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Discussion in 'Finished Timelines and Scenarios' started by Diamond, Jan 20, 2006.

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Do you have interest in chinese culture?

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  1. Diamond Banned

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    1741

    For years, the amateur occultists Percy Grove and William Hawthorne had tried unsuccessfully to contact Satan or some of his minions. Since 1732, when the two had met, they had spent stupendous amounts of money researching various methods of breaching the Gates of Hell, and thereby gaining power beyond imagining, or so they imagined. On the morning of November 5th, 1741, they were finally successful. In an hours-long ritual in a basement in downtown London, they contacted three entities who forced a rift in time and space and tore through into our world. The three creatures were powerful demons, each standing more than a dozen feet high and wielding unimaginable sorcerous power.

    Grove and Hawthorne were killed instantly, and the three demons began to rampage through the streets of London. After a two-day battle near the Tower of London, which resulted in thousands of deaths and the ruin of much of that part of the city, one of the demons was finally slain by the Royal Army. The other two monsters fled north through the heart of England, killing and destroying as they went.

    Near the city of York, the demons, unsure of their next move, got into an altercation with each other. In the ensuing battle, one was killed and the other plunged into the sea, where presumably it drowned and was never seen again.

    The battle over, the citizens of England began to rebuild their shattered lives. More than 12,000 men, women, and children lost their lives in the month between the summoning of the demons and their eventual deaths. Church attendance across the British Isles rose significantly in the months to come, as people re-evaluated their faith. King George II commissioned an investigation into the incident, forming a Royal Tribunal that had carte blanche in determining how such insanity came to be.

    But the after-effects of the occultists’ foolishness were far from over. In fact, they were just beginning…


    1742

    Since the beginning of the year, strange rumors had begun to circulate through London, rumors of impossible deeds and the blackest magic. Crippled children who could now miraculously walk. Strange, ghostly balls of light following people through the streets. Dead men leaping down from the gallows pole and running off into the night. As the Royal Tribunal investigated the reports, they began to realize that all of these inexplicable incidents seemed to be centered on the basement off Uxbridge Road where Grove and Hawthorne had carried out their experiments.

    In May, the Tribunal came across their first verified case of the supernatural – an old woman named Lizzie Hatch. Hatch, a former prostitute living in an attic room at her daughter’s house, was now capable of healing the sick and lame. The Tribunal witnessed her touch a man who had been rendered an imbecile by a kick in the head from a horse years before. Hatch’s touch visibly healed the deformity in the man’s skull as well as bringing back all his mental faculties. The Tribunal, horrified, arrested Hatch and condemned her as a witch. She was executed on June 3rd.

    In the basement at the center of the whole mess, strange events were still occurring. The walls occasionally wept blood, and cockroaches the size of kittens ran through the alleys surrounding the place, biting and tearing at the ankles of the unwary. John McDonald, a priest of the Anglican Church and the leader of the Tribunal, eventually discovered in late August that the rift the occultists had caused between the Earth and whatever ghastly Hell the demons were from, was still in existence. The tear was much smaller, to be sure, barely even the size of a man’s hand, or demons would have been flooding out of it for much of the past half year. As it was, demonic roaches and tiny man-shaped beings who looked to be made of burnt wood and wire, had begun to filter through, along with who knew what else.

    But the tear acted as a slow leak as well, spreading the otherworldly Aether that made up the atmosphere of Hell throughout the mortal plane. In another time and place, the pattern of the leakage would have almost resembled fallout. Flaws in the building where the leak was centered allowed the Aether to carry up into the street outside, and then into the skies, where the wind carried it in a broad, wedge-shaped pattern across all of southern England.

    By the end of the year, the Aetheric fallout had blanketed the Channel and had begun to spread into France as well…

    1743

    Meanwhile, on the Continent, the First Silesian War had just ended, but already the Second was brewing. Alliances changed, it seemed, almost weekly. France’s King Louis XV relaxed in the splendor of his court while inflation ran rampant. Almost a dozen men and women had been jailed since the previous autumn for displaying unnatural powers and abilities. One of these, a 42-year old bricklayer named Jean Limoux was able to summon sorcerous fires that could eat through wood, stone, and even steel.

    When Limoux was arrested in his native Le Havre by the local magistrate, Limoux burned through the wall of his cell and inadvertently incinerated three soldiers. Living as a fugitive for the next three months, he was eventually shot and killed near Calais. The pursuit and eventual death of Limoux was sensationalized in several French and English broadsheets, but in the words of essayist Henry Fielding, “It could hardly have been more sensational than that which we have already endured.”

    This incident, along with many others in northern France and the Low Countries, convinced the French court to seek a Papal decree condemning all practitioners of ‘vile witchcraft’ as minions of Satan. Cardinal Fleury, in one of his last acts, supported the measure, and Pope Benedict issued a Bull in late September, which excommunicated all practitioners of ‘this new English vileness’.

    Reactions in other nations were mixed; most of Europe scoffed at the reports of black magic filtering in from the west, laughing them off as religious mania or some kind of English plot to undermine the French.

    Back in Britain, the Royal Tribunal completed its findings in late September. The major conclusions they reached were as follows:

    -The source of the demonic pollution, which lay like a pall across England, originated mainly from the basement on Uxbridge Road. The entire building was razed and filled in with concrete and huge blocks of marble, then prayed over by priests of the Church of England for three weeks.

    -A secondary source of infection was the site of the death struggle between the two demons outside of York, where they had apparently torn another rift during their battle. Though this rift was tiny compared to the one in London, it was also out in broad daylight, suspended in midair, and thus the corruption that poured from it was greater. A temporary shell of steel and concrete had been erected around it.

    -Furthermore, ‘pools’ of the corruption had been left behind by the demons in a string all across central England, almost as if their very footprints had poisoned the land.

    -The corruption spilling from the rifts was named ‘Aether’ and it was determined not to be directly harmful to human beings. However, Aetheric contamination caused mutations in about one percent and even some animal species that came in contact with it.

    -The Aetheric mutations caused the blossoming of supernatural powers. Most of these manifestations were harmless, but some were truly amazing… and dangerous.

    -Realizing that it was not possible to try fully a quarter of southern England’s population as witches, the Tribunal instead instituted the Sorcerous Registration Act, whereby every person displaying supernatural ability had to register with the government and keep their local magistrate informed of their whereabouts.

    -Certain talents (mainly those perceived to be truly evil, like the raising of the dead, or the corrupting by touch of vegetation and human flesh) were outlawed by the Crown and their practitioners were subject to arrest and execution.

    In the American colonies, the news from Europe was met with disbelief and fear. “Were our rulers now merely mouthpieces for Satan?” was a question voiced widely by churchgoers. Though initially inclined to help in the capture of those with dangerous talents who had fled to America, cooperation soured over time as a subordinate office of the Tribunal was opened in Boston and instigated a witch-hunt the likes of which had not been seen in decades.



    1744

    The clouds of war that had been building between France and England finally burst, and France declared war on England and on Maria Theresa, the archduchess of Austria. The declaration began to take on religious overtones as well as France condemned England for polluting the continent with sorcery.

    In London, Frederick, the Prince of Wales, was stirring up trouble by negotiating with the Tories. His son, the future George III (at the time six years old) fell ill in late May with an undiagnosed illness and was hidden away from public view. Fearing for his son’s life, Frederick renounced all ties to the Tories and concentrated his energies on finding a cure for his son. This also had the effect of healing the years-long breach between Frederick and his father, George II.

    In July, after almost two months of worrying, young George’s mother, the Princess Augusta, sought the help of a known ‘sorceress’, one Miriam Dalrymple, who had been a licensed supernatural healer (only the third such license ever granted) in London for about ten months. Dalrymple was consulted in utter secrecy, which was just as well considering the diagnosis she made: young George was only the latest victim (but surely the highest placed) of the Aetheric Plague. His sickness was due to his body adapting to its new sorcerous abilities. No one knew exactly how his powers would develop, but the worst was confirmed in September as the boy, now recovered, re-animated the corpse of his favorite pet cat. His powers fell under the newly established ‘Demonic Powers Act’ and as such, he was subject to execution.

    Panicked, the royal family kept him secluded on a country estate and told the rest of the nation that he was suffering from a ‘brain-fever’. Madame Dalrymple was placed under house arrest in the same country manor and paid handsomely to act as a nursemaid and healer for George. Though most of the nation voiced its sorrow at the Royal Family’s misfortune, many had already begun to suspect the truth…

    Meanwhile, a hidden exodus had begun from England. Dozens of people, their newfound powers condemning them to death under the Demonic Powers Act, fled with their families to Sweden, to Russia, to Austria, even to the Americas, where they tried desperately to blend in.

    One such was Gregory Martin, a surgeon from Brighton. His powers were particularly dangerous, for not only could he cause the rotting of human flesh by touching it with his naked hands (he wore thick gloves for the rest of his life, preventing him from performing any surgery), but he could also open up rifts to Hell such as the two, which were currently polluting the British Isles. After opening and then quickly closing one, he realized what a danger he would be if he fell under the sway of someone unscrupulous. Unfortunately, this is exactly what happened.

    Resettling with a distant cousin in Smolensk, Martin came under suspicion from the Imperial Russian court after neighbors witnessed strange lights in the Martin’s townhouse. Martin was arrested and brought before Czarina Elizabeth, where her advisors brought forth an interesting proposition: why should the English be the only ones to enjoy these supernatural powers which were, obviously, quite real?

    In India, the young Robert Clive arrived in Madras as a clerk with the East India Company. He carried with him a dire secret: he had been Aetherically infected, and lived in constant fear of being found out by his friends and employers, even though his talent was one of the most benign: he could heal nearly any injury or sickness instantly.


    1745

    As the war between England and France and their various allies entered its second year, the French, under the Marechal de Saxe, defeated the English at Fontenoy and occupied the Austrian Netherlands. In the Americas, the two opposing sides fought desultorily; there were simply not enough troops on the ground (or much worth fighting over) to leave a lasting impression on the land. Eventually, things sputtered to a halt with the Peace of Dresden. Prussia recognized the Pragmatic Sanction, but retained Silesia, a state of affairs no one was particularly happy with, but was unwilling to do much about.

    Then, for the first time, sorcery made a major impact on world affairs. Charles Edward Stuart, the ‘Young Pretender’, landed on Eriskay Island in Scotland. After defeating an English army at Prestonpans, he moved south. Near Leeds, he met with complete and utter disaster – elements of his army, scouring the countryside for food, invaded a farm and attacked the farmer’s wife and daughter. The farmer, a victim of the Aetheric Plague who had thus far managed to keep his affliction a secret, bore no love for Charles, and the violation of his family was the final straw.

    The farmer, a man named Dougall, had one terrible ability – he could cause the blood of any man or animal to boil and burst into flame. Before he was done, Dougall had annihilated nearly three quarters of the Young Pretender’s army, including Charles himself.

    The incident put the King and Parliament in something of a quandary – on the one hand, they had to take steps to contain Dougall, who was clearly a dangerous and perhaps demonic menace. But on the other hand, the man had single-handedly destroyed a threat to the nation. By all rights, he should be a hero.

    In August, the government introduced its most comprehensive steps yet in dealing with the ‘sorcery question’. The newly founded Middlesex Hospital in London was taken over by the Tribunal and re-christened the Middlesex Center of Sorcerous Study. It was to become a central registration depot for the entire nation; everyone who even suspected they might have some sorcerous aptitude was required to maintain a current address on file at Middlesex. Additionally, the complex was designated as a training academy for a brand new military organization: the Royal Sorcerers. For this was the Tribunal’s answer to the problem of Dougall and others like him: if they could not be exterminated, at least they could be watched and put to use by His Majesty’s government.

    A group of men, those who had attained some degree of control and understanding of their new powers, were put together to act as instructors at Middlesex. They became known as the Cadre, and quickly came to be both feared and respected by all levels of London society.

    In Russia, a new horror was being unleashed: a group of government ministers used the captive Englishman Gregory Martin to open a rift to Hell, thereby unleashing a new cloud of Aether, this time in the heart of the Russian Empire. The idea was to infect a select group with the Aether, thus creating an army of sorcerers loyal to the Czarina and Russia. The plan met with the full approval of Czarina Elizabeth, who lately had begun to feel the first creeping signs of middle age and was desperate to retain her youth and health.

    Though the experiment was carried out in secret and under what those involved thought were controlled circumstances, things, as they often do, soon spiraled out of control. Martin, mentally and physically abused for months, opened a much larger rift than had been planned for, and then was not immediately able to close it. A swarm of creatures swept though the rift and attacked those present. The things resembled five-foot long eyeless snakes, with heads at both ends and able to float in midair. Their venom was fatal, causing those bitten to go into foaming convulsions and bone-breaking muscle spasms before dying in terrible agony.

    Martin was bitten by one of the creatures and, dying, totally lost control of the rift. Massive quantities of Aether, dozens of times more than had been released in England over the last three years, poured into the skies above Russia and began to drift through the stratosphere, trailing a curtain of infection across most of eastern Europe and central Asia. Finally, his body shutting down in death, Martin closed off the rift, but the damage had been done. Rather than creating an unstoppable army, the Russians had contaminated hundreds of thousands of square miles of not only Russian territory, but that of half a dozen other nations as well. Over the next decade, hundreds of men and women developed sorcerous aptitude, and countless Hellish creatures were sighted, both those that had escaped from the Rift into the mortal plane, and those that the Aether had mutated.

    Russia was condemned by dozens of nations and became an international pariah for close to a decade; the Czarina was nearly overthrown on three separate occasions, and it was only the power of a group of loyal sorcerers that maintained her on the throne.

    1746

    As the years went by, scholars both professional and amateur across Europe were beginning to classify the various sorcerous mutations that the Aether had caused, and to learn what could and could not be accomplished with these supernatural powers. In the British Isles, two types of sorcerers were delineated. Type Ones consisted of those having abilities, which were too minor to have any practical value outside of entertainment, or those who possessed beneficial, non-destructive magics of a higher order. Type Two sorcerers were a little trickier to define, and the definition seemed to change monthly depending on the whims of the Tribunal and Parliament. Generally, Type Twos were those whose powers were classified as destructive to human life or property. A third type, known simply as ‘Zeds’, were those who possessed powers, which fell under the Demonic Powers Act.

    As of mid-1746, these powers included the following:

    -any type of necromancy (reanimation of dead flesh, corruption of living flesh, the causing of any type of illness, such as fevers, delirium, sores, etc.).
    -the ability to create rifts to ‘Hell’.
    -the ability to control someone else’s mind (often referred to as ‘mentalism’).
    -some other unique powers, judged on a case-by-case basis.

    Anyone classified as a Type Zed was subject to immediate arrest and execution. Under laws laid down by the Tribunal, they were not given any chance to defend themselves in a court of law. The enforcement of the Demonic Powers Act was problematic at best, however. Short of someone reputable actually witnessing a forbidden act of sorcery, it was extremely hard to prove what someone was or was not capable of.

    1746 saw the death of two monarchs, Philip V of Spain, and Christian VI of Denmark. The new king of Denmark, Frederick V, was cautiously in favor of adopting Britain’s rules and classifications regarding sorcery, while Spain’s Ferdinand VI was swayed by Church diplomats into imposing much harsher strictures.

    Throughout Europe, the most urgent topic on every government’s agenda was becoming the ‘sorcery problem’. Some states, such as Britain and by 1748, Russia, had well-defined and comprehensive laws and regulations, which guaranteed, if not complete freedom for the Aetherically-infected, at least some measure of protection. France, Spain, Portugal, Austria, and most of the Italian states were much more reactionary. In France particularly, anyone practicing sorcery of any stripe were subject to execution, sometimes along with his or her entire family.

    The Catholic Church officially labeled all sorcery as demonic witchcraft condemning its user to the blackest hell. Unofficially, views within the Church varied widely. In Ireland, where Aetheric infection was growing rapidly, most priests turned a blind eye. In Spain, the Inquisition gained new, malevolent life. And in Rome itself, internal squabbling was fast causing serious schisms.

    The Orthodox Church was a different matter. Like the Catholics, they labeled sorcery as witchcraft, but declared that those infected were not to be held responsible for their condition and should be pitied, not condemned – as long as they swore not to make use of their abilities. Once they began ‘practicing witchcraft’, the Orthodox Patriarchs considered them outside the pale.

    The Ottoman Empire and the other Islamic states remained silent on the issue for the most part, but so far they could afford to; Aetheric infection was practically unheard of in the Middle East and Africa at this point, though after the Russian debacle, that was changing in Turkey and the Empire’s Balkan possessions.

    On top of everything else, the War of Austrian Succession was still sputtering on in fits and starts. In our world, an alliance was forged this year between Russia and Austria against Prussia. In this world, the alliance fell apart thanks to the disastrous Aetheric experiment in Russia. The French won a victory at Racoux, and Austria lost the Netherlands.

    In India, British troops in Bengal and in the southern cities like Madras had listened with dread for the last few years as reports on the situation back home filtered in. Now, reports of strange doings in India itself began to be heard. The Marathas declared those with sorcerous talent as ‘blessed by the gods’, putting them at odds with the British. Robert Clive was finally forced to admit his abilities in early spring after healing a small child afflicted with typhoid. At first looked on with suspicion not only by his fellow British but by the Indian population as well, Clive eventually began to earn respect by selflessly making the rounds of every hospital, clinic, and leprosarium he could find, healing all those who wished it. By the end of the year, he had become something of a folk hero in eastern India and was invited to tour the Maratha Empire.

    But something odd was happening, something that no one had noticed – incidents of sorcery were becoming more and more frequent in areas that Clive had traveled to. If anyone had bothered to connect the dots, it would have soon become obvious that the vast majority of these incidents were caused by people that Clive had healed. For Clive had another talent. When he performed his healings, he passed to the patient, along with renewed health, particles of Aether, which were linked with his healing energies. Just as if they’d been exposed to a rift, some 20% of Clive’s patients became Aetherically infected, and about one percent of those developed sorcerous talent.

    1747

    In 1747, the first students at the Middlesex Center of Sorcerous Study began a course of study designed to help them explore and control their powers. The Cadre, the Center’s instructors, was for the most part little more knowledgeable than their students about many aspects of sorcery, and most classes quickly became symposiums of mutual experimentation.

    Early fields of study at Middlesex included classifying, experimenting with, and categorizing the various sorcerous abilities of the population at large; capturing and studying the various life forms that had escaped into the mortal plane from the rifts as well as those native to Earth that had spontaneously mutated from Aetheric contact; the tracking of Aetheric fallout and contamination zones; ways to completely seal the two rifts which still (albeit in far smaller quantities) spewed their poison into the soil and air of England; and many other areas as well.

    Peter Youngsboro, a former Oxford professor, was appointed as the first Dean of Middlesex in February 1747, a post that he held until his death in 1787. The rest of the Cadre, fifteen in total, acted as instructors and administrators, and also as field agents for the Tribunal. In this capacity (which many of the Cadre resented), they were responsible for investigating reports from across the British Isles of any new sorcerous manifestation. By the end of the year, it was clear that fifteen men couldn’t possibly handle this task on their own, and a separate Department of Supernatural Investigation was formed. Technically attached to Middlesex, the Department answered directly to the Tribunal in most instances.

