Kentucky Fried Politics: A Colonel Sanders Timeline

You have the People's Temple and the Manson family meeting and hinted to join forces?

Dear god, all they need to do now is run into Mengele in Brazil.
Nice chapter!

Nice to see ‘Nam ‘done’ early.

I think the KFC board should just let McD’s do that McD’s does and just let the money roll in- I.e. let it run itself and rake in the cash. A hostile bid will backfire badly on KFC.

It’s a clever move by Brown, but that sort of thing you should run past the Boss first.
While I like Brown's move, yeah, he should have told his bosses first; still, checking it out is a good idea for said bosses (and no hostile takeovers; that'll backfire, methinks)...
“Khanh. Khanh!” Colonel called out to him.

As the Vietnam President left, a smirk could be seen creeping up the side of his face.



In honor of this thread, I'll be breaking my fast today with a KFC Dinner Plate! :closedeyesmile:
With Memorial Day having passed, I cannot emphasize enough how seeing the Vietnam War off to a happier end will have an impact, especially those who serve - I've spoken with dozens of Nam veterans for the newspaper I work at for this Memorial Day alone, and every single one speaks about how god-awful coming home was.
So exciting to see Vietnam and early. So many will live.

What will MASH be like if it is written here? Or could it even cover Vietnam and not Korea?

There should be no hostile takeover. Well not Watergate, it is certainly an Iran contra move. It also sets bad precedent because companies can be encouraged to do that elsewhere and put a lot of employees out of business.

Dave Thomas could become the new chairman, but maybe they could just sell to someone else. Hey, how about Burger Chef? I really like the idea of Dave name in The Chain after his daughter, especially because she's adopted if I recall and that's really a sense of love, that you see that child is truly your own no matter who the birth parents are.
Chapter 27: July 1967 – December 1967
Chapter 27: July 1967 – December 1967

“Anger is the most useless emotion, destructive to the mind, and hurtful to the heart.”

– Stephen King (OTL)

I had never been in a situation like this. I studied the share certificates with a growing sense of complicating emotions – proud of Brown’s accomplishments, for fear toward its possible effects.

Harley agreed Margie – it wasn’t exactly a gift horse, nut Millie was eager to expand the company she was in charge of. She had that look in her eye. The same look people said I’d get whenever I saw an opportunity I had no intention of passing up.

“You disagree, huh, Mildred?”

“It’s a huge financial opportunity, Pops!” was her line of defense.

“But at a great cost. People hear we sneakily pulled the rug out from under a rival, we’ll be labeled dirty cutthroats, which is only a little bit above rat finks. How can this company represent wholesome family values if we do something like this?”

Eventually we came to a decision.

Soon we called Brown up to the office. Upon arriving, he looked surprised to see me there. As President, I had sworn that I would never allow any private or personal interests cloud my judgment and decisions while in office. Federal conflict-of-interest laws prohibited ‘officers’ of the U.S. from participating in any governmental action in which they have a financial interest [1]. So I had no stake in the company, but I was still the founder. Kentucky Fried Chicken was no longer under my roof but it was still my baby, and I would – and I will – protect it until the day I die.

“Johnny, I have something to say to you.”

“Yes, Colonel, sir?”

“Why did you not receive permission from Margaret or Mildred on this here venture of yours?”

“I wanted it to keep McDonald’s from discovering the, uh – ”


“Financial maneuver.”

“Hmm,” I went straight to the point, “Johnny-boy, you had the right idea, but you went sneaky on us. You went over our heads. You proved yourself to be untrustworthy and dishonest – qualities I won’t be having in the company I founded. Kroc?”

Harley turned the light on for Kroc’s side of the room so Brown could him better. The lighting also made it more dramatic when the CEO of McDonald’s swung his chair around to reveal himself to a shocked and bewildered Brown. The Secret Service agents in the corner watched him closely in case he got a bit too jumpy.

“What’s going on here?” He asked.

“I ought to pummel you to the ground, you little s#!t, but Sanders said he has something for me.”

“Indeed I do,” I said. Pulling out the original shares ownership documents out of my suitcase, “I’ve transferred ownership back to ya.”

“What?!” I believe Kroc, Brown, and Millie all said this. They all thought I would allow the duping and taking over someone else’s company. “KFC is not a monopoly, and I won’t stand for KFC replicating the type of tactics you used to steal McDonald’s Kroc. I honestly don’t think you deserve this here burger franchise, but if my company has to stoop down to your level to get, then KFC doesn’t deserve it either. Kroc,” I handed him the documents, “our shares of McDonald’s – they’re all yours. It’s all there in the legalese language.”

“And the catch?”

“A truce. No more negative advertisements against each other, no more aggressive tactics between KFC and McDonald outlets close to one another. After all, I hear you have that new Burger Chef place to worry about. Maybe direct your negative ads to them for a while!”

Kroc, with a crack of smile, asked “For how long is a while?”

“How does a five-year armistice sound to you?”

“That’s just dandy, Colonel.”

“But,” Brown finally interjected, switching from his usually cool demeanor to one of restrained outrage, “You can’t do that, Colonel! The shares are in the name of the company itself.”

“Yes, and as such the company needs an official representative for all legal actions and decisions. The shares are thus controlled by that rep.”

“What rep?!” Brown asked.

“Me,” admitted Millie.

“You? But Ms. Sanders, you seemed to support my actions.”

“Our financial and PR teams concur that a takeover will cause more harm than good for us. We’d be damaging our own image. And we’d be setting an awful precedent with this. Other companies would have no problems doing the same kind of things to other companies. [2] But most importantly, you went over our heads and for that insubordination, Brown, you’re fired.”

“WHAT!” Brown bellowed. Obviously un-restraining his outraged but aware of the Secret Service, Brown vowed, “You can’t do this to me – I’ll…I’ll open my own fast-food chain. Oh, you’ll see, Colonel, you’ll regret the day you locked horns with John Y. Brown Jr.!” And left with scowl on his face.

Kroc and I shook hands on the truce; as part of the agreement, KFC retained one share of McDonald's. "If McDonald's does well, Kroc, we'll benefit, too" I said. Privately, though, Millie to be able to "keep an eye" on the competition through future stockholder meetings and other vantage points. I think when he left that day he left with a new and better opinion of me.

Watching Kroc leave from the side window, Millie sighed, “Aw well, at least we still have Dave Thomas.” Millie reminded me of Dave’s support for Brown when he learned the news from Harley.

The comment refreshed my memory. “Say, is Dave still talking about getting his own burger tacked on to the menu?”

“Consistently. He actually makes a pretty good patty, Dad.”

“Hmm, that gives me an idea…”

Brown was replaced as the head of KFC BBQ by Floyd “Sonny” Tillman [3], a member of the KFC family since 1964. Days later, in an attempt to make amends, Brown was offered the position of head regional manager of KFC Bahamas, a nation to enjoy our offerings for the first time in November 1967, but, still simmering from his rejection from the company, he bitterly declined.

– Colonel Sanders’ Life As I Have Known It Has Been Finger-Lickin’ Good, Creation House publishing, 197

Nguyen Khanh began imprisoning former Viet Cong members in July despite the Colonel warning him that doing so “will not unify the country.” Ambassador Lodge supported the claim with a historical American comparison – how the US recovered from their won Civil War. In the aftermath of the conflict, both Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson supported the granting of pardons to former Confederates [4] “because forgiveness goes a long way” in ending lingering resentments. Khanh disregarded these talks and instead had his “collectors” round up former rebel “more discreetly.”

– Ellen Joy Hammer’s Indochina and The Wrath of Khanh, E. P. Dutton, 1969

“When it comes to keeping America safe and secure, the President prefers mutual tolerance over mutual destruction.”

– Press Secretary Ron Ziegler at a press meeting, in response to criticism of the President for reiterating his call to meet separately Russia’s Premier Shelepin and China’s Chairman Mao, 7/12/1967

…A man suspected of planting the bomb that killed an American citizen in Ireland’s County Wexford last year has been arrested. Police discovered, quote, ‘dangerous levels,’ unquote, of ammunition stored beneath his terraced house…

– BBC News report, 7/14/1967 broadcast

“We shouldn’t be sending aid to our former enemies. It’s proof that the President is soft on Communism, and if he can’t find a way to end the Pathet Lao in Laos, then he has to hire new strategists, because I do not believe the Colonel is the brains behind the fall of Vietnam.” George Wallace said during a prime-time spot on Meet the Press.

When Father learned of the attack on his policies and his character, he exclaimed “Is that fella out of his mind?! We repelled Communism from two whole countries!” Referring to North and South Vietnam, “Like he’s ever had to win over an entire subcontinent of people before – he could barely win over the people in his state on issues they all agreed on!”

One of our political strategists reiterated his suspicion of Wallace preparing for a Presidential bid next year.

“Of course he’s running,” Father observed, “he’s trying to make a case so he has something to run on! I tell you, if I was his age, I’d give him a poundin’ he’d never forget!”

“Dad, he’s a former boxer,” I reminded him.

“Then he should know a thing or two about kid gloves.”

The next week, Father appeared on Meet the Press to justify the increase in foreign aid to Indochina: “We owe it to ourselves to stand up for our allies and give them the help they need but don’t have so that they can chart their own course. And that assistance starts with giving basic medical needs, teaching basic agricultural and industrial techniques. And most importantly, it involves uniting the people of Vietnam together so they can move forward. So they can move on past this war, and prove to the world the same thing America proved to the world in 1776 – that when a people share a common goal, they can achieve anything!”

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991

July 14, 1967: Surveyor 4 is launched

In July 1967, the Colonel rejected his economic inner circle’s proposal to try to create price controls, believing the public would dislike the move and in turn discourage spending, which would only worsen the problem. The Colonel instead argued that businesses and labor unions could mutually benefit from collective bargaining agreements over the inevitable oppressive and bureaucratic nature of a proposed price board.

“We should be promoting self-sufficiency, not welfare dependency, by lowering welfare benefits to promote the notion that it should be used and seen as a last-resort measure. That employment is financially favorable to aid program reliance.”

The Colonel would explain in a presentation to his Treasury department, “If a person on welfare finds a part-time job that will pay the minimum wage of $5 per hour for eight hours per week (totaling $40), at say 15% ($6), and there may be extra child-care and community costs as well since that the person can no longer remain at home all day, the person is now worse off than before getting the job. This result occurs despite performing eight hours of work per week that is productive to society.” [5] These findings were based on conservations the Colonel had with Commerce Secretary Friedman, and eventually led to the coinage of the term “welfare trap.”

However, determining when welfare assistance should end during the improvement of one’s life and economic well-being was and remains a tricky affair, especially when considering the timing of gaining employment and the conditions therein.

With this in mind, the Colonel’s doomed 1965 proposal resurfaced. “An unconditional dividend would eliminate the fears of rejection from welfare programs upon gaining employment,” Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. told the President later that month.

The Colonel knew he could not go forward with returning to the guaranteed income concept without support. He concluded a mandate was in order: “I tried getting congress behind it, and that failed. So, next year, I will see to it that it is on the official party platform. That way, the people can vote on it instead of politicians.”

– Barbara Petrongolo, “The Unemployment Trap,” London School of Economics, CentrePiece Spring 2008

…But on the other hand, Jack’s condition had largely stabilized. He still often wore the back brace, but was now rarely depending on his crutches. The Addison’s disease still necessitated taking cortisone doses, but lately, after lengthy discussions with associates of the Rat Pack, Jack had begun divulging into more natural remedies and alleviants. Results were mixed: Shirley MacLaine’s suggest meditation techniques did not help at all, but turmeric (which helps increase hormone production) and milk thistle extract seemed to significantly lessen Jack’s discomfort [6]. While visiting Ted in California, Jack also discovered ginger incorporated into his food and drinks helped soothe intestinal pain and curb nausea.

…Jack wanted to be in the best shape possible for the battle ahead, and overall, his health was improving thanks to the work of Dr. [Hans] Kraus. Nevertheless, the disease was still there, haunting him like an internal ghost, a hidden personal demon refusing to cease harassing his victim from the inside out. Jack would not have it.

– Robert F. Kennedy’s The Definitive Decades, Tangent Writer’s House, 1999


…Governor Rockefeller’s years of taxing-and-spending created debt, while crime and unemployment rose in city. Governor Biaggi response has so far been to actively crack down on crime… Biaggi has found support for his policies on bipartisan lines, a strategy man very evident by the Governor’s public meeting with President Sanders on July 23...

Business Weekly, 8/1-7/1967 issue

On August 1, 1966, Steven Ross, from Bob’s first marriage, came into the world. Shortly afterwards, though, the Rosses divorced. But every happy little cloud has a silver lining – not too long afterward, Bob met Jane, who held a government job there in Alaska.


By early 1967, Bob was becoming, by his own admission “pretty darn good” at drawing. “I can draw really fast because the military taught me to do things quickly, always without dawdling or thinking for too long.” Bob soon developed a style of painting with intense spurts the despite their shots action dotting and jabbing at the board, the end result was almost always an image of calm tranquility. Early drawings show a clear “rush job” look, but by that summer, Ross had a good enough grip on painting to teach others the craft in Fairbanks. It was through connections here that he learned about Bill Alexander’s show…

– Kristin G. Congdon, Doug Blandy, and Danny Coeyman’s Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon, University Press of Mississippi, 2014


[pic: ]
– Bob Ross teaching a class in Fairbanks, Alaska, c. August 1967

When he was 25 years old, Glen Bell opened a hot dog stand in San Bernardino. Four years later, Bell applied the techniques used by a Mexican café across the street to begin selling tacos instead. Originally called “El Taco,” the mid-to-late 1960s saw Taco Bell quickly rise from a one-man roadside operation into a regional, and ultimately, multinational, fast-food enterprise of walk-up and drive-thru locations that offered Mexican meals at affordable prices. Well, Mexican-inspired meals, or “Mexicanesque” food, as Bell called it in 1990 (or, if you prefer, “Mockxican” food, a phrase coined by Harley Sanders in 1967).

– Josh Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012

LABOUR LOSES MAJORITY GOVERNMENT: Brown To Meet With Liberals Ahead Of Likely Minority Government Formation

…Conservative leader Enoch Powell’s call for a stronger approach to the IRA bombings frightening Britons for the past two years resonated well with the voters. Brown counterattacked with the warning that Powell would only worsen the already troubling situation regarding Northern Ireland. This was not enough to prevent Brown from losing support among security-minded voters – his party maintains minority control after a loss of 14 seats, losing majority control by just 2 seats.

The Daily Mirror, UK newspaper, 8/9/1967

ANNOUNCER: In an unconventional move, a Presidential candidacy has been formally announced months ahead of the Presidential primary dates. Mario Biaggi, the Governor of New York and former New York City police officer for roughly three decades, held a press meeting to unveil his plans for the next year.

BIAGGI (ON FOOTAGE): “Governor Rockefeller mismanaged this state, he sent it into spiraling debt, and it took this Democrat to fix it!”

ANNOUNCER: According to state polling, Biaggi is not well-known at the national level, and the Governor’s budget cuts early this year remain unpopular among many New York residents. When asked about his rapport with President Sanders, Biaggi had this to say:

BIAGGI (ON FOOTAGE): “The Colonel has done many great things for this country, but I’m afraid he is far too soft on the reds at home and abroad.”

– CBS Report, 8/20/1967 broadcast


– The Washington Post, 8/25/1967


[pic: ]

– Freshman US Representative Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel (D-AS), dressed as Paul Revere, hands out a petition to cancel plans for nuclear weapons testing in Alaska to a fellow US Representative, 8/26/1967


…Abernathy, with the others, proclaimed “the city’s run-amok police officers their badges every time they overstep their boundaries and ignore the rights of the people they are meant to protect, not intimidate.”

– The Chicago Tribune, 8/27/1967

The conclusion is that inflation is slowly rising due to the Great Society programs. Recession in the immediate future is highly possible but not unavoidable. Options to be disclosed at meeting next week.

– Internal memo, U.S. Treasury Department, dated 8/28/1967


Tallahassee, FL – Governor Robert King High was found dead in his office earlier today. Doctors at the local hospital announced the cause of death to be a heart attack. High had previously suffered a heart attack in 1963 at age 39.

As Florida has no Lieutenant Governor, the current President of the Florida Senate is the designated successor. This means the new Governor of Florida is Verle Allyn Pope, a Democratic legislator whom supported many of High’s policies…

High was elected Governor last November over a scandal-plagued opponent. …As the Mayor of Miami for 10 years, the reformer addressed corruption and the city’s insurance commissioning practices while lowering city taxes to promotes more people and businesses moving into Miami. Being strongly anti-segregation, High often vocally opposed former C. Farris Bryant… As Governor, High passed legislation to expand job opportunity for low-income ethnic neighborhoods, and quickly became a friend to the state’s Hispanic and African populations...

High is survived by his wife Sarah Faith Price High and their 6 children.

– The Miami Herald, 8/30/1967

25TH AMENDMENT RATIFIED: Voting Age Is Lowered From 21 To 18!

…the approval of the Rhode Island state legislature had pushed this landmark legislation across the finish line… Sanders, who has shown no signs of opposing the law, is expected to hold a ceremony regarding the amendment within the next two weeks, according to a White House official...

