Savile’s hidden private activities. His career was damaged, but not dead. In 1972, Saville fought the charges in court, and, due to insufficient evidence, was acquitted – save for one related charge of endangering a minor, which led to him serving two years in jail, from 1972 to 1974. Naturally, the court ruling outraged the alleged victims and their supporters. In 1975, Saville re-entered the music industry, only for a new sexual pestering claim to arise – this one with physical evidence of attempted rape. In 1977, Saville began serving a 15-year prison sentence. In December 1980, Saville was murdered in prison at the age of 54.

– Donald S. Passman’s Sing-and-Dance Backwash: The Struggle for Transparency In The Entertainment Industry, 1945-onward, Borders Books, 2006

With Justice Black dead and Justice Harlan retiring, President Sanders had two seats to fill at the same time. The Colonel understood that this was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for any President, both long-term and short-term. Immediately, the candidates for the vacancies could salvage Sanders’ waning popularity (nationally due to his connection to the Ms. Arkansas wave and within the party due to the disappointing 1970 midterms and perceived shift to the left over medical care, the SCRA, and the ERA) and could strengthen the chances of Republican victory in November 1972. The long-term result would be that the new justices would determine the composition of the Supreme Court for the next several years. And with Sanders already having appointed Edward H. Levi and Frank M. Johnson Jr. to the court, two more appointments would make four of nine Justices be Sanders appointees – an impressive legacy.

On October 12, after weeks of speculations, the Sanders White House finally released a list of twelve potential candidates for the two vacant seats. Time Magazine hailed half of the list as forward thinking and the other half as uninspired:

Sylvia Bacon (age 40), a South Dakota native, was young but had an impressive resume: judicial law clerk 1956-1957, US Department of Justice employee in various capacities 1956-1969, Associate Attorney General of the US 1965-1969, and Associate Judge of the Superior Court of the District of Columbia since 1969. She was seen as a liberal choice.

Alexander M. Bickel (age 47), a Romania-born, Connecticut-based law professor who was also influential writer on constitutional law and a celebrated expert on the US Constitution; he would appeal to hardline conservatives in the US Senate, but would possible be challenged by the chamber's most liberal members.

Harry Blackmun (age 63), a Minnesota-based Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit since 1959, was viewed one of the most conservative names on the list.

Samuel Conti (age 49), a Judge of the US District Court for the Northern District of California since 1965, who was a strong Sanders supporter with a centrist voting record; he could potentially serve as a compromise candidate that liberals and conservatives could tolerate confirming.

Edward Thaxter Gignoux (age 55), a Judge of the US District Court for the District of Maine since 1957, and a fairly safe and experienced moderate-conservative choice.

William H. Hastie Jr. (age 67), the former Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, a Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit since 1949, and the Senior Judge of said circuit since 1970. The oldest choice offered, Hastie was African-American and had a moderate-to-conservative record.

Margaret Heckler (age 40), a Boston College Law School graduate admitted to the bar in Massachusetts, Heckler had been serving in the US House of Representatives from the Bay State’s 10th District since 1967 and was seen as a moderate-to-conservative choice.

A. Leon Higginbotham Jr. (age 43), a judge of the US District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania since 1964. Higginbotham was a liberal who, if selected, would be the first African-American US Supreme Court Justice.

Thomas Russell Jones Jr. (age 58), a New York State Assemblyman from 1963 to 1964, and an Associate Justice of the New York Supreme Court since 1967. Jones, an African-American, was viewed as the most progressive of the 12 offered.

Mildred Lillie (age 55), a little-known judge serving on California’s intermediate state appellate court, the Second District Court of Appeal, since 1958. Added to the list under advisement from Senator Richard Nixon, Lillie came under scrutiny for her lack of qualifications for the job and was ultimately rejected by the American Bar Association.

Wade H. McCree (age 51), an African-American Judge of the US District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan from 1961 to 1966, and a Judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit since 1966. McCree had a moderate/centrist voting record.

Lawrence Edward Walsh (age 59), born in Canada to Canadian parents, was a lawyer, a Judge of the US District Court for the Southern District of New York from 1954 to 1957, the US Deputy Attorney General from 1957 to 1961, and the US Attorney General from 1965 until his retirement in 1970.

Liberal Senators were wary of Blackmun, Conti, Gignoux, and Heckler, while Conservative Senators directed most of their criticism toward Jones, Higginbotham, McCree and Walsh. This left Bacon, Bickel and Hastie. While Bacon’s age and voting history were scrutinized, her resume and knowledge of constitutional law were impressive; the same could be said for Hastie. Bickel was overwhelmed by the Senate vetting process and withdrew his name from consideration.

After meeting with the President, Bickel and Walsh agreed to serve as a designated “first back-up” nominees “in case Plan A failed.” Sanders agrees to the “balanced double-offering” of the left-leaning Bacon and the right-leaning Hastie, with the former appealing to liberal Senators and the latter appealing to conservative Senators.

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s The Johnson Court and the Pursuit of Justice (Second Edition), Sunrise Publishing, 2018


…according to the Texas Christian University football assistant coach, Pittman several a heart attack while the team he coaches, TCU’s Horned Frogs, were leading 5-to-1 in a SW Conference games against longtime rival Baylor. …Pittman’s alleged heart attack come one day after Detroit Lions wide received Chuck Hughes also suffered a heart attack in the middle of a game, with the Lions playing the Chicago Bears on their home turf. “Both Chuck and Jim are going to be alright,” says the President of TCU. “They are strong and resilient, and I have been told that both of them are receiving the best medical attention that money can buy”…

The Houston Chronicle, 10/25/1971



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– The New York Post, 10/26/1971

BILL HASTIE NOMINATED FOR HARLAN SEAT; Would Be Fist Black Justice If Confirmed

– The Houston Chronicle, 10/27/1971


By Lucinda Franks

...after weeks of investigations into the claims of former recruits that they experienced “sexual pestering” and a generally “hostile environment” at N.A.S.A., Director Webb has yielded to a US Senate Committee’s orders and has agreed to “revise” the agency’s H.R. regulations and code of conduct rules.

The New York Times, 10/28/1971 (note: this article was part of a series)


– The Clarion-Ledger, Mississippi newspaper, 10/29/1971


– The New York Post, 10/31/1971


– The Richmond Times-Dispatch, 11/1/1971

Kentucky General Election Results, 11/2/1971:

For Governor:
John M. Robsion Jr. (Republican) – 459,807 (49.84%)
Happy Chandler (Democratic) – 454,917 (49.31%)
William Smith (Heritage and Independence) – 7,924 (0.85%)
Total votes cast: 922,566
Turnout: 28.89% Total Population

For Lieutenant Governor:
Mary Louise Foust (Republican) – 460,179 (50.96%)
Julian M. Carroll (Democratic) – 438,776 (48.59%)
Jesse N. R. Cecil (Heritage and Independence) – 4,063 (0.45%)
Total votes cast: 903,018
Turnout: 26.77% Total Population


…we have received confirmation that Walter Nixon has won tonight’s election for Governor of Mississippi. A Democrat, Nixon won over Republican nominee Gil Carmichael, and independent candidate Charles Evers. Nixon has served as the state’s Attorney General since 1967 and is a moderate in a conservative state. His GOP challenger is a businessman and an active member of the state’s Republican party, while Charles Ever is an African-American who worked for the NAACP before being elected mayor of Fayette, Mississippi in 1969…

– CBS Evening News, 11/2/1971 broadcast


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– Senator-turned-President-turned-Senator Lyndon B. Johnson walks and talks with Senator-turned-VP-turned-Senator Richard Nixon on Capital Hill, possibly discussing the then-ongoing Senate hearings for President Sanders’ Supreme Court nominees; 11/5/1971

U.S. SENATE APPROVES BACON FOR SUPREME COURT, 61-38: US’s Second Female Justice To Start Term “Within The Month”

The New York Times, Wednesday, 11/10/1971

Hastie’s confirmation was even more difficult than Bacon’s. Nevertheless, the Senate approved of Hastie with a 54-44-2 vote count. As part of a backroom bargain made between Southern Senators who cared more about Hastie’s skin color than his somewhat conservative views, Bacon was sworn into her seat first, given her seniority, albeit by a few days, over Hastie.

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s The Johnson Court and the Pursuit of Justice (Second Edition), Sunrise Publishing, 2018

12 November 1971: Arches National Park is established in eastern Utah, US; adjacent to the Colorado River and located 4 miles (6 km) north of Moab, Utah, the park covers over 77,000 acres and over 2,000 natural sandstone arches, including the iconic “Delicate Arch” along with other unique geological features, formations and resources, making up the most dense natural collection of natural arches in the world



Washington, DC – Governor Callahan has appointed William Lloyd Scott, who has served in the U.S. House of Representatives since 1967, to the U.S. Senate Seat left vacant by the death of Senator A. W. Robertson. With this appointment, Scott becomes the first Republican to represent Virginia in the U.S. Senate in 84 years…

The Roanoke Times, Virginia newspaper, 11/15/1971

I remember part of a speech Kosygin gave in November 1971 at Star City, directed to Vladimir Chelomey and the other lead scientists there: “Over the past decade we have seen failure after failure in our venture to send one of our men to the moon. But we will have failure no longer! We will work together, unifying our efforts and ideas and putting aside our selfish desires. All for the prosperity and glory of Mother Russia seeing one of its children take steps on the moon.” Indeed, competitiveness among the scientists and chief designers was still threatening to doom the program; all of us would most assuredly be blamed and reprimanded for such selfishness under Kosygin – he would have to in order to placate the conservative wing of the national party. The leader then continued with a shocking announcement, “We will have this, but not only this! We will take one step further than the Americans. Due to our increasingly healthy economy, I have decided to fund a program to design and construct our own permanent lunar base. This will supply the Soviet people with employment and prosperity for years to come. As soon as we reach the moon, we will begin the process necessary to establish this base, for by building this base will firmly and concretely establish in the minds of capitalist suppressors everywhere whom it is that truly controls the Earth’s natural satellite. …And this base will be up and running, fully functional and working, by the end of this century. …Long live the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics!”

Among the Stars: The Autobiography of Yuri Gagarin, 1995

“And after lunch, I’ve got to go – .”

“Mm-hmm, mm-hmm, yeah.”

“Heh. You seem distracted, Millie.”

“Huh? Oh. Sorry, Margaret. I’m just concerned about the rise of these Ollie Trolleys. Just look at these numbers! They’re sprouting up everywhere, and the fact that the brains behind the operation is a bitter ex-employee is, well, troubling.”

“Aw, you’re always frettin’ about something.”

“It’s different this time! You know June Martino, the CEO of McDonald’s? I heard through the grapevine and even she’s concerned!”


“Word is they’re already filming attack ads. Not outright do-not-eat-over-there types, but still, their readying their armaments.”

“Huh. Well, at least KFC is still dominating the fired chicken industry.”

“For now, but – ”

“ – And it makes sense, when you think about it, Millie. Those Burger Chef places have also been poppin’ up all over the place recently. The market saturation’s gotta be jumpin’ June!”

“Yes, but the new competition could jeopardize our Wendyburger. That’s jumpin’ me!”

“Ooh, yeah, that’s right. Dang, I forget about that.”

“Yeah. But, uh, anyway, you were talkin’ about – ”

“ – And have you ever tried an Ollieburger?”

“Huh! Of course, you’ve got to inspect the competition!”

“And…? What’d you think of it?”

“Honestly, Maggie, I don’t get the appeal. Too rich for my taste, I suppose.”

“Well I’ve tried them, and I for one have always loved bold, exciting and exotic dishes.”

“You don’t think the Ollieburger’s too overwhelming? I mean, right now hope that, at the most, it becomes, like, a niche-market kind of burger. I don’t think such complex flavors can have wide-reaching appeal, at least not in the U.S.”

“You know what, Mill, I bet people said the exact same thing about chicken less than fifty years ago, back when it was considered a delicacy because of how expensive it was.”

“Oh, damn, you’re right!”

“Big sisters always are, Millie.”

“I mean, health food stores weren’t really a thing until the beatniks came around, right?”


“Yes…then it wouldn’t help to, well at the least consider trying to, uh, beat them at their own game.”

“Meanin’ what?”

“Meanin’ maybe KFC should make, like, a richer, fancier version of the Wendyburger. Make it a limited offer-for-a-limited-time type of thing.”

“It wouldn’t hurt to – ”

“ – Yes, yes that could work!”