    The Tribunal itself had undergone several changes since its inception six years earlier. While still responsible for setting all policy regarding sorcery in Britain, they no longer had the completely free hand they’d enjoyed for the first couple years of their existence. This change stemmed from two sources – firstly, public outrage over several of the Tribunal’s more heavy-handed policies threatened to blossom into something much uglier if people kept being dragged from their homes in the middle of the night and hung. Secondly, the Royal Family itself brought increasing pressure to bear, mainly out of fear of the discovery of young George’s abilities.

    Still, the Tribunal held more power than most any other office in the land except that of the King. John McDonald, the head of the Tribunal, was a harsh and uncompromising man who saw it as his duty to stomp out ‘foul sorcery’ wherever he found it. He was opposed to the formation of Middlesex and only relented when directly ordered to by the King. From their offices in Greenwich, they oversaw every aspect of English life directly or indirectly related to sorcery. A myriad of clerks and lawyers oversaw the massive amounts of paperwork that stemmed from all the surveys, censuses, laws, and investigations generated by the Office of the Tribunal.

    It was not only the common people who feared and distrusted the Tribunal; many Members of Parliament were heard to remark that ‘our jobs seem superfluous and petty, now’. The second member of the Tribunal, Matthew Harvison, once an MP himself, acted as a liaison between the Tribunal and Parliament, but more often than not the Tribunal ran roughshod over Parliament when that august body sought to introduce reforms and statutes regulating sorcery. All in all, the 1740s were a time of uncertainty and fear in Britain.

    In this year, the first incidents of sorcery among the clergy were reported. The first was a nun in France whose name was never made public. Apparently gifted with a minor talent, which she used to make trees, flowers, fruits, and vegetables blossom and brim with beauty and health, she was summarily executed on August 12th by officers of the Catholic Church in Nantes. The incident was simply one of many which added to the general feeling of unrest and fear throughout France. King Louis seemed oblivious to events in his country; many said he was not even aware of the momentous changes that had swept over Europe in the last half decade.

    The second incident occurred in September in Wales and involved a young priest named Father George Mayhew. Father George had journeyed to Leeds late the year before to visit family, and had returned to his parish with a newfound ability. He could influence and even create various meteorological phenomena, including fog, winds, rain, and even balls and bolts of lightning. His powers were made public after he used them to divert a storm in Cardigan Bay, saving a ship, which had foundered on some rocks. After an investigator from Middlesex ordered him to report to the Center for a categorization of his powers and possible assignment at Middlesex, Mayhew refused. He was arrested and brought to London, where he became a sensation in the broadsheets and created a national controversy. Did the Tribunal and the Center have the right to order a priest of the Church of England? Did the Church have an obligation to turn its priests over to the Tribunal if they possessed sorcery? These were just some of the questions being asked, and they were unanswered as Christmas 1747 rolled around. Father George Mayhew remained under house arrest in a parish in west London.

    Meanwhile, in central Europe, one of the defining moments of the decade occurred: the first intentional use of sorcery in battle. A Prussian commander named Albert von Spetznach formed a unit composed of men (and one woman) whose powers were, in his words, ‘dangerous, deadly, and altogether imposing’. This unit engaged an Austrian force near Soor on June 25th and in the course of two hours, completely routed the Austrians. Reports circulated through Europe of warlocks able to levitate cannonballs and fling them with incredible velocity and deadly accuracy; of lightning called down from a clear sky and igniting powder stores; of living shadows who tore through the Austrian ranks like scythes.

    King Frederick II, horrified when he received the news, immediately ordered the arrest and execution of von Spetznach. This went far towards the eventual peace treaty the next year, but the damage had been done; the world had been introduced to the concept of sorcerous warfare. In Britain, the military engineer Benjamin Robins, who had recently spoken to the Royal Society on the physics of projectiles, began a study of possible sorcerous tactics in battle, a study that earned him the outrage of many but was approved of by the Tribunal.

    In Russia, the first major attempts at capturing and cataloging the new sorcery-tainted animals, both native and otherwise, was conducted. Scientists in Kiev captured several of the strange little twig-men, which by now infested half of Europe. Called ‘peskies’ by many Europeans, the creatures were tiny, no more than five or six inches high and weak physically, but were possessed of a low, malevolent cunning. They could learn words of various Earth languages, and most could curse fluently in half a dozen languages.

    The two-headed snake-things were christened ‘amphisbaenas’ after the mythical Greek serpent. Thankfully, the amphisbaenas seemed ill suited to life on Earth and were dying off in most regions, with the exception of the far north of Russia and Scandinavia, where they seemed to thrive.

    In addition, the Aether had warped several Earth animals. These were named for the most part after mythological beasts, and included basilisks (whose gaze, thankfully, could not kill, but could temporarily cause paralysis), cockatrices (able to spit acidic poison capable of eating through skin and leather), and hell-hounds (gigantic, fire-breathing dogs). Other, darker rumors were heard as well: that creatures out of Russian and Slavic folklore walked the swamps and forests; that rusalkas haunted the land; and that Chernobog and the old gods were come again. The Russian Orthodox Church tried its best to stamp out these rumors, but was largely unsuccessful. There were just too many sightings, coming from too many places.

    And in Italy, a new kind of sorcerous horror was reported. Starting in May, some ravenous creature began terrorizing the city of Milan, killing, mutilating, and partially consuming more than a dozen citizens. The authorities at first thought it was some kind of Aetherically mutated wolf or dog. They were shocked when, in July, a huge, man-shaped beast was cornered and captured. Battered into unconsciousness, the creature shifted into the form of a young woman who had been reported a month previously by her mother of ‘acting oddly’. The first authenticated sighting of a werewolf had just occurred. The woman, one Maria Trevanta, was found guilty of witchcraft and executed in late August.

    As though this incident had released a floodgate, almost a dozen more cases of Aether-induced lycanthropy were reported across Europe. Near the city of Warsaw, a convicted murderer assumed the shape of a huge red-haired wolf-man, broke out of his prison cell and killed a dozen men before being shot dead. In Amsterdam, a teenage boy began to change into what was apparently a bear; halfway through the transformation, he ‘stuck’ and lay in horrible pain for three days, his bones and muscles warped and distorted, before a local priest mercifully ended his life.

    In North America, events in Europe were viewed with a kind of disbelieving awe. Many colonists flatly refused to believe what was happening. The Puritans found new life and new converts in the New England colonies, taking advantage of the fear and distrust engendered by sorcery to increase their power base. The leaders of Boston and several other northern settlements outlawed any usage of sorcery, on pain of death. This decree was eventually overturned by the Tribunal, but was in effect long enough to drive practically all magic-using colonists out of New England and south into Virginia and the Carolinas, where they found a marginally warmer welcome. Even after the decree was revoked, countless midnight hangings occurred, and in November, the Tribunal was finally forced to pay more attention to the doings in the Americas after an eight-year-old girl was killed by a Boston mob. Her crime: making a wooden chair dance across her bedroom.


    1748

    1748 finally saw an end to the conflict that had been tearing Europe apart for much of a decade with the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Francis I became Holy Roman Emperor, and the nations of the Continent began to rebuild.

    In the Americas, sorcery was now becoming the main topic of daily discussion, just as it had been across the ocean for the last several years. The colonial ‘splendid isolation’ was over. The constant and continuing brutalities of the New England Puritans against sorcerers finally drew the ire of King George and the Tribunal. Tribunal head John McDonald, a devout Anglican priest, was one of those who were more verbally opposed to the Puritans. He subscribed to the belief that to ‘tolerate all faiths without control was to have none at all’. Thus, the atrocities in Boston and other New England cities was the perfect excuse for him to act against the Puritans.

    McDonald personally traveled to Boston in April, where he oversaw the implementation of several new laws, including the imposition of indentured servitude, massive fines, and even sentences of death for harm against sorcerers and their property. These laws were drawn up especially for Massachusetts and the other New England states, a fact, which was lost on no one, least of all the New Englanders. Unfortunately, rather than cause a cessation of deviltry against sorcerers, the new laws only sowed the seeds of resentment and hatred which would bear fruit two and a half decades later, during the bloody conflict known as the American Revolution. New Englanders complained that the Tribunal was composed of hypocrites; after all, weren't any and all English women subject to being dragged from their homes for using sorcery? Now the Tribunal told the New England colonists that such behavior was intolerable... in New England, at least.

    The Tribunal’s draconian policies were cautiously applauded by the Middle and Southern Colonies, especially Pennsylvania, whose large Quaker population espoused the equality of all men and women, even those afflicted with sorcery. This too had its after-effects, further deepening the divide, which already existed between New England and the other colonies over matters as diverse as trade rights, tariffs, mutual defense treaties, and Indian populations.

    In the autumn of the year, news began to circulate among the white colonists of New York of a new solidarity among the Algonquin Five Nations. The Indians were reluctant to speak of what was causing this cultural upswing; most would only say that ‘the Old Gods are returning’. Settlers in the upper Hudson Valley spoke of strange lightning storms in the north and west, of bands of Indians traveling on some mysterious business. British and colonial attempts to find out what was going on met with little success.


    1749

    The first event of international importance this year was the arrest and trial of Robert Clive, known as the ‘Healer of India’. Agents of the Tribunal had finally connected the mysterious outbreaks of sorcery in eastern India with the travels and healings of Clive. The trial was a five-month extravaganza, and drew support and criticism alike from all over the globe. The outcome of the trial was never known, however, for a band of British soldiers loyal to Clive broke their leader out of prison in Madras and helped him escape into central India, where he gained sanctuary among the Maratha.

    This sparked the ferocious Maratha War between Britain and the Indian sultanate, a war that would last over two years. The sorcery-hating French found themselves in the peculiar position of supporting the magic-friendly Maratha, one more necessary move in their eternal chess game with the British.

    In Europe, the controversy surrounding magic-using men of the cloth continued. In Britain and France especially, the matter was quickly growing to disastrous proportions. France had taken the simple and brutal path of simply executing any man or woman (including clergy) who displayed sorcery. Understandably, this began to spark anger among the common folk, who saw increasing numbers of their population and now religious leaders burned at the stake. Uprisings and lootings became more and more common all across France. King Louis refused to issue any solid proclamation one way or another. In August, the unrest reached its pinnacle.

    Starting in Paris itself, a nation-wide revolution began when a much-beloved priest was burned at the stake along with five nuns, one barely out of her teens. The revolutionary leader Francois Artos rose to prominence, leading the ‘Army of the Seine’, a ragtag group of peasants, townsfolk, and former soldiers, a great many of whom possessed sorcery.

    In North America, the first settlers of the Ohio Company broke ground, and Georgia became a Crown Colony. Also in this year, the first documented cases of children born with sorcerous powers were reported in America. This had been common in Europe for at least seven or eight years, but it was a new and terrifying thing in the Colonies, especially New England.

    1750

    As the year turned, the revolts in France became a true Revolution. Francois Artos’ forces defeated a French Army in battle north of Paris, but were forced to flee when another army arrived from the south. The revolutionaries were granted sanctuary in the city of Rennes, which had declared itself a free city on New Year’s Day. Significant fighting had erupted all over the country – in Normandy, Bretagne, and in the southwest especially.

    Meanwhile, Britain, who had landed forces in Normandy ‘in support of freedom’, was warned by Spain, Austria, and the Church herself to withdraw. Britain did so, grudgingly, but remained poised to sweep in once more.

    In India, events had turned decisively in Britain’s favor. Without French support (which was sorely needed back in Europe to fight the revolutionaries), the Maratha began to lose ground in huge chunks. By the autumn, most of central and north-central India was under British control. Practically the only reason the Indians kept fighting was the inspired leadership of Robert Clive.

    Back in Europe, in the Carpathian Mountains, the mystic sorcerer Baal Shem founded a Jewish sect called Chassidim.


    1751

    In the spring, the Maratha War finally drew to a close; the Maratha were crushed, and Britain gained hegemony over most of India. Only the Nizam territories, the Mogul Empire, Mysore, and Dutch Cochin and Ceylon remained outside the British sphere. Robert Clive fled northwards with a ragtag army, which eventually established a state around Lahore (1755).

    In Europe, the French Revolution swept onwards like a storm, tearing the nation apart. In June, the western province of Bretagne declared itself an independent republic modeled on the Dutch example. Britain recognized the new republic’s independence in November, followed by Denmark, Sweden, and Prussia.

    In Asia, sorcery was finally beginning to make its presence known. Although the Aetheric Cloud released by the Russian experiment six years earlier was now dissipating, it had already spread its contamination all across the central Asian steppes and into Mongolia and western China. The incidence of sorcery rose drastically in Tibet, where some quirk of genetics blessed (or cursed) the population there with a much higher percentage of sorcerous talent than in any other area of the world thus far. China used this as one more excuse to invade Tibet, an invasion that commenced during the summer.

    China also closed all of its ports to Europeans and evicted all foreigners, accusing them (and rightly so) of ‘evil contamination’.

    Back in Europe, Frederick, the Prince of Wales, suffered from an abscess in March, but was healed by Miriam Dalrymple, young George’s nurse. (In OTL, he died from it.) Unfortunately, his healing drew the attention of various enemies of the Royal Family and of Britain. Anti-sorcerous activists in the south of England decried the healing as proof that Frederick was ‘tainted by sorcery’ and unfit to succeed his father George II.

    To make matters worse, rumors of 13 year-old George’s powers had somehow begun to circulate through the countryside. How the news was leaked was never determined, though it can be assumed that servants in Frederick’s country manor (where George had been sequestered) were responsible. By November, the Tribunal was forced to act. All of Europe waited to see if the confrontation between the Tribunal and the Royal Family would spark a disastrous revolution.

    Shockingly, it was George II and his family who blinked first. In later years, George II and his son Frederick would be remembered for many things, both good and bad, but nothing so much as for the act of sacrificing a son, a grandson for the good of Britain herself. On the morning of December 23rd, George II made a public announcement officially supporting the Tribunal’s call for George the younger’s execution under the Demonic Powers Act. Rather than prolong the pain and suffering of everyone concerned, George was poisoned in his sleep by his own father on Christmas morning. Frederick’s second son, Edward, a quiet and unassuming boy, never forgave his family or the Tribunal for his brother’s death. This sowed in him a seed of hatred for all things sorcerous, which blossomed in later years into truly monstrous proportions.

    George II was never seen in public after this; he became a sad and desolate man, leaving the running of the country to his councilors and to Frederick. Frederick, by contrast, became a vigorous and powerful leader, campaigning endlessly for increased rights for the sorcerously gifted.

    1752

    In February of 1752, the first graduates of the Middlesex Center left the school and assumed their first missions for His Majesty, George II. Each sorcerer was required by law to serve a minimum of ten years in the Royal Sorcerers, after which time he could choose to stay on, or pursue other avenues of employment (although each signed a contract stating that they would be available for service in times of national emergency). The few female Royal Sorcerers (four in the first class of graduates) served five-year terms.

    These newly trained, ‘schooled’ sorcerers became the officer corps of the Royal Sorcerers. In 1752, the Sorcerers numbered less than 1000, officially, with the vast majority composed of soldiers and sailors who, thanks to Aetheric infection, now had supernatural powers. This group had received next to no training in the use of their abilities; in part this was due to a simple lack of qualified teachers and a minimum of room at Middlesex, but class distinctions also played a role. For many years, most Middlesex students were from well-off or noble families. There were exceptions, of course, but for the most part, newly-minted sorcerers who came from less than wealthy backgrounds learned how to wield their powers in an ‘on the job’ capacity, tutored by their Middlesex alumni officers.

    Ever since it had become clear to the other nations of Europe exactly what Britain planned to achieve with Middlesex – a functioning organization of trained magicians – many states had quietly begun to emulate the British. In particular, Russia, Sweden, and Venice had begun to establish their own schools of sorcerous training, although in Venice’s case, the organization was never publicly acknowledged by the Doge or his government, so as to avoid drawing the wrath of the Church. This did not, however, prevent Papal spies from infesting Venice, hoping to catch the republic in some act of Satanism. By 1752, the tension between Rome and Venice had become quite palpable, and the Doge was on the verge of openly allying with Britain to guarantee against Papal intrigue.

    In Rome, a quiet internal war had been waged over the last few years. The few orders that had tentatively supported the study and use of sorcery had been corrected of the folly of these notions, sometimes forcibly. The ‘new’ Church was a leaner, much less tolerant, and far more militant organization. Pope Benedict voluntarily resigned his post in January, the first Pope to do so in centuries. Officially, his retirement was due to extreme ill health brought on by the stresses of the last decade. Unofficially, many believed Benedict was forced to step down by a coalition who was violently opposed to Benedict’s plans to consider other alternatives to dealing with sorcery rather than branding it Satanic outright. The Church’s new leader, Pope Urban IX, was a former Cardinal from Naples named Angelo Morelli. Urban IX shared none of the sentiments of his predecessor; during his Papacy, thousands of Catholics were condemned to death all across Europe.

    Elsewhere in Europe, the fledgling Republic of Bretagne gained recognition from several German states, foremost among them Hanover, and the Netherlands. King Louis condemned this recognition as ‘fostering the dissolution of France’, but the crown, by this time, wielded little practical power. Louis himself had been a virtual prisoner in his sumptuous palace at Versailles for the last six months. The palace’s once beautiful grounds had become a muddy, trampled ruin, home to an army encampment who existed in a state of siege, fending off attacks from starving peasants and sorcery-using revolutionaries.

    In July, British troops moved into French Canada to ‘protect British interests in America’. Though much of Europe protested the occupation, Britain countered with the argument that France had been planning to seize the Ohio Valley with troops from Canada. Ironically, in our world, this is exactly what would have happened. Here, no such move was planned (even if it had been, France had neither the men or resources to spare, now), but it made a convenient excuse for Britain.

    In the summer, the Ottoman Empire, thus far able to ignore most of the goings-on in the rest of Europe, was finally brought into the ‘Age of Sorcery’ – Mustafa, the son of the previous sultan, Ahmed III, became Aetherically infected. His particular power was of little practical use, but it did grant him other benefits. Mustafa, quite simply, glowed. His skin gave off intensely bright rays of light; his hair seemed to be aflame, and his eyes looked like miniature suns. It became impossible to look directly at him without suffering damage to one’s eyesight. For the first few months after his infection, Mustafa took to wearing multiple layers of clothing to hide the effect, and wearing heavily tinted spectacles. However, by the winter, certain factions within the Empire convinced him that he had been touched by Allah and that it was blasphemy to hide his god-touched form.

    Not surprisingly, many within these factions had relatives who had been touched by Aether, or had been themselves. In Mustafa, they saw the potential for widespread acceptance of sorcery within the Empire. Indeed, things had already been moving, in some minor degree, in this direction. Many within the sultan’s government saw the vast possibilities that the new magics could afford the faithful of Allah – they already looked enviously upon Britain’s Middlesex School, but now the foundation had been laid for something similar within the Ottoman Empire.