The New York Times, 9/1/1967


[pic: ]
– President Sanders celebrating his 77th birthday, 9/9/1967

Dr. Luther Terry’s 1964 report on the health effects of tobacco smoking [10] led to the Federal Public Health Smoking Act of September 1967, which placed a ban on all tobacco-related product advertising on radio and/or television. The tobacco lobbyists on the hill claimed the bill violated free enterprise and violated the First Amendment by inhibiting the industry’s freedom of speech, but the Federal Communications Commission countered that, since the topic of smoking is controversial, numerous TV and radio stations continued to break the Fairness Doctrine when airing these commercials because they did not give equal time to the opposing viewpoint that smoking is dangerous [11]. To further promote a healthier America, Father instructed the H.E.W. department to promote healthy food consumption practices…

– Harland David “Harley” Sanders Jr., In the Thick of It: The Story of The Colonel and His Son, Sunrise Publishing, 1991


– The Washington Post, 9/12/1967


[pic: ]
– President Harland Sanders offers some students some of his famous chicken while visiting an elementary school in Washington, DC, after meeting with officials concerning children’s education programs and eating habits, c. September 1967

…Congress’s attempts to close the federal budget deficit, though, were overshadowed by relevant geopolitics.

On September 16, 1967, Cambodia-based Communist guerillas attacked the Laos city of Muang Champassak. American eyes returned to the region’s growing “Cambodian Crisis” and the persistent Pathet Lao. Former Secretary of State Jack Kennedy went onto Meet the Press to proclaim “I’ve known since 1963 that the best way to stabilize the Asian southeast is to send delegates to Geneva to set up a peace treaty. Warmongering can only go so far before the American people find it to be an unforgiveable offense.”

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014


At age 66, the King had been in poor health since at least 1959... Paul’s 27-year-old eldest child, his son Constantine II, succeeds him to the throne.

The Daily Mirror, UK newspaper, 23/9/1967


The Chicago Tribune, 9/24/1967

FORTAS RESIGNS!: Supreme Court Justice Steps Down Over Ethics Scandal

Washington, DC – Abe Fortas has stepped down from his Supreme Court seat a mere three days after Congressman J. E. Hinshaw (R-Ark.) introduced a resolution to formally begin impeachment proceedings against the Justice. …Earlier this month, investigators reveals Justice Fortas had accepted a $20,000 retainer from the family foundation of Louis Wolfson, a Wall Street financier who is a friend and former client of Fortas, in January 1966 [12]. This revelation came just weeks after Wolfson was indicted of securities violations, and while Fortas recused himself from the case and has denied any wrongdoing, the subsequent investigation into Fortas’ actions had “significantly damaged the Justice’s ability to work on the bench,” according to a source close to Chief Justice Warren. Also according to this source, Warren urged Fortas to step down.

…this will be President Sanders’ first filling of a Supreme Court seat…

The Washington Post, 9/24/1967

King Of Cambodia Wants More U.S. “Advisory Troops” Amidst Rise Of Communists Attacks

…Ardent former Viet Cong members are entering Cambodia from its northern border… The King is reluctant to call for additional American assistance due to his foreign policy stances. “He refuses to kowtow to either Western or Communist sides,” explains the former U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia William Kane, “but the situation is getting more severe, and we should help his country in securing the border and expelling the unwanted insurgents.”

The New York Times, 9/27/1967 report

Sander’s initial choice [for Fortas’ seat] was Jack Greenberg (1924-2016) of Brown vs. Board of Education fame, so his name was floated out as the frontrunner contender to test his viability. Martin Luther King and Ralph Abernathy praised the choice, but conservative Democrats adamantly opposed him. After several tense days, the Democrats’ saber-rattling ended when Greenberg publicly declined the position, but he noted he was “more than flattered by the honor of being considered.” Sanders then sought out another candidate while at the same time dealt with rising problems overseas…

– Linda Greenhouse and Morton J. Horwitz’s The Warren Court and the Pursuit of Justice (Third Edition), Sunrise Publishing, 2010

…Sanders became convinced, during these lengthy phone talks with the King of Cambodia, to increase number of US advisors in Cambodia by 30%. The White House confirmed the move at a press conference on October 10…

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of the Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

De Gaulle to The Colonel: “Keep Out of Asia”

…changing noticeably from the war-supporting policies that caused De Gaulle to fall from power in 1965, the former leader of France told the American President, “The independence of all nations in southeast Asia must be guaranteed by the nonintervention of any outside powers. Let the Cambodians take care of themselves”… [13].

The Telegraph, UK newspaper, 10/11/1967

“Protecting our allies in all corners of the globe is a necessity vital to maintaining the well-being of all well-meaning freedom-lovers.”

– U.S. Secretary of Defense Chuck Bonesteel, defending recent activities in Indochina at a press conference, 10/12/1967

Walter, the scene outside the White House south lawn is reminiscent of four years ago, as shoutniks march with picket signs in protest of the U.S. troops returning to Indochina to combat Communists guerillas in the nation of Cambodia. Some of these young activists believe the President’s “foreign advisor” force increase five days ago will lead to, quote, “a second Cuba.”

– CBS News, 10/15/1967 broadcast

In his memoirs, Sanders’ Attorney General Lawrence Edward Walsh revealed the extent of Sanders’ complex frustrations with student/shoutnik protestors. At one private meeting in the Oval Office, the Colonel allegedly complained “These youngin’s should shove-off or shut-up. When I was much younger than them my new stepdaddy didn’t care for me, and I didn’t much care for him. Did I complain? No! I left home and made something out of myself. No picketing necessary! But today, they complain about anything and everything – even if you win a War!” The Colonel then remarked “I fully support their right to protest, but it just feels like an abuse of the First Amendment to try to hold the government hostage. For college students, they don’t understand how complicated this whole thing is!”

The return of the shoutniks contributed to the Colonel beginning to second-guess his support of J. Edgar Hoover, after the latter reportedly suggested to the Colonel that he should send in the National Guard to “get the garbage taken off the lawn.” According to author Rick Perlstein, the Colonel was shocked by this “heartless” suggestion. During a conversation with his daughter Margaret, the Colonel said, “I can’t believe he still thinks like that.” Margaret reportedly remarked, “Well, you know what they say, Dad – never meet your idol.”

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012


With the economy roaring and unemployment below 5%, many are applauding Sanders for his alleged role in these developments. In reality, these economic conditions are the long-term effects of LBJ’s Great Society programs. In late 1961, Johnson enacted tax cuts that reduced marginal rates in middle-range brackets as well as for corporations, and yet, Republicans still claim he was against corporations, which has led to an elderly baby born from corporate America becoming our new leader. These tax cuts increased our gross national product by 8% in 1962, 7% in 1963, and 6% in 1964, according to several bipartisan and independent research study organizations. The GDP increases of 1965 (5%), and 1966 (7%) are the direct result of those 1961 tax cuts, and not from some nonexistent Sanders action. Furthermore, the lowering of the unemployment rate has been affected by two factors: more immediately, the Cuban War’s conclusion thanks to actions taken during LBJ’s last months in office, and a much older phenomenon – the Baby Boomers. These are the people born immediately after WWII – roughly over 70 million new American citizens born in the past 20 years. In a recent article in the New Yorker, economist John K. Galbraith predicts “the nation’s workforce between now and 1980 will double as these ‘boomers’ enter the workforce.” The long-term effects of this will be higher unemployment if the President does not expand the nation’s employment possibilities via immediate liberal legislation. Responsibility with the future we leave our children is tantamount to the legacy of anyone whom wields the power to make such change happen.

– Senator Yarborough’s op-ed in the Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 1/5/1968; Yarborough later publicly apologized for the “elderly baby” remark

What can you tell us about the claims of former aides and interns that your husband had a temper and, to put it bluntly, swore like a sailor?

Oh, my Harland would only cuss up a storm when he was infuriated by something very offensive. I remember this one incident in October where this Senator, um, some Democrat I believe, referred to him in a demeaning manner that was too disrespectful for a Senator to say to his President. He called the Senator to the Oval Office and made a bullhorn out of his ear, cursing something awful.

But you know what? I was this kind of passion suggested in those reports, both the articles and rumors back the books out now, that only increased his base of moderate and conservative supporters. Sanders would meet with the people and they told him, they liked having a bulldog barking for them, to have a strong, brave, passionate man fighting for their jobs and the like.

– Claudia Price Sanders and interviewer, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1979

EXTRA!: ISRAEL INVADES EGYPT! Nasser’s Air Force Overwhelmed!

– The New York Times, 10/18/1967

“So, you want war, Jews? Well, then, heh-heh…Ahlan Wa-sahlan [welcome], mother!#@&ers!”

– Egypt’s President Nasser, 10/18/1967 (multiple sources, but still possibly anecdotal)

The Sukkot War between Israel and the Egypt/Jordan/Syria alliance began with a pre-emptive aerial assault on Egypt’s air force bases on the morning of Wednesday, October 18, which was Erev Sukkot. The next day, on the first day of Sukkot, a solemn biblical Jewish holiday [7]: a day the Egyptians would never suspect to be the launch date of an attack on their forces. The Israel Defense Forces estimated the war would be over before the 25th, the 7th day of Sukkot.

Originally, the plan was for the war to occur in June, but Israel’s PM, Levi Eshkol, a 72-year-old Zionist, was uncertain of the amount and extent of support America’s President Sanders would provide. Sanders’ proposed talks with the leaders of Russia and Red China put Israel on edge, as securing US political and military support in the lead up to the war was crucial on geopolitical grounds, as Israel so to develop international legitimacy through an absolute military victory. Thus, most of the summer had involved Israel’s ambassador to the US, Avraham Harman, meeting with Sanders and members of his military and state departments.


Syria had no air support and poor communication with Jordan and Egypt, and so their activities in the war were initially minimal.


– Martin van Creveld’s Defending Israel: A Controversial Plan Toward Peace, Thomas Dunne Books, 2004

“What are they doing?” the Colonel inquired.

“It looks like a repeat of 1956,” the General answered.

“That Suez Canal thing?”

“Um, not exactly, sir,” he explained, “Also that year, Israel invaded the Sinai like how they are now. But it was over the Tiran Straits, not the Canal. And it seems like this is a pre-emptive reply to Egypt’s President Nasser closing the Tiran to Israeli vessels back in May.”

“Oh, that thing. The thing Israel’s been asking us to intervene over for months. I guess they finally decided to do something about it themselves.”

Ambassador Harman, sitting quietly in the back, spoke up. “We were waiting for absolute certainty that America would support us during this… endeavor. But, Colonel, we were put off by your support for Palestine when we discussed the broader issue with you in June.”

“I did not say I support Palestine.”

“You were reluctant to support Israel. Same difference.”

“The Hell it is! This is a regional conflict and you want the US, a country on the opposite side of the globe, to just step in and pick a side?”

“It’s what you did with Vietnam, Colonel.”

“That was different and you know it! And it’s not like the Egyptians aren’t without blame, here.” The Colonel walked over to the giant map on the wall. “You don’t close seaways. Not only does it hurt merchants and innocent traders, but with how the economies of the world’s countries are getting more and more intertwined with each other, it endangers the economic well-being of folks far removed from this regional conflict.”

“So you agree – that this is an act of self-defense – that this is a repelling of Egypt’s aggression.”

It looked like Sanders wanted to say, “I don’t know,” or maybe that he wanted both sides to find a less bloody solution such as a trade deal, but instead he said, “That’s to be figured out.”

“Well you should figure it soon, sir.” Harman observed, “Israel needs to know you still have their back on this, Mr. President.”

“Mr. President, Jordan’s mobilizing their air force,” the Deputy Defense Secretary got off the phone to inform the Colonel of the update.

“But they haven’t even been invaded.”

The Ambassador explained, “Egypt, Jordan and Syria all made pacts with each other to support each other should Israel ever attack them.”

“And the IDF knew of these pacts.” The Colonel surmised.

“They had months to plan out this response, sir.”

Jordanian jets flew out to the Golan Heights to bomb tanks and shoot down Israeli jets, but due to the hasty mobilization of forces, communications between Jordanian and Egyptian military leaders were poor. Most noticeably, two flanks of jets struck the same tank division, leaving a second Israeli tank formation untouched. The tank division proved vital in repelling the Syrians from the Golan Heights.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014 [8]

“Any Americans nearby?” Shelepin barked.

The subordinate reported, “Just the USS Liberty, a research ship, stationed in Tel Aviv.”

“Imbecile! There’s American ships and subs out there, I know it! Keep looking!” Shelepin ordered.


By noon of the second day, Israel was well on its way to capturing and occupying the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Golan Heights. All of the IDF’s months of hard planning was playing off without a hitch. Egypt, Syria, and Jordan were uncoordinated and in disarray. China was silent; Russia however, was a different story. As a nation famous for its large Jewish population, Russia had tried in the past to coax Israel into their sphere of influence. After October 18, Russia’s Premier Shelepin became convinced the assault was fully orchestrated by the Americans, and began to consider escalating the conflict to nuclear proportions.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

Egypt’s air power was obliterated. The Egyptian Air Force’s airfields were in deplorable infrastructure conditions, lacking even air shelters for the men; the Israeli jets flew in below radar so that they too low for surface-to-air missiles batteries to be effective. The bombings disabled their runways and destroyed an overwhelming majority of their jets in an impressively quick manner.

Casualties were severely lopsided in Israel’s favor. By the end of the second day of warfare, 20,000 Egyptian, Jordanian and Syrian troops were dead, compared to less than 1,000 Israeli soldiers. Nasser began contemplating ordering an evacuation of the Sinai. Then the unexpected happen – Iraq intervened.

The leader of Iraq, Abdul Rahman Arif, had decided to take the opportunity to attack Israel with what he saw would be seen as a legitimate defense of his unofficial allies in the region, and enlarge Iraq’s standing on the world stage.

By October 20, most of the Sinai, West Bank, and Golan Heights regions were occupied despite tepid support from the US and opposition from what was now four countries, but Israel was meeting more resistance in light of Iraq’s assaults.

– Gad Barzilai’s Wars, Internal Conflicts, and Political Order: A Jewish Democracy in the Middle East, NYU Press, 1996 [9]

Egypt’s forces consisted of infantry, 100,000 troops and roughly 900 tanks in the Sinai, plus APCs and artillery. Egyptian brigades failed to push back the ground forces, but air attacks were less frequent on the 21st as Iraq attacked IDF airfields.

It soon became obvious that the Israelis had failed to consider the idea that Iraq would join its fellow Muslim-majority nations and attack.

By the 22nd, Israel were actually beginning troops falling back from Golan Heights as Syrian ground troops became more organized.

The IDF began to fear the initial assault on Egypt would not be enough.

– Derek Hopwood’s Egypt: Politics and Society, Routledge London Press, 1971


– The New York Times, 10/23/1967


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders reacting to an update on the situation in the Middle East, 10/23/1967

“Dammit, what Dam?!”

“The Aswan Dam, sir. The Egyptians start construction on this massive multimillion-dollar damming endeavor to increase the state’s agriculture production, electricity production, employment, tourism, and prevent droughts,” Secretary Bonesteel explained.

“Now that’s the kind of stuff governments should invest in,” the Colonel softly remarked, almost as if to himself.

“The project on the Nile started back in 1960, and the first dam construction stage was finished three years ago. Since then, the reservoir has slowly been filling, but it wasn’t expected to reach capacity until 1975.”

“Oh! So here wasn’t any flooding?” a dash of hope flashed across his face.

“U-2 recon photos and ground reporting suggest some flooding, but nothing more than the floods usually experienced in the area during the Rainy Seasons. Few crops hit, local industry will survive.”

“Anyone killed?”

“I’d be surprised if nobody was.”

“Care to explain this action?” The Colonel asked the Ambassador.

“It’s very telling that you keep defending our enemies instead of us,” Harman deflected the inquiry.

“Only because they have no representatives here. Egypt and Jordan have severed their relations with us, they enough kicked out our ambassador. But trust when I say that if they sent some representatives, I’d be chastisin’ ’em right now for causing this maelstrom of death and headache.”

The Ambassador grinned, “I’m sure the crash into the Dam was an accident, but if it wasn’t, well, this is a war.”

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014 [9]

The war proceeded onward in Israel’s favor, but with a higher casualty rate. Syria retook the Golan Heights on the 24th.

Later that day, in a startling move, Prime Minister Eshkol decided to save face and de-escalate the conflict before Israel “finds itself on the losing side of its won war.” Upon hearing Eshkol's decision, President Sanders reportedly sighed in relief.