– Audio transcript of Security Camera footage, KFC Inc. headquarters, Florence, KY, 11/20/1971


Washington, DC – President Sanders signed the Nation Cancer Act into law today. The new federal law, which amends the Public Health Service Act of 1944 by strengthening the National Cancer Institute, aims to increase cancer research funding in order to “improve humanity’s understanding of cancer and the treatment of cancer patients,” said Sanders at the ceremony. This law means that scientists conducting drug trials and preventative/early detection research now have access to further funding. [snip] Health activist Mary Lasker, who has championed the increase in research funding for health problems sicne 1943, played an instrumental role convincing Congress to pass the law earlier this year…

– The Washington Post, 11/23/1971


[pic: ]

– Coya’72 logo, c. late November 1971

…In other news, The Leyland Motor Corporation, a prominent British firm, has today announced the sales of over 2,000 buses to the Cuban transportation company Straight Arrow Transportation, in a landmark business deal for the post-war island nation of Cuba that aims to create hundreds of jobs for both countries. Also in Cuba, the Mayor of Havana is the target of a smear campaign by political opponents who allege he is maintaining business ties to KFC-Cuba due to his recent approval of three more outlets being built in the nation’s capital city…

– BBC World News, 30/11/1971 broadcast


As Canada marks the 1-year anniversary of Prime Minister Stanfield entering office, let us take a look back on the highlights of his administration so far: …Keeping true to his campaign promise, Stanfield immediately introduced wage and price controls to help end inflation encroaching Canada’s economy, based on the fair success of President Sanders’ 1968-1969 wage freeze. …In January, the federal government announced plans to convert the nation to the metric system. …In February, the use of phosphates (and other dangerous chemicals and substances) in laundry detergent is banned nationwide. …In June, the federal voting age was lowered from 21 to 18. …In July, Stanfield, being a promoter of free trade, met with Vice Chairman Zhou Enlai in Beijing in order to establish formal relations with the People’s Republic of China, a move opposed by Paul Hellyer during the last year of his tenure in office… In August, Stanfield was hailed for his swift response to the destructive Sudbury, Ontonario Tornado Event of 1971, which killed 4 people, injured 230, and caused $16 million dollars in property damage... Stanfield at first seemed to united the post-Diefenbaker P.C. party, and Stanfield’s blunt and laconic speaking style allows him to translate complex political concepts into related layman’s term. Most recently, though, he is upsetting conservatives over his (arguably tepid) support for official bilingualism. Nevertheless, his gentlemanly and civil manner amid situations and vital diplomatic moments have helped to keep his approval ratings hover at around 63%.

– The Kimberley Daily Bulletin, Canadian newspaper, 12/17/1971

A United Nations Secretary-General selection process occurred December 17-21, 1971 to find a successor to U Thant, who had opted to step down after serving for two full terms. The winner selected would begin him term on January 1.


In January 1971, U Thant announced that he would not serve for a third term, having held the office since 1961. Despite there being strong support for U Thant to serve for a third term due to his opposition to Apartheid and colonialism (even the US delegation was not opposed to a third term for U Thant despite his opposition to past American activities in Southeast Asia), U Thant was adamant in his decision.


Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan – the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (a citizen of France, Iran, and Switzerland, but nominated by the U.S.)

Hamilton Shirley Amerasinghe – the Permanent Representative of Ceylon to the UN

Max Jakobson – the Permanent Representative of Finland to the UN

Endelkachew Makonnen – the Minister of Communication of Ethiopia and the former Permanent Representative of Ethiopia to the UN

Kurt Waldheim – the Chair of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and unsuccessful candidate for President of Austria in April 1971


Max Jakobson ran for the position on a strongly anti-colonial stance, and eventually obtained support from the US and the UK, while Arab countries believed he would be subject to Zionist pressure due to his Jewish ancestry. Prince Sadruddin Aga Khan touted his coordinating of the response to the refugee crisis that had begun in March 1971. [7] Waldheim gathered support from France and the USSR. While the US and USSR had played kingmaker in past selections, the warming of relations between the US and China complicated matters, as it remained unclear who China would support. Soon Jakobson presented himself as the only candidate who could be acceptable to Mao’s China.


The Security Council voted via secret ballot while in a closed session; a candidate required 9-vote majority to win. On the first ballot, the UK and US opposed Waldheim, while the USSR opposed Jakobson; additionally, China remained on the fence. The Second ballot yielded basically the same results. After the first round of voting failed to produce a winner, US Ambassador to the UN John More Allison visited the Chinese delegation. [8] Gaining their confidence led to China deciding not to veto Jakobson on the second ballot, allowing him to win over Waldheim and Prince Sadruddin on the third ballot. Jakobson was sworn into office on January 1, 1972.


Months after the election, an investigation into Waldheim’s contradictory statements concerning his actions during the 1940s led to the revelation that archived and stored files from a post-WWII UN War Crimes Commission had labeled Waldheim a suspected war criminal due to his involvement with the Nazi German army. The scandal damaged, but did not finish, Waldheim’s public career.



– The Sacramento Union, 12/5/1971

SPOKESPERSON FOR LEARY CLAIMS CHARGES ARE “TRUMPED UP”: Legal Team Believes They Are “Part Of A Vendetta Against Freedom And Personal Liberties”

– The San Diego Union-Tribune, 12/6/1971

As the 1972 primary season neared, I felt conflicted. For roughly two years, I had worked to lead the G.O.P. to the right as Senate minority leader. Butting heads with non-conservatives in the party, and tackling the issues near and dear to me was fulfilling. The President being on my side more often than not also made my day.

But then there was Scranton. Personally, I had no qualms with the Vice President, but politically, he was a generic moderate who kowtowed to New England Republicanism without contributing anything original to the political conversation. He had the skills needed to lead, but not to inspire; the man brought no new ideas to the political fray. The more apparent it became that he was eyeing the nomination for President – traveling abroad to beef up his foreign policy bona fides and increasing his visibility at home via one talk show guest spot after another – the more convinced I was that he was too bland, unenthusiastic, and uninspiring to win in 1972. I knew from the ’64 season that running for the Presidency was something like trying to stand up in a hammock [9], and Scranton was too much of a greenback to stand up in November. Plus, at 64, I thought that this election was possibly my last chance to take charge of a federal government still out of line, to weaken the power of the reigning bureaucrats, to reduce the spending, to abolish nonproductive programs, and to emphasize the harm overregulation was inflicting on our country. [9]

– Barry Goldwater’s autobiography No Apologies: My Personal and Political Memoirs, Morrow Publishers, 1979

“I agree with the President. I have faith in the wisdom and the ability of the President. I cannot in good conscience say the same about the Vice-President. His policies and ideology are too dangerously liberal for the party and the nation. …If the Republican Party offered me the nomination next year, I would unapologetically accept it.”

– Barry Goldwater to an Associated Press reporter, 12/12/1971

I figured, at the very least, that I could influence the party platform better, or cause Scranton to shift to the right. However, openly opposing the presumptive nominee would likely offend the other party leaders; as senate minority leader, I could not afford to burn those political bridges. Instead, I reminded my fellow conservatives that I was still interested in becoming the party’s nominee someday. Soon enough, William F. Buckley was calling for me to run; a “Draft Barry” movement slowly but surely gathered momentum.


[pic: ]
Above: a picture of me, ready to take on the woes of the country I love

– Barry Goldwater’s autobiography No Apologies: My Personal and Political Memoirs, Morrow Publishers, 1979

…The President signed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act into law earlier today, creating the largest land claims settlement in American history. …After being supported by Alaska’s Senators, Mike Gravel and Ernest Groening, and Alaska Governor Hammond, in the early stages of development, the bill found a strong ally in US Senator and potential dark-horse Presidential candidate Scoop Jackson. The law aims to both settle land claims in the state and promote economic development through the union’s largest state. …The size, scope and generosity of the law can be compared to similar laws passed in the last year of the Lyndon Johnson administration...

The Overmyer Network, 12/17/1971 broadcast


…the second of three rounds of voting in the race for governor of Louisiana has resulted in a clear winner of the Democratic nomination. In tonight’s runoff, former Governor Jimmie Davis (who previously served from 1944 to 1948 and again from 1960 to 1964) defeated former Governor Gillis W. Long (who served from 1964 to 1968) by a margin of roughly 4%. Incumbent Governor John J. McKeithen, a Democrat, declined to endorse either candidate ahead of the contest, finding both men – who advanced from a crowded Democratic primary on November 6 – to be “insufficiently supportive” of defending civil rights legislation. …As the state is heavily pro-Democratic, tonight’s election results all but guarantee Davis the governor’s seat early next year… Republican nominee Robert Max Ross claims he can pull off an upset, but according to all polls taken since the November 6 primaries, the Democrats are heavily favored to win in the general election, which is set to be held on February 1st…

The Times-Picayune, Louisiana newspaper, 12/18/1971

Roy O. Disney, Instrumental Aide to Cartoonist Brother, Dies at 78

…Mr. Disney’s sudden and fatal stroke struck only roughly two months after the grand opening of Walt Disney World in October of this year. Roy had finally retired from the company after the opening ceremonies, announcing he accomplished all that he "ever possibly could" for the landmark production company...

The New York Times, 12/21/1971


Jackson, MS – Phillips has announced his intention to run for the GOP nomination for US President, claiming Vice President William Scranton and US Senator Barry Goldwater are “not conservative enough for America.” Phillips disagrees with Goldwater’s support of President Sanders’ more liberal political stances, and, and plans to run to the right of Goldwater, a Senator who is already considered to be to the right of the Republican party.

In his announcement speech, Phillips touted his reform of the state education system, his 1969 reinstating of compulsory attendance laws that were repealed in 1958, and his deregulating of the state government. …One GOP committeewoman states that due to Phillips and other republicans such as Alabama’s US Senator John Martin (who, like Phillips, is a racial-moderate), the GOP has “throw off the tag of being a racist, segregationist party in the south.” This claim, however, contrasts with several prominent Republicans whom are racial-conservatives, most notably US
Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina…

…Phillips concluded his speech by explaining he would win over delegates due to the lack of Republican primaries being held in any Deep Southern states next year: “The party of the people will not let the people down.”…

US News and World Report, 1/2/1972, p. 25

“If your party nominated a generally well-qualified person for president who happened to be a woman would you vote for that person?”

1955: 4% Yes, 44% No, 52% No Opinion
1959: 4% Yes, 39% No, 57% No Opinion
1963: 4% Yes, 41% No, 55% No Opinion
1967: 5% Yes, 38% No, 57% No Opinion
1969: 7% Yes, 40% No, 53% No Opinion
1970: 11% Yes, 35% No, 54% No Opinion
1971: 15% Yes, 29% No, 56% No Opinion

– Gallup [10]

EUNICE KENNEDY-SHRIVER DECLINES PRESIDENTIAL RUN: Claims A Woman “Could” Win the Nomination This Year, But Not “Another Kennedy”

– The Boston Globe, 1/3/1972

In the weeks leading up to the incident, Humphrey’s doctors would repeatedly call and admonish him for missing and rescheduling appointments for checkups in order to spend more time campaigning for President. The Minnesotan believed time was fleeting, telling his wife, “for all I know, this could be my very last chance at this.” At the start of the new year, Humphrey looked as if he had no health concerns. Then on January 7, the Presidential candidate collapses at a political fundraiser. No photographs of the incident are known to exist, but news quickly spread of what the Minnesota Star labeled a “simple stumble.”

Humphrey the politician was underperforming in polls taken in early primaries; pundits blamed the lack of enthusiasm on his apparent failure to overcome his connections to the Lyndon Johnson administration, despite Johnson himself salvaging his legacy in the Senate in recent years.

Similarly, Humphrey the man’s bladder illness was not improving as well as hoped. Doctors demanded he undergo treatment with radiation and intravesical thiotepa, - treatment that would plague him via the pain from the treatments, all while continuing to serve in the Senate and run for President, albeit making much less appearances of the Trail of ’72 than Humphrey had initially anticipated. [11] The seemingly sporadically active campaign would hurt Humphrey in the early primaries…

– Carl Solberg’s H.H.H.: A Biography, Borealis Books, 1984 (2001 edition)

Gravel’s 1968 had primarily focused on foreign policy at a time when American forces were embroiled in conflict in three Southeast Asian nations. Four years later, the political situation was much less hectic – the Indochinese Wars had been won, the threat of Soviet bombardment was being cautiously cooled in the face of bilateral treaties, and China was slowly and tepidly reaching out to foreign markets. Thus, when Gravel announced his 1972 Presidential bid, he focused more on domestic issues. His new campaign highlighted his calls to eliminate the “corrupt” federal income tax in exchange for a national sales tax, abolish the IRS, expand on the Negative Income Tax Rebate, expand guest worker programs for immigrants, ease the naturalization process, and oppose the death penalty. Gravel also called for “saving our inner cities.” He did, though, on occasion, touch on his support of cutting military spending by “at least” 10 percent, arguing that “treaties even stronger than the ones passed under the Colonel” would make such an action “feasible.”

– David Frum’s How We Got Here: The ’70s, Basic Books NY, 2000, p. 298


“I do not represent Black power or woman power; I represent the power of all the people”

– Associated Press, 1/25/1972

NBC TO HOST DEMOCRATIC PRIMARY DEBATE ON FEBRUARY 16 AT 9:00 PM; Debate Schedule Rules And Timetable Finalized

The Chicago Tribune, side article, 1/26/1972

A WOMAN IN THE WHITE HOUSE?: A Look At Three Women Running For President


[pic: ]
Above: US Rep. Shirley Chisholm (D-NY), Governor Coy Knutson (D-MN), and US Rep. Patsy Mink (D-HI)

…A committee to draft the reluctant Knutson into the field led to Knutson announcing her candidacy for President “as a compromise candidate” in the event of a deadlocked/contested convention. She also will run as a “favorite son” candidate in her home state of Minnesota, which will hold a caucus in March… Mink and Chisholm, on the other hand, are actively running for the nomination. According to an anonymous member of her campaign, Mink is targeting her home state’s caucus and the winner-take-all California primary as the contests she can most likely win.