    In India, Robert Clive and his army continued to fight a rear-guard action against British forces, retreating farther and farther north, into the Sikh lands around Lahore. Though his army had suffered massive losses, he now began to slowly grow in power once more as thousands of Sikhs, Afghans, Moguls, Nepalese, and Tibetans flocked to his banner.

    In North America, many of the native tribes had become decidedly hostile to the European interlopers. Previously friendly tribes became cold and refused to trade with the colonies, and hostile tribes became downright warlike, launching raids against British and French towns on a scale unheard of in years. Rumors had been rampant since 1748 of some new power uniting the tribes, especially those of the so-called Five Nations, but still no one could provide concrete evidence as to what was going on. The only hard evidence of the strangeness was a sigil in the shape of a lightning-bolt worn by many Indians. When asked, they would only claim it represented their allegiance to Hino, an old Iroquois god of thunder, whom they claimed had come back to save them. Of course this riled up the Christian priests in New England and elsewhere, but by and large they had enough problems of their own to deal with, and ‘Hino’ and his followers were for the most part ignored.

    Less easily-ignored were the new outbreaks of Aetheric infection in the upper Hudson valley over the last year or two. Hostile Indian war parties made investigation impossible, and it was assumed by the colonial governments in New York and Boston that a sorcerer capable of opening Rifts was loose somewhere. Plans were made to call upon the Crown to send an army. Many colonials, unwilling to wait for help from the other side of the Atlantic, were of the opinion that the Colonies needed a force of officially sanctioned sorcerers of their own, something akin to, but separate from, the Royal Sorcerers (whose American branches were slowly coming up to strength). The Tribunal flatly refused any such plan, stating that ‘sorcery is the purview of the Crown and of the Tribunal, not of private citizens’. Despite this, many colonists, especially those whose farms lay in the less-defensible western regions of New York and Pennsylvania, began to quietly form ‘magic squads’ to protect villages and homesteads against the increasing number of Aetherically-mutated animals and rogue Indian sorcerers.

    New England, on the other hand, reacted by violently protesting against the Tribunal’s hated sorcery-toleration laws. Was it not sorcery, after all that was responsible for the bizarre, demonic creatures now roaming the countryside? Vigilante groups began to grow once more, and the midnight lynching of sorcerers and suspected sorcerers became an almost weekly occurrence.

    1753

    In this year, Benjamin Franklin, who had recently invented the lightning rod and was as a result enjoying a minor celebrity-hood, established a small school in Philadelphia. Its purpose was to tutor sorcerers in the use of their powers, at least to the degree that they could benefit society. Franklin was not himself Aetherically-infected, but his brother James was. Franklin’s so-called ‘academy’ drew protests from the Tribunal, but they finally acknowledged that the Colonies needed some kind of rudimentary training center akin to Middlesex. In later years, the Franklin Academy was recognized as the first American college of sorcery.

    In Britain over the last year and more, public opinion of Frederick, the Prince of Wales, had radically polarized. One faction saw him as the blackest sort of monster, a man who slaughtered his son because the boy happened to be plagued by an infection not of his choosing. This faction even went so far as to say that Frederick was unfit to sit the throne after his father, and that succession should pass to Frederick’s son Edward. But another, larger, group viewed him as an honorable man, a leader who would give up even his own blood for the good of the nation.

    In May, the pro- and anti-Frederick factions almost came to blows with the death of George II. Frederick’s reputation was not helped by the fact that he concealed news of his father’s death for almost a month as the government scrambled to assure the loyalty of Parliament and the Army. When King George’s death was finally announced on May 16th, various Members of Parliament banded together to demand an explanation of ‘this irregular behavior’. This coalition was an uneasy one; composed of both pro-sorcery groups who sought to disband the Tribunal, and a scattering of MPs who had fallen out with Frederick over the years (some were still bitter over Frederick’s opposition to Walpole back in the late ‘30s), the coalition was a threat, but never a truly serious one. They simply lacked the coordination to accomplish much. On the other hand, this saved its members from being branded as traitors when Frederick ascended the throne on May 24th. King Frederick, recognizing the somewhat precarious position of his throne should the sorcerous of England unite against him as they had done in France, began to formulate several measures designed to reduce the Tribunal’s power and to make Middlesex more answerable to Parliament and thus, to the people.

    Back in the Americas, an army was finally raised to fully investigate and if need be, destroy, whatever it was that was stirring in the upper Hudson Valley. Composed mainly of Colonial volunteers, the force was led by General James Wolfe and included a sizable regiment of Royal Sorcerers and New York and Pennsylvanian ‘apprentices’.

    On August 4th, the newly-christened Army of the Hudson marched north from Albany. From the outset, their progress was little more than a crawl – they came under constant and vicious attack from Indian irregulars less than a week out of Albany. News reached Wolfe on August 12th that the small town of Schenectady, on the Mohawk River, had been burned to the ground three days before. When the army reached the town, they found only ruins and cold ashes. There were only a handful of survivors, and they all told the same tale: a force of Indians of many different tribes had attacked the town with ‘walls of fire and clouds of stinging insects’. Undeterred, Wolfe resumed his march, now striking out northeast from Schenectady back towards the Hudson.

    On August 30th, the army’s few native guides (those who had been grudgingly pressed into service) deserted during the night with no word or note of explanation. By now the army had lost some fifteen percent of its strength from random attacks, but General Wolfe pressed onwards.

    At the same time, the French town of Montreal fell to a native army that used the same tactics as that which had felled Schenectady. The French General Montcalm led a ragtag army composed of the remnants of his own forces and elements of the English forces which had arrived in the spring to announce the new British claim to all French colonies in the Americas. This refugee army, ill-equipped and guarding the remaining civilian populace of Montreal, headed south, hoping to reach Lake Champlain and the few small French and English forts scattered around its shores.

    On September 9th, the first major battle of what would later be known as the Hudson Valley War was fought near the Mahican village of Horicon. Horicon, at the extreme southern tip of Lake George, normally had around 1000 inhabitants. When the Army of the Hudson reached it on the evening of September 8th, it housed nearly 10,000, the vast majority of whom were fighting men. British scouts reported ‘a vast red tent’ in the center of the native army’s encampment, from which issued ‘terrible roars and bolts of lightning’.

    Despite the misgivings of Major Ronald Howe, who led the Royal Sorcerers accompanying the army, General Wolfe decided to attack without warning on the following morning.

    The British lost the element of surprise during the early morning hours, however. Sometime just past sunrise, a massive column of flame erupted in the middle of the British encampment, which lay some two miles south of Horicon. Hundreds of soldiers were dead and dying within minutes, and it was all the Royal Sorcerers could do to erect a protective wall around the army.

    The army’s most prized sorcerer was William Kirk, who had the power of teleportation. Using his ability, he carried two other sorcerers with him on a circuit of the encampment. What they found was horrific: nearly the whole of the Indian army had surrounded the British during the night. The sentries were found either dead or in a state of magically-induced shock. Although Kirk and his companions were able to inflict some losses on the enemy and gather a significant amount of information on the overall strength and disposition of the opposing army, they were forced to retreat by a monstrous creature who flung bolts of deadly black fire at them.

    Back in the British encampment, General Wolfe was frantically organizing his troops, who were now in a near-panic. Major Howe used his powers of levitation to assemble crude fortifications from the trees the troops hurriedly felled. These meager defenses gave the British and Colonials some breathing room, time enough at least to take stock of the situation.

    After more than two hours of pitched battle, Wolfe was forced to concede that his position was untenable. The order was given to concentrate an attack on the northeast quadrant, with the hopes of breaking through the native forces. The breakout was successful, and the army fled northward, their hoped-for reatreat back down the Hudson blocked by the Indian army. The Army of the Hudson was now reduced to less than 6000 men.

    In the north, General Montcalm’s patchwork army had reached Fort St. Frederic, at the northern tip of Lake Champlain. There, they found a garrison terrified and near desertion from nearly two weeks of random sorcerous attacks. It was now apparent that the Indian uprisings were a massive and coordinated effort. Montcalm, despite having less than 4000 fighting men with him, was able to bolster the garrison’s confidence, such was his reputation.

    On September 17th, the remnants of the Army of the Hudson reached Fort St. Frederic, the native army in pursuit. Eight days of continual marching, most of it while under sorcerous attack, had killed another 600 to 700 of Wolfe’s troops. After a period of tense negotiations, it was agreed that the ‘enemy of my enemy is my friend’, and the British army was allowed into the fort.

    Two days later, the native army led by the hulking creature Kirk had seen arrived. The monster was in the vanguard, and was immediately recognizable to those that had lived through the terror in London back in 1741: it was the third and last of the great demons that had come through the first rift. The thing stood almost twelve feet tall, with dark red hide, brutal curving black horns, and a whipping, spike-tipped tail. Black flames curled around its clawed hands.

    The Battle of Fort St. Frederic was fought from September 19 to the 26th, when a force from New Hampshire, which had set out two weeks earlier to help reinforce the Army of the Hudson, came to the fort’s rescue. The unexpected British force was enough to take the Indian besiegers by surprise and break up the attack. The fort’s defenders, bloody but not beaten, determined to hold the fort. Wolfe and Montcalm felt that to abandon it would be to give up a strategic position to the Indians and their leader, the false ‘Hino’.

    By late November, word of the battles in the Hudson Valley had reached Boston, Philadelphia, and other cities, and more regiments were being hastily assembled.

    Back in Europe, the French Revolution ground on. Although royalist forces fought on fiercely, it was beginning to become apparent that the crown was doomed. Louis had too little internal and international support to even defend the few territories left to him, much less think about retaking Bretagne and other breakaway provinces. In Bretagne, a Council of Peers had been formed, made up predominantly of sorcerers. The Council pledged freedom of religion and the freedom to practice sorcery to everyone, a move that made them immensely popular with their citizens, but which less than endeared them to the other powers of Europe.

    In India, Robert Clive founded the Kingdom of Lahore in late August. Much as the Bretagnans had done, he pledged equality for all. Proving himself an able statesman, he stirred up much international comment by wondering why Britain supported Bretagne, with its overtly-sorcerous leadership, but actively persecuted Clive, a native son.

    In Tibet, the Chinese invasion had bogged down as the nation’s disproportionately large sorcerous element slaughtered thousands upon thousands of Chinese soldiers along the northern Mekong and Salween Rivers. China grew even more xenophobic, killing uncounted numbers of its own citizens as Aetheric infection grew. The central government began to lose cohesion by the end of the year, as province after province came under the sway of local warlords who opposed Peking’s draconian policies.

    1754

    Throughout the spring and early summer of 1754, things seemed fairly quiet in the Hudson Valley. Only minor skirmishes occurred between British and native forces as 'Hino' rebuilt his army to the west, in the Five Nations region. The old Fort Lyman, built at the farthest northern navigable portion of the Hudson River, was renovated and expanded in the spring. First built back in 1709, the fort had a commanding strategic position, overlooking both the Hudson and Champlain valleys. The fort was re-christened Fort Frederick in May, and a sizable auxilliary fort and stockade was built on an island in the river.

    In New York City, a new college was opened - King's College. It quickly became something of an open secret that the school offered 'underground' courses on magic usage and research. Despite Tribunal investigations and crackdowns, no one was able to prove the existence of the 'night school', and the college turned out several noteworthy sorcerers throughout the next two decades along with its more respectable alumni.

    In France, yet another blow struck the monarchist cause when Queen Marie died giving birth to a horribly deformed child (in OTL Louis XVI). The queen had been in ill-health for the length of the pregnancy, appearing 'wasted and of an unhealthy pallor'. When the child was born, the reason for her long sickness became clear: the baby boy was possessed of particularly dangerous and exotic sorcerous powers - he could not ingest normal food or water, but instead lived by siphoning off the 'life energy' of a human host. For the last nine months, that host had been his mother, but with her death, the baby's source of nutrition died also, and he passed away four days after his birth.

    By this time, France's neighbors had grown more than a little weary of her continuing civil war. Trade was being damaged by the conflict, and now the fighting was starting to spill over into the German states and northern Italy. Britain once more sent troops into northern France, ostensibly to protect 'the peace-loving citizens of Bretagne'. This time, no one objected. By late June, several other nations, including Austria, had begun to send their own 'peace-keepers' to ravaged France.

    1754 also marked the first year that confirmed usages of sorcery in Africa were reported. Portuguese trading vessels had apparently spread some manner of Aetheric infection down the west Afican coast as early as 1748, and now it, along with contamination from southern Europe, began to spread through Mali and the western kingdoms and to circulate among the Berbers and other desert tribes to the north. As in Europe, reactions to sorcery varied, but were on the whole more positive. Sorcery even prompted a growth of communication and cooperation between the sub-Saharan states as several powerful sorcerous bandits were tracked down by joint forces, and enterprising merchants set up magically-protected caravan routes. On the whole, sorcery's spread through Africa was more gradual and much less painful than it had been for Europe, giving the 'Dark Continent' time to acclimatize. This would prove to be a powerful advantage in the next century. Already, native shamans (now possessed of tangible power) were attacking European slave-ships and banding together to condemn and destroy the native African warlords who would sell their neighbors into captivity.

    As autumn came around once more in the Americas, the native armies (now calling themselves the 'Brothers of the Lightning') went on the offensive again. Several villages and good-sized towns in New York, northern Pennsylvania, and western New England were attacked and burned, their inhabitants either killed or taken captive. Through the summer, frantic intelligence-gathering by the Royal Sorcerers had determined that there was no 'North American Rift', as had been feared, but instead something that was, in some ways, even worse: the demonic 'Hino' was able to pass on Aetheric mutation by prolonged contact with Earth life-forms.

    For years, fishermen in the North Sea and the north Atlantic had reported odd mutations among the fish populations, but as most of them were not viable and soon died out, it was assumed that it had been merely one more affect of the fallout from the London and York rifts. Now, several sorcerers postulated that Hino in fact had been responsible for the so-called 'fish plagues' of the late 1740s, as the creature had apparently recovered from his battle with his brother demon on some remote island in the Atlantic.

    Now, the same spread of mutation among the plant and animal life of North America was being reported, and had been for the last few years. Additionally, Hino seemed to be actively 'creating' sorcerers by feeding his 'people' his own blood, which, if it didn't kill them, created extremely powerful magic-users. The re-organized Army of the Hudson, still under the command of General Wolfe, fought three pitched battles in west-central New York between August and early October against armies of these 'super-sorcerers'.

    The French general Montcalm, once he had been apprised of the situation in France, petitioned the British crown for permission to serve with the British forces in North America. Having lost countless friends and soldiers (as well as nearly one-tenth of French America's 50,000 settlers) to the bloodthirsty Hino and his troops, Montcalm felt it was his duty to redeem French pride, even if France's colonies now all belonged to Britain. King Frederick honored Montcalm by granting him his own Army of the St. Lawrence and tasking him with coordinating with Wolfe to 'rid the Americas of the demonic scourge'.

    1755

    In this year, Mustafa III ascended to the throne of the Ottoman Empire after the death of Mahmud. Sometimes known as 'the Prophet Reborn', Mustafa quickly proved himself to be an energetic and intelligent ruler. In OTL, he was eager to implement modernization programs to help bring his nation up to the standards of the Western powers, but any major changes were always shot down by the Janissaries and conservative imams.

    But in this world, with a power base and loyal followers unmatched by nearly any other Ottoman ruler in history, Mustafa was able to begin a serious program of modernization. He began almost immediately to re-organize the army, especially the infantry and artillery. Within the first six months of his reign he also founded the Academy of the Sciences in Constantinople, and the Imperial Conservatory - a center of sorcerous study on par with Britain's Middlesex.

    The founding of the Conservatory brought down the wrath of the most conservative of the imams, but they lacked a charismatic leader to unite them. Osman, the brother of the previous sultan, might have been that man, but he had died of pneumonia two years before. In addition, many citizens of the empire were by now convinced that Mustafa was a holy man himself, due in part to his sorcerous 'holy fire', but mostly to a well-organized PR machine. In less than a year, Mustafa managed to implement more changes and reforms than had been carried out in the last fifty.

    Also in this year, Pasquale Paoli was elected General in Corsica and succeeded in driving the Genoese almost completely off the island, leaving them in possession of only a few coastal towns. This laid the foundations for the future Republic of Corsica and the eventual unification of northern Italy.

    In the Americas, the Hudson Valley War drew to a close in late August with the climactic Battle of Fort Duquesne (OTL Pittsburgh). The demon 'Hino' was destroyed in a week-long duel with the Royal Sorcerers, and many of his followers fled westward. Many more natives realized the 'god' they thought they had been following was nothing more than a hollow lie, and an evil one at that. Numb and embittered, they took the terms the British offered them, but relations between white men and red were never better than chilly after that.

    The French general Montcalm had fallen in battle in March while successfully re-taking the St. Lawrence valley. In recognition of his services, Montreal was renamed in his honor and the entire region was allowed to retain the name 'New France', though it was solidly in British control by now.

    In France, the Revolution was finally over. The Dauphin and the royal family were killed when a mob of peasants and army deserters stormed the palace in search of food in late August. France was effectively no more; the rump government that signed the Treaty of Versailles in November was forced to recognize the independence of the republics of Bretagne, Aquitaine, and Provence, and was forced to cede all colonial possessions to Britain and the Netherlands. Even if what remained of France proper had had the manpower necessary to maintain control of their colonies, they could no longer afford them - the region's economy was completely shattered and it would be years before the new nations regained anything approaching prosperity.

    On the morning of November 1st, a massive earthquake struck Lisbon, Portugal, killing more than 15,000 people and almost totally destroying the city. Despite persecution from the Catholic Church and the population of the country at large, Portugal's sorcerous element was instrumental in stemming the tide of destruction. The tsunami which was caused by the quake was diverted and dissipated before it could reach shore, and many thousands of people were rescued from fires, landslides, and collapsing buildings.

    Throughout the south of Portugal, particularly in Algarve, the devastation was widespread, but not nearly so bad as in OTL. Tsunamis as tall as thirty feet struck North Africa and the Caribbean, and aftershocks of the quake were felt as far away as Finland. Across the Strait in Morocco, the quake killed another 5000 people, but there too, the damage was not nearly as horrible as it could have been, thanks to quick-thinking sorcerers.

    In OTL, Portugal's King Joseph I developed a severe fear of living within enclosed walls and moved the royal court to a series of elaborate tents in Ajuda. Here, that fear never struck, and the Palace of Ajuda was never built. Instead, to honor the efforts of the region's sorcerers, the King ordered an immediate halt to all hostilities against those gifted with sorcery. This drew the immediate wrath of the Catholic Church, but it brought Portugal closer to Britain and northern Europe. The faith of many in Portugal was shaken, to say the least, by the quake and the unlikely saviors it had brought forth. Not only did the quake strike on All Saints Day, an important holiday, but almost every major church in Lisbon was destroyed. The only folk powerful enough to help were the very ones that had been persecuted for the last decade.