– Gad Barzilai’s Wars, Internal Conflicts, and Political Order: A Jewish Democracy in the Middle East, NYU Press, 1996


The New York Times, 10/24/1967

After the attack on the Aswan Dam, Shelepin became more willing to intervene with an attack on the US. It was only Eshkol’s call for an armistice that calmed him down, as he viewed it as an admission of defeat (as did Egypt and its allies, while Israel saw it as an “overall victory” due to its net land gains). The timing of Eshkol’s announcement proved vital – according to multiple sources, had the call for a truce occurred any later, it would have been too late, as Shelepin was about to order a Soviet Air Force strike on IDF elements in Tel Aviv when he received word of the Eshkol announcement.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

CEASE-FIRE IN MIDDLE EAST ACCEPTED AFTER TALKS: Golan Heights Returned to Syria, Israel Retains West Bank and Half of The Sinai

– The Washington Post, 10/27/1967


New York City, NY – The US Ambassador to the UN today called for the multinational organization to send aid to the Middle East to help displaced persons on both sides of the Sukkot War. According to a BBC World News report, at least 12,000 Palestinians have fled the West Bank, while persons of the Jewish faith have fled from their homes across the Middle East out of fear of retribution.

– The Eugene Register-Guard, 10/27/1967

[Iraqi President] Abdul Rahman Arif, fearful of losing his grip on power in the wake of his failure to keep to his October 22 pledge to “eliminate Israel completely from the map,” blamed the perceived “loss” of the Sukkot War on [Deputy Secretary of the Regional Command Saddam] Hussein. Branded a traitor for "giving classified information to Israeli spies for money" without any evidence, police arrested Hussein. Multiple countries criticized Arif for the “kangaroo court” trial of Saddam Hussein, but his sentencing and execution went forward regardless. In the aftermath of Hussein’s execution, the United States re-establsihed support for Arif, with then-President Colonel Sanders commending Arif for not being corrupt and for supporting closer ties with the West despite Iraq’s role in the Sukkot War.

– clickopedia/Saddam_Hussein_(Iraqi_politician) (note: stub article)

..The bittersweet results of the war created lingering tensions between the US and Israel, with Israeli officials criticizing Colonel Sanders' behavior as "too peace-happy" and not supportive enough of Israel. While the nation's position on the world stage was certainly elevated, primarily for its impressive destruction of the Egyptian Air Force, the Israeli government became less confident in the capabilities of the IDF in the months and even years immediately following the Sukkot War…

– Martin van Creveld’s Defending Israel: A Controversial Plan Toward Peace, Thomas Dunne Books, 2004

In late 1967, there was a 20-year-old woman named Norma Nelson. After a number of run-ins with the law and then dropping out of a State School for Girls in Gainesville, Texas at the age of 17, she another person moved to California. Almost a drifter in nature, she was ultimately by a KFC outlet just outside of San Francisco. Then one day, a woman claiming to be Ms. Nelson’s “betrayed ex-lover” shot and killed her inside the restaurant while she was helping a customer. I remember learning of the incident and visiting the outlet. Nelson had already been moved, but there was still blood on floor and booth. While the incident was unconnected to KFC and received little national press attention, it shocked me that someone so young had died so horribly. Due to Ms. Nelson’s connection to violent individuals, Millie successfully calling for a complete overhauling of employment processes for all KFC outlets. She was not exactly keeping out the riff-raff so much as it was keeping our customers safe. That was our emphasis. But even still, every once in a while, I would think back to that bloodied booth and what a terrible tragedy the whole incident, the loss of a young life, had been for everyone involved. That is what led to my founding of my charity program for teen runaways and other at-risk youths…

– Margaret Sanders’ The Colonel’s Secret: Eleven Herbs and a Spicy Daughter, StarGroup International, 1997

EXTRA!: Sanders Cancels Cabinet Meeting, Checks Into Hospital For “Fatigue”

The Washington Times, 10/28/1967

“No, Helen, the President simply overextended himself today, and after he gets some rest, he will be getting back to work within a day or two.”

– WH Press Sec. Ron Ziegler, 10/28/1967


Associated Press, 10/29/1967 report

…The Expo ’67 World’s Fair was held in Canada to celebrate the nation’s Centennial (October 1967). Canadians viewed the festivities as producing a much-needed boost for Canadian morale after the tumultuous Diefenbaker years. …Pierre Berton described 1967 as “Canada’s first good year after a sea of bad ones.”


ROBSION ELECTED GOVERNOR: Victories Here, Elsewhere, Gives GOP High Hopes For ’68

The Kentucky Gazette, 11/7/1967

Kentucky General Election Results, 11/7/1967:

For Governor:
John M. Robsion Jr. (Republican) – 462,099 (52.10%)
Ed Breadthitt (Democratic) – 414,825 (46.77%)
Christian Glanz (Heritage & Independence) – 9,224 (1.04%)
Total votes cast: 886,148
Turnout: 29.19% Total Population

For Lieutenant Governor:
Thomas Ratliff (Republican) – 409,941 (50.36%)
Henry Ward (Democratic) – 397,651 (48.85%)
William Smith (Heritage & Independence) – 6,430 (0.79%)
Total votes cast: 814,022
Turnout: 26.79% Total Population



The Times-Picayune, 11/7/1967


In his second bid for the office, Rubel Lex Phillips Sr., 42, the former state Service Commissioner, repeatedly attacked the Democratic nominee, state Treasurer William Winter, 44, for being “not Southern enough” despite being born and raised in Grenada, Mississippi, and tied himself to President Sanders, whose personality and handling of Vietnam has made him increasingly popular in this state. Learning from his failed gubernatorial bid in 1963, Phillips was less hostile on this campaign trail, and discussed more than just one issue. He reached out to independents and focused heavily on issues that were less divisive and more locally focused, such as state contractors for road repair and hospital improvements. Phillips will enter office in January.

The Daily Mississippian, 11/7/1967

Boston Mayoral Election Results:

Runoff (11/7/1967):
Kevin H. White – 105,496 (54.7%)
John Winthrop Sears – 87,366 (45.3%)
Total votes cast: 192,862
Turnout: 27.66% Total Population

Boston Mayoral Election Results:
Preliminary (9/26/1967):
John Winthrop Sears – 32,959 (21.23%)
Kevin H. White – 30,795 (19.83%)
Louise Day Hicks – 29,528 (19.02%)
Edward J. Logue – 27,494 (17.71%)
Christopher A. Iannella – 19,778 (12.74%)
Stephen Davenport – 9,016 (5.81%)
Nicholas Abraham – 2,295 (1.48%)
Albert L. “Dapper” O’Neil – 1,471 (0.95%)
Peter F. Hines – 1,091 (0.70%)
John F. McDonough – 827 (0.54%)
Total votes cast: 155,248
Turnout: 22.27% Total Population


The Preliminary election had seen Commonwealth Secretary Kevin White, a liberal, running on the message of expanding social programs, edging out Boston School Committee member Louise Day Hicks, a conservative, for second place. John Winthrop Sears, a 37-year-old self-described “center-fielding” moderate Republican lawyer and member of the state house of representatives since 1965, received a campaign boost from President Sanders endorsing him over Hicks. While officially a Democrat, many of Hicks’ policies were popular among conservative Republicans, such as her call for the FBI to dissolve the “Malcolm X-Men” social organization, her opposition to busing Black and low-income children to white and high-income school districts, and her crime reform proposals. However, in light of the victory in Vietnam, the Colonel’s July endorsement of Sears siphoned some votes away from however. However, it is now evident that Sears failed to win over Hicks supporters, who stayed home on Election Day, giving the Mayoralty to White by a fair margin.

The Boston Globe, 11/7/1967

November 7, 1967: Surveyor 6 is launched



…Edward H. Levi, 56, served as a special assistant to the U.S. Attorney General during World War II, was the dean of the University of Chicago Law School from 1950 to 1962, was promoted to provost of that university in 1962, and has served as assistant Attorney General of the United States since 1965. Several politicians had questioned Levi’s credentials, but his impressive answers during the hearings portion of the vetting process won over most naysayers. “He has an almost encyclopedic understanding of various aspect of US Constitutional law that will make him a valued asset to the court,” swears Senator Bud Wilkinson (R-OK)…

The Los Angeles Times, 11/8/1967


Associated Press, 11/10/1967 report


…The funds spent on a run for the Presidency has steadily risen in each election since 1952. The 1964 election saw both the Johnson and Sanders campaign spend a combined $413,445.42 [14] on all campaign expenditures [15]. After adjusting for inflation, the upcoming 1968 election is expected to see $928,251.66 [16] spent on advertisements in the form of posters, banners, TV and radio commercials, newspaper spots, endorsements, renting spaces for fundraisers and other events, and other elements...

– The Wall Street Journal, 11/10/1967

Apollo 4 – second crewed Apollo flight


Launched: 11/11/1967



– The Washington Post, 11/11/1967


President Sanders, at 77, is by far America’s oldest President, and recent health issues coupled with his increasing focus on foreign policy over campaign concerns may hint at Sanders deciding against running for a second term to instead focus on resolving conflicts in Indochina and. The Colonel has already made several accomplishments while in office – he deregulated several industries, vetoed tax hikes in a libertarian fashion to contribute to a national surplus, and toppled the Ho Chi Minh regime suffocating the people of North Vietnam. Retirement may be best to preserve his legacy, as some pundits have suggested his health and advanced age could cost him re-election next year.

If he was to decline, the party has a diverse roster of potential 1968 nominees. Naturally, Nelson Rockefeller and Barry Goldwater could run again, but could be opposed by members of their respective factions who have not run before. For instance, Secretary of State Carl Curtis’s name has been floated as a less toxic alternative to Goldwater. Similarly, a very obvious choice for Sanders’ successor would be his Vice President, William Scranton. Scranton is a moderate, but he has portrayed leadership skills by calming a race riot in Madison, Wisconsin last summer and contributing to legislation victories. Meanwhile, General Creighton Abrams, the man who strategized the land-sea-air invasion of Hanoi, could energize the party in a way similar to how Eisenhower did in 1952. Deputy President pro tempore of the Senate Richard Nixon, a known friend of the Colonel, could mount a political comeback. However, so far Nixon has not expressed interest despite becoming the third-highest ranking member of the Senate upon Johnson entering the inaugural position of Executive Deputy President pro tempore of the Senate. Other prospective candidates may very well be Governor Volpe, Governor Romney, and General Westmoreland.

National Review article (abridged), late November issue


“Florida needs a Senator who will work for the real people of Florida!”

– The Montgomery Advertiser, 11/12/1967



INTERVIEWER: There’s been some talk of President Sanders deciding against running for re-election next year. If these rumors prove to be true, will you consider running?

WESTMORELAND: I had to be a Major General before I became a General. If I want to be President, I’ll work my way up to it first.

INTERVIEWER: Does that mean you’re considering a run for some public office?

WESTMORELAND: I’m keeping that option on the table for now. My current primary focus, though, is to protect and defend America and her allies as commander of U.S. forces – I mean, advisory personnel – in Cambodia.”

The Greenville News, South Carolina newspaper, 11/19/1967

11/24/1967: [17] Truett Cathy changes the name of his Atlanta, Georgia restaurant from “Dwarf House” to “Chick-fil-A” (a play on “chicken fillet”) six years after discovering a pressure-fryer capable of cooking his signature chicken sandwich in the same short amount of time needed to cook fast-food burgers.


[pic: ]


…Our exposé in January revealed that these two world leaders were initially suspicious of each other for their opposing political views. New reporting now reveals that they have since cooled relations via finding common ground on social issues and personal interests...

The Globe and Mail, 11/24/1967

NGUYEN KHANH WOUNDED IN ASSASSINATION ATTEMPT: Vietnam Pres. Recovering From Guns Shot Into Car; Vows To “Bring The Would-be Killers To Justice.”

Stars and Stripes, 11/28/1967

Polling Report: Americans polarized on US foreign policy strength

…Despite the victory in Vietnam, 34% of Americans still question the strength and/or reliability of the US military. …The rise in America’s presence in Cambodia is a factor in these polling results, as is President Sanders’ administration currently negotiating the exact place for a meeting with China’s Mao Zedong and the premier of Russia, both of which are scheduled to happen “within the next five months,” according to White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler.

The Washington Post, 11/30/1967

In the Senate chamber, Lee Metcalf asked Johnson to sit down with him, Russell, and Mansfield. Metcalf, the Permanent Acting President pro tempore of the Senate from Montana, was a heavily influential liberal reformer and champion of laws involving raising the minimum wage, improving healthcare and education, and promoting conservation. Johnson possibly believed the talk was to be on legislation. The meeting was more like an intervention of sorts.

“Lyndon, I’ll get straight to the point – we know you want to run for President again, but we do not believe that to be wise.”

“You want me to not run?” Johnson said with a dismissive snort-laugh. When the other men didn’t smile back, Johnson went on defense, “Well you won’t get legislation passed faster under any other President!”

“Lyndon, the Colonel beat you once, he could beat you again,” Mansfield said.

“Not with buyer’s remorse on my side.”

“The Colonel is going to tout the overthrow of the Viet Cong until every voter can’t forget it, and he’ll compare it to Cuba,” Metcalf added.

“Oh you’re the ringleader of this, aren’t you, Lee. You disliked my handling of Cuba so now you’re, what trying to make a powerful enemy?”

“We just know you’d be a greater benefit to the US behind a Senate seat than the Resolute Desk, that’s all,” Russell noted.

“You too, Dick?”

“We have to look out for the party,” Russell defended himself.

Johnson, after a bitter sigh, asked, “And who do you think can win against Sanders.”

“Another Sanders,” Russell answered. “Carl Sanders.”

“Who?” Johnson inquired. Usually of an encyclopedic mind in regards to politicians, the name escaped him.

“He this lawyer-politician who was my state’s Governor from ’63 to ’67. Left office a highly popular man. He’s young – only 42, his policies are sound, he’s charismatic, he’s a war veteran, he’s got legislative and executive experience, and he’s completely scandal free.”

“But most importantly,” Mansfield interrupted, “he’s fiercely loyal to the party that made him the nation’s youngest Governor in ’63. At the Georgia party’s convention last year, he said, and I quote, ‘A man should be loyal to his country, his family, to his God and to his political party – and don’t you ever forget it.’”

Johnson shook his head. “No offense, Dick, but he’s a Deep Southerner, and one without northern appeal. He won’t survive the primaries.”

“Lyndon,” Russell began.

“No, no, no! If you want me to stand down, you’ll have to back my preferred candidate.”

“Who do you have in mind?” asked Metcalf.

“Humphrey! I just talked to him – he’s recovering from his health scare nicely. He’s full of life and energy, and he's told me that he’ll run if I don’t.”

“Then he’s running, Lyndon.”

Johnson would agree to declining a bid in exchange for support on several bills he was overseeing, effectively controlling a number of Senators' votes until the conclusion of the 1968 DNC…

– Robert Caro’s The Years of Lyndon: Book Five: The Post-Presidency Years, A. A. Knopf Inc., 2018


Washington, DC – In a bipartisan effort, Congress today officially altered the Secret Service law enforcement agency’s mandate to protect not just the President, all declared presidential candidates. The expansion includes an allocation funds ahead of the 1968 Presidential election. The expansion was first suggested in late 1964, shortly after then-candidate Colonel Sanders survived a knife attack while on the candidate trail...

– The New York Daily News, 12/7/1967

CRONKITE: Good evening… Earlier today, the former Governor of Alabama, George Corley Wallace Jr., announced that he is running for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States. His platform calls for a, quote, better handling, unquote, of post-Viet Cong Indochina, and the, quote, physical decentralization of industries, unquote.

WALLACE (in footage): “I don’t think God meant people to be all jammed up in cities. No courtesy, no time, no room – that’s all you get in cities[18].

CRONKITE: In stark contrast to other declared and undeclared Democrats in the race, Wallace is opposing the expansion of certain “Great society” measures and institutions.

WALLACE (in footage): “I oppose having the bureaucrats and intellectual morons trying to manage everything for the rest of us. It’s simply a matter of trusting the people to make their own decisions.[18]

CRONKITE: We will see in the weeks and months ahead just how effective this rhetoric will be on the campaign trail.

– CBS News, 12/11/1967 broadcast

In early December 1967, [state representative Michael] Dukakis successfully managed to get the state Auto Insurance Reform act passed, and invited much media attention to its singing-into-law ceremony, making sure to get credit for the legislative victory instead of Governor Volpe. [19]

– Richard Gaines and Michael Segal’s Dukakis: The Man Who Would Be Governor, Mass Market Paperback/Avon Books, 1987

PRIME MINISTER HAROLD HOLT WELCOMED IN D.C.: Meets With Sanders To Sign Trade Agreement

The Canberra Times, 12/12/1967

On December 13, 1967, Sanders met with his Commerce and Treasury Secretaries at Camp David to again discuss the administration’s economic concerns. After a lengthy discussion, the Colonel agreed to call on Congress to impose an 8-month freeze on wages and prices in order to stabilize the American dollar. Secretary Friedman initially proposed a freezing for 12 months, but Sanders disliked the idea of the freeze continuing into the 1968 Presidential election.

– Russell L. Riley’s The President’s Words: White House Speeches and Their Impacts, University of Kansas Press, 2010

MOTHER (to camera): My family loves eat dinner together, but my son and daughter like different things. (fade to family at generic burger place) Sometimes when we eat out, we’ll have hamburgers, which daughter doesn’t like (fade to family at generic chicken place), and sometimes we’ll we have chicken, which my son doesn’t like. (to camera) If only there was a place where we could get both chicken and hamburgers.

ANNOUNCER: There is!