…All three women acknowledge the odds they face in the race, with Knutson calling it a “rock-wall of an uphill climb.” This awareness makes one wonder why they are even running. The answer to that may lie in their campaigns. Mink is calling for better treatment of “lesser-discussed” ethnic groups such as Asian-Americans and Hispanics. Chisholm, on the other hand, is campaign on the more reconciliatory message “a leader for ALL of us,” promoting peace and communication between white and non-white, and male and female Americans. The “Draft Knutson” campaign, meanwhile, touted her gubernatorial accomplishments prior to her tepidly throwing her hat into the ring. …While none of them may become President, it is possible that if they can still prove to be significant players in the upcoming primaries, Coya, Patsy and Shirley may wind up in higher office, cabinet positions, or even as the running mate of the 1972 Democratic nominee. We shall find out how it all unfolds as the year progresses.

Time Magazine, late January issue

(dates are on map)


[pic: ]

Dark blue = primary

Light blue = caucus


“When I leave this here office in less than a year, I’m not going to run off to no library with my name on it, hang up my hat, and call it a life. I don’t believe in retirement, not a bit in the world. There’s a time and place for resting, and it’s called the afterlife. When the Good Lord put old father Adam here, he never told him to quit at 65, now did he? No, no he didn’t. Adam kept going, and he kept working, and he didn't stop until he died at the age of 930. And I’m only 73 – that’s nothing compared to 930, and you don’t need a college degree to figure out the arithmetic on that.”

– Colonel Sanders to a reporter, 1/27/1972

28 January 1972: On this day in history, Disney’s “Chanticleer” is released in theaters in the United States; based very loosely on the rooster character Chanticleer that appears in the 12th century fables of “Reynard the Fox” (another prominent character in the film) and also appearing as a character in “The Nun’s Priest’s Tale” told in Geoffrey Chaucer’s “Canterbury Tales,” the film follows a series of interconnected misadventures centered around Chanticleer and Reynard, and their animal friends and enemies; the film had been in “development hell” for several years and had experienced a “rushed” production, with a budget that was much lower than those of previous Disney films; as a result, the film, while still yielding a profit for the company, was considered a box office disappointment by Disney executives and “underwhelming” by contemporary film reviewers such as Variety…


“Kids don’t have a little brother working in the coal mine, they don’t have a little sister cougher her lungs out in the looms of the big mill towns of the Northeast. Why? Because we organized; we broke the back of the sweatshops in this country; we have child labor laws. Those were not benevolent gifts from enlightened management. They were fought for, they were bled for, they were died for by working people, by people like us. Kids ought to know that. That’s why I sing these songs. That’s why I tell these stories, dammit. No root, no fruit!”

– singer-songwriter and labor rights activist Utah Phillips [12], 1/30/1972

[1] Italicized parts of this run-on sentence are pulled from page 34 of Michael A. Schuman’s “Bill Gates” Computer Mogul and Philanthropist,” Enslow Publishers, Inc. (2008):
[2] Italicized parts are from page 196 of Marcie Sims’ “Capitol Hill Pages: Young Witnesses to 200 Years of History,” McFarland (2018):
[3] Definition taken from here:
[4] All from the Attica Prison Riot Wikipedia page, so basically, the crisis starts out the same as it did IOTL
[5] Slightly rewritten version of the start of the Attica Prison Riot wiki page
[6] Who? This guy!:
[7] Oh yeah, that whole thing happened; it’s basically the same here as in OTL.
[8] IOTL, US Ambassador G. H. W. Bush feared that talking to the Chinese delegation would “only arouse suspicion” and instead asked other ambassadors about how China would vote; with a different, less fearful ambassador, things go differently!
[9] Italicized part is a Goldwater quote from OTL found here:
[10] Pre-1970 Data found here!:
[11] Edited version of sentence pulled from here:
[12] OTL quote, but I can't find a source saying when he actually said it; if any of y'all know, then please do say so!

EDIT: fixed Bickel sentence. Good eye and thanks, dude!

Charming update as usual!

I wish to ask, if possible, to any expert in matter, why the two parties made limited voting primaries for a certain period of time, I mean organize elections just in few states, until allowing all the states to be part of the process? It was always like this in even older periods, what was the social and political reason to do this from those parties?

I'm not sure; I think it had to do with a combination of factors like the complicated impracticality of hosting contests in so many states, and the belief that party leaders determining the ticket at a national convention was the superior method.

You know that's true, we'll have a new challenger for each, why not make a predecition?

GOP. Scranton is VP and while Nixon made the leap to the top spot in '60, I don't think Scranton can make the leap to the top spot. Humphrey did OTL but otherwise it took till '84 when Mondale tried, and I just don't think Scranton has quite enough backing. Whereas Goldwater doesn't have OTL's blowout going against him - though he is getting old. He might be a collage of Nixon's comeback and the '80 reagan OTL, though, and there's enough GOP backlash against Sanders' more liberal policies on things like health care - plus he was someone who was "only" a one-term governor that I don't think they intend to repeat.

So, in the end, I suspect Goldwater has the popularity of someone who has been in the Senate for a long while, and his age doesn't matter as much after we had a President who was in his 80s. Attica and other things will make people wantg more law and order, and REagan may be an optgion but as I said, I don't think they want just a governor - Reagan will seem too much like a risk of "Sanders II" since he wasn't in offfice before that. So, Goldwater gets the nod, with a slim chance of Nixon.

For the Democrats, I don't know about Humphrey's health,I think he'd have a shot, but will he also be connected too much to LBJ? Johnson is probably getting rehabilitated some, he did win theCuba War, but I'm thinking they might pick Robert Kennedy if he wants to run, I think John's Addison's Disease might still be slowing him down too much even if it's been slowed by his not having the pressure, and he'd gladly campaign for Bobby. John might also back awaay because of the Ms. Arkansas thing; I think Bobby's less of a womanizer.

(Just checked - it's been a crazy 2 months, I forgot he ran in '68, but Nixon came back and it was possile he'd have tried, too.)

We really Havoline seen a lot about the Democrats, though - it's a much more open field. America isn't going to want an extreme peacenik, no McCarfthy or McGovern, but I don't think they'll want someone extrmely hawkish, either.

I also predict a somewhat narrow Democratic win, maybe with 300-350 electoral votes, 16 GOP years out of 20 has meant there's probably enough desire for a change, and Sanders is getting up in years enough that I doubt you'd see him actually campaigning for the GOP candidate actively. He's more likely even without the age bit to say he's done his part for the country and now he just wants to relax.

House leader Halleck would likely back Scranton, especially if he campaigns on his record as VP, such as helping to cool down those race riots in 1967, and his recent diplomatic trips abroad. But yes, the conservative faction of the party may rally behind Goldwater - if he keeps gaffes to a minimum and Rube Phillips doesn't act as a spoiler. Both are possibilities.

Robert F. Kennedy served as Undersecretary of State from 1961 to 1965, then worked on Jack's 1968 campaign; he now heads a successfully law firm and a political think tank in D.C. while raising his (still!)- growing family in McLean, VA. He and newspaper magnate Ted could play a role in the primaries if Jack decides to play a larger role, too, and endorses someone (also: Jack's currently heading a think tank while concurrently serving as the head of the Kennedy family (after Joe Sr. died in '68)). It is yet to be determined which way the American voter will sway come November 1972.

Great analysis, dude! Thanks!

What's up with Haddon Salt? (Almost Famous: The King of Fish and Chips by Ben Proudfoot / NYT) It seems utterly perfect for this timeline :)

Great idea! I'll be sure to mention him (somewhere...)

Another great chapter @gap80

1) I cannot see Governor Mario Biaggi surviving next election cycle, if he makes it that far!

2) RIP Wallace- racist you may have been, but you where turning it around towards the end.

3) Goodbye Saville- no one will miss you. I wonder of Rolf Harris avoids his own entanglements given the Saville scandal. I bet the 'permissive/no one talks about it' culture of the 70's UK entertainment industry had been shaken up. Far less affairs, and sex rings. More press scrutiny. Does this cut the amount of booze/drug/sex parties I wonder?

4) FBI hiring women? Surprised that didn't happen already for an intelligence gathering service!

5) KFC limited time Wendyburger offers? Might work.

6) Sink Waldheim sink!

7) I wonder if the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act encourages other Native Americans to examine their deals with the governments of the USA and Canada?

8) Three Women running for President in the same year? Some sort of record?

1) I dunno, IOTL Governor Rockefeller became VP just three years after Attica (which was less bloody IOTL, but still). I think the question is whether Biaggi can downplay the incident and lessen sympathy for the victims, since most of the victims were convicts.

2) Indeed. He'll definitely be remembered better here, and his hypothetical survival may even be the premise of many "what if" threads on TTL's version of Alternate History Forum!

3) Well, when a light's turned on, the rats don't stick around, they crawl into the darker parts of the basements. The wave of apprehended perverts could encourage others to be more cautious and clandestine in their activities. On the other hand, it could increase/enhance steps taken to apprehend more of them. We'll see how it plays out...

4) I was surprised by that, too!

5) Yes, indeed!

6) Unoriginal Joke: "Hey, you know how to save a Nazi from drowning?" "No." "Good!"

7) They could, especially when one considers the pro-NA actions taken toward the end of the LBJ Presidency.

8) I believe it is!

Goodbye, Mr. Savile. 1) One thing's for sure: Jim cant fix this!!!XD

2) RIP, George; at least you were better ITTL with regards to Civil Rights...

3) Governor Mario Biaggi, when Ronald Reagan is calling you out on the Attica riots and your handling of them...yeah, you'll be very lucky to survive to the 1974 governor's race. A parallel can be drawn between Biaggi ITTL and James Rhodes, the governor of Ohio, and his handling of the Kent State Shootings; while Rhodes did serve two more terms as governor, it destroyed his national hopes...

4) Three women running for president in 1971--that's impressive!!!

5) Welcome to the late 20th century, FBI...

6) Can't wait to see how the 1972 Democratic and Republican primaries turn out...

1) Indeed!

2) Yep.

3) I suppose a parallel can be drawn there!

4) Indeed

5) Yeah-huh!

6) The E.T.A. of the next update is September 5 (because I've got a job interview next week)!
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Charming update as usual!

I wish to ask, if possible, to any expert in matter, why the two parties made limited voting primaries for a certain period of time, I mean organize elections just in few states, until allowing all the states to be part of the process? It was always like this in even older periods, what was the social and political reason to do this from those parties?
Another great chapter @gap80

I cannot see Governor Mario Biaggi surviving next election cycle, if he makes it that far!

RIP Wallace- racist you may have been, but you where turning it around towards the end.

Goodbye Saville- no one will miss you. I wonder of Rolf Harris avoids his own entanglements given the Saville scandal. I bet the 'permissive/no one talks about it' culture of the 70's UK entertainment industry had been shaken up. Far less affairs, and sex rings. More press scrutiny. Does this cut the amount of booze/drug/sex parties I wonder?

FBI hiring women? Surprised that didn't happen already for an intelligence gathering service!

KFC limited time Wendyburger offers? Might work.

Sink Waldheim sink!

I wonder if the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act encourages other Native Americans to examine their deals with the governments of the USA and Canada?

Three Women running for President in the same year? Some sort of record?
Not a lot to say, I guess, since I don't know a lot about the things you refer to like the Attica riot, etc..

However, major league owners locked the players out after OTL's free agency ruling; while this is not the exact same ruling I would expect something similar to come up, or for players to strike for it, but I'd also think that owners could lock players out in '72 also; except players struck at the same time OTL over a few other things.

So, Commissioner Kuhn isn't in power here, but I imagine whoever is will force the gates open and bring the sides to some sort of agreement.

Funny thing is, that agreement might even include Vida Blue - OTL Charlie Finley didn't want to pay him a salary increase even after he won the Cy YOung and MVP awards, and tried to send him back to the minors. Perhaps part of the agreement includes his agreeing to play with an unsigned contract and therefore testing the other part of the reserve clause before an arbitrator, that of players under rights to a team before they are traded.
Goodbye, Mr. Savile. One thing's for sure: Jim cant fix this!!!XD

RIP, George; at least you were better ITTL with regards to Civil Rights...

Governor Mario Biaggi, when Ronald Reagan is calling you out on the Attica riots and your handling of them...yeah, you'll be very lucky to survive to the 1974 governor's race. A parallel can be drawn between Biaggi ITTL and James Rhodes, the governor of Ohio, and his handling of the Kent State Shootings; while Rhodes did serve two more terms as governor, it destroyed his national hopes...

Three women running for president in 1971--that's impressive!!!

Welcome to the late 20th century, FBI...

Can't wait to see how the 1972 Democratic and Republican primaries turn out...
You know that's true, we'll have a new challenger for each, why not make a predecition?

GOP. Scranton is VP and while Nixon made the leap to the top spot in '60, I don't think Scranton can make the leap to the top spot. Humphrey did OTL but otherwise it took till '84 when Mondale tried, and I just don't think Scranton has quite enough backing. Whereas Goldwater doesn't have OTL's blowout going against him - though he is getting old. He might be a collage of Nixon's comeback and the '80 reagan OTL, though, and there's enough GOP backlash against Sanders' more liberal policies on things like health care - plus he was someone who was "only" a one-term governor that I don't think they intend to repeat.