    1756

    In the aftermath of the Hudson Valley War, the British colonies in America were in a state of flux. The divisions between New England and the rest of the colonies were growing. Paradoxically, although New England (along with New York) had been the most threatened by the recently-defeated Hino, they had contributed the least to their own defense. Sorcerers were few and far between in Massachusetts and the rest of New England, and those that still remained were careful not to reveal their true nature. Thus, the region was unable to field any additions to the Royal Sorcerers. Also, the attitude of distrust and outright hate for sorcery was growing so strong that only the threat of a direct assault on Boston and the rest of the north should New York fall prompted the colonists to heed Royal decree and join His Majesty’s army for the duration of hostilities.

    After the war’s end, the New Englanders were quick to leave the regiments as mutual distrust between themselves and the rest of the forces, temporarily smoothed over, now blossomed once more. These fighting men for the most part returned to their farms and businesses, but a large core remained in place in Boston as sort of ‘border guard’, the Guardians, tasked with policing Massachusetts’ (and in later years, all of New England’s) lands against incursions from ‘undesirables’. At first, these undesirables were understood to be those who practiced sorcery. Later on, however, the Guardians twisted the definition to include any who opposed their policies.

    Further south, in Pennsylvania, several prominent Quakers resigned from the Colonial Assembly after that body passed stricter laws governing the licensing, use, and profit to be made from magic use. Many dozens of Quaker families moved west, settling in the Ohio valley, where they hoped that this time they could build a land of true equality and humility.

    On the other side of the world, in India, Robert Clive’s position seemed unassailable. Tens of thousands of men and women had flocked to his banner, swelling the population of Lahore and the surrounding lands. They followed the ‘Healer of India’ with almost fanatical devotion. Clive’s policy was strict equality between all of his followers, from the lowest peasant all the way up to the wealthy north Indian merchants and nobles who supported him financially. These same rich men had begun to grow discontented with Clive’s ‘unfair’ taxation upon them in order to finance the defense of his newly-acquired realm, but they could not gain any support against Clive – the man was simply too adored by the bulk of his subjects to be in any danger from them.

    As Clive’s legend grew, more and more Indians, of all sects, creeds, and ethnicities, defected to his cause. Revolts against British rule grew more and more violent. Even in southern Bengal, for the last fifty years the seat of British authority in India, uprisings were occurring. In Calcutta, 146 British soldiers were imprisoned, and over the following months, 120 of them died of starvation and disease in the so-called ‘Black Hole of Calcutta’.

    In Tibet, Chinese advances, stalled for the better part of the last two years, finally sputtered and died. Peking, occupied with revolts in the east, was unable to reinforce their armies, and China was forced to rescind their claim to most of the lands their armies had bled and died to occupy. About a quarter of eastern Tibet remained under Chinese rule, but the rest remained independent. Tibet, whose leadership had been advised by professional soldiers loaned by Robert Clive, retained close ties with Lahore despite British objections. Britain, in response, now began to cultivate ties with China.

    Events in Europe, after a momentous decade, now seemed to settle into a peaceful rhythm. In Italy, Giacomo Casanova escaped from a Venetian prison and fled to Paris. He had been imprisoned the last year on a charge of witchcraft after seducing a local magistrate’s wife. Ironically, he possessed no sorcerous talent, but affected the trappings of a sorcerer to aid in his seductions and intimidate his rivals.

    In Prussia, Frederick II began this year to force his nation’s peasants to start growing the obscure and unpopular potato as a new and cheap food source.

    And in the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a boy named Wolfgang Mozart was born…
    ____________________________

    London - April, 1756

    Sir Francis Dashwood sank a little deeper into the plush upholstery of his chair and gestured for a fresh glass of wine. A serving-man hastened forward, barking his shin on a mahogany end table and stifling a curse of pain. The servant wore a set of blinders, like those a horse might wear in a busy city street. Like much else at the gatherings of the Hellfire Club, the blinders were a conceit designed to ‘conceal the identities’ of Dashwood’s guests.

    It was a futile measure, he knew, and suspected most of his guests did as well. Still, appearances had to be maintained, and all that. If there was an illusion of anonymity, Dashwood’s followers tended to be much more… open… in their pursuit of pleasure.

    He took in the vast expanse of his estate’s ballroom, converted this evening for the monthly revel. His thick black eyebrows arched and he snorted softly in amusement as he watched old William Hogarth whip the naked and pale buttocks of the wife of a prominent Member of Parliament with a soft leather whip. Nearby, the esteemed Member himself poured hot wax from a candle upon the breasts and belly of an up-and-coming actress. Across the room, men and women alike took turns pinching and spanking a gagged and bound woman. The woman was a Red Savage from Virginia and had a look of terror in her wide eyes. No matter, Dashwood thought. She’ll be happy enough with the purse I’ll giver her.

    From other rooms in the mansion came the sound of blows being struck, iron clanging, whips, chains, the occasional giggle and shriek of pleasure or pain.

    Dashwood’s personal motto, and by extension that of the Hellfire Club, was ‘Do What Thou Wilt’. It was by no means a hypocritical credo.

    Nearer to hand, one of the newer members of the club sat rather stiffly in his own chair, nursing a brandy and staring wide-eyed at the goings-on. He was a short and rotund man, bald but for a long fringe of graying hair. A small pair of spectacles perched precariously upon his nose.

    Dashwood leaned over and lightly punched the other on his shoulder. “Fabulous evening, eh, Benjamin?”

    Benjamin Franklin set his brandy on the floor and began cracking his knuckles, a habit Dashwood found odious. “I say, it’s a bit… more than I expected, Francis.”

    Dashwood chuckled. “Welcome to London, old chap! Nothing like this back in the Colonies, eh?”

    “No… not quite,” Franklin murmured. His eyes, seemingly against their will, turned to follow the pert bottom of a passing servant-girl. “We have our little bacchanalias, of course, but nothing quite like this.”

    Dashwood followed Franklin’s gaze. “If you want her, my friend, merely say the word and she’s yours.”

    Franklin pulled his eyes away, and picking up his brandy, took a healthy swig. “Perhaps later. Yes, perhaps. For now though, I am more interested in the ‘surprise’ you promised us this evening.”

    Dashwood stood and stretched, then fired up a long cigar. His thick red cheeks hollowed and filled as he puffed on the cigar. “It is indeed about that time. As soon as Whitehead arrives, we—ah, here he is now.”

    Franklin looked over to see a tall and gaunt man, older than most of the assemblage, entering the ballroom, a small, swarthy man in tow. Paul Whitehead, the older man, was Dashwood’s confidante and trusted right-hand-man, the executor of many of the outlandish schemes Dashwood came up with. Whitehead, Franklin had found, was an odd one. He seemed disdainful of the sexual antics and nonsensical games played at these gatherings, but he participated as willingly as any of them.

    The smaller individual was unfamiliar to Franklin. He looked to be a Turk of some sort, wearing a blindingly white turban, which served to make his face and waxed mustache and beard even darker. His face was narrow and aristocratic, and his eyes, which studied the scene before him with practiced detachment, were slightly tilted and fringed with luxurious lashes.

    Dashwood stepped to the center of the room, Whitehead and his turbaned companion at his side. Clapping his hands, the master of the Hellfire Club propped one slippered foot on a footstool and said, “My friends! My dear friends! As promised, Master Whitehead has arrived, together with this evening’s special guest. Indeed, I hope he shall be our friend and guest for some time to come…”

    Gradually, the gathered throng left off their games, threw on loose silk robes, and drew their chairs and couches in a loose semi-circle around Dashwood. Benjamin Franklin sat at the fringe, still somewhat ill-at-ease with the debauchery he’d witnessed, despite his reputation as a rake back home.

    When everyone had quieted and was listening attentively, Dashwood continued. “Now then. As we all know, it has been fifteen years since those delightful geniuses Grove and Hawthorne blessed our mortal realm with Aether and all its mysteries. Fifteen years. Fifteen long and fruitless years, in my case, and many of yours as well. For what are we if not explorers of the unknown? Students of the metaphysical? Journeymen on the road to enlightenment?”

    There were quiet laughs and sympathetic nods. Franklin took it all in. He knew many of them had searched in vain for ways to tap into their own sorcerous powers, and those not gifted grew steadily more envious of those who were as the years progressed and the world changed around them.

    “Now some of you,” Dashwood continued, “have already been blessed with the Touch of the Unknown.” He saluted a tall, pale young man standing by one of the ballroom’s three fireplaces. The youth nodded sardonically and pointed his index finger at the cold logs on the hearth. A jet of violet flame shot forth from his fingertip and ignited the logs. The men applauded and the women giggled and wet their lips with moist pink tongues.

    “Yes, yes, Wilfried,” said Dashwood. “We all appreciate your Prussian fire-making skills. Unfortunately, there are those of us who have yet to receive the Gift.”

    Everyone present knew Dashwood referred to himself. Despite years of research, even going so far as to try and recreate Grove and Hawthorne’s seminal experiment, Dashwood has thus far been unable to summon any spark of magic within himself, while all around him men women and children alike wielded strange and fabulous powers.

    Franklin knew it had become Dashwood’s overriding obsession. His lust for the games and tortures of the Hellfire Club, so infamous throughout England, had paled beside his lust for sorcery. Unable to make his own, he had, in recent years, begun to gather sorcerers of all stripes and persuasions from across the globe. Most, horrified at the Club’s other activities, stayed only a day or two. But others, like the young German, Wilfried, stayed on, sponging off Dashwood’s generosity.

    “Tonight, fellow seekers, I hope to change that. We have the distinct honor to have among us this evening the esteemed Faisal ibn Farouk, late of the court of the Sultan of Turkey. Master Faisal is an adept; indeed, he is thought to have been one of the first men touched with the Gift. Fifteen years ago, on that fateful day, he was here in London, a diplomatic envoy of fair Constantinople.”

    Faisal bowed slightly and gathered his rich purple robes around him. “My friends, Master Faisal has assured me that he can do something wondrous; something rare and beautiful indeed.” He paused, milking the moment. Franklin’s lip curled in a smile. You should have been an actor, Francis.

    When the moment had stretched to a point of delicious tension, Dashwood continued. “All of you have, of course, heard of the reprobate and deserter Robert Clive, whose antics in far India have caused our beloved Empire no little concern. What some of you may not know is that the cause of his reprehensible behavior is his sorcerous gift.

    “He has the power to awaken the Gift in those he touches.”

    With that simple statement, a thunderous quiet descended on the gathering. Clearly, many of them had not known. Dashwood grinned. “Since learning of this, this… miracle, I have scoured the globe, searching for another with an identical gift. I’ve even gone so far as to extend an invitation to Clive himself which has, sadly, gone unanswered.”

    There was more laughter and a few shocked and scandalized expressions. Robert Clive was a touchy subject in the British Empire these days. The man had almost single-handedly orchestrated an uprising which had torn India asunder in a violent and magic-fueled war between Clive’s fanatical followers and the loyal garrisons of the Empire.

    “Tonight, I pray – yes, pray! I who mock God – that my quest is at an end. For you see, Master Faisal also claims to have the power to grow the seed of sorcery within the mundane heart. And I have asked him to demonstrate this claim. On me.”

    The guests began to applaud, and an impromptu chant of “Dashwood! Dashwood! Dashwood!” rose up. He good-naturedly waved them to silence and turned to Faisal ibn Farouk. The Turk bowed once more and spread his hands wide, the purple robes flowing away from his arms like the wings of a hunting bird. His hands glowed with ghostly blue light. “Sir Francis,” he said, his voice melodiously accented, “do you understand what you are asking of me? Do you understand the potential for disaster in this undertaking? Not every man’s body can withstand the stress of Awakening.”

    “Yes, yes, I quite understand,” Dashwood said impatiently. “Please, forgive my haste; I know it is rather gauche. But I have waited… so long.”

    “Of course, my friend,” Faisal said, his words so soft that those in the back leaned forward to hear. “Let it not be said that Faisal ibn Farouk is less than honest. Very well. Are you prepared?”

    “I am,” Dashwood said.

    “Then kneel before me and close your eyes, so that I may open them.”

    Dashwood knelt awkwardly, the quantities of wine he’d consumed earlier roiling uneasily in his gut. Now that the moment was at hand, he was nervous. Shoving aside his misgivings, he closed his eyes and folded his hands loosely in front of him.

    The Turk placed one hand on Dashwood’s head and laid the other against his neck, then closed his own eyes. It was quiet enough in the ballroom to hear the proverbial pin drop. Slowly, the azure light around his fingers grew in intensity until it was almost painful to look at. “Do you feel the fire, Sir Francis?” Faisal murmured.

    “I do. It is cold. I feel it vibrating in my skull.”

    “That is well. Now talk no more; only feel. Embrace the power. Seek it within yourself. Call to it, as it will call to you.” He began to move the hand on Dashwood’s head in slow circles. Blue wisps of ghostly fire flickered and moved like sea anemones.

    Suddenly, Dashwood gasped and his spine straightened like an iron bar. His eyes shot open, and they were red and glowing, like hot coals sunk deep into his head. “I feel it!” Dashwood shouted. “I feel it! It is a siren! A heavenly choir!” He lurched to his feet and the Turk stepped back hastily.

    “Give him room! Give him room, I say!” said Faisal. The guests pulled back, leaving Dashwood alone among the couches and chairs. Dashwood clapped his hands over his ears, a pained expression on his face. His glowing eyes gave him an unholy countenance. “It burns! Make it stop, Turk! My head—”

    “There is no stopping it now, Sir Francis,” Faisal said grimly. “You have asked to be Awakened. Now you must cast sleep aside.”

    Dashwood sank to his hands and knees, then lower still, until his head rested on the rich carpets. He mewled and writhed, and red light leaked from his tightly shut eyelids. After long moments, his torment eased, and his struggles ceased. The guests gathered closer once more, waiting anxiously to see what the outcome would be.

    Dashwood shuddered and gave a great, heaving sigh. Then he stood. To all outward appearance, he seemed normal once more. His eyes no longer glowed. But he seemed to stand straighter; his face, pinched these last years with worry and longing, now was relaxed and happy.

    “Did it work, Francis?” said Paul Whitehead.

    Dashwood held his hands out, studying them as if he’d never seen them before. “Oh yes, my friend. Oh yes. Look!” He thrust one hand, palm out, at the nearest couch. Pure white energy blossomed from his hand, a corona of silver and snow. A line of white touched the couch and the fabric grew a rime of frost and ice. In seconds, the entire couch was frozen solid. Dashwood laughed like a boy and kicked at one of the couch’s legs; the entire piece groaned, then shattered like a broken plate. The whole couch imploded in an icy crash. Dashwood’s grin threatened to split his face in half.

    The Hellfire Club broke into applause, hooting and shouting and laughing. Dashwood turned to Faisal and clasped his hands, then seemed to realize what might happen and pulled back. The Turk smiled slightly. “Do not fear. You will need to practice before you can harm the likes of me.”

    Dashwood, now looking slightly abashed, stepped forward and hugged Faisal anyway. There was a scandalized gasp here and there, even among this debauched crowd. Hugging a Turk! The Hellfire Club truly was a den of iniquity.

    Faisal broke the embrace and held out his hands once more. “Do any others wish to be Awakened?” In seconds, dozens of men and women were rushing forward, cornering the Turk against the fireplace. “It seems you do! Well then, you must all come and see me at my offices in the Morgan Hotel. I will fulfill all your desires… for a modest fee. Your leader I have Awakened as a courtesy; now I expect that you all will extend me the same courtesy. And now, I must bid you a good evening.” And as mysteriously as he had appeared, he was gone.

    In the wee hours of the next morning, as the revelry wound down, Dashwood and Franklin relaxed once more in their chairs, drinks in hand. Dashwood experimented with glass after glass, already beginning to master his talent. The first few glasses had instantly shattered with the cold, their rock-solid contents tumbling to the floor. But as the night wore on, he had learned to chill the wine nicely.

    Franklin studied him in the faint glow of the fire from the hearth. “Do you think you’ll develop other abilities, Francis? It is very well to be able to chill one’s wine, but I think you were hoping for something more… useful, weren’t you?”

    Dashwood chuckled. “Never fear, my friend. I feel other things stirring within. Give me time. There are wonders ahead. Wonders!”
    ______________________________

    1757

    The year of 1757 began with an assassination attempt on Mustafa, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The killer, despite taking his own life after his shot went awry (he had, ironically, been dazzled by the sorcerous light streaming from his intended victim’s hands) was nevertheless interrogated. This surreal interview was undertaken by Captain Wendell Mosely, a member of Britain’s Royal Sorcerers assigned to the British embassy in Constantinople.

    Mosely was a necromancer, a sorcerer whose powers included the ability to converse with the dead. Connections in the Royal Court had led to his exemption from the Demonic Powers Act, but it was thought politic to send him far away from Britain, thus his appointment to the embassy. In his interrogation, Mosely learned that the assassin (who now, in death, and apparently not having ascended to heaven as had been promised him, desired vengeance upon his former masters) had been sent by certain prominent conservative imams, who had over the previous year been growing more and more disaffected by Mustafa and his reforms. Mustafa, acting on Mosely’s information, began a crackdown on these conservative elements, and by year’s end, most of the renegade imams were living as fugitives in the furthest corners of the Empire.

    In India, the year was one of uneasy quiet. Robert Clive had begun the hard work of crafting a workable government in his new state. The weakening Mogul Empire in Delhi pledged their official alliance to Clive in May, realizing that their position was bound to become more and more untenable as the British were apparently in India to stay. Padisha Alamgir II, who had deposed his predecessor only three years previously, knew his rule was far from stable and had no desire to see it further weakened. By declaring for Clive, he hoped to keep Mogul lands from becoming a battleground between Clive and the British in the south. Alamgir allowed Clive’s Lahori engineers to construct border fortresses and earthworks upon his territories; these same engineers did much to win the good will of the people by helping to improve the region’s irrigation systems.

    The only thing that marred this alliance were the clashes between Clive’s predominantly southern-Hindu army and the Muslims of the Mogul Empire. Though far more tolerant than other Muslim states, the Moguls harbored a long tradition of ill-will against Hindus. Only the threat of the British kept the various factions on relatively good terms.

    In Italy, Pope Urban and the College of Cardinals instituted a new and terrible Inquisition, this one aimed at sorcerers. Several north Italian cities, already railing against the harshness of the ‘new Church’, openly scoffed at this Papal decree. After the Pope excommunicated the Doge of Venice and Francis, Duke of Modena, it quickly became apparent that this was no laughing matter. Britain now openly courted Venice as a regional ally, and the Doge, in a furious rage at the Church, granted British ships anchorage in Dalmatia and Venice herself, and set the engineers of the Arsenal to crafting dozens of new cannon ‘in case of perfidious attack’.

    The actions of the Catholic Church were a pivotal point of the 18th century; it was here that the two great alliances of Britain-Venice-Prussia-Ottomans and Rome-Spain-Austria began to take form. The Holy Roman Empire, a weakened, shredded shell for decades, if not centuries, could do little to keep certain of its member states from falling into the British camp, despite all the efforts of Francis I.