FATHER (looking up): Really? Where?!

ANNOUNCER (spoken over image of outlet): At Kentucky Fried Chicken!

SON: But they just sell chicken items there!

ANNOUNCER (spoken over footage of family happily ordering at KFC): Not anymore! Introducing the all-new Wendyburger Menu! That’s right, the good people at KFC have cooked up a mighty-fine selection of burgers – hamburgers and cheeseburgers with fresh, high-quality beef, lettuce, tomatoes and buns.

MOTHER (to camera, smiling): Now everyone’s happy!

SON (taking large bite out of burger): Mmm! That’s delicious!

ANNOUNCER: (loudly) KFC’s Wendyburgers – their Finger Lickin’ Good! (quietly) For a limited time only, pending sales results. Found in participating locations in 35 states. Exact menu items may very per outlet.

– Transcript of TV commercial for the KFC Wendyburger Menu, aka the Wendy Menu, first unveiled 12/15/1967

The Colonel’s fairly light scheduling in the autumn and the celebration of his 77th birthday on September 9 led to several weeks throughout the autumn months of speculation that the President would retire. Some pundits suggested even if his health was not primary issue, retirement could give him the time left in his term to focus on ending warfare in Laos and nip the insurgency in Cambodia in the bud. Sanders decided to address the rumors “buzzing around D.C. like flies on a donkey’s rear end,” as he put it.

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1968, Atheneum Publishers, 1969

On December 21, Sanders publicly called on congress to approve of the wage freeze. However, in a move that his inner circle was not expecting, the Colonel also finally made official his 1968 bid at the same press meeting held at the White House: “By the grace of God we will continue to spread America’s best fortunes until they reach every corner of the globe! I will not retire after just one term. I am not too old to serve another term, and I am not too ill to serve another term. The thing that keeps a man alive is having something to do. [20] And this administration still has much to do – more rights to preserve, more freedoms to uphold, and more dreams to help make into realities.” ...Sanders later explained that sought to win over conservatives and liberals with “a rallying message” Instead, Sanders was criticized on the left for being “imperialist” in tone and on the right for interfering with the “natural flow” of the economy...

– Russell L. Riley’s The President’s Words: White House Speeches and Their Impacts, University of Kansas Press, 2010


…those surveyed suggest the two greatest concerns for the American at the moment are the upcoming tax freezes and perceived foreign policy stagnation…

– Gallup Poll report, 12/31/1967

“This is going to be a cakewalk”

– Former U.S. Secretary of State Jack Kennedy, 12/31/1967 (multiple sources)


[Pic: ]
– Jack Kennedy, eating a meal while wearing a suit for some reason, c. December 1967

[1] Wording found here:
[2] Good point, @DTF955Baseballfan
[3] Founded Sonny’s BBQ restaurant chain in 1968 IOTL, but not here due to this promotion.
[4] Source:
[5] As described here:
[6] Taken from here:
[7] Source of Sukkot dates:
[8 & 9] Statistics and background information taken from here:
[10] Found here:
[11] Pulled from here:
[12] According to the information found here:
[13] Italicized part of quote is from here:
[14] $300 million in 2011 dollars according to
[15] The $300 million number mentioned above if from the chart at this source:
[16] $600 million in 2011 dollars according to
[17] Date found here:
[18] OTL quote!
[19] Based on the real-life actions described in OTL’s Dukakis: The Man Who Would Be President book:
[20] OTL quote!

Also: @DTF955Baseballfan, M.A.S.H. was based on the 1968 novel based on the real-life Korean War experience of this guy ; other TV shows would cover the war, I imagine. The Wonder Years, for example, was a wholly fictional take on a radical moment in American history; maybe ITTL, that show is made in the late 1980s/early 1990s, but it’s set in the early-to-mid ’60s instead of the late’60s/early’70s.

And, ahead of the next post (E.T.A.: June 20), I’ve made a poll for the 1968 Democratic primaries: !

And here’s a quick breakdown of the candidates on the poll:

Governor Mario Biaggi of New York (b. 1917, age 51) – the leading law-and-order candidate and “rising star” of the moderate half of the party entered politics in 1963, but quickly worked his way up to statewide prominence in an impressive manner; as a proud Italian-American and a former highly-decorated police officer, he could easily appeal to white ethnic voters, suburban voters, and urban voters: “When you do things the right way and for the right reasons, you end up right where you want to be, but when you do things the wrong way and for the wrong reasons, you end up right where you deserve to be.”

Governor Edmund Gerald “Pat” Brown of California (b. 1905, age 63) – in office since 1959, he has overseen the expansion of The Golden State’s economy, and “walked the political tightrope” when it came to address shoutnik protests during the past several years and tumultuous social change: “My supporters are fired up, and those flames of enthusiasm are going to spread out, and quickly.”

Former Governor Bertram Thomas “Bert” Combs of Kentucky (b. 1911, age 57) – The Colonel’s gubernatorial successor aims to be The Colonel’s Presidential successor next year by mounting a campaign focused on his record of reforming and expanding his home state’s parks and education systems: “I think appreciation for our country’s natural landscapes is stamped deeply into the fabric of our culture and our national identity, so I think it should also be stamped deeply into the fine print of our national laws.”

US Representative Maurice Robert “Mike” Gravel of Alaska (b. 1930, age 38) – In office since 1967, this “maverick” former Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives has mounted a longshot bid on essentially one key platform – No More War: “We cannot keep caving in to the deadly demands of the military-industrial complex, which President Eisenhower warns us about in January 1961.”

Former US VP Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. of Minnesota (b. 1911, age 57) – The “loyal” former VP looks to be the man to beat for top-tier status, as he boasts a robust war chest, many political connections, and a liberal platform; however, some opponents may be able to attack him on The Cuba War quite easily: “Foreign policy is really domestic policy with its hat on.”

Former US Secretary of State John Fitzgerald “Jack” Kennedy of Massachusetts (b. 1917, age 51) – Jack is very similar to Hubert; playing a major role in the Johnson administration, the well-funded top-tier candidate will have to explain both his role in The Cuba War and, quite possibly, the exact status of his health; Kennedy, however, believes he can win by garnering Catholics and minority voters, and by utilizing personal charm and charisma: “Every accomplishment starts with the decision to try.”

Governor Patrick Joseph “Pat” Lucey of Wisconsin (b. 1918, age 50) – believing the Midwest needs a candidate who is not “tainted” by Lyndon Johnson, Lucey is running on his record of developing tourism in his state, and of expanding education, healthcare access, housing, and work access for non-whites in Wisconsin as well: “We need a new President with new ideas for a new era in American history.”

Businessman Lester Garfield Maddox Sr. of Georgia (b. 1915, age 53) – a staunch opponent of “forced racial integration...on economic grounds,” this well-known restaurant owner believes he could keep the South solidly in the Democratic column if he wins this longshot bid for the party’s nomination; his latest controversial statement concerned him comparing his poor odds of victory to his defense of segregation: “inequality is a blessing in disguise, for Man’s potential for greatness atrophies in the absence of adversity.”

US Senator Wayne Lyman Morse of Oregon (b. 1900, age 68) – an early opponent to The Cuban War who unsuccessfully challenged Johnson for the nomination four years ago, many of his supporters believe that his progressive and anti-war platform will “easily” win him the nomination this time around

Former Governor Carl Edwards Sanders Sr. of Georgia (b. 1925, age 43) – supported by many “establishment” politicians, the young Carl believes he can best the old Colonel by running on his record, by winning over the youth vote, and by “uniting everyone,” including “dissatisfied Republicans”: “it’s high time for a generational changing over the guard.”

Former Governor George Corley Wallace Jr. of Alabama (b. 1919, age 49) – a moderate and a supporter of racial integration with a noticeable streak of populism, he is on good terms with the President but says he believes Sanders is too old to handle a second term: “though I admire his attitude, there is a point when being determined crosses over into being stubborn.”

Los Angeles Mayor Sam William Yorty of California (b. 1909, age 59) – the (self-declared) most conservative candidate in the Democratic field, this former US Congressman claims he can win over Republicans voters in the general election: “I embrace the endorsements I’ve received from Republican politicians because they prove that I can reach out and work across the aisle to find compromise and get things done.”

July 8, 2019 EDIT: merged up the Q&A bit:
Interesting, I knew M*A*S*H T producers sometimes took ideas from former war vets for their stories but didn't realize the movel came from real life expertiences.

I thought Sanders was going to retire - he still could, I guess.

That title - permanent acting President pro temp - made me laugh. How can he be permanent if he's just the Acting one? But, there's even weirder stuff in politics.
And it’s a real title, too!:

Very interesting chapter there.

I would have asked for a 5 year freeze on competition between KFC and McDonald's, esp with the Wendyburger menu coming online soon. Also I imagine KFC kept some of the shares if nothing else to keep an eye on the internal affairs of a rival.
Good points; I’ll go back and edit those 2 things in. Thanks for the feedback!
EDIT: added!

JFK - have your tried pot? I hear its great for pain relief in small doses.
According to this source: JFK tried some in July 1962 IOTL but: “At first felt no effects. Then he closed his eyes and refused a fourth joint. ‘Suppose the Russians did something now,’ he said.” Maybe here, he’s already tried it but isn’t exactly open about it due to its taboo status and because of his upcoming Presidential bid.

Israel kicked some serious ass there. Wonder how long the news that they just skipped WWIII would take to come out? Hopefully the 'Palestinian problem' is not as bad here.
The revelation comes in the form of that 1997 Russian source for that passage, is confirmed by other sources in the months and years following that publication.

No PM Powell please. A breakthrough on the IRA might help there.
We'll see...

Sanders vs Sanders? Now that would be a bun fight indeed.
Speaking of which, I’ve made a poll for the 1968 Democratic primaries: ! (EDIT: Added to end of Chapter 27 post)

Wonder if Kroc had to buy the shares back at market rates.
I suppose so!, as Sanders held all the cards there.

Wendys could be a spin off of KFC
Hmm, maybe... :)

And now I see a future in this TL where Bruce Willis stars in a movie as President Nasser :biggrin: :winkytongue:
I like that! :D

One of the things I love about alternate history is the sheer plausibility people find to play in seemingly outlandish scenarios. This timeline is absolutely one of the best at that :).
Gee, thanks!
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Interesting, I knew M*A*S*H T producers sometimes took ideas from former war vets for their stories but didn't realize the movel came from real life expertiences.

I thought Sanders was going to retire - he still could, I guess.

That title - permanent acting President pro temp - made me laugh. How can he be permanent if he's just the Acting one? But, there's even weirder stuff in politics.
Very interesting chapter there.

I would have asked for a 5 year freeze on competition between KFC and McDonald's, esp with the Wendyburger menu coming online soon. Also I imagine KFC kept some of the shares if nothing else to keep an eye on the internal affairs of a rival.

SE Asia still being a problem? Shock! Didn't think Khannnnnnnnn would be such an idiot.

JFK - have your tried pot? I hear its great for pain relief in small doses.

Israel kicked some serious ass there. Wonder how long the news that they just skipped WWIII would take to come out? Hopefully the 'Palestinian problem' is not as bad here.

No PM Powell please. A breakthrough on the IRA might help there.

Sanders vs Sanders? Now that would be a bun fight indeed.
“So, you want war, Jews? Well, then, heh-heh…Ahlan Wa-sahlan [welcome], mother!#@&ers!”

– Egypt’s President Nasser, 10/18/1967 (multiple sources, but still possibly anecdotal)

And now I see a future in this TL where Bruce Willis stars in a movie as President Nasser :biggrin: :winkytongue:
One of the things I love about alternate history is the sheer plausibility people find to play in seemingly outlandish scenarios. This timeline is absolutely one of the best at that :).
Awesome update. Bob Ross. Name sounds familiar. Shame Israel didn't do as well as it did. Glad Hussein's gone. Hope J Edgar Hoover is out as FBI Director at some point, power hungry jackass.
One of the things I love about alternate history is the sheer plausibility people find to play in seemingly outlandish scenarios. This timeline is absolutely one of the best at that :).

I'm sure there are things about OTL History that some people would find ridiculous.

Remember the Back to the Future joke about Reagan.

"Reagan, the actor, he's President?!"

Because telling people in the 1950s that a relatively minor actor would become President sounds utterly ridiculous.

And let us not even get into the current President.
Chapter 28: January 1968 – June 1968
Chapter 28: January 1968 – June 1968

“Do Not Follow where the path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and leave a trail”

– Ralph Waldo Emerson


– The Minnesota Daily, 1/1/1968

CARL SANDERS TO RUN FOR PRESIDENT: Former Georgia Governor Claims “I Have What It Takes.”

– The Charlotte Observer, North Carolina newspaper, 1/2/1968

“The party bosses propped me up as their favorite, but then dropped me as soon as they struck a deal with el B.J. and Triple-H. But I’d already done the preliminary work, and during the pre-announcement laps around the South I became convinced that I was the best man for the job. Whether the establishment could be won back over was one thing, but the fact that I could connect with people in any state was another. I could draw crowds in any state. And I really did think that I could lead the country into a better destiny and a greater future.”

– Carl Sanders, 2010 interview

Apollo 4
Launched: 1/3/1968
Splashdown: 1/13/1968


“The biggest domestic issue for 1968? I’ll tell you. It’s people—our fine American people, living their own lives, buying their own homes, educating their children, running their own farms, working the way they like to work, and not having the bureaucrats and intellectual morons trying to manage everything for them. It’s a matter of trusting the people to make their own decisions.” [1]

– George Wallace, announcing his bid for President, 1/4/1968

Ahead of the New Hampshire primary, the field of Democrats was diverse and chaotic. There was no clear frontrunner for the New Deal Coalition to rally behind, but the early favorite among voters sampled was Jack Kennedy. Kennedy was a liberal establishment-friendly member of a political dynasty, a religious minority with “white ethnic” appeal and many wealthy donors and media connections (his friends were columnists and actors and his youngest brother owned a growing newspaper in California). The usual runner-up in early polling was Hubert Humphrey, a folksy Minnesotan with labor union support who seemed who have a plurality of support among Black voters due to his record; he stood up for Civil Rights as far back as 1947, before it was politically safe to do so. His strength in the polls likely caused Senator Eugene McCarthy to decide against running to his left, as he would later reveal to have considered doing.

Speaking of the left side of the party, a surprisingly strong candidacy for 1968 came in the form of Mike Gravel, who had only been in the House for a year but was already making himself known to voter through media taking note of his recalcitrant speeches against the policies of the Sanders administration. While many Democratic politicians complained of the negative attacks, such behavior won over the students and intellectuals of the progressive/leftist side of the party. To many, 37-year-old Gravel was a fresher version of the 67-year-old peacenik-idolizing “peace dove” candidate Wayne Morse, who had already run twice for the Presidency and failed, but still maintained a collection of followers.

Conservatives, meanwhile, saw their influence declining in the party; Carl Sanders of Georgia was the branch’s strongest candidate, a regional mirror image of Humphrey in some ways, and like a mirror, much shallower than Humphrey, too. Sanders’ vying for regional support, however, saw challenge from George Wallace. Both Carl Sanders and George Wallace were fairly moderate [2] (albeit Wallace was much more populist and had more support among poor people) and less genuine in terms of racial equality when compared to Kennedy and Humphrey, but both Southerners sought out minority voters nonetheless. (“Blacks are the future of the party whether some folks in the party like it or not” Wallace prophesized in January 1971). The most conservative man in the race, however, actually came from that little urban hub known as New York City. Governor Mario Biaggi campaign on law-and-order, and managed to chip away chunks of union support from Kennedy as the year 1968 began.

Natural for the time, undeclared candidates and favorite sons sought out votes as well. Businessman and perennial candidate Lester Maddox, ardent racist conservative with populist and nationalist tendencies, ran on his history of butting heads with Colonel Sanders back when both men were better known for their restaurants than their political stances. Maddox’s campaign was present on the ballot in most primaries but failed to gain any higher than the 3.1%. Pat Brown represented the old guard and sought a campaign through winning his home state in the primaries. Congressman Sam Yorty also sought to accomplish this. Former Governor Bert Combs of Kentucky failed to gain any momentum of any sort, and his exact campaign strategy still remains unclear. Favorite son candidates meant to serve a placeholders for other candidates included the non-serious candidacy of US Senator George Smathers and the very serious candidacy of Governor Pat Lucey of Wisconsin.

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1968, Centurion Publishers, 2015

Shelepin was intolerant of even suggestions of allowing capitalist ideas like freedom of speech to seep into his Soviet bloc. Upon learning of efforts to liberalize the political policies of Czechoslovakia, Shelepin threatened “if a million Soviets marching into Prague is necessary to cease the threat of western corruption, then so be it!”

While de-Stalinization had begun in Czechoslovakia during the late 1950s, change in the quality of the average citizen’s life came at a snail’s pace, even after its economy was restructured in 1965 to combat recession. First Secretary Antonin Novotny was losing the support of the people and his fellow politicians. Shelepin opted to step in before things got “out of hand” after Novotny invited Shelepin to Prague to drum up support.