So, in the end, I suspect Goldwater has the popularity of someone who has been in the Senate for a long while, and his age doesn't matter as much after we had a President who was in his 80s. Attica and other things will make people wantg more law and order, and REagan may be an optgion but as I said, I don't think they want just a governor - Reagan will seem too much like a risk of "Sanders II" since he wasn't in offfice before that. So, Goldwater gets the nod, with a slim chance of Nixon.

For the Democrats, I don't know about Humphrey's health,I think he'd have a shot, but will he also be connected too much to LBJ? Johnson is probably getting rehabilitated some, he did win theCuba War, but I'm thinking they might pick Robert Kennedy if he wants to run, I think John's Addison's Disease might still be slowing him down too much even if it's been slowed by his not having the pressure, and he'd gladly campaign for Bobby. John might also back awaay because of the Ms. Arkansas thing; I think Bobby's less of a womanizer.

(Just checked - it's been a crazy 2 months, I forgot he ran in '68, but Nixon came back and it was possile he'd have tried, too.)

We really Havoline seen a lot about the Democrats, though - it's a much more open field. America isn't going to want an extreme peacenik, no McCarfthy or McGovern, but I don't think they'll want someone extrmely hawkish, either.

I also predict a somewhat narrow Democratic win, maybe with 300-350 electoral votes, 16 GOP years out of 20 has meant there's probably enough desire for a change, and Sanders is getting up in years enough that I doubt you'd see him actually campaigning for the GOP candidate actively. He's more likely even without the age bit to say he's done his part for the country and now he just wants to relax.
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I wish to ask, if possible, to any expert in matter, why the two parties made limited voting primaries for a certain period of time, I mean organize elections just in few states, until allowing all the states to be part of the process? It was always like this in even older periods, what was the social and political reason to do this from those parties?

States held primaries to lower corruption in the progressive era—reducing the smoke filled back room. Note that each individual state party made the choice, not the national party.

Then it was moribund until the 1950s when Adlai found himself with a popular challenger. By 1960 primaries were still the minority but increasing in popularity after the New Hampshire media attention got other states interested—in 1960 primaries were used to determine if JFK could win Protestants (West Virginia) and as a measuring stick for where the bosses should go. But even in 1968 far more delegates were from the state party’s choice, not the voter.

The McGovern-Fraser reforms following 1968 when, if he had lived, the primary winning but back room losing RFK would have been denied the nomination led to virtually all states having primaries or caucuses. Which is a major reason McGovern won the nomination. The Republicans piggybacked by 1976.
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Chapter 36: February 1972 – August 1972
Chapter 36: February 1972 – August 1972

“I read in the papers that the Los Angeles police are hunting for a Chicago gangster. But why do they want one from Chicago? Can’t they be satisfied with a hometown boy?”

– Gracie Allen

The Declaration of Independence says “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with uncertain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” There’s two things in there I want to point out. The first is that it says “endowed by their Creator,” not “the Creator” or any specific creator; it supports the old saying of “to each, his own,” while confirming at the same time that America is in fact a nation with religion – a nation with religious people, a nation with religious roots. A nation of people who share the same basic set of values: Love thy neighbor. Do onto others, uh that, um, that you’d want them to do unto you – y’all know what I mean. And lend a helping hand to those who need it – or at the very least, don’t be a jerk to them. The second thing about that passage is that it says “among these” rights. That means that people have other rights as well – rights to safety, security, education, the list goes on and on. Thomas Jefferson wrote those words. He was a very smart man. And I should know – I use to sit next to him when we were in the fourth grade together! Always raising his hand, he was.

– President Sanders at the National Prayer Breakfast, Thursday, 2/3/1972

VOICE-OVER (as footage rolls): “…In Irvington, the family at this house had an argument with their daughter. With the creation of the NJ Negative Income Rebate, the oldest daughter of five child, Susanna [1], plans to move out of her family home when she turns 18 in two years, in order to, in her words, ‘have some breathing room.’
“Just down the street from her, the oldest son of an African-American family gave his first N.J.N.I.R. check to his father, to help him pay for car repairs, and to pay for a new refrigerator for his mother.
“In this dilapidated home in Toms River, police arrested a man after threatening his wife at gunpoint, allegedly attempting to take money from her cashed-in N.J.N.I.R. check to gamble at the horse track.
“And in this apartment in Tenefly, a high school senior has begun saving for Princeton without worrying too much about the cost.”

STUDENT: “I know that if I fall, the rebate will keep me from landing on hard times.”

VOICE-OVER (as footage rolls): “This is the new world in which many of New Jersey’s over seven million residents finds themselves.”

REPORTER (in footage): The NJ Negative Income Rebate Law, which oversees the issuance of an income supplementation dividend, was passed in early 1970, in the Garden State’s first legislative session under Governor McDermott. McDermott came under scrutiny last year as after workplace production and employment dropped after the rebate law took effect, but in the most recent quarters, productivity has risen. College applications have increased, and applications for higher-up jobs have, too. The biggest benefit the rebate may be having on the state, though, is in consumer consumption. People in New Jersey are now buying more in light of a new confidence in their financial security. The risen demand is leading to a rise in production.
“Additionally, the number of people moving into New Jersey has increased. From 1960 to 1970, the state grew roughly 18% in size, averaging at 3.6% every 2 years. In the past two years, though, the population has risen roughly 4% in size, with many of the new residents hailing from New York City…”

– ABC Special Report, Friday 2/4/1972 broadcast

By the start of the primary, the candidates had found their corners:

Walter Mondale, running an energetic and fairly youthful campaign on a platform appealing to working class voters and the generic slogan “The Change We Need,” found support among establishment politicians despite also being heavily backed by many unions, including most Hispanic farm workers and their unions.

Hubert Humphrey, swiping at Mondale’s candidacy with the slogan “Some Talk of Great Change – Others Create It,” also found support among members of the party establishment, including Chicago Mayor Daley and Jack Kennedy; he also found support among urban laborers and white ethnic groups.

Mike Gravel was a passionate progressive grassroots campaign highlighting his accomplishments; with the slogan “Putting People First,” Gravel won over young people, Hollywood celebrities, and college-educated individuals. Gravel was also best known for his 1968 campaign’s heavy focus on dovish foreign policy prior to announcing his candidacy. While that rhetoric was beneficial at a time, when American forces were fighting in Cambodia and Laos, the US was at peace at the start of ’72; as such, Gravel switched to focusing more on domestic policy, with a heavy focus on regulating businesses.

Mario Biaggi, the conservative New York Governor and former primary frontrunner, sought to recover from the Attica Massacre scandal and return to frontrunner status by doubling down on what had brought him victory in 1966 and 1970: “Peace and Prosperity Through Law and Order;” the most conservative Democrat in the race, accusations of racism threatened to hurt his campaign in northern states. Biaggi was also the least critical of the President, even after their openly contrasting views on Attica.

Shirley Chisholm’s historic run immediately pulled in many progressives, feminists, Black activists, and shoutniks, but the Congresswoman continuously emphasized her ability to appeal to a wider range of voters, including white suburban voters.

Scoop Jackson, seemingly the second most conservative Democrat in the field, ran on the message “Great at Home, Great Abroad,” and focused on his long resume and legislative experience, betting it would propel him to the front of the pack.

Wayne Morse, and his slogan “Wayne All the Way,” was the focus of other progressive voters, too; peaceniks and people nostalgic of his prior runs gathered around the septuagenarian to support his fourth consecutive bid for President.

Bob Casey, at age 39 the youngest of the candidates, ran on the message “Never Too Early to Lead;” Casey, a favorite among Catholics, it seemed, sought to appeal to the party as a moderate.

Grant Sawyer, capitalizing on his 1968 stint as Jack Kennedy’s running mate, promoted his 12 years as governor of an example of him being a pragmatic “Western progressive”/left-leaning centrist candidate.

– David Frum’s political textbook How We Got Here: The ’70s, Basic Books NY, 2000, p. 298

Humphrey: “I’m happy to have a debate. Freedom is hammered out on the anvil of discussion, dissent, and debate.” [2]


Mondale: “This is a campaign for all working Americans, from the immigrant farmers of New Mexico to the factory workers of New England. I have the experience needed for leading effectively from the White House. I’ve been a Senator since 1961, and before then was the Minnesota Attorney General.”


Gravel: “We need to provide more funding for these social programs. So I would transfer money from the military budget to cover these expansions.”

Jackson: “Uh, if I may make a rebuttal? Thank you. Mike, what you propose is dangerous and frightening. When you say we must take risks for peace by cutting the meat from our military muscle, I say you are unwittingly risking war. [3]

Morse: “He’s not saying make America vulnerable – he’s saying he’d rather spend the money meant for missiles on medicine and meals instead.”


Humphrey: “Despite Senator Jackson’s claims, compassion is not weakness, and concern for the unfortunate is not socialism. [2] [snip] As President, I will fight, as I always have, for minorities of all races and religions, for all who deserve to share in the fullness of American life.[2]

– Snippets from the transcript of the 2/16/1972 Democratic Primary debate between Humphrey, Mondale, Gravel, Jackson and Morse

The lack of any wars, the kind which had helped the candidacy of many an anti-war candidate in 1968, took the wind out of those same sort of sails in ’72. Morse and Gravel had to instead focus on the Colonel’ opposition to regulation and his censoring policies, largely ignored by most major media outlets and a minor issue in political world until their campaigns promoted them to the front page of newspapers nationwide. [snip] In the first Democratic primary debate, Morse looked old, worn out and tired, while Gravel looked too radical to be able to win in November, his flair for flamboyance coming off as wiry to many. Nevertheless, Gravel’s passion stole away Morse’s thunder. Making his fourth consecutive bid for the nomination, the aging Senator Morse had developed a “used goods” vibe – while Gravel was picking up the mantle of being the bold “new face” of the Democratic far-left.

– Theodore H. White’s The Making of the President: 1972, Atheneum Publishers, 1973

…The troubled nation’s February 20, 1972 Presidential election saw Salvadorans nationwide, after years of military dictatorships and corruption, take what could have been the nation’s last attempt at reform through peace.

President Gen. Fidel Sanchez Hernandez’s plans for electoral fraud – PCN Presidential candidate Col. Arturo A. Molina – were blatant and poorly disguised. A native political coalition called the United National Opposition soon formed thanks to organizational efforts by leftist parties, trade unions, and activist Roman Catholic clergy. The coalition was not taken seriously by conservative sectors [4]. Nevertheless, the incumbent administration commenced making political activities the targets of National Conciliation Party (PCN)’s harassment and assault tactics; creating increasingly restrictive voting qualification rules also occurred. By January, the coalition had finally rallied around one candidate – Jose Napoleon Duarte of the Christian Democratic Party. Understanding the need for him and the broad-based reform movement united behind him to win the Presidency, all other candidates other anti-Molina dropped out by the end of January.

As the election date neared, Max Jakobson stepped in. The new Secretary-General of the UN, in light of his narrow selection for the post, and continuing criticism from Middle-Eastern nations, felt compelled to prove his ability to be a pragmatic leader on the world stage. Jakobson lead the international pressure that urged Fidel Sanchez Hernandez to host “free and fair” elections. Taking the Monroe Doctrine to heart, the US President Harland “Colonel” Sanders took the situation “one step further” by threatening to send in a U.S.-led deployment of UN peacekeeping troops to the country if “open and honest” election were not held.

On election night, the Central Election Board in San Salvador announced Duarte had won by over 26,000 votes, after 900,000 votes were cast (a high number which many observers alleged was the result of ballot stuffing). On February 22, President Sanchez Hernandez claimed the results were inconclusive. Jakobson and Sanders subsequently increased the international pressure over the following weeks, threatening the President’s regime with economic boycotts and other leverage, until the incumbent relented. On June 23, just days the July 1 1972 inauguration, Sanchez Hernandez announced that Duarte had won. He subsequently fled to Venezuela upon leaving office, while Molina supporters shocked by the “betrayal” of Sanchez Hernandez failed to launch a paramilitary coup against Duarte and his allies that same week.

While the nation itself continued to dapple with warring anti-reform factions for a few more years, the election itself became a powerful symbol of how through the democratic process – and a little international pressure – reform can come without bloodshed.

– Ashley Carse’s The Sins of The Savior: Politics and People in El Salvador, MIT Press, 2019


Baton Rouge, LA – In tonight’s gubernatorial election, 72-year-old former Governor Jimmie Davis won a third nonconsecutive term. …Davis, a Democrat, bested a Republican nominee – the 39-year-old activist-turned-former state party chairman Robert Max Ross – by a 7% margin. The narrowness promotes the notions of psephologists of late who believe the South is becoming more open to the ideals and philosophies of the Republican party, in part due to the popularity of President Sanders, and the seemingly rightward shift in the party’s principles in the Senate under Senate minority leader Barry Goldwater (R-AZ). …Davis, who ran on a left-leaning moderate platform that appealed to lower-class voters, previously served as Governor from 1944 to 1948 and again from 1960 to 1964…

– The Times-Picayune, 2/1/1972

Jones’ wife, Marceline, was put on trial. As there was no evidence of her knowing of the motives of her husband or Manson, she was acquitted in February 1972 and soon she returned to the Peoples Temple church as its new leader. Seeing the need to repair their image, she renamed church “The Temple of the Followers of Christ’s Love,” and began advocating policies such as “Active Humanitarianism” and “Unilateral Forgiveness.”