    In Britain, King Frederick continued to relax the Crown’s stance on sorcery. With the Middlesex School now a fixture of London life and sorcery in general gaining widespread acceptance, if not tolerance, Frederick could no longer justify the draconian Demonic Powers Act, and it was officially stricken from British law in November. But after a decade of exile, those whom the Act had made persona-non-gratis in Britain were for the most part unwilling to return to their previous homes. In America, where many had fled, the attitude was one of contempt. Many felt it was only a matter of time before the whims of King and Parliament reversed the decision.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 28, 2016
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  2. G.Bone lurks

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2004
    Location:
    Hon., HI
    By Midgardmetal
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    Part 1
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    540 - The Byzantine military campaign in Italy under the leadership of Belisarius is in full swing. The Goths are severely beaten, and propose a treaty, under the terms of which Belisarius would be crowned the Western Emperor in return for cessation of hostilities. Belisarius accepts the offer, and sends envoys to Constantinople to inform the Emperor Justinian of the new state of affairs. Unlike OTL, Belisarius follows through with the coronation ceremony, and does not use the occasion simply as a guise to obtain Ravenna for the Empire. Simultaneously, he is crowned the King of the Goths, being raised on a shield in their ancient custom. From here on forward, Rex Gothicus becomes one of the titles of Roman Emperors.

    541 - Justinian, furious at what he perceives as insubordination and outright rebellion, attempts to recall Belisarius, sending a detachment of troops under eunuch Narses to bring rebellious general home for trial. The result is a civil war. Belisarius and his troops, which by now include large detachments of Gothic warriors, defeat Narses decisively, largely due to greater numbers available to him. After several defeats, Narses realizes he does not have too much to lose, and reluctantly (for the two commanders had not been getting along well personally) throws his lot with Belisarius.

    542 - While Justinian attempts to raise another army to retake Italy, the Persian king Khusro I invades the Eastern provinces. Thus the troops and resources that would have been used in Italy now have to be used to repel the Persian attack. Still Justinian does not accept the idea of a rogue Western Emperor, and attempts to buy the Persians off.

    543 - The Persian war is going badly for the Romans, with two of their best generals in Italy in open rebellion. Armenia is virtually lost, and there are reports of plague, while the Persian raiding parties reach as far as Palestine and even Egypt. In Italy, Belisarius finds himself in a strong position, able to consolidate his realm, although not to expand. From his capital in Ravenna he watches with concern as flames of war consume the East, and the provinces fall away one by one.

    544 - The remaining Vandals in North Africa revolt, and are successful due to the Roman forces being distracted elsewhere. Knowing that their independence is largely due to Romans being occupied elsewhere, they offer Belisarius to become "foederati" in return for him guaranteeing their independence. Thus, the state of Neo Vandalor is born, technically a subject to the Western Emperor, but practically independent. Also, a group of Pagan Greek philosophers, fleeing persecutions against Pagans initiated by Justinian, lands in Arabia. Chief among them is a scholar of some reknown named Artemius.

    545 - Plague finally reaches Constantinople, where one of the deaths has been that of Emperor Justinian. With no clear successor, the Senate votes to confirm Belisarius as the Emperor of both East and West. Leaving Narses as his viceroy in Italy, Belisarius departs East with an army consisting both of the Latin Italians and Goths, who by now are considered full citizens of the Empire.

    547 - With Belisarius in command, the Roman armies sweep through Armenia and Syria, expelling the Persians. A great battle ensues under the walls of Edessa, where the Persian army is virtually annihilated by the Roman army under a brilliant young Gothic commander Totila. Now that the positions are reversed, the Persians are suing for peace, which is granted only because of rumours of discontent in Constantinople that could become a serious disturbance if left unchecked. By the terms of the treaty, status quo is reestablished, with Persia paying an annual tribute.

    548 - The Greek philosophers led by Artemius are by now somewhat well established in Arabia, having found their way into graces of a local ruler whose sons they are now tasked to educate.

    551 - After a reign of eleven years, Belisarius could congratulate himself on succeeding where his former master has nearly failed. His borders secure, and the West once again in his Empire's possession, he turns his attention to consolidating and reorganizing his Empire. The territories are divided into Exarchates, each under the military ruler appointed directly by the Emperor. The exarchates are: Italy (covering all of Italy, Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia), Africa (covering the conquests west of the Vandal kingdom as far as Gibraltar), Carthage (the Vandal kingdom, being a vassal of the Emperor, is considered an Exarchate, the Vandal king being an Exarch - or at least so the Imperial propaganda would lead one to believe; practically the Vandals are independent), Egypt (including the province of Egypt as well as the Sinai), Achaia (covering Greece proper, Epirus, and Moesia), Anatolia (being the Western part of Asia Minor), Mesopotamia (including the eastern portion of Asia Minor all the way to the Persian frontier), and Syria (including Palestine, Lebanon, and Syria).

    556 - After death of his first wife Antonina, Belisarius remarries, producing a son. His son is named Tiberius, and is crowned co-Emperor shortly thereafter.

    559 - The monophysite controversy gains strength again, beginning much of the religious infighting that would mar the following decades. Most of the fighting is in Constantinople itself, but there are significant outbreaks of violence in Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. The revolts are suppressed by force of arms, with hundreds killed in street battles. The heaviest casualties are in Alexandria.

    562 - In response to the Avar and Bulgar incursions into Thrace, Belisarius leads an expedition into the Transdanubian regions. While no major conquests are made, the war seems to have gone well for the Romans, that is until a stray arrow hits Belisarius in the skirmish. Belisarius lives long enough to be transported to Constantinople, but is dead before the end of the year. His six year old son is now Emperor Tiberius II, although the real power is in the hands of Goth Totila, who by now is magister militum, the commander of the armies. Totila arranges for Tiberius to be married to his daughter, and continues to direct the Imperial affairs with competence and conviction.

    565 - Another outbreak of hostilities in the East results in another Persian war, which will drag on for most of the decade. Fighting is inconclusive, and by 574 both sides are exhausted with no gains to show. Peace is not slow to follow.

    569 - In Arabia, a young prince named Omar ascends to the throne vacated by his late father. Omar is educated by the renegade Greek scholars, and thus has many ideas on the republican government, philosophy, and ideas of religion. He founds a university at Medina, which becomes a haven for pagan philosophers and scholars who are fleeing the Roman Empire en masse. The university will prove its worth in the decades to come.

    574 - With the Persian war over, and Tiberius now reaching majority, a power struggle ensues in Constantinople. Totila, though long an actual ruler of the Empire and the Emperor's father-in-law, is now viewed with suspicion by the Senate party, who would like him removed. Young Tiberius, tired of being a figurehead and no longer content with paying lip service to either the Senate or his father-in-law, takes matters into his own hands. Totila is captured, found guilty of attempting regicide, and quickly exiled to an island in Aegean, while purges in the Senate ranks ensure that there is no outspoken dissent.

    575 - In a year of effective government, Tiberius II acquired a fearsome reputation. Yet, on other fronts, he proved to be a competent, if occasionally heavy-handed, ruler. His reign saw increased attention to Italy, where settlements were expanded, and Gothic citizens more fully integrated within the Imperial framework, while many Greeks from Anatolia and Thessaly were resettled in Jerusalem and Antioch.

    578 - A son is born to Tiberius, named Constantine. In Arabia, prince Omar starts to eye his neighbours for potential expansion. He founds a council of elective advisors, who provide minimal representation to the nobility and the merchants of his dominion.

    581 - An incursion of Slavic tribes leaves portions of Moesia devastated. Some raiders penetrate as far as Thrace.

    583 - The fighting between the monophysite and orthodox factions reaches a new climax. While it is relatively contained in Constantinople, major cities in the Eastern provinces soon see its many adverse effects. Alexandria has the worst of fighting, leaving several thousand dead. It is at this time that the Emperor Tiberius utters the famous words, "better heathen than heretic", starting a new wave of persecution of monophysites and other Christian minorities. Strangely enough, there is no effort to convert the non-Christians, other than extra taxes levied upon them, and laws generally favoring Christians in disputes.

    584 - In order to combat the monophysite insurrection in Egypt, the Emperor Tiberius orders settlement of large numbers of Orthodox Greeks from the Greek mainland in Egypt, and an attempt to resettle many of the native Egyptians and monophysite Greeks in Asia Minor. A surprisingly moderate Orthodox Patriarch Athanasius is installed in Alexandria. In a meanwhile, Lombards attempt an incursion into Italy, however, the local Exarch swiftly defeats them, and settles them north of the Appennines, thus creating another "foederati" buffer state.

    585 - The attempt to pacify Egypt severely backfires, since the local Copts have no love for the Empire's crippling taxation and ever-increasing demand for grain. Simultaneously there are risings in many major cities of Egypt, including a full-scale rebellion in Alexandria, where the Copts try to get their hands on any Greek they could find, committing unspeakable atrocities upon any who might be suspect of Orthodox sympathies. By then, despite a number of monophysite Greeks, the Egyptian Copts begun to identify the Greeks with religious orthodoxy, and thus as enemies. Incidentally, this marks the birth of an independent Coptic Egyptian state. The Patriarch Athanasius flees with unseemingly haste only to find out that the Orthodox Synod in Constantinople has removed him at the Emperor's bidding, installing an Orthodox hardliner in his stead (who, ironically, has no way of getting to Alexandria with Coptic rebellion in full force). By now, the Emperor Tiberius is widely seen as being insane and blood-thirsty, wanting to eliminate anyone who he believes a threat or a failure. With no place to turn, and rightly suspecting that once he sets foot on Imperial territory he will be a dead man, Athanasius flees to the Arab lands, where the famed University of Medina flourishes among what is perceived as more religiously tolerant society than the most.

    586 - The dethroned Patriarch arrives in Medina, where he is received with honors by prince Omar. There, the Patriarch, already very disillusioned with both stringent Orthodoxy and monophysitism, begins to preach a new doctrine that would be viewed as extremely heretical in both East and West of the Roman Empire. He makes a number of converts, among them the successor of Omar, Ali. In the following decade, Athanasian doctrine spreads like wildfire through the Arabian peninsula, morphing along the way to where it is almost only nominally Christian. The doctrine, in particular, states that the divinity of Jesus is due to him being chosen by God, not due to him being born of God. The implifications are such that a person, or even a nation, can be chosen by God for greatness - thus forming a blend between the more heretical versions of OTL Christianity and what formed the base for OTL Islam. It took well with the Arab people, who had been practically ignored by the rest of the world for most of their history up until the point, giving them a sense of additional national and religious identity.

    587 - The Imperial army sent to Egypt to restore control mutinies, and instead proclaims their general, Justin by name, Emperor. Tiberius, by now increasingly unpopular because of famine resulting from the grain supply being cut off from Constantinople and due to numerous purges among enemies real and perceived, attempts to restore order in the city, but by then his Excubitors have had enough, and he is murdered. A loyal servant ships the young Constantine out of the city, where a group of loyalists shelter him. In a meanwhile, rebellious general is crowned Justin II in Hagia Sophia.

    588 - After a long travel, ten-year-old Constantine and a number of loyalist arrive to the Persian court at Ctesiphon. Seeing the golden opportunity that may not come again soon, the Persians promise military aid in return for enormous territorial concessions, which include much of Syria and Mesopotamia, all of Armenia, and a large tribute. The war preparations consume most of the year, over the course of which Justin II proves himself to be not much of an improvement on his predecessor. Paranoid and constantly watching over his shoulder for threats both real and imaginary, he is more concerned about eliminating his enemies in Constantinople than about recovery of Egypt. In Italy, his rule is recognized only very reluctantly, and in the first year of his reign Justin already had to face several small rebellions in the army.

    589 - Ever since the revolt, and a nearly-accidental independence, Egypt has been polarized in several different factions, all vying for control. By 589, leader of one of the factions, Nestor, has been able to successfully eliminate all his major opponents and crown himself a King of Egypt in Alexandria. Eager to use his chance, he seeks to ally himself with the Persians, and to promise military help to young Constantine's bid for the Imperial throne in return for recognition of Egypt's independence. Both the Persians and the Byzantine loyalist are quick to agree, having one less enemy to be concerned with. In Arabia, Omar, by now an adherent of Athanasian doctrine, begins a program of expansion, increasing the size of his kingdom at the expense of his neighbours.

    590 - The Persian armies march against the Roman troops in Armenia and Mesopotamia. Dreading to leave Constantinople, Justin entrusts command of the army to his brother Maurice, who is soundly defeated in two major engagements. Egypt, while allied to the Persians, does not do much other than supply their armies with grain - most of Egypt's military is tied up defending its Western border from Vandal incursions.

    591 - The army, having apparently developed a taste for rebellion, mutinies and kills Maurice. They declare one of their centurions, Thomas, Emperor. Thomas quickly patches up an agreement with the Persians, and marches on Constantinople. Justin lures him out under pretense of truce, and has him assassinated. By now, Justin has alienated the army, the Senate, the Church, and the people with his methods, and discontent in the remaining Imperial provinces reaches the boiling point.

    592 - The second Imperial army finally manages to stop the Persians around Ancyra in Asia Minor, although at the cost of heavy casualties. This buys Justin some additional time, which he uses not to strengthen his remaining possessions, but to indulge in orgy of purges, torture, and assassination. Anyone suspect of sympathies to the Belisarian dynasty, or of any kind of discontent is summarily executed, their property confiscated.

    593 - Fifteen-year-old Constantine, held practically hostage in the Persian court, escapes, and is ferried to Italy, the powerbase of Belisarian house. A local Exarch Liberius receives him with open arms. A rival court is now set up at Ravenna, and a new army is raised from the Italian population.

    595 - The Persian war continued indecisively, with the Persian armies deeper than ever in the Roman territory. In a meanwhile, Omar of Medina dies, to be succeeded by his eldest son Ali. A fervent follower of Athanasius, and a somewhat skilled theologician himself due to education received at the University of Medina, he creates a number of further doctrinal changes that remove the new faith even further from its origins. But, besides his theological skills, Ali is also an inspiring leader, and a fearless soldier, able to command his men's loyalty just as well as he could command the discussion floor at the University. Over the next several years, all of the warring states and tribes of the Arabian peninsula pledge allegiance to Ali, who begins to style himself "Caliph", both as a sign that he is a representative of his people, as well as the sign of divine inspiration he believed himself to possess - the living representative of God.

    596 - A great fleet containing an army estimated at fifty thousand strong sails from Italy towards Constantinople. It is commanded by Nicetas, son of Exarch of Italy, and carries with it the Emperor Constantine IV. At the first sign of the fleet's approach, rebellion in Constantinople removes Justin from the throne, and opens the city's gates to the Italian army. Justin and his henchmen are then summarily executed.

    597 - The Italian army of Constantine IV and Nicetas achieves its first major victory over the Persians, pushing them out of Asia Minor into Armenia. The Egyptians, realizing that the tide of the war has turned, seek negotiations that would ally them to Romans, in return for the guarantee of independence. Knowing well that the war is far from won, and that there is a precious shortage of allies available, Constantine IV reluctantly accepts.

    599 - The unification of the Arabian peninsula is complete. Also, a thrust into Syria results in a Battle of Homs, at which Persians are decisively defeated by the Roman force.

    600 - Persian army captures Jerusalem, where there is a general massacre of Christians. The Holy Cross is captured and sent to Persia.

    601 - The capture of Jerusalem sent the population of the East into religious fervor, actively encouraged by Constantine and his advisors. The war with Persia, though a familiar sight for centuries, is now a holy endeavor to the Christians of the Empire, swelling the ranks of the Roman armies. Constantine divides his forces in two, taking personal command of the greater portion of the forces, and leaving a smaller (although still a rather large) army under command of Nicetas. Nicetas is ordered to attack in Syria, while Constantine's army is to undertake an ambitious invasion of Persia with the goal of not only recovering the sacred relics and reclaiming lost territories, but to destroy Persian power once and for all.

    602 - The Roman troops enter Persia, destroying everything in their wake. In a meanwhile, two subsequent Persian armies sent against Nicetas are similarly routed and annihilated. Nicetas enters Jerusalem, being hailed as a hero by the population.

    603 - A Roman army of about forty thousand meets a Persian force more than twice its size under the walls of Ctesiphon, the Persian capital. Despite numerical superiority, the Persian army includes many recent conscripts and foreigners, with only a partial core of elite deghans (heavy cavalry), while the Roman army is composed of the best troops the Empire has. The battle is long and bloody, but the outcome is clear. The Persians are massacred, with only relatively minor (but still numerically large) losses on the Roman side. The siege of Ctesiphon begins.

    604 - Ctesiphon falls to the Roman army, with the Persian Great King taken prisoner. The Persians are quick to sign the peace treaty, which results in return to pre-war borders, an enormous indemnity, and return of the sacred relics. Persia is now but a shadow of her former self, with much of her military destroyed, her lands devastated, and a dynastic crisis arising due to Great King's authority plunging to all-time lows after such a decisive defeat.

    605 - Constantine IV enters Constantinople in triumph to the enthusiastic reception from the population. The Arab Caliphate starts considering expansion outside of its current borders.

    606 - A huge Arab army erupts from its desert homeland, looking to spread the message of Athanasianism. Egypt, which has been building up its forces throughout the years, is able to resist their attack, but Persia is not so lucky. By 611 all of Persia would be engulfed by the Arab tide.

    608 - Arab incursion into the Roman territories leads to a major battle, in which the Romans lose control of Syria except for its coastal regions. At the same time, Avar and Bulgar raids into Thrace become a permanent stream of settlement, which over the next decade would overrun Moesia and much of Dalmatia.

    610 - The Vandals break off from the Roman control completely (even though the Roman control has been mostly nominal over the last fifty years).

    612 - The Arab advance is finally reversed at Antioch, although not before much of the Roman Middle East is lost for good.

    613 - Emperor Constantine IV dies of a fever in Constantinople. His sixteen-year old son Arcadius succeeds as Arcadius II. Also, the Arab attention starts to turn East towards Afghanistan and India. The new Emperor's task is daunting, as years of warfare, foreign invasions, and civil strife left the Empire economically prostrate, its armies in dire need of funds, and many of its outlying provinces lost. With his father's chief lieutenant Nicetas being confirmed in his position of magister militum, the new government begins to eye Italy, long a powerbase of the Belisarian house, as the key to survival of the Empire.

    614 - A massive relocation program is started by the Empire, sending many of the refugees from the Arab occupied territories to Italy as colonists. Within a decade, population of Italy swells, creating a large pool of manpower for the Empire to draw from, as well as greatly increasing its tax base.

    615 - Massive quantities of Bulgars and Avars pour into Moesia, Thrace, and Epirus. As a result, large portions of the Greek peninsula are no longer under the Imperial control. This provides further proof to Arcadius II and his government that the future of the Empire lies in the West, as the Eastern portion of his dominions is constantly whittled away by the Slavs, Bulgars, and Arabs. Economically, too, Greece is ruined, although Asia Minor, reorganized under military governors in the days of Tiberius, holds its own fairly well, being relatively self-sufficient, although not much more than that.

    616 - The Imperial Senate in the West is revived. Prominent citizens and nobles of both Latin, Greek, and Gothic origin are invited to join. By now, especially in the large cities, the various population groups that now make up the citizenry of Italy are practically indistinguishable from each other.