The leader of the opposition to Novotny’s leadership was First Secretary of the regional Communist Party of Slovakia Alexander Dubcek, who was supported by economist Ota Sik and the Union of Czechoslovak Writers, a group of writers urging political reform through their publishing houses. Dubcek favored a partial decentralization of the Czechoslovakian economy and media, and a loosening of speech and travel restrictions for citizens. Naturally, these positions clashed Shelepin’s vision for all Communist Pact members.

However, upon visiting the nation’s capital in January, Shelepin became disappointed in Novotny allowing opposition to grow to such an extent, and quickly oversaw Novotny stepping down in favor of hardline conservative politician and strong Shelepin supporter Vasil’ Bil’ak succeeding Novotny as First Secretary of Czechoslovakia. Bal’ik supporter Gustav Husak was soon promoted to Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

Shelepin urged these two new leaders to persecute the radical socialists behind Dubcek’s challenge for power, such as journalist Ludvik Vaculik. Bil’ak, however, believed persecution would strengthen the movement, while simply disregarding the calls for sudden reform to instead allow minor changes over long periods of time would be the best way to maintain peace and remain in power, lest he fall out of favor with Shelepin. However, to placate the Soviet politburo, Bal’ik did instruct a more clandestine police force to “disappear” certain people, contributing to the nation’s slow but steady trickle of citizens fleeing the country each year. Furthermore, Dubcek supporters were demoted and relocated, while Dubcek himself was expelled from the state party and given a new job as a forestry official.

– Maskim Gorky’s Behind the Iron Curtain: The U.S.S.R. And Eastern Europe, Academic International Press, 1980

January 7, 1968: the final lunar soft-lander of the Surveyor program, Surveyor 7, is launched


The bombing of a train from Kent to London has taken the lives of 15 people, one of which was a member of the Royal family. 32-year-old Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, a Major in the Royal Scots Greys and was a supporter of furthering the U.K.’s military presence in Ireland, was killed by the blast…

The Daily Express, 7/1/1968

North Ireland PM Terence O’Neill’s effort to made peaceful concessions to the Catholics making up 40% of his political entity, only for the militant Protestant leader Ian Paisley to repeatedly obstruct such efforts, refusing to compromise and hindering peace talks between Ireland, the UK, and the IRA.

In the early hours of Christmas 1967, Paisley and his aide-de-camp were by unknown assassins. The advisor succumbed to his wounds while Paisley survived a bullet to the lung, albeit after a lengthy stay in hospital and repeat hospital visits due to complications, including infections and pneumonia, which impeded his health for the rest of his life. IRA members immediately pointed their fingers at the UK’s MI6 and swore revenge.

Meanwhile, Prime Minister George Brown sought a way to relieve the British economy still feeling the effects of the Salad Oil Recession. After failing to maintain the exchange rate, Brown became intrigued by reports of a group of Surbiton secretaries volunteering to work overtime without pay, wagering than it would boost productivity and thus boost the economy. Brown’s Economic Minister Wilson wanted to expand the act into a national campaign, but Brown was wary of how trade unions would react to the government stepping in (which was ironic, as it turned out that the secretaries in question had actually been inspired by an op-ed written in December 197 by Conservative MP John Boyd-Carpenter). Without a government endorsement, such a movement would come off as spontaneous and rooted in British society, not British bureaucracy. Brown instead encouraged media coverage to spread to volunteer work to other British workplaces.

On the morning of January 7, 1968, Prime Minister Brown was enjoying a breakfast of English fry up with a generous slice of jam roly-poly. He was discussing the goings-on with the 5-and-a-half workweek campaign, now being dubbed the “Back Britain” campaign by the media, and lamenting his recent failure to find a consensus in parliament on the size of next year’s military budget with his wife, Sophia, when he received word that the Duke of Kent had been assassinated.

“Oh god,” he reportedly whispered to himself.

“Sir, how should we respond to this?” That was the question asked in the hours after. Over in Ireland, important person, rejected proposed negotiations between the two nations.

– historian Greg Rosen’s In a Westminster Hour: The Fights and Follies of Prime Minister George Brown, Politico Publishing, London, 2001


Suspected IRA Accomplices Arrested, Interrogated As New Policies Implemented; Regional Curfews “Likely To Follow”

The Daily Telegraph, 8/1/1968

…Despite increasing UK military presence in Northern Ireland, PM Brown’s approval ratings have actually slipped to 40% as hostilities escalate on the Emerald Isle, threatening the lives of civilians on both sides of the conflict. The drop in approval may also stem from Tuesday’s revelations of Labour and Conservative MPs being strong supporters of the Back Britain campaign, which has led to worker unions across the UK coming out in opposition to the movement during the past three-to-four days…

– BBC News report, Friday 12/1/1968

BROWN BACK TO HITTING THE BOTTLE!: PM In Hospital After Public Drunkenness Incident!

London – After over a year-and-a-half off the sauce, the past few weeks of foreign and domestic failures have apparently taken their toll on PM Brown…

The Daily Mail, 13/1/1968

“It’s my opinion that if Mr. Brown cannot make the hard choices that come with leading the UK, then stepping down may be for the best for all.”

– John T. Stonehouse, UK MP (since 1957), UK Postmaster General (since 1967) and former UK Minister of State for Technology (1967), 13/1/1968

Stonehouse was sacked for the comment. Brown worsened the situation when he refuted the reports as to why he sent two days in hospital, saying (in)famously “I wasn’t drunk – I was tired and emotional.”

– historian Greg Rosen’s In a Westminster Hour: The Fights and Follies of Prime Minister George Brown, Politico Publishing, London, 2001

“This government owes a great debt to the American people – to all who support it, who invest in it, who pay taxes to it, who have faith in it. We must return the favor through domestic improvements. We need to reform our housing and rent laws so they are equal to everyone. We need to rethink how we treat and look after the destitute, the elderly, and the sick. We need to promote better economic opportunities for all. We need to promote vocational schooling to better equip the next generation of Americans ahead of them making the leap from the school to the workplace. It is the least that this government can do for you, my fellow American, after all that you do for your country! I know from three years of working here that many folks with the ability to do great things will often be tempted to do easier things instead. The easy way is efficacious and speedy, the hard way is arduous and long. But as the clock ticks on the easy way becomes harder and the hard way becomes easier. And as the calendar records the years, it becomes increasingly evident that the easy way rests hazardously upon shifting sands, whereas the hard way builds solidly a foundation of confidence that cannot be swept away. [3] Our nation truly shines when we overcome what holds us back and achieve unprecedented greatness. Let’s continue that legacy!”

– President Sanders’ State of the Union address (excerpt), 1/17/1968

“I seek to run not just a campaign, but to run a great nation. I base my candidacy on my belief that the American people will stand up for justice for all Americans.”

– Hubert Humphrey, launching his Presidential campaign, 1/18/1968

“America’s importance on the world stage is daunting. We should not regret being a sentinel at the gate. It is burdensome, but the fact of the matter is that if we fail, the whole cause of freedom fails, and I believe as a citizen of the United States that we should be prepared to carry that burden regardless of whether others are willing to do so or not. The responsibility is upon us. Berlin still has its wall; Indochina still has its guerillas. Our work is not yet done. This country still has a most promising future, but the fact remains we’ve seen the contrast between Communism and democracy, and the superiority of our side, but we must be willing to stand up and defend our ideals in order for them to survive and thrive both here and over there. And we are best suited for this task.” [4]

– Jack Kennedy’s speech at Patrick Air Force Base in Brevard County, Florida, 1/21/1968

…Amid the state’s budget crisis, California Governor Pat Brown has declined an active bid for the Democratic nomination for President at a press conference held earlier today. He noted, though, that he would run for President if he won the party’s nomination at the National Convention in July…

– CBS News, 1/19/1968 broadcast

REPORTER: Former Secretary Jack Kennedy is being attacked by his primary opponents for his allegedly poor record on civil rights. Congressman Gravel has repeatedly brought up Kennedy’s failing to vote on the censure of Joe McCarthy while serving in the Senate, responding to Kennedy’s alleged excuse of being in surgery by pointing out that the Senator could have “paired” with a like-minded Senator.

GRAVEL (in footage): I’ve spent less time in Congress and even I understand that.”

REPORTER: Senator Morse of Oregon has also brought up how Kennedy voted in favor of the jury trial amendment that weakened the 1957 Civil Rights Act…

– NBC News report, 1/22/1968

One week later [after the State of the Union address], Sanders flew to West Berlin to address accusations that the US was failing to do its part in protecting the exclave from Communist pressure. As part of the Four Powers administering the city, the visit was to reassure France and the UK, as well as Conservatives at home, that the freedom experienced by West Berliners were being defended, and that NATO was respecting the Soviet control of East Berlin despite their opposition to their methods of control. Sanders gave a speech at an event held visibly close to the Berlin Wall, becoming the highest-ranking US official to do so since the wall’s construction. To the Colonel, “the proof was in the pudding,” in that the continuous attempts of East Berlin citizens to escape to the West was indicative of communism’s failure to address the needs of people. Regardless, the Colonel’s visit, most famously featuring a speech held in front of a wall segment in which he proclaimed “The inherent will for man to chart their own course and determine their future for themselves cannot be removed or repressed.” Said speech’s conclusion, “Let us focus on our shared beliefs of working hard and doing good, and always – and I mean always – standing by and standing up for the rights and freedoms of our fellow man,” cooled West Berliner fears of a future Soviet invasion without antagonizing the Soviet Union.

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

Although the possibility of holding a debate was discussed from time to time, the same problem of 1964 remained: the “equal time” provision of the 1934 Federal Communications Act. To solve this, Senator John O. Pastore (D-RI), the Chairman of the Senate’s Communications Subcommittee, spent much of 1967 working with the networks to draft legislation to adjust the wording of the act [5] so that networks could exercise judgment in choosing candidates “of opposing views.” These changes that came into effect in January 1968.

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1968, Atheneum Publishers, 1969


…Chairman Mao, after rejecting meeting at Camp David, and then rejecting Australia’s Prime Minister Harold Holt’s offer to hold the summit in Canberra, “is elated at the prospect of productive discussions with President Sanders,” announced a state representative. …The Summit, meant to open trade negotiations between the U.S. and China, may also feature the U.S. recognizing the People’s Republic of China as “the true government of China” instead of the Republic of China, also known as Taiwan. This shake-up in US-Chinese relations “may prove to be mutually beneficial by giving them more trade options and giving America access to materials endemic to China,” according to our senior analyst…

– The Sacramento Union (Ted Kennedy’s newspaper), 1/25/1968

KFC CELEBRATES 2,000TH U.S. LOCATION: Greenville, South Carolina Enjoys Parade, Grand Opening Ceremony

Financial Times, 1/26/1968


The Boston Globe, 1/27/1968

“If There Was Ever A Time To Get Into Politics, That Time Is Now.”

– Benjamin Crowninshield Bradlee, executive editor of The Washington Post (1967-1991) and friend and ally of Jack Kennedy, 1/30/1968 op-ed

GRAVEL: New Solutions To Old Problems

– Mike Gravel for President banner seen in New Hampshire, c. February 1968

Sanders’ 1965 doubling of the tax credit for small businesses led to the number of small business owners increased 20% between 1965 and 1968, and his idea for congress to use cost-benefit analyses when reviewing all bills was finding support among the 1967 freshmen conservative Congressmen.

– Paul Ozersky’s Colonel Sanders and the American Dream, University of Texas Press, 2012


Jack, Hubert And Others Agree To 1-Hour Debate Set For “The End Of The Month”

…“Any Presidential candidate should be prepared to face the judgement of the presidential primaries,” noted Kennedy [6]

The Los Angeles Times, 2/1/1968


Stars and Stripes, 2/3/1968

“I worked with Johnson on domestic issues but not foreign affairs. We did not see eye-to-eye on how to address Laos. We tried his idea, and now we’ve tried the Colonel’s idea, and both have failed. I’ve studied the issue more than both men, and now I think it’s time we gave my ideas a try, and I think the voters will concur with that.”

– Jack Kennedy on Political Parlay (The Overmyer-Mutual Company’s first politically oriented original program, 2/5/1968 broadcast


– The Pittsburgh Courier, sports section, 2/6/1968


The Los Angeles Times, 2/9/1968


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders with supporters in Phoenix, AZ, 2/9/1968

“I worked with Goldwater when he was still in the Senate, and let me tell you, Humphrey can’t mind his tongue. He’s always slipping up a spilling stuff. Under a Humphrey Presidency, the Russians won’t need spies because they’ll get government secrets from off the AP wire!”

– Senator Barry Goldwater to an AP reporter, 2/9/1968

CRONKITE: In the past, you have made some controversial statements regarding youth activism. Would you care to address the criticism surrounding them?

SANDERS: Well, Walter, I don’t have any qualms about anybody anywhere criticizing their government. Dissent is a tool of change that distinguishes democracy from tyranny. It was dissent that led to the American Revolution, after all. But remember, Walt – the American Revolution was fought because there was no peaceful resolution that could be reached with the British. In doing so, our forbearers created a good model for future generations – “try peace before punchin’.” We spilled some tea, and then we went war. When it comes to change, at least in America, the passion and the power of the people should be exerted before bringing about change through violence is what I’m sayin’. Just look at Gandhi and the Civil Rights leaders like Reverend King. Just look at the sit-downs I’m trying to set up like Mao and Shelepin.

CRONKITE: So to clarify, when you complained last year about protestors being outside the White House, you were complaining about their level of violence, not their message?

SANDERS: Yes, sir! Listen, if anyone wants to get up and heckle in that American tradition is one thing, but when it gets to be that the shouting is done in an attempt to deny to the majority the right to listen to someone else’s ideas, well, that’s when it has to be stopped, and stopped fairly and effectively.

CRONKITE: Whose ideas were being denied?

SANDERS: The ideas of supporters of my administration. The military, the Congress, and most disgracefully, the veterans who put their lives on the line for this country and them come home to see young non-veterans carpin’ up their actions of heroism.

– CBS Interview with Colonel Sanders, 2/10/1968

On February 11, 1968, Leary, a member of the Original Kleptonian Neo-American Church (or the Neo-American Church, or the OKNeoAC, for short), was taken to court over the use of illegal substances. Leary confessed to their use but claimed it was legal on “church grounds” and thus violation of freedom of religion, and made ties analogies to other religions’ practices (such as the use of alcohol for communion) to back up this claim. The Neo-American Church was a 2-to-3-years-old church meant to, according to its founder, “promote and defend…a religion which sees in the transcendental experience produced by the sacred substances the key to understanding life and improving the condition of man on earth” and required members to use illegal substances for certain church activities. Church founder Arthur Kleps defended Leary’s stance in Leary v The State of California. Leary also countered by accusing the FBI of unlawful search and seizure and unauthorized interrogation techniques.

After weeks of deliberation, the circuit court declared a mistrial due to half of the illegal substances disappearing from a police storage facility, thus letting Leary off due to “mishandling of evidence.” Leary’s lawsuit against the FBI, however, was thrown out of court for no official reason.

While Leary narrowly avoided federal imprisonment, the Neo-American church’s publicity was twofold – their numbers increased 40% over the next six months, but the absurdist publications and customs of the church led to them failing to establish the bona fides necessary for them to be considered a serious religion. As a result, the church was declared to be not protected by the First Amendment.


Senator Nixon remains an unsung yet pivotal figure in the warming of US-Chinese relations. Senator Nixon had believed since the start of his tenure on the US Senate foreign Affairs Committee in 1965 that closer relations with China would lead to the two nations opposing Russia instead of the US and China opposing each other. Secretary of State Carl Curtis went even further in late 1967 by privately predicted closer ties to the US would ultimately lead to a “capitalist revolution” in China, but Nixon and the Colonel made geopolitical maneuvering the top priority, as “China in our corner” would give the US better leverage when dealing with the Soviet Union. Nixon also wanted to convince China to discontinue its support for the Pathet Lao and the disorganized communists in Cambodia. In the weeks and months prior to the visit members of President Sanders’ foreign policy team met with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai ahead of visit official Mao-Sanders visit.

On the twelfth, The Colonel, First Lady Claudia, and their entourage flew from DC to Hawaii to Guam to Tianjin, a city just to the south of the capital of Beijing. Chairman Mao himself welcomed the First Couple on the tarmac, and famously declared via translator “I believe our old friend Chiang Kai-shek would not approve of this! [7] Not wanting to waste time, in case talks failed after days of comradery, the two leaders immediately went off to negotiate. No transcripts of the conversation were made, and the only observers allowed in the room with Mao, Sanders and their respective interpreters were two Mao aides, Secretary of State Carl Curtis, and WH Chief of Staff (and former Secretary of Defense) Neil H. McElroy. However, Curtis did log a description of the meeting in his personal diary, which contains the following passage:

“It was clear both of these septuagenarian men were of a tough and rugged physique cut from the same cloth – Sanders’ from years of living like a peasant, Mao’s from years of living as a peasant. Mao’s proclivity for getting straight to the point made the conversation was episodic, with both men cutting to the chase and then moving on to the next topic. Nevertheless, the meeting and atmosphere were rather casual.”