The Fire Oasis: Our Recollections of The Mad Men of Brazil, collaborative work (multiple authors), Deodendro Publishers, 1982

THE XI WINTER OLYMPICS IN JAPAN: Feats Surmounted & Records Broken

[pic: ]
Sports Illustrated, 2/13/1972 special issue

…Earlier tonight, Ms. Coya Knutson, the Governor of the North Star State, won the Democratic Minnesota caucus with 33% of the vote, with Senators Mondale and Humphrey coming in second and third place, respectively, and several other candidates making up the bottom 10% of votes cast. In this reporter’s analysis, the mudslinging that occurred between the Humphrey and Mondale camps is mutually destructive for the candidates, as the negativity is uninviting to decent, well-to-do, undecided Minnesotans voters. The results may be the boon the campaign of Coya Knutson needs…

– The Overmyer Network, 2/22/1972 broadcast


…Running on the big-tent Unified Socialist Party label, the incumbent President of France bested Georges Pompidou of the UNR in tonight’s second and final round of voting. Two weeks ago, Mitterrand and Pompidou were the top two finishers of the first round, which they won over Alain Poher (Popular Republican Movement (MRP)), Jacques Duclos (French Communist Party (PCF)), Gaston Defferre (French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO), Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour (Miscellaneous far right (DVED)), and Gaston Monnerville (Reform). …The Reform (“L’ Réforme”) Party, the nation’s newest party, favors an electoral college to France’s current Presidential selection process…

…Mitterrand’s team of advisors, which included Marxist academics Etienne Balibar, Jacques Ranciére, Pierre Macherey, and Henri Lefebvre, proved to be controversial surrogates on the campaign trail; this may account for Mitterrand achieving a margin of victory of only 4%.

The Guardian, UK newspaper, 27/2/1972


…In the speech, the Congresswoman accused the Senator of racism for being “both an enthusiastic defender of the evacuation” of Japanese-Americans from their homes and communities, an opponent of Japanese-Americans serving in combat, and a “staunch proponent of the campaign to keep the Japanese-Americans from returning to the Pacific Coast after the war.” [5] Mink ended the speech by saying to the cameras, “Senator Jackson, when you look at me, what do you see? A color, or a fellow American?” …Despite Jackson’s stronger record on civil rights, the remarks are valid… Mink is also critical of Jackson’s opposition to détente...

– The Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 2/28/1972

…In tonight’s Democratic caucus held in the state of Washington, Senator Scoop Jackson of Washington won the contest, but real winner of the night was Congresswoman Patsy Mink, who scored an impressive 20% of the vote against Jackson. Only two other candidates, Senators Mike Gravel and Wayne Morse, appeared on the ballot…

– NBC News, 2/29/1972 broadcast

“The response to Attica was necessary. Those prisoners were not exactly in there for swiping candy. These hooligans were murderers, horrible lying thieving monstrous individuals who refused to play by society’s rules. These were truly dangerous, dangerous men. That is why they were in prison!”

– Governor Mario Biaggi (D-NY), 3/1/1972 stump speech

BIAGGI DESCRIPTION OF ATTICA VICTIMS COMES UNDER FIRE: Relatives Call Some “Exaggerated,” Others “Outright Wrong”

– The Concord Monitor, New Hampshire newspaper, 3/3/1972


…Humphrey came in second by a 5% margin, while in the Republican race, Senator Goldwater raked in roughly 32%... Knutson underperformed... Goldwater tonight performed better than expected by many pollsters…

– The Daily Hampshire Gazette, 3/7/1972

Earlier today, congress passed the Title IX Amendment of the Higher Education Act. Introduced by Philleo Nash in the Senate in October and by Presidential candidate Patsy Mink in the House in November, the amendment prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in all federally funded education programs and activities. President Sanders is expected to sign the legislation into law fairly soon…

– ABC News, 3/11/1972 report

TULIPS AND FINGER LICKS: K.F.C. Opens First Outlet In Belgium

– The Los Angeles Times, 3/12/1972


…The controversial Governor of New York won over conservatives in the Sunshine state. Biaggi received little support from Black voters, whom have been rallying behind Gravel and Humphrey in recent weeks… In regards to the female candidates, Chisholm surprised pundits with a strong showing while Knutson and Mink again underperformed...

The Los Angeles Times, 3/14/1972

The political establishment’s preferred candidate won the Illinois primary once more in 1972. Humphrey won 40% of the popular vote, but 75% of the state’s convention delegates. The March 21 contest was essentially a breeze for Ol’ Hubie thanks to the perennial string-pulling of Chicago’s Mayor Richard J. “Big Dick” Daley. Fortunately for America, Daley’s stranglehold on the democratic process was lingering. The efforts of Nevada Governor Grant Sawyer to expand the number of primaries weakened Daley’s influence in the nomination selection process…

– Roger Stone’s The Liberal Elite: How They Strive to Regulate Us All, Vol. I, Stone Stallion E-Publishing, 2007

Walt Disney first began contemplating the idea of an animated adaptation of Hans Christian Andersen’s “The Snow Queen” even before Snow White premiered, but the story and titular character appeared to be not relatable enough to the audiences of the 20th century. This was proven to be true by the 1952 live-action MGM version of the fairy tale starring Danny Kaye and directed Charles Vidor, entitled “Hans Christian Andersen,” which failed to “properly” present the story and character. The concept was shelved indefinitely.

Fast-forward two decades. Walt Disney and Roy Disney are dead, and the Walt Disney Company, under Card Walker, is searching for a way to retain the years of glory and success experienced under their founder. By 1972, the company was suffering on numerous fronts. Films were seemingly decreasing in quality and popularity (especially live-action films, such as “The Horse in the Gray Flannel Suit,” “The One and Only Genuine Original Family Band,” “Never a Dull Moment,” “The Boatniks,” “Million Dollar Duck,” and “The Biscuit Eater” [6], and older members of the company were retiring or itching to do so (if not quit over rumored layoffs to save costs). Several department heads – and, especially, Board of Directors member Roy E. Disney – soon can to believe that “some diamonds” could be found among Walt Disney’s earlier shelved works. “I feared creatively the company was starting to go nowhere interesting,” Roy E. Disney later recalled. Turning to the proposals that Walt had never lived to see become reality, Disney animators suggested an attempt to bring the Snow Queen to the big screen.

According to Charles Solomon’s The Making of: Disney’s “The Snow Queen” (Disney Chronicles Books, 2005), the inspiration behind the notion was surprisingly not artistic possibility, but geopolitics. At the time of the studio’s “grand search,” the policy of détente was warming tensions between both sides of the Cold War. Due to the efforts of political leaders such as Colonel Sanders and Alex Kosygin, the company opted to look for a concept that both Russian and American audiences could enjoy, and found it in a story set in snowy Scandinavia.

As Production on The Snow Queen began, production on Robin Hood stalled. But before anything more could happen, the company had to overcome one major problem – the story. Andersen’s original fairy tale consists of seven long “stories” with complicated plots and over a dozen characters. To condense it down to a standard 80-to-90-minute feature, the writers decided to “skim away” as much as possible… [snip] The story’s tone was also changed from dark and grim to more hopeful and light-hearted. The redesigning of the main character to be more of an anti-hero than a sympathetic villain was a pivotal move that “made the whole thing come together,” according to Solomon.

Finally came the second step: determining the animation style. In early 1972, Disney sent several artists on a tour of Alaska to draw inspiration from the snow-capped state, while others researched similarities between American and Russian customs.

This is where a young Fairbanks-based painter taking the Alaskan art world by storm came into the Disney picture…

– James B. Stewart’s Disney War, Simon & Schuster, 2005

…Earlier tonight, the United States Senate finally voted to send the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the states for ratification…

– CBS Evening News, 3/22/1972 broadcast


Washington, DC – Ray Kroc, the former CEO of McDonald who now owns the San Diego Padres, donated $255,000 to Senator Goldwater’s Presidential bid last week… [7] Senator Philleo Nash (D-WI) now claims that the contribution is an attempt to persuade the Senator’s political positions for financial gain. According to Nash, who serves on several Senate committees connected to election finance law, Kroc hoped the donation would encourage Goldwater to oppose talk of a nationwide minimum wage raise proposal going around congress in recent months. The proposal would directly affect teen-aged employers, who make up “the very center” of McDonald’s work force, according to the Senator. Kroc has furiously denied the allegation, claiming he “wants the best man to be President – a man who, like me, understands the importance of self-reliance and opposes government handouts.” When asked if the donation was then a jab against the President, with whom he was once a business rival, Kroc replied, “We buried the hatchet some time ago.” Nash is nonetheless considering calling for an investigation into the matter.

The San Diego Union-Tribune, 3/26/1972

HUBERT WINS WISCONSIN BY A HAIR: Scranton Beats Goldwater By “Fair” Margin in State's Presidential Primaries

– The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 4/4/1972


– The Pittsburgh Courier, an African-American newspaper, endorsing Congresswoman Chisholm for President, 4/5/1972

For years, the media had discussed, either jokingly or seriously, the idea of Father cooking his famous Kentucky Fried Chicken on live TV at the White House Correspondence Dinner. Father was personally against the notion over fears of political opponents claiming it to be a conflict of interest. Months ahead of the final W.H.C.D. of the Sanders administration, however, after discussions with the appropriate judges and law experts, the Attorney General convinced the Colonel that such an activity, if done dramatically enough, would be considered an act of showmanship and not a promotion of KFC products. After eight years, the Colonel finally relented.


On the stage, Father joked that he had been so busy over the last seven years that he could not remember how to make it, only to expertly dance through the steps of the KFC-making process, culminating in the President pounding his hands onto the pressure cooker’s lid to make sure it closed. After just seven minutes, the Colonel passed the pieces over to the tables closest to the stage.

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991


[pic: ]
– Senators Mondale and Humphrey feign smiles for the cameras while at a charity dinner in their native Minnesota, 4/17/1972

Conservative Governor Engelhardt May Run For H.I.P. Presidential Nomination This Year

Birmingham, AL – In an official press conference, Governor Sam Engelhardt of Alabama changed his party registration from "Democratic" to "Heritage and Independence." Engelhardt explained that he disapproves of all of the Democrat candidates running for President this year, and believes the party has shifted “too far to the left for them to be viable in future elections. The Hippies,” an awkwardly-assembled moniker for members of the conservative Heritage and Independence Party, “have a far better understanding of the issues facing Americans.” When pressed about a potential Presidential bid, Engelhardt remarked, “We’ll see. Well, you will.”
Samuel Martin Engelhardt Jr., 59, started out as a planter and ginner in Shorter, Alabama. He began his political career in the state House of Representative from 1950 to 1954. From 1954 to 1958, he served as a pro-segregation state senator. Nevertheless, his legislative accomplishments included authorship of the Alabama Placement Act of 1956, and the Tuskegee Gerrymandering Act of 1957. Engelhardt ran unsuccessfully for lieutenant governor in 1958 and for Governor in 1962. Until last year, he was associated with the White Citizens Council. From 1959 to 1963, Engelhardt served as the state highway director under Governor Patterson and as the chairman of the State Democratic Executive Committee. Under Engelhardt's directorship, the Highway Department built, maintained, repaired many roads and bridges throughout the state. However, his tenure was marred by an investigation and charges related to a highway striping contract. Engelhardt was also investigated by the U.S. Civil Service Commission for allegedly violating ethics laws via serving as both the highway director and chairman of the State Democratic Executive Committee. After being cleared of all charges in 1968, he unsuccessfully ran for Congress on the H.I.P. party label. He successful ran for Lieutenant Governor in 1970. As Lieutenant Governor, he often sparred with the late George Wallace.

– The New York Times, 4/18/1972

…Governor Phil Hoff won tonight’s Democratic Presidential caucus in his home state of Vermont. Hoff, an active Presidential candidate whose campaign is heavily focused on healthcare concerns, has fared poorly in all previous primary contests… …As of tonight, the tally for the delegates allotted to the Democratic candidates so far are as follows: Hubert Humphrey holds the lead with 135 delegates, while Fritz Mondale is in second with 81 delegates. Senator Gravel holds 40, Senator Jackson holds 35, Governor Biaggi holds 34, and the rest hold less than 10 each…

The Overmyer Network, 4/20/1972

Gravel Campaign Expecting “Big Boost” In Support Now

The Washington Times, 4/25/1972

I think my favorite trip abroad as First Lady, I’ve got to say, was the time when Harland and I met with Francois [Mitterrand] and [his wife] Danielle in Paris for the third and final time. It was in April 1972, and because there was only nine months or so left for our time in the White House, neither of us worried too much about making any faux pas in front of the now-familiar and recently re-elected President. The political pressure was off our backs and the four of us could really relax more than before. It was still a political meeting, an official state visit, of course, but it was the most comfortable one we had. Naturally, we dined on chicken – fine-roasted Chicken Provencal with chestnut stuffing. Oh, and the pastries were to die for!