    619 - After a brief respite, the Arabs turn their attention West again. Coptic Egypt is able to buy them off with large tribute and promise of safe conduct for the Arab army should they choose to use it as a base, but the Georgians and Armenians are not so lucky. Both Georgian and Armenian kingdoms (the latter being a Roman protectorate until recently) are crushed, their lands added to the ever-growing Caliphate.

    621 - After a forced march through Asia Minor, defeating the provincial forces sent against them, the Arab army is within sight of Constantinople, while a newly built Arab fleet sails against the Imperial capital. The Empire's salvation comes from an invention of a young Greek, later dubbed "The Greek Fire", a fiery concoction that could be sprayed on enemy ships, setting them on fire. While the Arab army attempted to cross the straits into Europe, the Imperial fleet, hastily outfitted with their new weapon, swept upon them, sinking the Arab fleet and a large portion of their army with it. Only in the following year the remnant of a once-glorious Arab host arrives home. Of the army of seventy thousand that attempted to besiege Constantinople, only twenty thousand soldiers survived.

    623 - With the Arab threat under control, Arcadius sends a military expedition to dislodge the Bulgars and Slavs from the Balkans. While not a large-scale disaster, it achieves little. Now the Empire firmly controls only the coastal areas in much of the Balkans and Moesia, while much of the peninsula's interior is under the control of the invaders. In a meanwhile, the overall shift west for the Empire continues.

    626 - Arcadius II announces that from now on, his official capital shall be in Ravenna. This creates a general mood of discontent, resulting in riots in Constantinople.

    628 - The first recorded appearance of Khazars in the Roman annals. They are reported as "fierce warriors of the steppes, swift on their horses, and deadly with their arrows" by a contemporary chronicler.

    631 - A massive building program is initiated, the cities of Italy being the primary beneficiaries. In particular, both Rome and Ravenna are partially rebuilt, while many older buildings in danger of collapsing are restored.

    632 - A dangerous split in the Imperial politics occurs between the factions supporting the interests of the Eastern and Western portions of the Empire. There is a growing pressure on Arcadius to amend his policies to benefit the East of the Empire more, which many in Constantinople feel has been neglected.

    633 - After long consideration, Arcadius decides to appoint his son Belisarius co-Emperor, responsible for the Eastern provinces, while he himself could concentrate on the West. Accompanied by a group of elite Gothic Guard, Belisarius II sets sail for Constantinople.

    635 - Belisarius II, in two years since his ascention, has not shown a slightest interest in politics or administration, preferring to leave it to his advisors while he himself indulged in the pleasures of his capital. Chief amongst his advisors was Narses (no relation to his more famous namesake), the minister of finance. While ambitious, Narses, as a eunuch, was debarred from the throne - however, he was perfectly content with being a kingmaker. Of Narses' two brothers, one was a eunuch like himself, but the youngest, John, had shown some promise already as a civil servant. Thus, all of Narses ambitions were centered on ensuring his own family's elevation to power.

    636 - While out hunting, Belisarius II is shot by an arrow, and killed. The official story is that the shooting was accidental, and the servant responsible is swiftly killed, however, there are suspicions of foul play. When the news reach Ravenna, Arcadius II is crushed by grief, and dies shortly thereafter. With no male heirs to the throne left behind by either Arcadius or his son, Arcadius' younger daughter Theodora is seen as path to the Imperial throne. Narses attempts to bethrothe Theodora to his brother, however, with the suspicions that he was involved in Belisarius' death, he gets a denial from Ravenna. Instead, a platoon of Italian soldiers shows up at his doorstep, with orders to arrest him and his family, and carry them to their judgement. Narses and his brothers are never heard from again. In a meanwhile, a Gothic noble named Apsimar, who held the position of magister militum in the West, is proclaimed Emperor by the army in Italy. He hastily changes his name to a more appropriate Constantine, and is crowned Emperor Constantine V, taking late Arcadius' daughter as his wife to cement his link to the throne. The Senate of both Ravenna and Constantinople confirm his ascention with unseeming haste - that is, when confronted with a few well-placed threats of an army intervention.

    637 - The Bulgar Khanate's star is ascendant as Khan Tervel increases his dominions at the expense of the neighbouring tribes, and Rome's Balkan holdings. By now, the Danube frontier has long been overran, and coastal cities are all that remains of the former province of Moesia.

    638 - A pretender in the East claims to be Emperor Belisarius II, who had somehow miraculously escaped death, and wants to reclaim his Empire. While almost certainly not genuine, it did create large degree of discontent throughout the Empire, as Constantine V is largely seen as a usurper, and only tolerated for the lack of better candidates. Constantine/Apsimar sends an army, mostly consisting of Italians and Italian Greeks to deal with pretender under command of a Greek general Theodosius Phocas.

    639 - The Imperial army, once reaching Asia Minor, mutinies, raising Theodosius Phocas on their shields and proclaiming him Emperor. Since there are doubts that Constantine V, an Arian prior to his ascention to the throne, still does not fully adhere to the Orthodox faith (which at this point means the official doctrine of sees of both Rome and Constantinople), the army, Orthodox to a man (with exception of small Gothic contingent, which, finding themselves in minority, wisely join in the popular sentiment) would rather see an Orthodox Emperor on the throne. Yet, with the pretender still in his rear, Theodosius' first move is against the rebel instead of marching in Italy.

    640 - The rebel pretender is defeated and captured, being strangled shortly thereafter. Theodosius III Phocas enters Constantinople in triumph, and starts to plan an expedition against his counterpart in Ravenna. A new army is recruited from the Greek population of Asia Minor and Greece proper, and is sent to Italy.

    641 - After decisive defeat Constantine V abdicates, is tonsured, and packed up to a monastery in the Aegean. Theodosius arranges for Constantine's ex-wife Theodora to be remarried to his son, another Theodosius, who is then crowned co-Emperor and is left in charge of the West.

    643 - The Visigothic kingdom in Spain grows in power, expelling the Romans from the south of the Iberian peninsula once and for all. The Roman holdings on the southern side of Gibraltar are all that remains of once-Roman Africa and Iberia. Occupied with unrest at home and a certain difficulty in asserting their authority, both co-Emperors are unable to react.

    647 - Over the course of a previous few years, Khazars made somewhat of a name for themsekves as being a threat to Arab holdings in the Caucasus. They overran Georgia, and inflicted decisive defeats upon the Caliphate. Realizing that if left unchecked, the Khazars pose a major threat to the Eastern provinces of the Empire, the elder Theodosius decides upon a diplomatic solution, and sends an embassy to the Khazar Kagan. The Kagan is impressed by the richness of the Emperor's presents, and by the implied power of the Empire, and agrees to an alliance treaty in return for a large subsidy.

    649 - An active effort to convert the Khazars begins as Imperial missionaries travel to Khazar territories. They have to contend with both the existing pagan Khazar religion, and with the Athanasian missionaries sent by the Arabs who came to a similar conclusion that "if you can't beat them, make them join you". While both missions make a number of conversions, neither is a full-fledged success, as majority of the Khazars are indifferent to the foreign religious influence.

    650 - With their hold on power now relatively secure, the Theodosii now start thinking about expansion. It is deemed that, due to Caliphate experiencing succession crisis, recovery of some of the Eastern provinces might be a distinct possibility. Theodosius III issues orders to attack the Caliphate in Syria and Palestine, in attempt to recapture the long-lost provinces, and to undermine the Arab power and influence.

    651 - The Byzantine/Roman army meets little resistance as they recapture the coastal cities in Palestine and Syria, until they meet a large Arab force near Edessa. Resulting battle ends in a draw, although both sides claim victory. The new Caliph Suleyman, whose position is still contested within his own realm, agrees to concede the coast of Palestine, with Jerusalem, as the Holy City, being under joint Arab and Roman control. In the eyes of Theodosius, this justifies a triumph, which is a splendid and lavish affair even by the standards of Constantinople.

    652 - Theodosius III dies in Constantinople, and is succeeded by his son, already reigning in Ravenna as Theodosius IV. Already an experienced administrator, even if less publicly prominent during his father's reign, the younger Theodosius immediately saw the problems facing his Empire. The East and the West, while quiet since the elder Theodosius' ascention, have been drifting apart steadily, with Italo-Gothic, Latin speaking West and Greek East constantly being at odds with each other. In order to combat this, and to promote internal unity, he attempts to resettle large numbers of Goths and Latins in Asia Minor. This idea is met with such resentment among both Goths, Italians, and Greeks, that it is not followed through with.

    653 - First mention of iconoclasm, "smashing of icons" in the Roman literature. The movement, starting in Coptic Egypt, gains in popularity in North Africa, and gains momentum when a prominent Athanasian cleric declares that painting images of the saints and Christ clearly violates the Second Commandment, and thus smacks of idolatry. The resulting wave of destruction makes many dedicated iconodules ("icon-loving") Christians, both Athanasian and Orthodox, flee the lands of the Caliphate for the Imperial territories. An unintended effect is that despite them fleeing iconoclasm, the exodus actually helped to increase awareness of iconoclastic ideas, thus spreading them across Asia Minor.

    654 - By now, Theodosius IV realizes with some alarm that it is becoming increasingly more difficult to effectively manage both Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor without having to delegate much of his authority. The previous solution to the problem has been appointment of a co-Emperor, but with no adult males of the Imperial dynasty available, promotion of a non-related co-Emperor could create more problems than it would solve. Thus, Theodosius creates theme system, which replaces the previous administrative division of the Empire into Exarchates. Each theme is designed to be large enough to be able to defend itself in case of a foreign incursion until the Imperial army arrives, but not large enough to be able to successfully revolt. Major incentives and large tracts of land are offered to citizens of any ethnic origin to settle in the new themes in return for hereditary military service. The initiative is an instant success, and allows for more centralized style of government, which in turn strengthens the Empire immensely.

    658 - Finally able to turn his thoughts to reconquest of the lands that were part of the Roman Empire of the old, Theodosius IV plans the military expedition against the Vandals, whom he intended to punish for their previous breakaway from Rome, as well as to put a stop to Vandal pirates operating near Sicily. A great fleet of over a hundred galleys is assembled, while the land army, composed of soldiers from every corner of the Empire gathers in Naples.

    659 - The Second Vandal War begins. A great naval battle is fought between the Roman and the Vandal fleets, with the Romans emerging victorious despite enormous losses (although the Vandal fleet, mauled as it was, was not completely destroyed). The Vandals attempted to delay the approach of the Roman fleet by asking for a three days' truce, however, Theodosius, fully aware of Basiliscus' error two centuries earlier, pressed on. The battle is fought under the walls of Carthage which sees the Vandals defeated, however, the remainder of their force walls themselves in the city, and stoutly resists attempts at subjugation.

    660 - The Second Battle of Carthage, in which the reserve Vandal army in combination with the defenders of the city defeats Roman force. The Roman army withdraws from the city's surroundings and both Romans and Vandals attempt to sway Egypt on their side. The Copts in Egypt do not want to get involved in the showdown, and stay neutral.

    662 - The fighting in North Africa continues, with neither side able to get a clear sustainable advantage. The Roman reinforcements finally arrive from Asia Minor, swaying the tide of battle to the Roman side just enough to bring the Vandals to the negotiation table. The resulting peace treaty makes no territorial concessions, but does extort a large tribute from the Vandals, as well as demands that the Vandal King makes formal obeissanse to the Emperor. In effect, it is a return to status quo, however, the Imperial prestige has been maintained.
     
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  3. basileus Inflammable

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2004
    Location:
    Thema Kastrosibrion ton Langobardon
    Basileus' Interference Timeline

    Here I transfer, directly from my OpenOffice files, the entire TL up to now. In the future I'll continue with the usual five-year installments.

    ca. 1st c. AD
    Southern Europe:
    The Ligurian language and traditions prove resistant to the process of Latinization, resulting in an area of stable bilingualism between the Po and the Ligurian Sea.
    British Isles:
    The Pictish language is born out of contact between the Iberic language of northern Britannia and Brythonic Celtic.
    Western Europe:
    Roman colonization of the Danube basin and the Rhine river valley.
    North Africa:
    The dromedary is introduced to Egypt and the Sahara.
    Central Asia, India:
    The Kushan Empire is powerful and controls the area between Central Asia and India.
    30-33
    Middle East:
    Jesus of Nazareth preaches in Palestine. The kingdom of Osrhoene (between Syria and Cappadocia, with its capital at Edessa) is the first state to adopt Christianity, under King Abgar V Ukkama (Abgar the Black), a correspondent with and admirer of Jesus.
    33
    Middle East:
    Jesus of Nazareth, called the Christ, is crucified in Jerusalem as a blasphemer, rises from the dead after three days and ascends to heaven. His followers (the Apostles) spread Christianity.
    34-44
    Middle East:
    The Romans incorporate the Jewish kingdoms of Bethany and Galilee after the death of their rulers from the dynasty of Herod.
    37-47
    Caucasus:
    The Parthians occupy Gordiene (central Kurdistan) and subjugate Armenia, but within ten years the Romans reestablish their influence, extending it as far as Caucasian Albania (Azerbaijan).
    Ca. 40
    Central Asia:
    The Parthians establish the client kingdom of Paropamiz in the Seistan/Sakastan region of eastern Persia
    42
    Southern Europe:
    There is an abortive revolt against the Roman emperor Claudius in Dalmatia.
    North Africa:
    The Roman empire absorbs Mauretania.
    Far East:
    The small kingdoms of Geumgwam, Tae and Karak arise, and unite in the Kaya/Gaya Confederation, a ese “enclave” at the tip of the Korean peninsula.
    43
    The Levant, British isles:
    The Roman empire absorbs Lycia (Southeast Asia Minor) and conquers southern Britannia.
    Far East:
    Ma Yuan, the Chinese general of the Han, conquers Tonkin and Annam, bringing about an end to the Vietnamese revolt led by the Trung sisters.
    44
    Western Europe:
    Some natives of northern Hesperia (*OTL America), thrown off course in their canoes by Atlantic storms, land in Germany where they are enslaved and sold to the Romans.
    Middle East:
    Upon the death of Herod Agrippa I, king of Galilee and Peraea (the eastern part of the Jordan river valley), the Romans annex the two kingdoms.
    46
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Thrace and Noricum are definitively incorporated into the Roman Empire.
    47
    Western Europe:
    The Romans exact tribute from the Frisians.
    48 Far East:
    The vast empire of the Xiongnu/Huns is divided into northern (or western) and southern (or eastern) portions.
    ca. 50
    Caucasus:
    The kingdom of Colchis (NW Georgia) becomes a vassal of Pontus (Taurida; OTL Crimea).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Iazyges, forerunners of the Sarmatians, are expelled from eastern Moldavia (Bessarabia) by their close relatives, the Roxolani, and occupy Slovakia, exchanging their influence there for the kingdom of Dacia.
    Central Asia, Far East:
    In eastern Turkestan, the kingdom of Su Lih (the region of Kashgar) is established to control the Tocharians/Yüeh-Ch’ih and as a close ally of Han China; its main ruler will be the great Han general Bao Chan.
    51
    British isles:
    The Romans capture the Briton chieftain Caratacus, leader of the anti-Roman resistance.
    55
    Caucasus:
    After the restoration of the Arsacid Tiridates I (a member of the ruling dynasty of Parthia), the war between Parthia and Rome for supremacy over Armenia breaks out. Iberia (central Georgia) also liberates itself from Roman supremacy under other Arsacids, Bartom II and Qartam, who establish a kingdom with two kings (as in ancient Sparta).
    56-60
    Central Asia:
    The kingdom of Khotan in eastern Turkestan is briefly ruled by its neighbours of Yarkand, then regains freedom
    58
    Western Europe:
    An unsuccessful rebellion against the Romans in Frisia; the alliance with Rome is confirmed under the new Ubbo dynasty.
    58-60
    Caucasus:
    The Roman general Corbulo conquers Armenia and secures its fealty by deposing King Tiridates.
    ca. 60
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Iazyges establish themselves in the valley of Tisza river (Pannonia).
    India:
    The Sakas/Scythians, pushed ahed by the growing Kushan empire, conquer Sindh; they will be later absorbed by the Kushans
    61
    British Isles:
    The Romans suppress the rebellion of Queen Boudicca (Boadicea) in Britannia.
    62
    Caucasus:
    The Parthians defeat the Romans under General Peto at Rhandeia (Armenia). The Romans seize overlordship over Colchis (NE Georgia) from the Pontus kingdom.
    62-68
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Cimmerian Bosphorus kingdom (Bosporon/Kerč) is briefly annexed by Rome.
    63
    Caucasus:
    A peace without annexations is declared between the Romans and the Parthians, who renounce all claims to Armenia; Tiridates I returns to his throne as a Roman vassal.
    64
    North Africa:
    The Romans explore the Nile as far as Bahr al-Ghazal (Sudan); an enormous fire devastates Rome; the Emperor Nero, a sadistic lunatic, blames the Christians and persecutes them.
    65
    Roman Empire:
    Unsuccessful plot of Lucius Calpurnius Piso against Nero in Rome.
    66
    Middle East:
    The rebellion of the Jews breaks out in Palestine.
    67 Middle East:
    Rome reconquers Galilee from the rebellious Jews.
    68-69
    Roman Empire:
    Suicide of Nero, end of the Julio-Claudians, and year of the Four Emperors (Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian) in Rome; Vespasian triumphs in the second battle of Bedriacum (northern Italy) and founds the Flavian dynasty. In the chaos of the year of the four emperors other short-lived rebellions spring up: Roman Africa under Lucius Clodius Macer, Gaul under Gaius Julius Vindex and even central Italy itself under Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus
    Middle East:
    The Romans reconquer Judea and Idumea and lay siege to Jerusalem, which resists them fanatically.
    69-71
    Western Europe:
    The Roman legions between Batavia (Holland) and Treviri revolt.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Roxolani invade Moesia but are deflected.
    70
    Middle East:
    The Roman general Titus, son of the emperor Vespasian, seizes Jerusalem and razes it to the ground, destroying its temple and putting an end to the millennial line of the High Priests (the Jewish “Popes”).
    ca. 70
    India:
    The satrap Bhumaka of the Satakani kingdom (also known as the Satavahanas or Andhras) of Maharashtra establishes the supremacy of the Sakas (Scythians) as far as the western coast of India.
    72
    Caucasus, Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Alans, an Iranian people of Central Asia and the eastern branch of the Sarmatians, invade the region north of the Caucasus, establishing themselves there.
    Middle East:
    Rome definitively annexes the kingdom of Commagene (NE of Antioch).
    British Isles:
    Rome defeats the Brigantes of northern Britannia and forces them into submission.
    73
    Middle East:
    Mass suicide of the defenders of the fortress of Masada, the last stronghold of the Jewish revolt in Palestine.
    73-74
    Western Europe, British Isles:
    Rome conquers the Agri Decumates between the Upper Rhine, the Main, and the Danube, and subjugates the Siluri of SE Cambria/Wales.
    74-76
    Central Asia, Far East:
    The Chinese general Ban Chao subjugates (eastern) Turkestan for the Han, but it is subsequently reclaimed by Luoyang.
    Ca. 75
    Central Asia, India:
    The Kushan Empire conquers the Indo-Parthian kingdom of Suren (a vassal of the Parthians), which formerly held sway in the Gandhara-Kashmir area, and the kingdom of Taxila, a former ally to the Parthians.
    78
    British Isles:
    Anglesey/Mona, the last stronghold of the British Druids, is taken by the Romans
    Central Asia:
    The kingdom of Khotan (eastern Turkestan) becomes a Han Chinese vassal
    78-96
    Central Asia, India:
    King Kanishka expands the Kushan empire to its greatest extent, from Central Asia to Northern India.
    79
    Southern Europe:
    The violent eruption of Vesuvius destroys Pompeii.
    80
    Southern Europe:
    The Colosseum is dedicated in Rome while a plague rages.
    ca. 80
    Central Asia:
    The Kushan empire conquers the kingdom of Margiana (Turkmenistan).
    80-97
    Central Asia:
    Ban Chao, having returned to eastern Turkestan, obtains astounding victories against the Tocharians who have not yet submitted to Han rule, and advances through Central Asia as far as the Caspian sea.
    83
    Western Europe:
    Germany: the Romans rout the Chatti (Germany), who had migrated from Lower Saxony to Franconia.
    84
    British Isles:
    The Roman general Agricola defeats the Britanni, occupies Cambria (Wales), and advances as far as Caledonia (Scotland), where he defeats the Picts under Calgacus at Mons Graupius, before retreating below the southern boundaries of Caledonia.
    ca. 85
    Arabia:
    The kingdom of Gurat secedes from the kingdom of Saba, which is in decline.
    85-89
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Romans fight against the Dacians, who have invaded Moesia, and deflect them.
    89
    Western Europe:
    Saturninus, Roman legate of Germania Superior, attempts an abortive revolt.
    ca. 90
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The ancient republic of Cherson (*OTL Sebastople) is annexed by the Cimmerian Bosphorus kingdom, a Roman vassal.
    92-96
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    An inconclusive war is waged by the Roman emperor Domitian against the Quadi, the Marcomanni, and the Iazyges.
    93
    Far East:
    The Xianbi (ancestors of the Mongolians) defeat the northern Xiongnu (Huns), who are expelled from Mongolia into the region of Tarbagataj, between Siberia, Dzungaria, and Kazakhstan, and begin to migrate towards the west.
    95
    Roman Empire:
    An envoy of the Han Chinese empire reaches Rome, where he speaks with Emperor Domitian prior to dying from an illness.
    96
    Roman Empire:
    The assassination of Domitian puts an end to the Flavian dynasty in Rome.
    97
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    The Chinese general Gan Ying briefly reaches the Persian Gulf.
    98-117
    Roman Empire:
    The glorious reign of Trajan in the Roman Empire.
    ca. 100
    British Isles:
    A brief, fruitless attempt by the Romans to conquer Hibernia (Ireland).
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The final decline of the great Olmec civilization in Mexico.
    India:
    The three Tamil states of Sangam/First Chera empire (Kerala), Chola (in the southeast) and Pandya (the deep south) occupy the southern Deccan.
    SE Asia:
    The legendary foundation of the Funan empire, with its center on the Mekong river basin, at the hands of the Indian brahmin priest Kambu; the kingdom experiences a strong Hinduization in its culture.
    Black Africa:
    Axum becomes the capital of a strong Ethiopian empire.
    Central Asia:
    Bokhara becomes the capital of an independent Sogdian kingdom.
    Far East:
    The local kingdom of Puya arises in SW Korea.
    Arabia:
    In Yemen, the kingdom of Saba is decisively conquered by Himyar; nonetheless, a part escapes the conquest to give rise to the kingdom of Ma’rib.