Sanders reportedly did not mention the Great Leap Forward or his administration’s past criticisms of Mao’s “Cultural Revolution,” as The Colonel believed opening China up to western markets would reverse the sociopolitical purges. The very fact that Mao was willing to negotiate such a policy shift seemed to indicate it was possible.

Mao surprised the Colonel with self-deprecating humor. His ego showed at times, but he was never angered when Sanders stood up for his country and his principles. Mao was a smooth talker, a skillful negotiator, but Sanders had known such times throughout his life, and knew how to verbally dance around them. After hours of debating specifics, Mao and Sanders agreed on the gradual severing of relations with Taiwan for a smooth transition, with relations fully broken off in early 1972 and full diplomatic relations established with China in early 1971. A “hotline” between Beijing and Washington DC would be established to prevent misunderstandings. The past 21 years of no communicative or diplomatic ties between two nations with nuclear weapons would cease, and China would “convince” North Korea to end its ambush/hostility programs against South Korea in exchange for China being allowed to conduct trade negotiations with American businesses.

Satisfied with the mutually benefiting aspect of these points, the Chairman stood up and firmly shook the Colonel’s hand.

The meeting a success, Mao and Sanders regrouped with their spouses for the gift exchange – a pressure fryer from Sanders in the spirit of hearth and modern innovation, and a jewel-studded jade-and-silver cane (with Mao telling Sanders “the next time you have to put down an assassin,” referring to the famous 1964 knife attack incident, “with this, he’ll stay down”). The leaders and their entourages then travelled north of the city to peruse the majestic wonder of the Great Wall of China. The next day, February 13, Mao treated the Colonel to a tour of Beijing (and a quick visit to Shanghai) to visit schools, factories, and hospitals. The two leaders were seen visibly getting along well, reportedly telling jokes and toasting the historic achievements of each others’ nations.

A banquet capped off the final day of the visit, February 14. The main dish served was sesame seed chicken. Much later, the Colonel would confide in Claudia “that bird was prepared by the finest chefs at Mao’s disposal, and it still couldn’t beat mine.”

While American and European media had only been granted limited access to China, it was more than enough to give American and European citizens a view into the People’s Republic for the first time since the late 1940s. American news coverage of the Beijing Summit was overwhelmingly positive. Even conservative and liberal politicians conceded to the apparent success of the Mao-Sanders summit as being, as Barry Goldwater called it, “a good first step toward a new normalization of relations between the U.S. and Red China.”

– Stephen E. Ambrose, Unforeseen Victories: When Politicians Triumph Over Politics: 1953-1973, NY Simon and Shuster, 1989


Approve: 59%

Disapprove: 31%

Uncertain: 10%

– Gallup poll, 2/17/1968

GRONSKY: Senator Nixon, Former Vice-President Humphrey stated on this program yesterday that the Republican Party is politicizing the [deal] with China. What do you say to that?

NIXON: I say The Colonel reads the newspapers like anyone else, and, uh, I don’t agree with these so-called reports that parts of the Sanders White House wants to use the talks for that reason, because the China visit was about trade and ending hostilities at the Korean DMZ. And because it is a responsibility attached to the Presidency, to assure peace not just for America but America’s allies and even potential American allies. I know the President, I’m friends with him, and he wouldn’t play politics with something like this.

GRONSKY: But it would advantageous for him to do so.

NIXON: Heh, trust me, The Colonel’s a straight-shooter – he hates underhanded tactics.

– Guest Richard Nixon and host Martin Gronsky, Meet the Press transcript, 2/18/1968 broadcast

Upon reviewing the success of the Beijing Summit, the firmly anti-détente Shelepin decided to go ahead and meet with the Colonel after all. While actually a change of tactics, the perceived change of heart was publicly viewed as a result of the Colonel “winning over” Shelepin. Of course, there were other factors. Shelepin saw the failure of Russia’s latest spy program as embarrassing, with experimental technology and newly-designed planes failing to leave the launch base on some occasions. The Kyshtym disaster kept the premier uncertain of his nation's ability to radiate its enemies instead of itself. A Soviet ballistic missile submarine sank with all 95 on board only a few miles from American waters [8] made Shelepin question the competence of Russian and American militaries. Finally, it seems pro-détente leaders such as Leonid Brezhnev were gaining support within the politburo, and Shelepin determined that temporary leaning to the left was necessary to win over those that could challenge him, especially after attempts to purge these opponents was too risky. It wasn’t the ’30s anymore, and purges were much harder to keep under wraps than they used to be.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

February 19, 1968: National Educational Television aired the pilot episode of the preschool-level TV series Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood. …Then-President Harland “Colonel” Sanders, after reportedly watching “some parts of some episodes” with his great-grandchildren, would later praise Rogers for his promotion of peace and friendship, “a valiant effort to nip fear and hatred of one’s fellow man right in the bud so the next generation can understand and respect one another at a level never seen before.”


[This list is incomplete; if you can help by expanding it, click here]

GRAVEL: US Rep. Don Edwards, former US Rep. George McGovern, Abraham Ribicoff, Paul Newman, Tommy Chong, Yoko Ono, Simon & Garfunkel

HUMPHREY: US Sen. Lyndon Johnson, Sen. Eugene McCarthy, Sen. Richard J. Daley, Julian Bond, Kirk Douglas

KENNEDY: US Sen. Harold Hughes, Frank Sinatra, Norman Mailer, Cesar Chavez, Shirley MacLaine, Stefanie Powers, Peter Lawford, Bill Cosby, Bobby Darin, Sonny & Cher, The Byrds, Robert Vaugh, US Sen. Ralph Yarborough

SANDERS: Former US Pres. Harry S. Truman, US Sen. Philleo Nash, Medgar Evers, Bear Bryant, Bobby Darin

MORSE: US Sen. Joseph S. Clark, Gene Wilder, Truman Capote

WALLACE: US Sen. Terry Sanford, former Governor Happy Chandler


ANNOUNCER: ABC and participating television broadcasting stations present a special event live from Concord, New Hampshire, two weeks ahead of the gravel state’s Democratic Presidential Primary. Please welcome former Secretary of State Jack Kennedy (pause), former Vice President Hubert Humphrey (pause), former Governor of Georgia Carl Sanders (pause) and current Governor of New York Mario Biaggi (pause) in their first official confrontation on ABC News’ “Issues & Answers” Special Event. To moderate this 60-minute group discussion is tonight’s moderators, Frank Reynolds, Robert Clark.

REYNOLDS: Good evening. In the same room and before the same cameras and telephones, the candidate will engage in debate. All the candidate here are on New Hampshire’s ballot in two weeks, and the questions to be asked in this debate were pulled from questions sent in by New Hampshire residents. Let’s begin. Secretary Kennedy, you pulled the short straw backstage, so you will give your opening statement first. You have two minutes.

KENNEDY: My fellow Americans, over the course of 22 years of public service, and have come to fully understand that no community is an island, cut off from the rest of America. What happens to one group of us happens to all of us. During my time in the Senate, I was deeply committed to finding national answers to the problems of the hardest of the hard-hit communities, for Massachusetts, yes, and for other states across the country. I have seen and heard the problems facing us. I know that something must be done, that something can be done. And I know that it is not being done by the present Administration in Washington. [9]

CLARK: Thank you, Mr. Secretary. Mr. Vice President, your opening statement, please.

HUMPHREY: [snip] The President is the people’s lobbyist, the man who brings the needs of the people to the lawmakers on the hill. I worked on the hill for 16 years, and it is clear that the best way to address the people’s needs is through a President who understands the basics. Who understands the need for conviviality among the nations of the world. Someone who understands how the economy functions. And I learned more about the economy from one South Dakota dust storm than I did in all my years of college, [10] which brings me to another thing a President needs to know the basics of – how to feed his own people [snip]


SANDERS: I stand on my record of having appointed an unprecedented number of Blacks to state government spots, more Blacks than Governor George Wallace of Alabama, in fact [11].


KENNEDY: Human decency doesn’t wear a party label. But it is results, not sentiments that matter – good intentions without deeds won’t feed hungry children. In the 1930s we had a President, Franklin Roosevelt, who took national leadership to meet and lick the depression. We have a President now who can see only the demands of a balanced budget and cannot summon the energy to act on the needs of the nation. But I know that talk is cheap. In fact, it seems to be about the only thing this Administration can afford! [9]

CLARK: Governor Sanders, do you have a rebuttal?

SANDERS: Yes. Mr. Kennedy, I oppose expanding federal overreach to the level your suggesting because of the dangers it poses to the well-being of the free market system that separates capitalism from communism. As more of a production come on the market to meet demand, prices will fall in line. As fewer products are made, surplus disappears and prices rise up to normal. If profits or wages are too low in one trade area, there will be an exodus of capital and labor until the supply is better adjusted to the demand. The free market is a self-adjusting market [12]. The government, then, should only get involved when a lack of moral standards leads to unfair practices to the detriment of the people.

HUMPHREY: Um, Clark, may I respond to that?

CLARK: Um, you have a rebuttal outstanding, so yes.

HUMPHREY: Good. Carl, while I understand your point – that the impersonal hand of government can never replace the helping hand of a neighbor, you have to understand that, despite the insinuations that you and Governor Biaggi have made on the campaign trail, compassion is not weakness, and concern for the unfortunate is not socialism [10]. When a government has the ability to help, it has the responsibility to do so.


CLARK: The next question comes from Debbie of Nashua. She writes “What do the candidates think of the Federal Aid Dividend being promoted by Reverend Martin Luther King and Company?” Secretary Kennedy, you have two minutes to reply.

KENNEDY: I think unemployment checks are no substitute for a job. [9]


REYNOLDS: Governor Biaggi, you have been a vocal opponent of the United Kingdom’s response to the I.R.A.’s bombing campaign. The following question from the New Hampshire city of Manchester asks for you to explain why.

BIAGGI: Well Frank, and to the people of New Hampshire and everyone else listening in, wherever we find injustices, we need a reaction in our national government to compel foreign governments to deal with flagrant aggressions like the actions of the IRA. But the UK government has overreacted, and has begun arresting innocent people who are only guilty by association, no matter how minor that association may be. We need to deal with issues like the troubling persecution of innocent people in Ireland. Kennedy, you have not enunciated for positions on this issue, so I’m interested in your rebuttal to this. The only choice consistent with justice is to convince the British to get out of Ireland, as they are obviously now the aggressors of peaceful people. And in violation of law and treaties, as many of the innocents being killed in Northern Ireland are being killed with weapons and armaments purchased from American industries. [13]

CLARK: Secretary Kennedy, would you care to respond?

KENNEDY: Yes, I do. Governor, the conflict between various groups in Ireland over who owns what and who should live where is a delicate situation. Instead of choosing sides we should choose peace.


HUMPHREY: Mario, there will never be enough jails, policemen, and courts in all the lands to enforce a law that is not support by the people. [10] As President, you have to listen to the people in order to lead them. Justice and Order does not work without communication, cooperation, and understanding.


CLARK: Mister Vice President, who you like to reply to Governor Sanders’ query into your inability to oppose President Johnson’s actions concerning Cuba?

HUMPHREY: Well, anyone who thinks that the Vice-President can take a position independent of the President of his administration simply has no knowledge of politics or government. You are his choice in a political marriage, and he expects your absolute loyalty. [10]

SANDERS: So you abandoned your principles because you were afraid to rock the boat?

REYNOLDS: Governor, please wait your turn.

SANDERS: My apologies, sir.

HUMPHREY: Apology accepted.

SANDERS: I said that to Mr. Reynolds, Hubert.


REYNOLDS: And finally, Mr. Biaggi, you closing statement.

BIAGGI: My campaign message is simple and clear, justice and order. The race riots of the past several years and the assault on innocent people oversees show that we have to establish a new way of handling foreign and domestic affairs. [snip] The criminalization of being Irish is being downplayed; I’ve visited the North Irish people, and none of the people that I met were radical or radicalized. Those who should be leading the fight against British injustice with us are instead siding with the British against us. It will not stop us. [14] We will show the British they can’t do this to us – that an attack on the good people of Eire is an attack on good people everywhere, and that America will not stand for that kind of claptrap.


– First Democratic Primary Debate, abridged transcript, ABC-Concord, 2/27/1968 broadcast

MODERATOR: Welcome to our roundtable debate with Democratic Presidential candidates George Wallace of Alabama and Mike Gravel of Alaska.

WALLACE: Thank you for having us. You know, the establishment of the Democratic party doesn’t like us, that’s why they we weren’t on the debate stage two days ago.

MODERATOR: Yes, well, let’s get down to business…


WALLACE: We need to do a better job at handling our foreign conflicts. Laos is setting up to be another Cuba. As President, I’ll do a superior job managing how we spend our resources over there. Take for instance the Pentagon report that came out last week about the Air Force’s expensive new bombers, and let me ask you – Why does the Air Force need expensive new bombers? Have the people we’ve been bombing over years been complaining? [15] But the point I’m trying to make is this: when I become President, I’ll initiate a 90-day policy for every military confrontation. If we can’t get the job done in 90 days, we’ll pull out –

GRAVEL: No, no, no. You know what’s worse than a soldier dying in vain? It’s more soldiers dying in vain. [16] Let’s have no wars unless we are directly under attack. All other instances of warfare are inexcusable. This President’s focus on activities in other countries rather than activities in his own is so disgraceful it makes me understand why so many Americans are fearful on a nuclear Armageddon. Why so many have so much fear that they want to hide under a rock for ten or thirty-five years because they are so disgusted by politicians playing chess with their livelihoods and their very lives. George, I’m certain you will, but I won’t contribute to that fear.


MODERATOR: And Mr. Gravel, do you agree with Governor Wallace that a cap on immigration ill lower domestic unemployment?

GRAVEL: I’m a first-generation American. My parents came here like so many other parents out there, and I spoke French before I could speak English as a child. And my parents carved out – my dad was very humble, didn’t have a third-grade education, but he was able to work and prosper in this country, and so I honor anybody that comes to this country as an immigrant, because we’re all immigrants. There’s been nobody else but the Indians in this great land. [16]

MODERATOR: Well, what about The Colonel supporting Reverend King’s calls to reintroduce the Federal Aid Dividend?

GRAVEL: On this, I actually agree with the Colonel. We don’t need a minimum wage, we need a living wage. [16]


MODERATOR: Governor, your closing statement.

WALLACE: [snip] Local employment programs can boost economic well-being on the nationwide level. It’s worked in Alabama and it will work for America. [snip] As President, I will be sensible when it comes to fighting wars, promote low-grade industrial development, back urban reform to tackle congestion and sanitation threats, lower taxes, and push for more trade schools. Thank you.

MODERATOR: As Congressman Gravel, your closing statement.

GRAVEL: [snip] Read my lips – no more wars!


– Democratic Candidates Forum transcript, NBC-Baltimore, 2/29/1968 broadcast

HELLYER SURVIVES LEADERSHIP ELECTION: Defeats Challengers On First Ballot With Ease

– The Daily Courier, British Columbia newspaper, 3/4/1968

POLISH SHOUTNIKS OPPOSE ATTACKS ON JEWISH CITIZENS: Poland Sees Youth Take To Streets Over Federal Anti-Semitism Policies

Warsaw – Poland’s General Mieczyslaw Moczar and First Secretary Wladyslw Gomulka had begun an anti-Semitic (officially anti-Zionist) campaign in late 1967, following the conclusion of the Sukkot War which had seen the Soviets severe its support for Israel and seemingly coerce Warsaw Pact members to follow suit, most notably Poland, home of tens of thousands of Jewish people. Now, the hostile Moczar-Gomulka anti-Jewish campaign, coupled with the Communist party’s growing hostilities over party control of universities and literature and an economy still in the gutter, has created an atmosphere in the Communist Bloc nation is ripe for the return of the Polish shoutniks.

“The cost of meat just keeps rising. There are no career prospects anywhere,” explains one anonymous member of the youth student activists in the Polish capital organizing to oppose the Moczar-Gomulka assaults. The source, whom we have judged to be of very credible quality, claims to was a strike at a Warsaw university over new censorship policies that truly increased the Polish youth’s renewed interest in social reform and opposition to the anti-Semitism attacks.

Since September, purges of Jewish people have plagued the Poles, and range from assaults on supporters of Israel, firings, police beating protestors, and banishments. Even Jewish members of the Polish military are being targeted for unfounded “Zionist” beliefs and/or practices. While Poland’s government has been condemned by practically all members of NATO, but has not been enough for the rising number of protestors.

“We won’t sit idly by and let our Jewish friends and neighbors be fired and evicted. It didn’t exactly end well the last time. We vow: Never again.”

– TODAY, 3/4/1968

Police suppression of young factory workers and secondary school students began spiraling out of control after the government made official their refusal to negotiate with strikers and protesting parties on March 7, which only fueled the protests. Soon members of the ruling class became supportive of Jewish Poles immigrating out of Poland. The average Poles, though, were torn between what they heard through the grapevine and what they heard from the state-control propagandist news media.

Shelepin viewed the situation as a plot backed by NATO is dismantle the Warsaw Pact due to the similarities he saw between university opposition in Poland and university opposition in Czechoslovakia as “too similar to be purely coincidental.”