– Claudia Price Sanders, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1979

GOLDWATER: Peace Through Strength; Lower Taxes; Morality In Government

– Pamphlet circulated in Nevada, c. mid-to-late April 1972

Gravel: “The state of Alaska has produced great riches for the entire United States. The gold rush era I think has to be done today, uh, as this wealth is being taken from the ground and taken from our seas, that the efforts have to be made to see that this wealth is used to benefit people. [8] And Alaska is going to be relying on its oil deposits and other resources to cover its Permanent Alaskan Dividend Fund now, so I wouldn’t oppose drilling in the Artic National Wildlife Refuge [9], but as President I would implement the precautions needed to protect and preserve the local ecosystems during such use.”


Mondale: “Workers need work. They need job security, to be able to trust their employees to not be exploited. We need to close up loopholes, and ensure that unions remain key players in the workforce.”


Gravel: “We need to raise the standard of living in rural places, create opportunities for decent living – job, housing, education for children. The people who say it can’t be done either haven’t the will or are running for the wrong office.”


Moderator: “Governor Biaggi, critics persist that you demonstrated poor leadership skills in last September’s Attica Incident. Could you clarify the reason behind this and what I says about your leadership style?”

Biaggi: “I’ve said this many times before – the prison needed to be retaken to return law and order to it. The rioters inside were threatening the lives of the hostages, and I had to respond. Leadership requires action, and action yields results, and the results were that the prison as reclaimed and the rioters were brought to justice. My leadership style is pragmatic and effective, and it’s the kind of style that America needs in the White House in the 1970s.”

Gravel: “May I have this rebuttal?”

Moderator: “Senator, you have one minute.”

Gravel: “Thank you. Gentlemen, Biaggi won’t say it so I will. What happened in upstate New York last September was not a riot gone awry or an incident or a kerfuffle. It was a massacre. The killing of civilians whom the courts had ruled would live and serve time in that prison for their crimes, not for them to be treated like they were less than animals and to be shot down like they were nothing. If we were describing another country, we’d be discussing human rights abuses and sanctions at the UN right now.”

Biaggi: “Mike, you exaggerate, like many other politicians who are soft on crime because they don’t understand it. They fail to understand the necessity of the rule of law, the thin blue line that separates order and chaos. Those prisoners were threatening the lives of dozens of hostages, and with them the foundations of our criminal justice system. If they didn’t like prison, they shouldn’t have committed crime in the first place. .”

– Snippets from the transcript of the 4/22/1972 Democratic Primary debate between Gravel, Mondale, and Biaggi (Humphrey declined an invitation to participate due to a “family emergency,” later revealed to be a medical emergency concerning cancer treatment)


…The three-term Governor of Nevada appeared elated at his home state’s participation in the nomination selection process. However, the smiles, confetti and balloons littering “Sawyer For The Seventies” headquarters could not hide the unaddressed elephant in room – that the odds of winning the nomination are highly unlikely for the former running mate of 1968 nominee Jack Kennedy. Political analyst David Brinkley theorizes the Nevada primary was “more about the democratic process than the victory itself.” Local ardent backers of Sawyer, though, truly believe the former Governor will gather momentum now. “His record as governor will translate into votes for him, I’m sure of it,” argues one Sawyer supporter…

– The Philadelphia Inquirer, 4/25/1972

THE PENDULUM EFFECT: What Past Presidential Trends Can Tell Us Now

…Will the Democratic party nominate a friend of the labor unions to try and succeed the man many Democrats and liberal shoutniks see as “a businessman President,” or will they nominate a peace dove who wants to never fight another war overseas to try and succeed the president who has overseen three wars and has won all of them?

Tumbleweed Magazine, 4/28/1972

“I opposed opening relations to China four years ago because I believe it was bad form to abandon Taiwan. But the past is past. The best thing we can do now is ensure the exposure of China to the world will affect China more so than the world.” [snip] “While I am a great believer in the free competitive enterprise system and all that it entails, I am an even stronger believer in the right of our people to live in a clean and pollution-free environment. To this end, it is my belief that when pollution is found, it should be halted at the source, even if this requires stringent government action against important segments of our national economy.[10]

– Barry Goldwater at a campaign stop in Morgantown, WV, 4/30/1972

“Now I’ll admit I had some reservations on signing this here Consumer Product Safety Bill. I was concerned it would inhibit business-led innovation, but I trust Ralph Nader’s judgement, and I know even of the folks on the hill to know who wants what. I think this bill will inform consumers without trampling on the rights of business owners.”

– President Colonel Sanders signing the Consumer Product Safety Act into law, 5/1/1972

The Consumer Product Safety Act of 1972 established a new independent agency of the US government called the US Consumer Product Safety Commission, or CPSC, which seeks to promote the safety of consumer products by researching and addressing “unreasonable risks” of injury, and developing safety standards (though none established under President Sanders were mandatory). Passed by the 92nd Congress and signed into law by President Colonel Sanders, the act, which became effective on June 1, 1972, placed a Chairman as head of the CPSC and headquartered it in Bethesda, Maryland.


Lead-based paint was widely used due to its durability. However, cases from as early as the start of the 20th century cited lead poisoning from such paint. After years activism based on studies conducted by doctor Philip J. Landrigan, the government began to response to lead-based health concerns during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Congress banned the use of lead-based paint in residential structures in 1969, and founded the CPSC in 1972.


Tonight was a busy night in the world of politics: three states each held two presidential primaries. On the Republican side, Vice President Scranton won all three contests held in Ohio, Indiana, and Washington DC. On the Democratic side, though, things were more complicated. Um, huh. In fact, we’ve only just now learned which Democrat won Ohio. Um, ah. The bulletin states that Hubert Humphrey achieved a plurality in the Buckeye state, and may receive 58 of Ohio’s 140 party delegates, if not more. Earlier in the night, Mondale edges out Humphrey and Gravel to win Indiana, also by a plurality. Washington, DC, however, was a historic outcome. With over 55% of the vote, Representative Shirley Chisholm became the first African-American to win a party primary. She will likely be allotted all, if not most, of the District of Columbia’s 15 convention delegates. Undoubtedly a boon for her campaign, Chisholm likely won the primary thanks to both the capital district’s large African-American voter population, and her outreach to low-income voters of all races…

– NBC News, 5/2/1972 broadcast

…In tonight’s Democratic primary election for US Senator from Alabama, the incumbent Senator Sparkman has lost re-nomination in a major upset to underdog opponent John LeFlore. Sparkman has held the seat since 1946, and was the pro-segregation nominee for Vice President in 1952. LeFlore is a 67-year-old African-American political and civil rights activist whom was elected to the Alabama state senate in 1970. A third primary candidate was Allen Cavett Thompson, the 66-year-old former Mayor of Jackson, Mississippi. Prior to tonight’s runoff, Thompson accused Sparkman of “betraying the South,” and falsely claimed Sparkman “sat out the calls to defend segregation.” This likely damaged Sparkman’s candidacy ahead of the runoff. LeFlore will run against Republican nominee Winston “Red” Blount Jr. in the general election and – hold on, mm-hmm, we have an update: Senator Sparkman has just announced his intention to run in the general election as an independent. And from reporter’s perspective, the move could benefit Blount. This could split the Democratic vote in November and ascend Blount to the Senate on a plurality, much like how Alabama’s other Senator, the Republican, uh, John Martin, was first elected in 1962. Such a result would make one of the biggest pro-Democrat states in the South have both of its Senators be Republican…

The Overmyer Network, 5/2/1972 broadcast

HOST: “Hello and welcome back to our discussion on tonight’s Presidential primary results. Goldwater won tonight’s GOP Tennessee primary, while Biaggi won the Democrat version. Both men are conservatives and the state is fairly conservative, but the two men differed greatly on the extent of the federal government and have suffered numerous controversies this primary season.”

HUNTLEY: “Yes, between Goldwater’s gaffes and animosity shared between Biaggi and more progressive Democrats, it seemed both of their campaigns were floundering. I deduce the unexpected victories are the result of vote-splitting, at least in Biaggi’s case.”

HOST: “Goldwater received roughly 52% of the vote over Vice President Scranton’s 43%, with the remaining 5% or so going to Mississippi Governor Rubel Phillips. Biaggi, meanwhile, won 40% against Humphrey, Mondale, Gravel and Chisholm, with the only other conservative Democrat on the ballot, uh, Scoop Jackson, receiving under 5%. What do these numbers mean?”

HUNTLEY: “That conservatives in both parties have found their respective standard-bearers, and are rallying behind Goldwater and Biaggi.”

– Exchange on Meet the Press, 5/2/1972 broadcast

GOLDWATER GAINS GROUND: Wins Nebraska Primary In Landslide; Scranton Scrapes By In W.V.

DEMOCRATS STILL SPLIT: Mondale Wins NE, Biaggi Takes WV Despite HHH’s Best Efforts

The Washington Post, 5/9/1972 main articles


Associated Press, 5/16/1972


– The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 5/17/1972

I was in a bind. Two men that I admired were asking for my endorsement. It was the 1956 Senate race between Wetherby and Cooper all over again! [White House Counsel] Cliff White was urging me to choose Goldwater – a passionate man of honesty and ideals, who understood that small businesses cannot thrive if government limits or even monitors every action they take. [Chief Domestic Policy Advisor] Whitney Young, meanwhile, wanted me to endorse Scranton – a loyal apprentice who had proven his ability to lead on many occasions, most notably housing and employment reform, the 1966 Milwaukee Race Riots, the 1969 busing probe, and 1970 health committee report. In the end, I decided to repeat what I had done in 1956. I refused to take a side, arguing that the primary voters should decide who the party’s standard-bearer should be in November instead.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 1974


…Bipartisan praise is ringing through the halls of congress for “Nader the Crusader,” who has served as the Administrator of the National Roadways Safety Administration since 1966…

– The Washington Post, 5/19/1972


…Senator Gravel came in second place, losing the contest by roughly a mere 1,200 votes. Gravel was gracious in his concession speech, telling the crowd “Morse is a worthy opponent whose care for his constituents and the well-being of this nation are genuine. If I was destined to lose this race to someone, I’m glad it was him.” However, the second place finish may boost the Senator’s campaign, as Humphrey and Mondale underperformed…

The Oregonian, Oregon newspaper, 5/23/1972


Oregon Puts VP Numbers Over Threshold

– The Washington Post, 5/28/1972

I was angry at the Colonel for not supporting my bid. We finally had a confrontation about it in May, where I hollered “I’ve added a thousand times more input to this administration than that little Scranton s#!t has.”

The Colonel bellowed “Watch the language, darn it!”

“Argh!” was my immediate reply.

Sanders then became more conciliatory, suggesting Scranton and I come up with a compromise like what the two of us had agreed on back in ’64.

“Barry Goldwater doesn’t compromise,” I said. “And it’s not like I can afford to wait until the 1976 or 1980 primaries come along. I’m already 64!”

“And I was 74 when I started this job. I waited and good fortune came to me for it,” the Colonel noted.

“The American people can’t wait – we need a pragmatic President.”

“Then work with Scranton like how you worked with me. Lead him down a path of pragmatism.”

I sighed, “At this point, I guess that’s the only option.” However, in order to ensure that Scranton did not ignore the party conservatives and their ideals, I had to increase my influence ahead of the RNC, and that meant winning as many of the remaining contests and delegates as I could.

– Barry Goldwater’s autobiography No Apologies: My Personal and Political Memoirs, Morrow Publishers, 1979

Post-Khanh Vietnam established a unicameral government consisting of a Preisdent and Council of Representatives, with the latter having more strength and influence over the President than does the US Congress. This situation accommodated Vietnam’s composition of culturally, religiously and linguistically diverse citizens which required multiple viewpoints to be heard.


Vietnam’s first Presidential election was held in May 1972. After a blanket primary was held on Tuesday the 16th, the final runoff was held on Tuesday the 30th. The runoff saw incumbent President, Harvard-trained banker-turned-politician Nguyen Xuan Oanh (of the Peaceful Today and Tomorrow Party), lose to the popular Mayor of Saigon Nguyen Hop Doan (of the Heal and Rebuild Together Party).

– Ellen Joy Hammer’s Settling The Dust: Vietnam After Khanh, E. P. Dutton, 1975

For the third and final Democratic primary debate, Mondale, Gravel, Humphrey and Chisholm converged in Sacramento, in the vitally important winner-take-all California primary…

Mondale called for further influence of labor unions in business activities directly effecting workers, as “an implemental and instrumental force for worker protection from the bureaucratic oversights of their bosses in the collective bargaining agreement.”


Gravel: “I would be fine with raising the age for eligibility for the US military to 21.”


Mondale: “Hubert, in 1963, you called American involvement in Cuba to be, and I quote, ‘our greatest adventure and a wonderful one it is.’ [11] Do you still think that way after seeing the number of veterans from that war still suffering permanent loss of intact bodies and minds, not just here in California but across all 50 states?”


Humphrey: “Senator Gravel’s defense proposals would greatly diminish the influence America has around the world. We can’t risk the US falling into the category of ‘second-rate nation.’”