    101-107
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    After two bloody campaigns (101-102, 105-107), Rome conquers Dacia and introduces the Latin language.
    105
    Far East:
    The Chinese eunuch Cài Lún, in the service of the Han court, invents paper.
    106
    Middle East:
    The Romans conquer the kingdom of Arabia Nabatea (the Sinai and Jordan) seizing its fabled capital, Petra.
    114-117
    Caucasus, Middle East:
    Trajan conquers Armenia and Mesopotamia, extending the Roman Empire to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian, but is repelled at Hatra (117); his successor Hadrian abandons the conquests as a result of the anti-Roman rebellions raging from Cyrenaica to Syria.
    116
    Middle East:
    The Romans conquer Harran/Carrhae (northeastern Syria), annex the kingdom of Adiabene in northeastern Syria (which they name Assyria), and force Osrhoene
    to submit as a vassal.
    ca. 120
    Northern Europe:
    The Goths migrate from Scandinavia to the mouth of the Vistula river, while the Rugians and the Lemovii establish themselves on the southeastern Baltic coast.
    British Isles:
    The Romans build Hadrian's Wall between Roman Britannia and Caledonia.
    Caucasus:
    Under King Agros, Colchis (northwestern Georgia) liberates itself from Roman rule and becomes the kingdom of Lazica/Egrisi.
    Central Asia:
    The kingdom of Paropamiz in the Seistan region, a Parthian client, is conquered by the Kushan empire.
    India:
    Tiastane/Chashtana, son of Bhumaka, founds a dynasty of eastern Kshatrapas (satraps) at Ujjain in Malwa, seceding from the empire of the Kushanas
    129
    Caucasus:
    In Iberia/Georgia, the custom of the two co-kings is brought to an end by the accession of King Rhadamist to the throne.
    130
    India:
    The Saka kingdom of Malwa conquers Gujarat
    132-135
    Middle East:
    The great rebellion of the Jews under the religious leader Akiva and the "messiah" Simon bar Kokhba, which is repressed by the Romans with extreme brutality. The Jews are finally sent into diaspora.
    139-143
    British Isles:
    The Romans quell the rebellion of the Brigantes in Britannia and build the Antonine Wall (abandoned shortly afterwards) in southern Caledonia.
    146
    SE Asia:
    The kingdom of Arakan (western Burma) converts to Buddhism.
    150
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Romans defeat the Alans at Olbia (near today's Odessa) at the mouth of the Lower Bug river.
    ca. 150
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The kingdom of Teotihuacàn emerges as a strong power in central Mexico.
    156
    Far East, Central Asia:
    The Xianbi (forerunners of the Mongols) chase the Xiungnu/northern Huns from the Kazakh steppe; one part of these travels towards the west under Kama Tarkhan, and another part travels south, giving life to the kingdom of Yuehban between the Aral and the Balkhash lakes.
    ca. 160
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Mayans found the kingdom of Xukpi/Copàn between western Honduras and Guatemala.
    161-163
    Caucasus:
    The (successful) Roman attempt to replace the Armenian Arsacid ruler with Sohamus of Emesa provokes a new conflict with Parthia.
    161-180
    Roman empire:
    Pestilence and invasions wrack the Roman Empire under Marcus Aurelius, the "Philosopher Emperor."
    162-166
    Middle East:
    Roman victories against the Parthians under Vologaeses (Walakhsh) III: the general Gaius Avidius Cassius conquers Ctesiphon, whereupon his army is decimated by a plague. The Roman legions bring the plague back to their homeland.
    167-174
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Marcomannic War: a confederation of Germanic and Sarmatian peoples invades the Danube valley and reaches as far as Furlania/Friuli before they are turned back and defeated.
    169
    Far East:
    Roman merchants reach China bearing gifts for the emperor.
    Roman Empire:
    German barbarians enter Italy and besiege Aquileia.
    ca. 170
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Lombards abandon Mauringia (Lower Saxony) and travel towards the southeast.
    170-180
    Far East:
    Dardjegwe/Tanshihuai briefly unifies the Xianbi tribes.
    174
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Romans invade “Slovakia”, defeating the Iazyges, whom they deport to Britannia by the thousands.
    175
    Middle East:
    A rebellion by Gaius Avidius Cassius in Syria is promptly crushed by Rome.
    178-180
    Central-Eastern Europe, Caucasus:
    Rome subdues the Marcomanni and the Sarmatians to their rule, from Bohemia to Pannonia and the Carpathians, but upon the death of Marcus Aurelius, his son Commodus renounces any expansion of the imperial borders, and in Armenia the Arsacids return to power under Vologaeses (Walakhsh) II the Great.
    184
    Far East:
    The great rebellion of the Yellow Turbans in China, after years of famine and other natural disasters.
    185
    India:
    Foundation of the kingdom of Nepal under Jayavarma Licchavi, who conquers the country overrunning the local Kirati tribes.
    186
    Caucasus:
    The Arsacids of Armenia confirm their hold on the throne of Iberia/Georgia with Rev I the Just after Hamzasp’s rebellion.
    Ca. 190
    Far East:
    Han China loses control over eastern Turkestan, where local petty kingdoms regain independence
    190-192
    Far East:
    Dong Zhuo governs China through a Han puppet emperor, but is subsequently eliminated by Cao Cao.
    191
    Caucasus:
    The king of Armenia Vologaeses II rises to the throne of Parthia as King Vologaeses IV.
    192
    Roman Empire:
    Emperor Commodus is slain in Rome by his Praetorian Guards.
    SE Asia:
    Chinese sources describe for the first time the Malay Cham kingdom in southern-central Vietnam
    193
    Roman Empire:
    Civil war in Rome after the assassination of the emperor Pertinax and the purchase of the imperial throne by the rich banker Didius Julianus; the legions react by nominating as emperor the Pune Septimus Severus, who is supported by the legions of the Danubian limes (which march on Rome and eliminate Didius Julianus); Pescennius Niger in Syria and Clodius Albinus in Britannia are also acclaimed as emperors by their men.
    194
    Roman Empire:
    Septimius Severus recognizes Clodius Albinus as his heir, and then defeats Pescennius Niger in the battles of Cyzicus, Nicaea and Issus, killing him in the vicinity of Antioch.
    197
    Roman Empire:
    Septimius Severus kills Clodius Albinus at the battle of Lyon
    199
    Middle East:
    Septimius Severus sacks Ctesiphon and defeats the Parthians, fostering their decline, then fails in the siege of Hatra and is forcd to retreat
    198-217
    The Levant:
    The isle of Lesbos is de facto independent from Rome under Apelles Menemachos, then it’s reabsorbed by the Empire

    IIIrd century
    Roman Empire:
    Severe crisis in the Roman Empire, run by barbarians and wracked by civil wars (235-284, the Thirty Tyrants).
    Western Europe:
    Birth of the Frank and Alemannic tribal confederations, respectively forerunner of France and Germany.
    British Isles:
    The Saxons sack Britannia’s coasts.
    North Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Dorset culture Inuits abandon Greenland.
    Black Africa:
    Decline and fall of the Nok civilization in Nigeria. A wave of Indonesian peoples colonizes Madagascar
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Chibcha civilization roots in OTL Panamà and northern Colombia
    ca. 200
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Rugians move south from Pomerania; the Asdingian Vandals, pushed towards south-east, expels the Iazyges from Slovakia. The Gepids too move form the lower Vistula river following the tracks of the Goths and settling in Galicia/Ruthenia.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Yax Ch’aktel Xok founds the royal dynasty of the powerful Mayan city-state of Mutul/Tikal.
    North Hesperia (*OTL America):
    In the lower valley of the Mississippi the Hopewell culture replaces the previous Adena culture
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Moche civilization reaches its heyday in the northern coastal plains of Peru
    205-211
    British Isles:
    Septimius Severus routs the Caledonians and Picts in Britannia and withdraws from the Antonine Wall to Hadrian's Wall.
    208
    Far East:
    Cao Cao attempts to reunify China, but is defeated at the Battle of Chibi (the Red Wall) in Hubei.
    212
    Roman Empire:
    The emperor Caracalla grants Roman citizenship to all free men of the Empire.
    214
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Caracalla stops the Alemanni in Germany and the first Goths on the lower Danube.
    216
    Caucasus:
    Rome annexes western Armenia after having defeated and taken prisoner the
    Arsacid king of Armenia, Chosroes I.
    Far East:
    The Chinese subjugate the southern Xiongnu/Huns, who divide themselves into five tribes.
    217-218
    Roman Empire:
    Assassination of Caracalla in Syria at the hands of the Praetorian Guard prefect Macrinus, who for his part was eliminated by his son Macrinus II; Severan restoration under Heliogabalus
    219 Far East:
    Toba Liwei/Shenyuan establishes the Toba/Tabgach branch of the Xianbi between northern China and Mongolia
    220 Far East:
    Fall of the Han dynasty in China, replaced by the Wei (Cao Pei, son of Cao Cao): here begins the Period of Three Kingdoms.
    Middle East:
    Jafnah I ibn Amr establishes the kingdom of Ghassan at Damascus, a client of Rome between Jordan and Syria. The Ghassanid tribe had migrated from Yemen to Hawran (southern Syria)
    ca. 220
    India:
    End of the major Satakani/Satavahana/Andhra dynasty in Maharashtra
    221
    Far East:
    Liu Bei founds the Shu-Han dynasty in Sichuan (SW China)
    222
    Far East:
    Sun Quan founds the Wu dynasty in Nanking
    224
    Middle East:
    Ardashir I the Sassanian, son of Pabag, king of Persia, overthrows the Parthians, defeating and killing the last emperor of the Arsacid dynasty, Artabanus V, at Hormuz, and establishes the Sassanian Empire of Persia
    ca. 225
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Goths begin to split into the Visigoths (to the west of the Dnieper) and the Ostrogoths (to the east)
    227
    Central Asia:
    The Sassanians conquer Samarkand from the Kushans, making it a vassal city.
    228
    Middle East:
    The Sassanians subdue the Arab kingdom of Characene (roughly correspoding to Kuwait and southernmost Iraq)
    230
    Middle East, Caucasus:
    The Sassanians begin a new war with Rome, plundering Syria, and establish hegemony over Caucasian Albania.
    232
    Middle East:
    The emperor of Rome, Severus Alexander, stops the Sassanians in Syria, where they had seized Harran/Carrhae
    233
    Central Asia:
    In Bactria, Ardashir I the Sassanians destroys the Kushan Empire, of which only fragments remain in the East (Kabul and the Hindus Valley under the Kushanshahs).
    234-235
    Roman Empire:
    The Alamanni make trouble with the Romans. The assassination of the emperor Severus Alexander causes the beginning of the so-called Age of Thirty Tyrants in the Roman Empire (235-284); the new emperor Maximinus Thrax (actually born in Moesia from a Gothic father and an Alan mother), enthroned by the army in Germany, crushes the rebellion led by senator Magnus
    237
    Roman Empire:
    Another revolt against Maximinus Thrax by Quartinus, who is quickly killed; the Alamanni are badly mauled by the Roman counter-invasion of Swabia
    238
    Roman Empire:
    Civil War in the Roman Empire; after the murder of Emperor Maximinus Thrax at Aquileia, the young Gordian (III), scion a noble Senatorial family, ascends to the throne.
    239
    Middle East:
    Destruction of the Roman border stronghold, Dura Europos (Mesopotamia), at the hands of the Sassanians
    240
    North Africa:
    Sabinianus’ failed revolt in Roman Africa
    242
    Middle East:
    The Romans, led by the Praetorian Guard prefect Timesitheus, decisively defeat the Sassanians at Resaina (Assyria).
    244
    Middle East:
    Philip the Arab, who is perhaps a Christian, usurpes the Roman throne
    of Rome by assassinating Gordian (III), is beaten by the Sassanians near
    Ctesiphon and must accept a scarcely satisfactory peace, according to
    which Rome annexes Osrhoene.
    Far East:
    The Chinese kingdom Wei seizes the capital of the Korean kingdom of Koguryo, reducing it to servitude.
    247
    Roman Empire:
    The millennial celebrations of the foundation of Rome are celebrated in the Roman Empire
    248
    Far East:
    Taking advantage of the crises within the Chinese Empire, the Cham conquer northern Vietnam and some of the southern Chinese provinces.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Pacatianus’ failed revolt in Moesia
    248-249
    Western Europe:
    Failed usurpation by Marcus Silbannacus in Gaul
    249
    Roman Empire:
    Jotapianus rebels in the Levant; the Roman general Decius rebels in Dacia, marches on Italy and defeats and kills Philip the Arab in Verona
    249-251
    Roman Empire:
    Most serious anti-Christian persecution in the Roman Empire under Decius
    ca. 250
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Goths establish themselves between Dacia and the Taurida (*OTL Crimea) absorbing the Germano-Sarmatian Bastarnae and thwarting the Sarmatians in Pannonia, while the Gepids establish themselves in Transylvania in a close relationship with the Goths.
    India:
    Foundation of the Vakataka dynasty in Maharashtra, soon to recover most of the defunct Andhra empire; the Ikhshvakus emerge in the Telugu lands. A wave of “barbarian” invasions in southern and western India: the Kalabhra invade and overrun (but not destroy completely) the first Sangam/Chera kingdom in Kerala, bringing about a local “dark age”, at the same time the Abhira pastoralists subject the Traikutakas of western Maharashtra.
    Middle East:
    The Persian priest Mani starts spreading the religious doctrine of Manichaeism. The Kedarites, Arab marauders of the uninhabited Syro-Jordanian desert, are subjugated by the kingdom of Tayma.
    Arabia:
    The kingdom of Himyar suppresses and conquers the kingdoms of Gurat and Ma'rib, completing the conquest of the former kingdom of Saba and the unification of Yemen. The town of Mecca passes from the Bani Jorhum to the Khuzaâ tribe’s control
    Caucasus:
    Under the Mamikonian dynasty, the Armenian kingdom of Taron (region of Daron/Muş) arises, a "buffer vassal" between Rome and the Sassanians.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Foundation of the Mayan kingdom of Calakmul (the Head of Snake) in the Yucatàn, historical rival of Mutul/Tikal.
    251
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Roman emperor Decius dies at Abrittus on the lower Danube in a most grave defeat against the Goths that have invaded Dacia
    251-253
    Roman Empire:
    Brief and troubled reign of Trebonianus Gallus in the Roman Empire
    252
    Middle East:
    Taking advantage of serious Roman tribulations, the Persian Sassanians conquer Gordiene (central Kurdistan), advancing to destroy the Roman town of Zeugma/Belkis on the Euphrates, and placing Artavasdes V on the Armenian throne
    252-254
    Middle East:
    The usurper Uranius Antoninus rules parts of Syria from Emesa
    253
    Roman Empire:
    Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus briefly rules Lower Moesia. Valerian ascends to the throne of Rome and for the first time divides the empire into the East (under his own rule) and the West (under his son Gallienus).
    256
    Western Europe:
    The Ripuarian Franks (southern or eastern Franks, located in Franconia and distinguished from the Salians, who are located in southern Holland) invade the Rhine valley.
    Caucasus, Middle East:
    Second war between Rome and the Sassanians for Armenia: the Persians win the battle at Barbalissa and plunder Antioch (Syria) with the help of renegade Roman civil servant Mariades Cyriades (afterwards disposed of by the same Persians)
    257-260
    Middle East:
    The Roman emperor Valerian fights the Persians in Syria but is taken prisoner by them in Edessa, ending his days as a slave.
    260
    Middle East:
    After capturing Valerian, the Persians invade Syria, Cilicia and Cappadocia but are thwarted by the king of Palmyra (Syria), Odenathus, who gains virtual independence from Rome (though still paying lip service to the empire).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Ingenuus rebels in Pannonia
    ca. 260 Central-Eastern Europe:
    Regalianus leads another unsuccessful revolt in Moesia
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The eruption of the volcano Ilopango results in the decline of the Mayan city state of Kaminaljuyú.
    260-274
    Western Europe:
    Secession of Gaul and Britannia (under Postumus, followed by Victorinus and Tetricus) from the Roman Empire
    261
    Roman Empire:
    The Roman emperor Gallienus defeats the Alamanni at Milan. Local rebellions by short-lived imperial pretenders in Achaia, Thessalia and Egypt
    Middle East:
    The Palmyrenes of Odenathus establish their own supremacy over the kingdom of Ghassan (Jordan and southern Syria) and reconquer Antioch from the Persian Sassanians
    261-293
    Caucasus:
    Sassanian interval on the throne of Armenia under Hormizd and Narses.
    262
    Roman Empire:
    Odenathus of Palmyra reconquers northern Mesopotamia for Rome; in the meantime, Asia Minor (trouble by Gothic piracy and incursions up to Cappadocia!) and Egypt rebel and proclaim local short-lived imperial pretenders
    263
    Roman Empire:
    New provincial rebellions and imperial proclamations in Roman Africa (Saturninus), Egypt (Cornelius Celsus), Isauria (southern Anatolia, under Trebellianus) and Illyria (by Aureolus, who’ll prove to be the toughest pretender)
    264
    Far East:
    The Wei conquer the Shu-Han kingdom of Sichuan.
    264-269
    Roman Empire:
    Wave of invasions, plunder and maritime piracy at the hands of the Goths in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and in the Roman East
    265-266
    Far East:
    Sima Yan replaces the Cao (Wei) dynasty of Luoyang with his own dynasty, the Jin, and quells a revolt of the Xiongnu/Huns
    267
    Roman Empire:
    The Heruli, another Germanic nation of Scandinavian origin, devastate Athens and Greece. The Roman emperor Gallienus recognizes the de facto independence and imperial title of Odenathus of Palmyra.
    268
    Roman Empire:
    The Roman emperor Gallienus besieges the rebel Aureolus at Milan but is killed by his troops; Claudius II eliminates Aureolus and takes power.
    269
    Roman Empire:
    The Roman emperor Claudius II annihilates the Goths at Naissus (Moesia), then puts down the Alamanni at the battle of Lake Garda (northern Italy). Zenobia of Palmyra, succeeding her father Odenathus, rebels against Rome and conquers Egypt and Cappadocia.
    270
    Roman Empire:
    Germanic invasion of northern Italy.
    North Africa:
    Egypt rebels again under Quintillus, this time against the Palmyrenes
    ca. 270
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Goths conquer the Taurida (*OTL Crimea) (or Taurian Chersonese) subjugating the Roxolani kingdom of Pontus.
    Roman Empire:
    The Romans abandon Dacia to the Goths, and a good part of the Latin colonists are transplanted in Moesia (Bulgaria) around Vidin where they form the nucleus of the Vlachs of the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans); also, the Agri Decumates between Rhine and Main come to be abandoned to the Alamanni.
    Arabia:
    The Arab kingdom of Hirah arises under Amr I ibn Uday of the clan of the Lakhmids, a servant of the Persian Sassanians, extending from the lower Euphrates to Qatar.
    Far East:
    Ōjin Tennō is the first historical emperor of Japan (*date VERY uncertain – could as well have reigned a century after).
    271
    Central Asia:
    The Persian emperor Hormizd I dies in battle against the Sogdians of Bokhara.
    Roman Empire:
    The new Roman emperor Aurelianus turns back the Germanic invasion at Milan
    271-272
    Roman Empire:
    Abortive revolt by Septimius in Dalmatia
    272
    Caucasus, Middle East:
    Aurelianus smashes the empire of Palmyra, destroying the town and deporting queen Zenobia to Rome. Hormizd, the king of Armenia, of the Sassanian royal family, ascends to the throne of Persia as Hormizd II
    Roman Empire:
    The Alamanni and Iazyges penetrate as far as Umbria before being destroyed by the Romans.
    273
    Roman Empire:
    Unrest in newly-retaken Egypt keeps going on with two more local usurpers, Firmius and Domitianus
    274
    Roman Empire:
    Aurelian defeats the Gallic Empire of Tetricus, reunifying the Roman Empire
    275-276
    Roman Empire:
    Devastating Franco-Alamannic invasion of Gaul after the assassination of Aurelianus. The Goth and Alan marauders are chased from Asia Minor.
    277
    Middle East:
    The reaction of the Zoroastrian clergy in Persia leads to the crucifixion of Mani and the persecution of the Manichaeans.
    Roman Empire:
    The Roman emperor Probus repels the barbarians back beyond the Rhine.
    279
    Caucasus:
    Armenia is divided in two kingdoms, western and eastern, both subjects to Persia: but the western one returns under rule of the Arsacids, while the eastern becomes an appanage (feudal territory) for heirs to the throne of the King of Kings of Ctesiphon.
    280
    Far East:
    The Jin conquer the Wu kingdom of Nanking, briefly reunifying China.
    Roman Empire:
    New local rebellions in Syria and Egypt (Saturninus), Gallia (Proculus) and the Lower Rhine (Bonosus)
    ca. 280
    Northern Europe:
    The Thuringian people appears in the same-mamed region of central Germany
    282
    Roman Empire:
    The Roman Emperor Probus is slain by his men
    282-283
    Middle East, Roman Empire:
    The victorious Roman invasion of Mesopotamia, accompanied by the conquest of Ctesiphon, ends with a withdrawal upon the sudden death of the emperor Carus; his sons Numerianus and Carinus divide the empire, the East going to the former, and the West going to the latter
    283
    Roman Empire:
    Another abortive imperial proclamation in Pannonia with Julianus
    284
    Roman Empire:
    The Roman armies of the East elect Diocletian as emperor.
    Caucasus:
    The Khusrawids replace the local branch of the Arsacids on the throne of Iberia/Georgia.
    285
    Roman Empire:
    Diocletian reunifies the Roman Empire, defeating and killing Carinus, son of Carus, at the battle of the Margus/Morava, and puts an end to the chaos.
    Far East:
    The Xianbi invade Manchuria and overwhelm the Korean kingdom of Fuyu/Buyeo (region of Harbin), the forces of which come to be "inherited" by the kingdom of Koguryo, to which it is bound.
    285-286
    Roman Empire:
    The Roman general Maximian suppresses the rebellion of the Bagaudae in Gaul.
    286
    Roman Empire:
    Diocletian entrusts the governing of the Roman West to his colleague Maximian, with its capital at Milan, and maintains control of the East, establishing his own capital at Nicomedia (Bithynia, Asia Minor).
    Northern Europe:
    Under the new dynasty of the Offo, the Frisians free themselves from Roman suzerainty, taking advantage of Carausius’ rebellion against Maximian.
    286-296
    British Isles:
    Separatist empire in Britannia under Carausius (the former commander of the Roman North sea fleet) and his assassin and successor Allectus.
    287
    Caucasus:
    Diocletian retakes from the Persians Gordiene (central Kurdistan) and western Armenia, where he installs the Roman candidate Tiridates V of the Arsacids on the throne
    290
    Roman Empire:
    Diocletian quashes a serious rebellion in Egypt, setting fire to Alexandria and putting the rebels to the sword.
    Far East:
    Liu Yuan-hai reunifies the southern Xiongnu/Huns.
    293
    Roman Empire:
    Diocletian establishes the system of the tetrarchy (the division of the Roman Empire in four parts, managed by different men but ultimately under the sovereignty of one alone) adopting as his heir (Caesar) Galerius, while Maximian adopts Constantius Chlorus.
    Caucasus:
    Reunification of Armenia under Roman suzerainty with Tiridates V as king.
    296
    Caucasus:
    The Sassanian emperor Narses expels Tiridates V from Armenia, inciting a new conflict with Rome.
    British Isles:
    Constantius Chlorus and his praetorian prefect Asclepiodotus reconquer Britannia
    297-298
    Roman Empire, Middle East:
    The Romans defeat the Sassanians and the Alamanni. Galerius, Caesar of Diocletian in the Roman East, is first beaten by the Persians at Harran/Carrhae, then in the following year crushes them, invading Mesopotamia and forcing them to recognize Roman suzerainty over Armenia
    4th century
    Far East:
    Barbarian invasions by Xiongnu/Huns, proto-mongolic and Tungusic tribes foster a fragmentation of centralized power in China.
    East Africa:
    The Ethiopian Axumite kingdom is Christianized.
    Roman Empire:
    Christianization and lack of new conquests wrack the slaveholding economy of the Roman Empire