The Premier decided he need to do something to quell the assault on Russia’s allies.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997

RUSSIA INVADES POLAND (AGAIN)!: Shelepin Vows To “Restore Peace” As Student Protests Spread

…In a stunning movement of military might, tanks rolled into Eastern Poland today in the largest deployment of troops on European soil in 23 years…

– The New York Times, Special Report, 3/10/1968

According to Richard Nixon’s memoirs, The Colonel met with Secretaries Curtis and Bonesteel to ask if intervention was feasible. Due to the country being within the Communist Bloc, it wasn’t – Bonesteel estimated that, if American troops or weapons entered Poland, even via proxy, “the chance of Shelepin’s response being nuclear in nature to be 90% or more.” Secretary Curtis considered it “a mistake” to become involved in a country already securely under Russian influence, while The Colonel believed the protests indicated weakness in the Communist Bloc. “It doesn’t matter if the crack is at the top of the dike or the bottom of the dike – the water is still gonna push out.” Bonesteel and Curtis were adamant that the Colonel resort to pursuing a less risky tactic. On March 11, Sanders called on congress to increase the number of refugees allowed into the US from Poland. That response was blocked by Senators and Congressmen worried about the possibility that “some of the refugees really [were] dangerous Zionist radicals,” as US Sen. James Eastland (D-MS) put it. The Colonel persevered, but ultimately the number of refuges allowed in was half of the Colonel’s initial request. Subsequently, Sanders considered the invasion to be “one more reason why we need to have that Summit Conference with him [Shelepin].”

– Rick Perlstein’s Colonel’s Country: The Trials and Crises of Chicken King Presidency, Simon & Schuster, 2014

Having recently seen the leader of Czechoslovakia ousted without an invasion, Gomulka viewed Russia’s sudden interference as a possible coup of his entire government, as well as himself. The First Secretary immediately sought to ensure Shelepin of his “leadership skills” as he began to believe Moczar would be his replacement if he did not prevail over the protestors. At least 2,700 people were arrested in the next month. Suppression became widespread. At least 2,000 Poles of Jewish origin fled to other countries.

But opposition protests continued to spread to smaller communities. Demonstrations persisted for months.

– Alexander Korzhakov’s autobiography From Dawn to Dusk: A Cutthroat Career, St. Petersburg Press, 1997


John “Gentleman Jack” Kennedy wins with ease; Wallace shockingly underperforms, slipping to fifth place. Despite a strong endorsement from Senator Muskie of neighboring state of Maine, Humphrey came in third place. Breakdown of the vote is as follows:

Kennedy – 40.1%

Sanders – 14.6%

Humphrey – 13.7%

Wallace – 10.4%

Morse – 9.2%

Biaggi – 6.6%

Gravel – 4.0%

Others – 1.5%

…meanwhile, in the GOP primary, Colonel Sanders won in a landslide over his sole active opponent, former Minnesota Governor and longshot candidate Harold Stassen, who won roughly 5% of the vote to Colonel Sanders’ nearly 95% of the vote. This strong showing demonstrates how united the GOP is at the moment, and suggests the Colonel will be re-nominated with ease…

– The Boston Globe, 3/12/1968

Lyndon Johnson had had his name added to the ballot in an undeclared survey of the contest composition and Humphrey’s strength as a candidate; his obtainment of less than 1% of the vote finally convinced the former President to abandon the thought of “pulling a Cleveland.”

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1968, Centurion Publishers, 2015

But Harland was also a sensitive and sweet man, especially with children. Oh, he loved to do whatever he could to make children happy. I remember when he enthusiastically signed into law some kind of Child Health Protection Act or something like that, and when in, oh, a want to say, March of 1968, this one school district renamed a school “Harland Sanders High” School. I myself got a public park named after me in Lexington [Kentucky] at around the same time!

– Claudia Price Sanders and interviewer, TNB (Trinity National Broadcasting) interview, 1979


[pic: ]
– President Sanders signing autographs for children while on a bus heading to a train museum, Missouri, 3/25/1968

On March 26, a week ahead of the Wisconsin primary, Gravel, Biaggi and Wallace sat down for a round-table discussion, hoping the exposure would beef up their campaigns. Wallace complained at the start of the program that he felt he was treated unfairly and was doing poorly in polls because the media bias in favor of Carl Sanders.


Wallace flexed his foreign policy muscles by calling on Vietnam’s Nguyen Khanh to end corruption and establish land reform in Vietnam. Biaggi went further: “Khanh’s attempts to imprison and torture former members of the Viet Cong threatens the internal harmony of a nation still recovering from a long civil war. As President, I’d work to stop this man from undoing the work done by our brave men in uniform.” Gravel, however, opposed his fellow candidates on interventionism by saying “We can’t look after the people of all the nations of the world, especially when we are already and still failing to look after the people right here at home!”

On the Republican side, Harold Stassen hoped that reminding voters of The Colonel’s advanced age would boost his chances of winning. It didn’t – Stassen won just 8.7% of the Wisconsin primary vote, an improvement from the 5% slice of the vote received in the New Hampshire primary, but still not enough to prove that he really was a viable candidate.

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1968, Centurion Publishers, 2015


…under this new act, healthy (physically and mentally fit) employees will automatically mean lower insurance premiums for management. An insurance premium is the amount of money that an individual or business pays for an insurance policy that, once earned, is income for the company; it represents a liability as the insurer must provide coverage for claims made against the policy [17]. This bill, supported on bipartisan lines, is thus meant to encourage employers to ensure that their employees maintain good health. The bill is also a way of addressing workplace safety concerns. Opposition to the bill came in the form of some legislators concerned about pre-existing conditions and employers being intimidated into not hiring “potentially unhealthy” workers in the first place, according to Governor and former US Congresswoman Coya Knutson (D-MN).

– The Washington Post, 3/29/1968


Washington, DC – As a guest speaker at the National Governors’ Association meeting, Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. to the opportunity of speaking to 39 incumbent governors at once to re-introduce the concept of a Federal Aid Dividend, or FAD. The FAD will award every family with at least one employed parent with a monthly federal check to help them pay off bills and other necessities. The President’s support of a FAD in 1965 ended in failure, but the Poor People’s Campaign behind the idea persists. King suggested that the success of such programs at the state level (where it could be called SAD for Statewide Aid Divided) can be used as a “base” for implementation on the federal level: “If you make it here or there, the good news will spread to everywhere.”

– The Philadelphia Inquirer, 3/30/1968


…The former VP won a plurality, possibly thanks Gravel and Morse, two anti-war candidates seemingly cancelling each other out by almost-evenly splitting the “dove” votes. Gravel’s anti-war sentiment mixed with his “star quality” charisma and youth propelled the candidate to third place, catching many political pundits off guard. Governor Pat Lucey came in fourth place, which is a surprisingly poor showing for a Favorite Son candidate, while Kennedy and Carl Sanders did not appear on the ballot…

– The Chicago Tribune, 4/2/1968

SANDERS SIGNS A.F.E.S.T.O. ACT INTO LAW: Agriculture And Farming Employees Safety And Training Oversight Act Meant To “Monitor” Worker Conditions “Without Inhibiting Free Market Movements”

The Dallas Times Herald, 4/3/1968


– The Houston Chronicle, 4/4/1968


The Daily Telegraph, 4/4/1968


Stars and Stripes, 4/9/1968


– The Wall Street Journal, 4/11/1968

ANNOUNCER: ABC and participating television broadcasting stations present the following debate between Jack Kennedy, Hubert Humphrey, Carl Sanders and Mario Biaggi as a 60-minute semi-formal public service program. Tonight’s moderators are Frank Reynolds, Robert Clark, and William Lawrence.

REYNOLDS: Hello and welcome. For weeks, the nation has paid attention to the states holding Democratic primaries and the issues important to the primary voters, and so have these candidates. Gentlemen, backstage, Humphrey pulled the short straw, and so he will give his opening statement first.

HUMPHREY: Thank you Frank, my fellow candidates, and the people of Pennsylvania, whose issues, really, are very much like the ones found across the United States…


HUMPHREY: …We’ve have too many years of a laisse-faire government trusting that big business will care more for people than profit. We need an expansion of government regulation for a changing America and a more responsible positioning on the world stage for a changing world.


KENNEDY: …and America’s global authority must rest more on diplomatic leadership than military power. Furthermore, if the fight for freedom must be fought with the sword instead of the pen, then the United States cannot be the policemen of the world without international support.

CLARK: Thank you Secretary Kennedy. Governor Wallace, your rebuttal?

WALLACE: Yes, thank you. Jack, the United States cannot be the policemen of the world, period! The spilled blood of America’s fathers, brothers, husbands and sons is too high a price to pay for the forcing of Democracy on far-away lands like Laos and Cambodia. We need to focus on the needs of Americans first, starting with the poorest of the poor, Black and White, and working up from there.

CLARK: Alright, thank you Governor Wallace. And Governor Biaggi, now your rebuttal.

BIAGGI: Actually, may I direct my rebuttal to George there, then to Jack?

LAWRENCE: Um, yes, that’s within the rules. Don’t your time is still set for two minutes.

BIAGGI: Alright, then. George. I really have to disagree with your foreign policy beliefs there, bub. The US has commitments in Israel and Japan, and should have commitments in Ireland and maybe even Poland in some capacity. We can’t turn inward and return to the type of isolationism we had prior to World War Two, where we ignore the plight of our fellow man. To do so would dishonor the veterans and allies of wars past and present, and ruin our powerful standing on the world stage. A standing we should be using to support our allies and promote law and order on the world stage. And Jack, you talk a big game, but if you were not involved in the decisions regarding Cuba and Indochina, then what exactly did you do at the state department? That’s all!

CLARK: Secretary Kennedy, do you wish to rebuttal?

KENNEDY: Yes. Governor Biaggi, as I have pointed out many times before, as Secretary of State I strengthened America’s relations with France, the UK, India, Pakistan, Panama, Indonesia, Australia, Canada, Mexico, Italy, Spain, Greece, Austria, West Germany, and most of the rest of Europe and most of South America. I unified and increased our number of allies and strengthened their resolve to back us in our efforts to maintain peace and order on the world stage. And with all due respect, that’s more than can be said about your foreign policy experience, Mario.

REYNOLDS: Thank you, gentlemen. And that concludes the foreign policy portion of the debate. We now turn to the domestic policy portion.


KENNEDY: …and I believe a tax increase is warranted.


HUMPHREY: …we need to build new housing for low-income people and reduce the use of federal troops for quelling riots. We need to attract industries into setting up shop in the vicinity of slums in order to create jobs for such residents and in turn raise their standard of living.


SANDERS: …as I have called time and again for the retirement of J. Edgar Hoover, when I become President he will be the first member of the political old guard still clinging to power in D.C. to get the boot. …Instead of swelling the size of federal government programs, I think we should explore the idea of moving some poor people out of cities to areas with a lower cost of living so federal funds can be used more efficiently. [snip] …We don’t need welfare, we need jobs. We need to redevelop slums in the cities to get businesses employers in these places. That’ll improve the livelihoods of the poor; a tax hike won’t.

BIAGGI: As Governor, I’ve raised funds for state police and it has led to positive results. Crime rates are dropping as law and order returns to the urban streets of the Empire state. As President, I will seek additional funds for additional state and local police, and additional funds to train local police to deal with violence, riots, and general lawlessness, which cannot be tolerated in any civilized society.


(Candidates shake hands, exit stage.)

– Second Democratic Primary Debate transcript, ABC-Philadelphia, 4/15/1968


Humphrey: 33%

Kennedy: 22%

Morse: 14%

Gravel: 11%

Sanders: 9%

Biaggi: 7%

Wallace: 3%

Other: 1%

– Gallup poll, 4/20/1968


London – Ahead of a planned motion of no confidence vote, Prime Minister George Brown has announced that he will resign due to unspecified health issues, and will vacate office as soon as the Labour party votes on a successor. Brown’s announcement comes 10 days after being caught on camera slipping on a short flight of step during an apparent drunken stupor. The resignation has automatically triggered a party leadership election, which will likely commence in mid-to-late May…

– The Daily Telegraph, 13/4/1968

HUMPHREY DEFENDS CUBA WAR!: Claims “We Met The Challenge Of Restoring Peace And Order.”

The San Francisco Chronicle, 4/22/1968


Pittsburgh, PA – Democratic voters in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania gave the state to former Governor of Georgia Carl Sanders, who won tonight’s Democratic presidential primary with 28% of the vote. Humphrey, the national frontrunner, came in second place with only 20% of the vote. Carl Sanders’ victory is an upset given Sanders often being listed in fourth place in national polls. Sanders supporters in Pennsylvania, however, are not surprised.

“We talked about local issues and actually visited our towns. I don’t speak for everyone, but I certainly appreciated it,” notes one voter.

Sanders campaigned in the southern and rural strips of the commonwealth, and also sought to woo in the Black vote away from former Vice President Humphrey, who came in second place.

Former Governor of Alabama George Wallace, who also sought out the Black vote, gathered enough momentum by emphasizing worker rights and winning over local union endorsements in the final days before the primary to win third place. Behind him in fourth place is New York Governor Mario Biaggi.

The biggest loser of the night was former Secretary of State Jack Kennedy, whose team seems to have underestimated the effectiveness and activism of the Sanders and Wallace campaigns. Support for Kennedy, who is often in second place in national polls, deflated here to fifth place with less than 10% of the vote. The Gravel and Morse campaigns failed to obtain ballot access, but received a combine total of 4% in write-in votes.

– The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 4/23/1968


Washington, DC – …A spokesman for the US State Department confirmed today that, after discussions with their respective leades, the Sanders and Shelepin planning parties have agreed to meet in Gothberg, Sweden. Gothenburg is a relatively small city of less than 500,000 people, and the second largest city in Sweden after Stockholm, but its growth into an industrial center since the end of World War Two was deemed an appropriate backdrop for talks on expanding the well-being of both nations. Furthermore, the city rests almost exactly on the border of the “Iron Curtain” ideologically separating western Europe from eastern Europe:

[pic: ]
Pictured: Gothenburg’s location in Europe (note: Albania is in pale red due to being an inactive member of the Warsaw Pact since 1962)

– The Sacramento Union (Ted Kennedy’s newspaper), 4/24/1968


…the Colonel is showing a level of energy of a much younger man as he meets with the ruler of Laos, King Sisavang Vatana, to discuss how best to handle the Pathet Lao communist guerrilla forces waging war against the Laotian people. This is the President’s third trip to Vietnam and his fourth in Indochina overall...

Stars and Stripes, 4/29/1968


– The Boston Globe, 4/30/1968

On May 5, Humphrey edged out Wallace, Sanders and Kennedy in an upset to win the Washington DC primary. The Black vote proved highly valuable in the election, as many Black voters favored the consistent record of the former VP over the rhetoric of Wallace, which many Blacks felt “[came] from an ingenuous place,” according to Medgar Evers. Meanwhile, Kennedy had sought to win over black voters by comparing slavery to Catholic prejudice: “I understand what it must be like, as I know what it’s like to go to a place, and have eyes stare at you because of the shallow notion that you shouldn’t be there.” Such comments led to Biaggi publicly countering: “Jack’s the son of a millionaire; I’m the son of an immigrant marble setter and an immigrant charwoman. His childhood, his schooling, his opportunities, they were nothing like ours!”

– historian Jeff Greenfield’s How Everything Changed: The Effects of 1968, Centurion Publishers, 2015


– Gallup poll, 5/6/1968

“That damn Carl b@st@rd is stealing my thunder – and with it, my base of supporters!”

– George Wallace, 5/6/1968

JACK IS BACK!: Presidential Hopeful Closes In On Humphrey’s Delegate Count

Columbus, OH – Due to the heavy “southern” roots of residents in the southern parts of the states of Ohio and Indiana (case in point, President Colonel Sanders was born in Indiana), most pundits expected Wallace and Sanders to dominate the results of each respective primary. But Secretary Kennedy refused to give them up. His influential family (such as news publisher Ted Kennedy and Senator Eunice Kennedy-Shriver) and popular friends (Frank Sinatra, Norman Mailer, Shirley MacLaine, Stefanie Powers, Peter Lawford, Bill Cosby, and Robert Vaugh to name a few) pitched in and campaigning extensively for him across the two states. In tonight’s contests, Kennedy achieved his third primary victory in Indiana, and lost to Humphrey in Ohio by a 1% margin…

The Boston Globe, 5/7/1968

“…But a vision for America is only step one! Turning it into reality is the next, and assuring its preservation for our children and grandchildren is our final step, as our children and grandchildren will have a vision even greater than the one we have now. 92 years ago, Americans had a great vision of an independent nation. In 1865, we had a grand vision of a united country. And now, we envision a peaceful nation. And I boys and girls will join in this American tradition. If you work hard at it, you will turn your visions into realities, so 50 years from now your children and grandchildren will thank you for your vision and your hard work, just like how we thank the people of 1776 and 1863 for giving us the world that we live in today. They will be proud of you, as I am proud of all of y’all for getting through the tough classes and assignments to finally get that diploma! Congratulations, y’all!”