Humphrey: “We need an electable politician for America, and Senator Gravel, you are too radical to win.”

Gravel: “And you are too moderate to lead!”

Humphrey called for the closing of $16 billion in tax loopholes, while Chisholm instead called for raising inheritance taxes.


Humphrey: “My economic plan is to spend $11.5 billion on welfare programs, including Social Security benefits and, pending circumstances, the Negative Income Tax Rebate.”

Chisholm: “Sir, that will boost consumer spending but you must also address the continuing discrepancies between employment and education levels among racial lines. We need to promote welfare programs that will both lift the people’s spirits and get results, that will inspire and encourage all to seek out their full potential and reach out for the American dream. That starts with Social Security, and goes on to more spending on programs for domestic workers, vocational schooling, reducing mortgage interest rates, and the removal of racial and gender-based bias from national, states and local governments.”

CBS’s Face the Nation describes Chisholm as the most radical of the four candidates…

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1972, Centurion Publishers, 2021

…hello and welcome back to tonight’s coverage of the final round of Presidential primaries for the Democratic and Republican parties. Already, Scranton has won all of the G.O.P. contests save for California, which is still too close to call. Democrats are also waiting on results from the Golden State, where one of the race’s underdogs, Senator Mike Gravel, was polling surprisingly well in the last few weeks. California seems to be experiencing a three-way race between Humphrey, Mondale and Gravel, and it is not surprising why – the state is allotted a whopping 271 delegates – and this is a winner-take-all primary...


…hold on, we have an update, yes, and the Democratic Presidential primary in California has been called for Mike Gravel. This is a game changer for the election, and puts Gravels delegate count ahead of that of Biaggi, Chisholm and many other candidates…


…Mondale’s best performance of the night was in New Mexico due to his support among Hispanic voters. Representative Chisholm, on the other hand, won the New Jersey primary due to other candidates not competing for it. However, she did outperform polling in New York, where she obtained roughly 19% of the vote. Compare this to New York Governor Mario Biaggi winning roughly 15% of the vote, who was plagued by the Attica Massacre for his entire campaign. To recap, Mondale won New York by a plurality, Humphrey won South Dakota in a landslide due to his roots there, and Gravel exceeded expectations…

– CBS Evening News, 6/6-7/1972 broadcast

The Goldwater campaign shifted from seeking the nomination to influencing the party platform. With Governor Reagan by his side, the Arizonan canvassed California. On June 6, Goldwater won the state and its hefty share of convention delegates. Scranton still maintained a majority, but it was one much smaller than what he thought it would be six months prior. The strength of the Goldwater campaign would now certainly influence both the party platform, and who Scranton would pick to be his running mate.

– Stephen E. Ambrose, Unforeseen Victories: When Politicians Triumph Over Politics: 1953-1973, NY Simon and Shuster, 1989


[pic: ]
Popular Vote Count:
Scranton: 3,293,214 (55.2%)
Goldwater: 2,392,359 (40.1%)
Phillips: 280,398 (4.7%)
Total Votes Cast: 5,965,971



[pic: ]
Delegate Count on 6/6/1972:
Mondale: 462
Humphrey: 455
Gravel: 385
Chisholm: 124
Casey: 117
Biaggi: 82
Jackson: 24
Morse: 20
Sawyer: 12
All others candidates: 3
Total delegates: 1,684
Delegates Needed to Win: 843


A lack of strong winds, soil saturated from light rain that fell just a few days earlier, and overlapping cloud formations pushed in from Canada and Colorado created the perfect conditions for the creation of consistent rainfall in the areas around Rapid City, South Dakota. The intense rain that began on the afternoon of June 9 would not cease on until after midnight on June 10.

Immediately, the flash flood made the area’s creeks overflow, carrying rubble along Rapid Creek to western South Dakota’s Canyon Lake Dam, creating a barrier in front of its spillway. Not wanting a dam-related disaster like what had occurred in California just last year, Governor McGovern ordered the debris to be cleared as soon as he learned of the clogging. This action helped keep the depth of the water behind the dam down to just 4 feet, as opposed to the estimated 10-to-15 feet it would have risen to otherwise, which would have only contributed further to the floodwaters.

The flood’s waters (estimated to have been “1 billion metric tons of water”) uprooted trees, trailers, automobiles and even entire houses. Thousands of homes and businesses were ruined in some capacity across the Back Hills of South Dakota. The destruction in Rapid City tallied up to $46 million, and almost $1mill in Keystone (in 1972 dollars); the entire flooding cost the state a total of $165million. 82 people died, and over 4,000 were injured.


After the flood, more warning systems were placed across the regions. Additionally, while houses and motels were not barred from being built in the flood zones, Governor McGovern did order all that were there to be raised and/or moved to avoid the chance of people drowning while sleeping the next time a flood so intense occurred.



[pic: ]
– Two local residents walk past the effects of flooding in Keystone, SD, 6/11/1972


…Credit also goes to the National Weather Service in Rapid City, whose personnel who used their training, tools and skills to issue effective forecasts and warnings with the information and technology at their disposal. However, it should be noted that they had such tools and training due to Governor McGovern increasing the service’s budget size last year...

– The Capital Journal, South Dakota daily newspaper, 6/11/1972

STAND UP: The Beatles’ “Stand Up,” the band’s first album since the attempt on their lives at L.A.’s The Forum, is a celebration of life peppered with both positive accolades and darker imagery. A diverse collection of songs, the tracks almost have a pattern to them, as light melodies – focused mostly on the importance of family, friendship, love and the best of mankind and the potential of humanity – are followed by gloomy and very intense records about pain, suffering, anguish, loss, the worst of mankind, and the inevitability of death.

– review, Tumbleweed Magazine, 6/15/1972

…With the conclusion of the Presidential primaries two weeks ago, Vice President Scranton is on his way to becoming the nominee at the Republican National Convention in August, where the party platform will be finalized and a running mate will be selected. The Democrats, meanwhile, will have a much more daunting atmosphere entering what could be a brokered convention, after an expanded primary season yielded more candidates, only for none of them to secure enough delegates for them to win the nomination on the first ballot. While Senators Mondale and Humphrey are in the lead, it is currently uncertain who will win the nomination and who will be their running mate…

The Overmyer Network, 6/19/1972 broadcast

In 1972, Disney artists and writers travelled to Alaska seeking inspiration for the then-planned animated adaptation of “The Snow Queen.” During their stop in Fairbanks, locals told them to the most famous artist in town: our Bob. Word soon spread of the animators’ presence, and Bob’s family convinced him to approach them with a humble proposal. Bob found 30-minute pocket of time at the animators’ hotel, where Bob was permitted to demonstrate to some of the artists his quick-rendering skills. Most present were impressed at his style. Shortly afterwards, Bob was asked to visit the company’s studios in Los Angeles to repeat the rendering technique. In the Golden State, Bob wowed other members of the Disney family with the pace of his ability to quickly create backdrops – particularly the wintry backdrops. After some hesitance over his lack of professional art schooling, the Disney men agreed with Bill Alexander and offered Bob a job working for the animation studio.

Bob was initially hesitant, wondering if they would trick him into signing a contract prohibiting him from painting outside of Disney projects. To protect himself, Bob contacted the best lawyer that he could find – and after two weeks, Bob contacted Disney with the best lawyer that he could actually afford. A contract was agreed to and signed, and the army granted Bob a six-month leave of absence.

Bob worked with Disney artists (officially, as an "advisor") and taught them how to work with fast-drying paint, from the brush-beating to the pairing of trees. He would return six months later for some additional weeks when assistance and suggestions on additional background scenes were needed.

[pic: ]
Above: an early test image from The Snow Queen

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014

“I remember this one time in, I want to say, mid-summer, 1972, when SBA Administrator Marshall Parker, went ahead and showed off to Father his new electronic digital wristwatch. He boasted that it cost him $2,100, like it was a real sign of his success. The joke was on him, though, as by the end of the decade, those kind of watches were being sold for just 10 bucks a pop! Seriously, go look it up!”

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., 1999 interview

Hogan’s Heroes Star Swears He Told Lover He Would Film Their “Intimate Time”

The Hollywood Reporter, 7/7/1972

By the start of July, Lennon was enthusiastic to go on a global tour calling for World Peace. As Paul was one who was shot, he supported John’s vision on the grounds of raising awareness on the issue of gun violence. The tour could also promote their new album, and assure their loyal fans that the band was still as powerful as it was prior to The Forum Incident. Apart from “Stand Up,” it would be their first major event without the guidance of [their slain manager] Brian Epstein.

– Pat Sheffield’s Dreams, Reality, and Music: The Love Story of One Band and the Whole Entire World, Tumbleweed Publications, 2000

The 1972 General elections were held in Cuba on 10 July of that year to determine who would serve as President for the next six years, and to determine who would serve in the Cuba Chamber of Representatives. After the collapse of the Nationalist Party, the elections were largely dominated by three major parties. The major presidential candidates, in alphabetical order, were the following:

Aureliano Sanchez Arango (1907-1976), the nominee of the heavily pro-American hard-right Conservative Party, a former Minister of Education under President Carlos Socarras who originally sided with Castro during the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista, but changed sides after Castro declared himself a communist. Sanchez developed a positive reputation in the late 1960s by serving as Lopez-Fresquet’s Secretary of Commerce from 1966 to 1971.

Manuel Francisco Artime Buesa (1932-1977), the nominee of the left-leaning centrist Stability Party, who had served in Cuba’s Chamber of Representatives since 1966. Like Sanchez, Artime had fought for Castro before switching sides. His call for complete amnesty for all former Communists helped him win a seat in congress in 1966, but the idea was largely unpopular at the national level, resulting in him coming in third place.

Erneido Andres Oliva Gonzalez (b. 1932), the nominee of the “third position” New Authority Party and the youngest candidate in the race (turning 40 just days before the election), who had served as the outgoing President’s Foreign Policy Advisor from 1966 to 1970 and as Minister of Defense since 1970. He supported strengthening ties to the US.


Presidential election results:


[pic: ]

Under Cuba’s 1965 constitution, the President can serve for more than just one 6-year term, but cannot succeed himself into office.


The course of action for the serious candidates ahead of the July 24-27 convention was to try and convince former candidates to relinquish their delegates to them. In an attempt to shore up support from former Morse supporters, Gravel made an unprecedented and unconventional announcement at a press conference on July 12: “When I receive the nomination for President, Congressman John E. Moss will be my running mate!” Moss soon joined him at the podium where he, somewhat controversially, remarked “This campaign is a fight to restore openness and truthfulness to DC. The Colonel’s anti-obscenity laws are too oppressive for them to be tolerated. A government cannot regulate morality or the freedom of expression!”

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1972, Atheneum Publishers, 1973

Mondale studied his options. He could go for the nomination at the convention, and do whatever it took to appeal to as many state delegates as possible. But this would take too long for the two weeks we were working with. He could promise concessions and appointments to the various “favorite son” candidates, like Bob Casey of Pennsylvania, which would also consume up our time. Then he studied a sort of Hail Mary pass – appeal to the one sole candidate beside Humphrey who could provide him with enough delegates to put them over the edge.

I arranged and then sat in on the meeting between Mondale and Gravel. Mike Gravel would appeal to the left, yes, but the main benefit of him being in No 1 Observatory Circle was his removal from congress. Since entering the chamber in January 1970, Gravel had repeatedly had difficulty collaborating with his fellow Senators, relying more on showboating tactics to draw attention to issues rather than play by the Senate’s rules. Mondale knew this, that the Senate would be glad to see him be promoted if the ticket won, and so did Gravel.

To sweeten the pot, Mondale agreed to add a stronger peace plank to the party platform.

“And what about Moss?” Gravel asked about the Congressman who had been his running for only a week.

“A cabinet position, or head of some commission or organization or some other cabinet-level job.”

After a long pause, Gravel answered, “This better be worth it.”

“Well then,” Mondale smiled, “several Senators are going to be ebullient when they hear about this.”

– political strategist Mark Shields’ memoir The Pundit Next Door, Borders Books, 1993

…breaking news! Mondale and Gravel have just held a press conference, in which they revealed that Gravel has dropped his presidential bid to serve as Mondale’s running mate. This move will certainly lead to Gravel throwing his delegates to Mondale, and that could lead to other candidates, such as Senator Morse and Representative Chisholm, following suit, which would push him comfortably over the threshold of 843 delegates on the first ballot, which is needed to win the nomination without creating a brokered convention…

– CBS Evening News special report, Thursday, 7/20/1972

“I’m outraged that after expanding the primaries to more than half of the states, our ticket may be again chosen not by the people but by another backroom deal!”

– Former Governor Grant Sawyer (D-NV), 7/20/1972

The election had once again not run in his favor, even after promising to make Bob Casey his running mate won him most of Pennsylvania delegates. “After all this time,” he complained, donors were “still wary of betting on another member of” the Johnson administration. Humphrey regretted his “Stroll” through the early primaries as they cost him momentum and allowed Mondale to seal his thunder. Thirdly, the election proved to be more exhaustive than he initially envisioned it would be. “Th[is] presidential election took something out of me [but] I heal rapidly,” he confided in [his wife] Muriel.


On the final day of the 1972 DNC, Humphrey’s bladder ailment had again flared up, and the doctors swore that he needed to spend at least "a couple of weeks" convalescing after surgery to correct an infection. …Humphrey would later describe the recovery process as “An agonizing period, both in worry and discomfort” [12]. Despite this and the loss of the nomination, he seemingly optimistic about his future, telling is wife “I may not get to be President, but I’m still on Capitol Hill, and I’m going to make the most out of my time there!”

– Carl Solberg’s H.H.H.: A Biography, Borealis Books, 1984 (2001 edition)

1972 Democratic National Convention
Date(s): July 24-27, 1972
City: Miami Beach, Florida
Venue: Miami Beach Convention Center
Keynote Speaker: Senator Harold Hughes of Iowa

Presidential nominee: Walter Mondale of Minnesota
Vice Presidential nominee: Mike Gravel of Alaska
Other Candidates: Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota

Results (by popular vote):
Walter Mondale – 26.1% (and 935 delegates on the first ballot)
Hubert Humphrey – 25.7% (and 574 delegates on the first ballot)
Mike Gravel – 19.3% (and 15 delegates on the first ballot)
Mario Biaggi – 7.2% (and 82 delegates on the first ballot)
Shirley Chisholm – 6.5% (and 25 delegates on the first ballot)
Scoop Jackson – 4.9% (and 24 delegates on the first ballot)
Bob Casey – 3.2% (and 12 delegates on the first ballot)
Wayne Morse – 1.8% (and 5 delegates on the first ballot)
Grant Sawyer – 0.7% (and 12 delegates on the first ballot)
Terry Sanford – 2.4% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Phil Hoff – 1.1% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Coya Knutson – 0.9% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Patsy Mink – 0.3% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Lester Maddox – 0.1% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)
Others – 0.1% (and 0 delegates on the first ballot)

Total delegates: 1,684
Delegates Needed to Win: 843



[pic: ]

– Governor Lester Maddox (D-GA), formally dropping his bid for the White House after failing to win the nomination for President at the Democratic National Convention, 7/27/1972; in his concession speech, which received little media attention, Maddox criticized the national party ticket and refused to endorse it, instead saying "I hope everyone votes for the best ticket they find on their ballot, regardless of the party label next to it"

Fritz & Mike: Real Governing For a Change

– Mondale/Gravel’72 bumper sticker, c. late July 1972

…breaking news out of Little Rock, Arkansas, where the state’s governor, Winthrop Rockefeller, has announced that he has suspended his re-election bid and that in two days he will resign from the office of the governorship in order to better combat a recent diagnosis of pancreatic cancer [13]. Rockefeller was the first Republican Governor of Arkansas since the Reconstruction era of the 1870s and has served as the state’s governor since 1965. Upon his resignation, Rockefeller will be succeeded by lieutenant governor Maurice Lee “Footsie” Britt, a Medal of Honor recipient who once played professional football for the Detroit Lions…

– NBC News, 8/5/1972 broadcast

William Scranton’s running mate had to appeal to his own base of supporters and to the more conservative Republicans to avoid the latter staying at home. Stuart Spencer swears “Scranton believed that a lack of party unity had doomed Lyndon Johnson’s 1964 re-election bid, and sought to not repeat LBJ’s mistakes.” Ahead of the convention, the Vice President met with conservatives leaders, including southern conservatives and their leader, Strom Thurmond. A longtime former Democrat, Thurmond had quickly developed a following in the G.O.P. hierarchy despite only being a Republican since 1962. Nevertheless, Scranton needed the conservative faction’s blessing in regards to his choice of running mate, and so presented several options before them:

Senator Rogers C. B. Morton of Maryland was an experience legislator, but he also was too geographically close to Scranton.

Senator Paul Laxalt of Nevada was a fiery conservative who, to Scranton, was too reminiscent of Goldwater’s negative campaign.

Governor Bo Callaway of Georgia was also a conservative, who could have appealed to both sides of the Democratic party.

Governor Charles Percy declined interest to instead continue running for a US Senate seat

Governor Paul Robsion of Kentucky seemed like a possible compromise choice until he, after much hesitance, declined to be considered in order to better focus on his economic development plans. Nevertheless, his positive activities as Governor placed Robsion on Scranton’s list of possible cabinet members.

Scranton initially was eyeing Senator Jacob Javits of New York to serve as running mate, but even his aides considered this to be “more than just” unwise.

Senator James D. Martin of Alabama, similar to Laxalt and Callaway, was pushed by southern conservatives; however, Scranton did not believe he could help him win votes outside the south.

Governor Mitchell Melich of Utah was a tempting choice to pick due to his successful two terms, but was not well known outside of his state and was instead placed on the list of potential cabinet members.

By process of elimination, Scranton and the representatives of the party’s growing conservative faction chose a soft-c conservative political dark horse: Mike Stepovich. The Governor of Alaska Territory from 1957 to 1958 and Governor of Alaska from 1963 to 1971, Stepovich was born to a Montenegrin Serb father and a Montenegrin Croat mother in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1919. Scranton believed Stepovich could win over (white) ethnic communities in northern cities, bolster the party among libertarian-minded voters in the west, and cut into Walter Mondale’s home-state advantages in the Midwest, a place of many Americans of Eastern European descent. Ideologically, it was the “soft” part of “soft-c conservative” that Scranton hoped would appeal to both the waning liberal and waxing conservative sides of the party while also appealing to independents.

– Theodore H. White’s The Making of the President: 1972, Atheneum Publishers, 1973



[pic: ]
– The Washington Post, 8/15/1972


– The New York Times, 8/21/1972

MARY SCRANTON’S SPEECH DEEMED THE BEST ONE GIVEN AT THIS YEAR’S R.N.C.: Goldwater’s Speech Endorsing Ticket Seen As Lackluster

The Los Angeles Times, 8/23/1972 side article


– Scranton/Stepovich ’72 logo, c. late August 1972


“I think it’s time for the hippies to make a comeback” was the misguided battle cry bellowed out by the rambunctious Samuel “Uncle Sam” Engelhardt, America’s sole “H.I.P.” Governor, on August 27, 1972. It was the final line of his speech on the first day of the Heritage and Independence Party National Convention, a gathering of conservatives, populists, and warhawks registered with the party founded by former Governor C. Farris Bryant in 1964. In light of the Democratic and Republican parties nominating tickets the “hippies” perceived to be unacceptably liberal, attendance was higher than the 1968 HIPNC. The atmosphere seemed to suggest that 1972 would be the year the hippies would finally return to national prominence.

Engelhardt was alone in vying for the party’s nomination – other candidates included Lieutenant General Edwin Walker, who oversaw operations during the Cuba War before launching three unsuccessful bids for Governor of Texas; Bruce Alger, a former US Congressman from Texas’s fifth district for 10 years; and the former US Congressman John Rarick of Louisiana, who, after failing to win a single delegate in his run in the 1972 Democratic Presidential primaries, had bitterly rejoined the hippies.

As the nominating process proceeded, it became increasingly evident that the party was splitting over how to move forward. Former HIP member Sam Nunn noted in 1976, “The question was ‘should we focus on fiscal conservatism, social conservatism, or double down on both?’ The answer we got from the convention goers was ‘D: all of the above.’”

The competition turned negative, with each candidate slinging mud onto at least two others. Upon making a back-room deal with Rarick, Engelhardt finally wrestled away the nomination from Walker and Ager on the fifth ballot. The party then saw two factions walk out on the convention to form tickets of their own. Thus how 1972 had three HIP tickets: Sam Engelhardt (AL)/John Rarick (LA) (of the Heritage and Independence Party) represented a greater focus on social conservatism than fiscal conservatism; Ed Walker (TX)/Robert J. Morris (NJ) (of the aptly-named Defense Party) focused heavily of fiscal conservatism, isolationism, and higher military spending in the name of “national protection”; and Bruce Alger (TX)/Iris Faircloth Blitch (GA) (of the Country Party) ran on the theme of small government, reinstating segregation “in willing areas” and “reinforcing traditional social roles,” which was ironic given how the Vice-Presidential candidate was a woman who served in the US House of Representatives for eight years.




[pic: / CchLDBD ]

– A quote by Colonel Sanders, said shortly after the 1972 RNC during a speech in support of the Scranton/Stepovich ticket, c. 8/29/1972

[1] My mom.
[2] Italicized part is an OTL quote!
[3] OTL quote, according to his Wikiquote page.
[4] As covered in the 1970 chapter, Salvador Allende lost the 1970 Chilean election; as a result of this, and the repulsion of communism from Cuba, fears of communism encroaching central America are not at all as high here as they were IOTL!
[5] Source 24 on Scoop Jackson’s wiki (toward the end of the long blogspot)
[6] All real movies, by the way. Yeah – even “The Boatniks”!
[7] In OTL, Kroc in 1972 donated $255,000 to Richard Nixon’s re-election campaign:
[8] Gravel’s first words in his OTL 1968 campaign video:
[9] According to his wiki page, he did not oppose such activities while a Senator.
[10] OTL quote!, according to Source 81 on his wiki page.
[11] OTL quote, according to’s article on the Third Democratic debate of 1972.
[12] Page 416 of Carl Solberg’s Hubert Humphrey: A Biography, as seen and found on Google Books.
[13] Because he’s still in office ITTL, the cancer is detected a month earlier, possibly due to the stress of another term worsening his health.
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This has been a really great timeline and one I'll be voting for the Turtledoves. When this first started, I thought it was going to be a really lame and cheesy celebrity wank that I couldn't taking seriously. However after going through the entire thing, I really love the world that you have built here gap and I wish that Sanders had been a President in our timeline. It's so fascinating how a fast food icon can radically change the country and world for the better, and he'll easily be remembered as one of the modern greats. I also like the social and pop culture aspects and how KFC has risen to greater heights under the Colonel's presidency. I really hope this continues to modern day and after the Colonel's death because it really deserves a complete story.

On recent developments, I hope that Scranton wins to show a support for the continuation of the Colonel's legacy. The GOP really deserves it with how Sanders has kept the economy booming, kept Indochina free of Communism, transitioned Cuba to a democracy, stabilized Latin America, kept peace with China, and has ensured a steady compassionate conservative government that has expanded the Republican's voter base. The only problem is that so far Scranton has been bland, and may be unappealing in comparison to the lively Colonel. I also think it was stupid for Scranton to chose an Alaskan Governor as his running mate as Stepovich doesn't have the national influence, ideological balance, regional strength, or electoral weight to gain an advantage. Then again, Scranton is going against a pissed off and divided Democratic party who hates each other and splintered Hippies, so he should get a win barring any screwups. I do have to wonder why Scoop didn't have more influence considering Sander's victories and public awareness of Pol Pot validates his hawkishness.

In the future I hope that the story does focus on other fast food chains, more specifically the rise of Chick Fil-A and Whataburger. As a Texan I especially desire to see Whataburger soar to new heights in a more competitive market and have a large national scene beyond the South.

Also are you aware of the SCP mythos? Because there's an hilarious SCP article on the Colonel that I think would make for a funny supernatural event in-universe. SCP-3250
Pity that Casey and Hubert lost, still very interesting. Scranton will most likely win he has both the Snaders legacy of succsess on his side and Mondale shooting himself in the foot with Mike Gravel. Maybe that will lead to the Christian Democratic faction taking the nomination in 76.
Two 2 Alaska running mates? Scranton had a chance to steal a march in a way with Gravel there, but he didn't get someone from a big state so he didn't get any advantage as far as the state. However, there *could* be some hyelp if they play up the "son of immigrants" thing with his running mate.

I agree with the others that Scranton seems a bit bland, but with him instead of the more negative Goldwater, the GOP has a chance; I thought it'd be close before and I still think the winner might have trouble getting over 300 electoral votes and a lot of trouble getting over 350.

I thought Scoop Jackson might do better because the wars were successful that athe US had been fighting,but it's also possible that he seemed to hawkish at a time when America was tired of war; perhaps aperiod similar to post-WW1, in some ways, though obviously with America still heavily involved internationally.

Scrantonis 55, MOndale only 44. Did he look really youthful like Jack Kennedy when younger? I don't know if that'll play into helping him or not, but it's worth a mention in the comment here.

Cool to see your mom get a cameo!

I got one of those digital watches for about $10 in the late '70s, too.

Are we getting Frozen as a movie almost 40 years early? Some of those other Disney movies... wow. On checking Wikipedia, it shows why I remember DIsney being better when I was little - a lot of the movies I remember, like Lady and the Tramp and 101 Dalmatians, were re-releases. The former in '72 would have definitely been an official re=release I saw at the theater, being 3 then, but I don't know why I recall seeing the latter, unless some theaters, even if not officially re-released, would keep a movie like that to show as a matinee in the early '70s. Becasue I know I'd have likely wanted to see any movie with dogs in it. :)
That cameo by your mom was unique...

Good update; like that the Rapid City flood was less worse than OTL...

Wonder what Sanders' legacy will be like (and what will Bernie Sanders do in the future ITTL)...
Great update. Hang on, a version of your mom's in there? Where? I'd go for Scranton, bland, but better then Goldwater. Cool take on Frozen years earlier. Wonder who the voice cast for it will be.