– Sanders at the Texas A&M graduation ceremony of 5/8/1968


[pic: ]
– Colonel Sanders speaking with actress Joan Crawford at the White House Correspondence Dinner, 5/11/1968

At just about 51, Kennedy, still presenting an image of youth by calling himself “Jack” and circulating athletic images of himself voter the viewing pleasure of the contemplative masses, was still concerned over his religion. A week ahead of West Virginia primary on May 14, he gave televised speech where he strongly professed that the separation of church and state must always be maintained. The speech worked to cool questions surrounding his Catholic faith and boost his numbers in the state.

– Ted White’s The Making of the President: 1968, Atheneum Publishers, 1969


…Governor Carl Sanders won tonight’s Democratic Presidential Primary with a plurality, while President Colonel Sanders won tonight’s Republican Presidential Primary unopposed…

Nebraska City News-Press, 5/14/1968

WALLACE WINS WEST VIRGINIA PRIMARY: First Primary Victory “Likely” To Boost Governor’s Chances Ahead of Florida Primary

The Washington Times, 5/14/1968

Brown’s successor was elected by the Parliamentary Labour Party, with a majority of their 314 total members of parliament required. An exhaustive ballot system was used.

Secretary Harold Wilson was initially considered the most credible man for the job; however, his support in parliament collapsed after rumors of being a Russian agent began to spread. Secretary Michael Foot announced his candidacy but failed to win over a sufficient level of support trying to run an energetic campaign. Secretary James Callaghan was a member of the right wing of the party and a defender of Brown, and Home Secretary Roy Jenkins announced his candidacy right before the deadline. Stonehouse, at 42, was the youngest candidate and most active candidate, and, most importantly for the Labour party officials, was the favorite of the Liberal Party with whom Labour was in a Minority Government.


Round 1: 314 total
Foot: 112
Stonehouse: 90
Jenkins: 56
Callaghan: 41
Wilson: 15

Round 2: 314 total
Foot: 112
Stonehouse: 91
Jenkins: 60
Callaghan: 51

Round 3: 314 total
Stonehouse: 117
Foot: 112
Jenkins: 85

Round 4: 314 total
Stonehouse: 158
Foot: 156


WHO IS JOHN STONEHOUSE: A Look At Our New Prime Minister

[pic: ]
John Thomson Stonehouse (b. 28/7/1925 in Southampton, Hampshire, UK), an economist by trade, worked on co-operative societies in Uganda from 1952 to 1954 before election to parliament, where he has served since 28 Feb 1957.


In February 1959, Stonehouse travelled to Rhodesia on a fact-finding tour in which he condemned the white minority government of Southern Rhodesia. Speaking to the Southern Rhodesia African National Congress, he encouraged Blacks to stand up for their rights and said they had the support of the British Labour Party. He was promptly expelled from Rhodesia and kept from returning a year later. [18]

The Observer, weekly (Sundays) UK newspaper, special issue, 5/20/1968


…if the move is successful, the election will most likely be held in “around” six months…

The Daily Telegraph, 25/5/1968

“When it comes to foreign affairs, I say this to the President – Colonel, if you don’t want to lead us into the next Cuba War, take the following advice – pull our troops out of Laos and pull our troops out now! ...I propose a tax hike to initiate several domestic programs and improve the administering of social justice... You know my record, my consistency, and my vision for a fairer America."

– Senator Wayne Morse, 5/26/1968


– Stars and Stripes, 5/27/1968

“Despite Mr. Biaggi’s claims, the focus of urban improvement should not be on more cops, but better living accommodations. I truly believe that unless urban living conditions are improved in this country, we will see an unprecedented revolt take place. (pause for reaction from crowd). I know, I know, but I think about it. And I would hate to be stuck on the fourth floor of a tenement with the rats nibbling on my kids’ toes, with garbage uncollected, with the streets filthy, with no swimming pools, and with little or no recreation. I would hate to be put in those conditions, and I want to tell you, if I were in those conditions, if that should happen to have been my situation, I would have enough spark in me to lead a mighty good revolt under those conditions.” [19]

– Former VP Humphrey to a crowd in Corvallis, OR, 5/27/1968 (a statement labeled by some as reactionary, and by others as being of a “fearmongering” quality)

…Tonight’s primary election in Florida was considered a make-or-break determination for the Wallace campaign, which failed to win any primaries until the West Virginia contest two weeks ago. Well, the results are finally in and it looks like once again Carl Sanders has trumped Wallace. Wallace came in second place, ahead of Humphrey, in third place, and Kennedy surrogate George Smathers, who came in fourth place…


…In Oregon, Senator Humphrey has won over Senator Morse in a dramatic upset. While there is a heavy anti-war presence in the state, fueled by the campaigns of Mike Gravel and Wayne Morse, the voters have instead given the state to Humphrey. One possible reason for the sudden deflation of Morse’s polling lead prior to the election is the split of the peacenik vote between Morse and Gravel, or the recent military successes in Laos working against Morse’s message that America’s presence in that country is, quote, a “massive mistake,” unquote…


…We have an update from Portland, Oregon: Senator Morse, taking the loss of his home state’s primary to indicate a drop in popularity in Oregon, has officially dropped out of the race for President to return focus to his re-election Senate bid…

– NBC News, 5/28/1968 broadcast

The great tradition of social protest in America has failings that crop up regularly. One failing is over-simplification and another is self-righteousness. Another is political naivety. Another is sweeping impatience with everybody in authority – The Establishment and the Power Structure is what they are called now. We had other names in my younger days but it meant the same.” [19]

– Hubert Humphrey, speaking to the National Press Club, 6/1/1968


Sacramento, CA – In his first win in almost a month and his fourth primary victory overall, and after five primary losses, Kennedy edged to victory in the delegate-rich winner-take-all Democratic primary in California. Favorite Son candidate Pat Brown, the Governor of the state, failed to win even 5%, likely connected to his low approval ratings. …Humphrey’s recent comments criticizing youth activism hurt his candidacy among younger and college-educated voters, and possibly contributing to Congressman Gravel winning over 10% of the vote. …Upon learning of Kennedy’s victory, Wallace claimed the contest as biased, asserting to reporters “Jack’s got way more friends in the media than I do. One of his brothers runs a newspaper, for Pete’s sake!” Nevertheless, the victory is a major boost to Kennedy’s campaign…

The Daily Courier, Arizona newspaper, 6/4/1968

…Californians also voted for Senator tonight. In the Republican primary, incumbent Senator Kuchel won with roughly 40% of the vote, over conservative school superintendent Max Rafferty, who won roughly 35%, and former Congressman James B. Utt, who won roughly 25%. The Democratic primary saw state senator Anthony C. Beilsenson win over several candidates with roughly 45% of the vote…

– NBC News, 6/4/1968 broadcast


Trenton, NJ – In his sole primary victory, New York Governor Mario Biaggi won over the other candidates in the N.J. Democratic presidential primary. Despite higher Black voter turnout boosting Wallace’s standing in the state, credit for Biaggi’s victory will most likely be given to commuters – voters who work in New York but live in New Jersey. These voters were likely more aware of Biaggi’s actions in combating crime rates in the state in general and in New York City specifically.

– The Star-Ledger, 6/4/1968

The narrowness of the election has led to an urban legend that claims gangsters from the “Irish Mafia” stuffed the ballot boxes for the pro-IRA Italian Biaggi. Another urban legend, however, counters with the claim that another candidate in the race, the Irish-American Jack Kennedy, used his alleged connections with the “Italian Mafia” to stuff the ballot boxes. A third, and more entertaining urban legend, claims it was both, and that the June 4 Cape May Factory Fire, which lit ablaze the night sky over southernmost New Jersey but killed zero people, was actually a cover for an Irish-Italian mafia shootout gone awry and covered up by the Democratic governor!



…Humphrey reminded voters that he was born in South Dakota and his other family connects to the state. …Carl Sanders came in second place, likely being seen as a more appealing alternative to the boisterous Governor Wallace. Biaggi came in fourth place, while Kennedy came in fifth…

The Daily Courier, North Carolina newspaper, 6/4/1968


– The Houston Chronicle, 6/5/1968

“POP ART” ICON ANDY WARHOL SHOT DEAD IN NYC: Killed While Leaving Art Studio Through Kitchen; Suspect In Custody

The New York Times, 6/5/1968


The Chicago Tribune, 6/11/1968

…With the final Democratic primary held and studied, it appears that no candidate has received enough delegates to win the nomination outright, meaning the nominee will be determined at the Democratic National Convention in July…

– CBS Evening News, 6/12/1968 broadcast

WENDY’S: K.F.C.’s New Burger Chain Enters Fast-Food Competition

…the inaugural CEO is Wendy’s founder Dave Thomas, a loyal member of the K.F.C. parent company “Finger Lickin’ Good, Incorporated” who has reportedly worked on the new franchises’ menu for “almost a decade”...

The Wall Street Journal, 6/12/1968


…The Prime Minister was to negotiate an agreement to provide a framework for the long-term development of technological co-operation between Britain and Czechoslovakia. The opening of relations with the central European nation would involve the exchange of specialists and information, facilities for study and research in technology, and other aspects of British and Czechoslovakian industries…

The Guardian, centre-left UK newspaper, 14/6/1968

REPORT: Colonel Sanders Convinces Everett, Other Party Leaders, To Add F.A.D. Proposal To RNC Platform!

– The Baltimore Afro-American (a daily newspaper since 1965), 6/15/1968

The negotiations for a bilateral comprehensive nuclear weapons cap on nuclear (A-bomb) and thermonuclear (H-bomb) weapons did not stem from a political origin as much as it did from a social reaction to US-USSR actions. The 1959 bestseller Alas, Babylon; the 1964 Stanley Kubrick film Dr. Strangelove; the pacifist writings of the “part time” political singer-songwriter John Lennon; the shoutnik movement, and other societal elements all fueled public concerns of atomic war and radioactive fallout. “We are all concerned over the effect of radiation. Even Russian citizens are concerned – they are just quieter about it than American citizens are,” the Russian Ambassador to the UN controversially noted in early 1967.

Furthermore, the Soviet Political Bureau (Politburo) was divided over the usefulness of the summit, but Shelepin’s Minister of Foreign Affairs believed the Soviet Premier would not fail to obtain “a good deal” for his country’s defense. America’s Congress also had reservations. However, a head-to-head meeting between the leaders of the US and USSR was not unprecedented, as three such meeting had occurred between Eisenhower and Khrushchev. The first was held in Geneva in July 1955, and also attended by UK P.M. Anthony Eden and French P.M. Edgar Faure. The second one was held in September 1959 in Washington D.C. and Camp David, and the first visit by a Soviet leader to the US. The third, held in May 1960 in Paris and also attended by UK PM Harold Macmillan and French President Charles de Gaulle, was cut short by a dispute over the U-2 incident. Overall, an imperfect track record, but the Colonel saw it as “examples for how to it better the fourth time.”

Ultimately, after the Colonel’s mid-May 1966 public call and after almost two years of tension and negotiation, Sanders and Shelepin finally met face-to-face to discuss, in the Colonel’s words “limiting the buildup of nuclear weapons in both our nations and the world for the sake of this planet and the health of its people.”

On June 19, Shelepin arrived in Gothenburg, Sweden 30 minutes ahead of The Colonel due to a storm front delaying travel over the Atlantic earlier in the day. For three days, the Premier and the President and their respective teams workshopped on a treaty. Shelepin agreed to Sanders’ proposed prohibition of all testing detonations of nuclear weapons in the oceans and in the high atmosphere “which both our nation share,” but opposed the prohibition of conducting detonation tests underground over concerns as to how such prohibition could be enforced in a non-invasive way. Sanders accept the exception in exchange for a cap in ICBMs.

This made for an awkward situation – Shelepin was clearly more willing to start a nuclear war, but the US in 1968 held 988 ICBMS and 620 SLBMs, which was much more than Russia’s total numbers. Ultimately, Sanders agreed to set the cap at an even 1,000 ICBMs and 1,000 SLBMs, with a non-binding amendment calling for a gradual reduction of their respective stockpiles by 20% within the next ten years (Sanders initially pushed for a lower cap and a higher reduction rate, but had to compromise in the face of Shelepin refusal to such “outrageous limitations”).

Finally, Sanders tried to convince Shelepin to withdraw troops from Poland in exchange for less restrictions on submarine developments. Shelepin refused to budge, and Sanders reluctantly dropped Poland from the discussion – thought he did obtain the submarine restrictions as a bittersweet consolation prize.

Despite the end-result leaving both leaders unsatisfied – Sanders saw it as doing too little to curb the USSR’s threats to America; Shelepin saw it as inhibiting Russia’s right to defend itself and its allies by any means necessary – both signed the treaty to save face in the face of their respective critics back home. The official name of the treaty ended up being the Strategic Universal Geopolitical Arms Reduction Treaty, or the S.U.G.A.R. Treaty, and took effect two months after being signed by the US and USSR and ratified by the USSR, UK, US and France. In 1970, it was accompanied by the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty of 1971 between the US and China (see next Chapter, page 206).

Some observers of the treaty, such as Congressman Mike Gravel, called the summit “an organizing of the rules of war and death,” most media coverage of the Gothenburg Summit was positive. So much so that in 1970, the US President convinced China to join the treaty as well. The meeting did little to improve US-USSR relations, but was hailed by Sanders’ allies as a “breakthrough” nonetheless.

The number of participants in the SUGAR Treaty has expanded over the decades, with further amendments strengthening its anti-stockpile aspects. In fact, as of this publication (2017), nearly all nations in the Americas, Oceania, and Eurasia, and most of the nations of Africa have become party to the treaty.

– David Tal’s US Strategic Arms Policy in the Cold War: Negotiation & Confrontation, Routledge, 2017


…Stonehouse claims the UK military “needs to focus on Africa, not Ireland.” The announcement comes less than a day after a referendum [20] in Rhodesia voted in favor of becoming a Republic, causing the Governor of Southern Rhodesia, Sir Humphrey Gibbs to leave the nation’s Government House, severing Rhodesia’s last diplomatic relationship with the UK. Polling shows Britons are heavily divided on the subject of military intervention in Rhodesia…

The Daily Courier, British Columbia newspaper, 6/26/1968

We all expected a fierce battle over the nomination to happen at the convention. But then, on the last day of June, a funny thing happened – Carl Sanders announced that he would release his delegates to Jack, who had a plurality of delegates. This was just enough for Jack to clinch the nomination, denying Humphrey the chance to win over delegates at the convention. In the end, Carl Sanders had stuck by his motto of being a party loyalist first and a party candidate second. And of course, all the other candidates cried foul, but hey – that’s politics.


Next of the agenda was finding the right running mate…

– Ken O’Donnell, C-SPAN-I interview, 1988


[pic: ]
…this was also the first time that not a single “favorite son” candidate either won a contest or achieved more than 5% of the vote, although some did receive delegates at the national convention…

– [21]

Kennedy – A Time For Greatness

[pic: ]
– Kennedy campaign logo, c. July 1968

[1] This entire quote is a verbatim George Wallace quote from OTL:
[2] Carl Sanders’ policies (“moderate concerning racial issues…While agreeing that Georgia should keep its tradition of segregation, Sanders believed it was imperative that the state avoid violence and obey the laws of the country…his campaign issues were not built around race. Instead, Sanders focused on the elimination of corruption in state government and pushed for overall progress for the state. He also wanted to improve education and bring industry to Georgia…Sanders improved education a great deal [and] helped to reform…the prison and state merit systems…”) found here:
[3] Quote found here, though I’m not sure of the validity of the website:
[4] JFK says the italics bit in this statement starting at the 9:59 mark of this video, and the rest of the statement’s sentiments are largely pulled or paraphrased from the rest of the video: youtube: watch?v=ezGDLOcZVjw
[5] Almost verbatim to summary described here:
[6] OTL quote:
[7] OTL quote!
[8] Source: CIA tells Russia of Soviet sea disaster". The Times (64466). London. October 17, 1992. col F-G, p. 10.
[9] Italicized segments are from OTL:
[10] Italicized segments are from OTL:
[11] Carl Sanders did appoint “many blacks to state government jobs,” IOTL: and here appointed more than Wallace did ITTL.
[12] Pages 54-through-57 of Robert L. Heilbroner’s The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times, and Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers (Revised Seventh Edition), A Touchstone Book Published by Simon & Schuster, 1999 (found online in PDF form)
[13] Sentiments based on attitude expressed here: youtube: /watch?v=ynm1QZ7rWB0
[14] Italicized bits are from here:
[15] OTL quote!
[16] OTL quote, according to (the source(s) on) his wikiquote page
[17] Taken from here:
[18] Passage pulled from Stonehouse’s wiki article.
[19] Italicized portion(s) is/are an edited quote from OTL!:
[20] This referendum ends up being held one year earlier than IOTL because the instability in the UK from the earlier-than-OTL troubles (which were the indirect result of the rise of the shoutniks in response to the Cuba War under an earlier President Johnson) increasing hostilities against the British quicker than IOTL. Yeah… yeah that works…
[21] Primary results composition based on the poll results (for the most part):

I'm actually not that confident in how I wrote this one, so if anything looks wrong or seems too unrealistic, please let me know.

Also, the E.T.A. for the next chapter is the 27th!
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