    Ca. 300
    Northern Europe:
    The Danish people coalesces between Sjælland island and southern Sweden under the sway of the Skioldung dynastic clan.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Rugians migrate to Galicia/Ruthenia.
    Caucasus:
    The Sassanians establish Juhuri military colonies in eastern Caucasus; the Juhuris are a warlike people of Persian stock, which in time will convert to Judaism
    Arabia:
    The Arab tribal princedom of Kindah is born west of Hadramaut.
    India:
    The Guptas wrest Punjab from the Kushanshas. Foundation of the Dravidian kingdom of Pallava at Kanchi (south-eastern india) under a Persian dynasty.
    SE Asia:
    Hinduism spreads amongst the Malay Chams of southern-central Vietnam.
    Pacific Ocean:
    The Polynesians colonize the Marquesas Islands.
    301
    Far East:
    Northern China is swept up by barbarian invasions; there begins the Sixteen Kingdoms era
    303
    Caucasus:
    Armenia converts to Christianity under king Tiridates V by the work of St. Gregory the Illuminator
    303-306
    Roman Empire:
    Last heavy round of persecution against Christians in the Roman Empire under Diocletian and the Tetrarchs
    304
    Far East, Central Asia:
    Liu Yuan-Hai, Lord of the southern Xiongnu/Huns, founds in the Shanxi region the Hunnic Han/Zhou imperial dynasty; eastern Turkestan rejects his authority and the local Indoeuropean Tocharian kingdoms (partly Zoroastrian, partly Vijayan [Buddhist]) regain complete independence
    305
    Roman Empire:
    Diocletian abdicates voluntarily, forcing his colleague Maximian to follow his example; Constantius Chlorus rules the Roman West with Flavius Severus as his Caesar (vice-emperor), whereas Galerius rules the East with Maximinus Daia as Caesar.
    Central Asia:
    Khorezm (region between the Caspian Sea, The Aral lake and the Amu Darja) overthrows Persian suzerainty and becomes a free state under the Afrigids.
    Far East:
    The Toba/Tabgach Xianbi establish the Dai kingdom in the wake of Chinese collpase in the north
    306
    Roman Empire, British Isles:
    The Tetrarchy crumbles upon the death of Constantius Chlorus; his son Constantine is hailed as emperor in Britannia, while in Rome Maxentius, son of Maximian, becomes emperor
    307
    Roman Empire:
    Constantine and Maxentius defeat and kill Flavius Severus, Constantius Chlorus’ legitimate Caesar and heir. Subsequently Maximian chooses to support his son-in-law Constantine over his own son Maxentius. Galerius’ invasion of Italy aborts quickly
    Far East:
    War of succession in China inside the Jin dynasty.
    308
    Roman Empire:
    At the conference of Carnuntum Licinius, a close friend of Galerius, is appointed Augustus (that is, full emperor) of Pannonia (modern Hungary west of the Danube, parts of Austria and Croatia) with a right to the lands currently under the sway of Maxentius (Italy, Spain, Africa)
    310
    Roman Empire:
    Besieged in Massilia/Marseille by his son-in-law Constantine, Maximian kills himself. Maximinus Daia has himself proclaimed emperor in Syria; the Roman Empire is now carved up amongst no less than five pretenders (Constantine, Maxentius, Licinius, Galerius and Maximinus Daia)
    ca. 310
    Arabia:
    The Axumite Ethiopians conquer the kingdom of Himyar (Yemen), which becomes a vassal to Axum
    311
    Far East:
    The Chinese capital of Luoyang is taken and destroyed by Liu Yuan-Hai’s Xiongnu/Huns.
    Roman Empire:
    Galerius quits the persecution against Christians, then dies, and Licinius takes over his domains in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), while Maximinus Daia extends his power to all of Anatolia.
    North Africa:
    Berber revolt led by Alexander in eastern Numidia; the Roman army razes to the ground the city of Cirta, subsequently refounded with the name of Constantina
    312
    Roman Empire:
    Constantine defeats Maxentius at Rivoli (near Turin), Verona and Milvius Bridge/Saxa Rubra, entering Rome as the victor and the ruler of Roman West; just before the battle at Milvius bridge a cross is said to appear in the sky (“In hoc signo vinces”, “Through this sign you’ll win”) and Constantine considers conversion to Christianity
    312-316
    North Africa:
    Donatist schism in the African Church of Carthage. Its cause is the request by local Christians to elect their bishop instead of waiting for an appointment from Rome. Constantine sides with the Roman bishop, but the reasons behind the schism endure; Donatists will characterize themselves as an autonomous African force, known for their martyr-worship, their refusal to pardon “unworthy” priests (those who backed down under the persecutions renegading the faith) and to accept the Church-State alliance sealed under Constantine
    313
    Roman Empire:
    Edict of Milan. Constantine and Licinius, now allies, recognize Christianity and proclaim it a State tolerated religion. After that Licinius reverts to his domains in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and decisively defeats Maximinus Daia at Campus Serenus near Adrianople, then pursues him through Asia Minor and besieges his enemy at Tarsus in Cilicia. On Maximinus’ death, Licinius obtains the entire Roman East
    313-668
    Far East:
    Three Kingdoms (Koguryo, Paekche and Silla) era in Korea
    314
    Roman Empire:
    Constantine appoints his brother-in-law Bassianus as Caesar in Italy and Pannonia (which was Licinius’ domain); Licinius, in turn, fosters a rebellion by Bassianus which is promptly crushed. Egypt revolts once again under Valens, to no avail
    Caucasus:
    The reign of Caucasian Albania (*OTL Azerbaijan) converts to Christianity under king Urnayr – but the country, firmly in the Persian sphere of influence, will long reamin divided between Christians and Zoroastrians.
    316
    Roman Empire:
    Constantine wrests from Licinius the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), except for Thrace, after the battle of Cibalae (Pannonia), then after a new inconclusive battle at Campus Ardiensis, the two rivals divide anew the Roman Empire between themselves, recognizing the “status quo”.
    Far East:
    Members of the Jin dynasty of China refound an eastern Jin empire based in Nanking after the barbarians overrun northern China
    317
    Far East:
    Liu Yuan-Hai, the Hunnic emperor of northern China founder of the self-proclaimed Han/Zhou dynasty, dies in Chang’an/Xian
    318
    India:
    Chandragupta I, son-in-law of the Licchavi ruler of the most ancient Magadha kingdom (India), obtains Pataliputra/Patna as a dowry, thus founding the Gupta dynasty and empire
    319
    Roman Empire:
    Arius starts preaching in Alexandria the Arian version (heresy) of Christianity, which will gain wide acceptance amongst newly Christianized barbarians
    320
    East Africa:
    The island of Dioskoris/Socotra, previously under Himyar’s control, is annexed by the Hadramaut kingdom
    ca. 320
    Roman Empire:
    In the Roman Empire Licinius reverts to an anti-Christian policy whilst Constantine is more and more pro-Christian
    Caucasus:
    In the lake Van region two Armenian principalities emerge: Rshtuniq under the Rshtuni dynasty and Vaspurakan under the Artzrunis.
    Central Asia:
    Under Kidara I the Red Huns or Chionites create a kingdom between Bactria (Afghanistan) and Central Asia after vanquishing the local Kushanshahs, puppet rulers for the Persians Sassanids.
    323
    Far East:
    Foundation of a proto-Mongolic khanate in the Hangaj region of Mongolia
    324
    Roman Empire:
    Constantine reunifies the Roman Empire after the battles of Adrianople and Chrysopolis, in which he defeats, captures and kills Licinius; he then proceeds to transfer the Imperial capital at Byzantium
    325
    Roman Empire:
    The Council of Nicaea, strongly influenced by the emperor Constantine himself (not still a Christian, technically!) builds the foundations of Catholic christianity, condemns Arianism and imposes the celebration of the Easter on Sunday
    327
    Roman Empire, Middle East:
    Helena, mother of the Roman emperor Constantine, begins the practice of pilmigrages to Jerusalem; she is rumoured to have found the True Cross
    330
    Roman Empire:
    Byzantium is officially rechristened as Constantinople and confirmed as the capital of the Roman Empire. Constantine enacts a law that binds peasants to the land they work, heralding their reduction to serfs. In Rome, Christmas is celebrated for the first time on the 25th of December (former feast of Mithra and Sol Invictus).
    East Africa:
    Frumentius, a Syrian, becomes the first Christian bishop of Axum (Ethiopia)
    ca. 330
    British Isles:
    An early local kingdom emeges in central southern Ireland, Oriel.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Goths divide themselves between Visigoths (Western Goths) abnd Ostrogoths (Eastern Goths). The Ostrogoths wrest Germonassa (opposite Bosporon/Kerč on the other side of the strait) from the kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosphorus.
    Arabia:
    The Christian Arab tribesmen of the Bani Tanukh migrate from southern Arabia towards the boundaries of the Roman Empire, where they settle as allies of Constantinople.
    India:
    The powerful Vakataka empire of central India is divided among the sons of Maharaja Pravarasena, who brought it to its apogee
    332
    Roman Empire:
    Constantine repels a Gothic invasion of the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans)
    337
    Roman Empire:
    Constantine accepts baptism before dying (“Let’s hope not to make a mistake...”); the Roman Empire is carved amongst his three sons Constantine II (West), Constantius (East) and Constans (Illyricum, Africa, Italy). In Constantinople Constantius has his cousins Julius Constantius, Dalmatius and Hannibalianus killed to ensure his absolute rule.
    Caucasus:
    The Georgians convert to Christianity. Shapur II the Great of Persia begins a new war against Rome.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A vanguard of the Huns reach the Volga-Don region pushing ahed Sarmatians and Goths; the latter sack and destroy Olbia (near modern Odessa)
    338
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Romans, under Gothic pressure, evacuate their modest forces in Taurida (*OTL Crimea)
    339
    Middle East, Central Asia:
    Christians, Jews and Manichaeans suffer persecution at the hands of Sassanian Persia
    340
    Roman Empire:
    The Western Roman emperor Constantine II attacks his brother Constans, but he falls in a trap and is killed in Aquileia.
    India:
    The Red Huns/Chionites invade the Indus valley overwhelming the local Kushana states (Kushanshahs)
    ca. 340
    North Africa:
    After a schism inside the African Donatists the paleo-communist movement of the Circoncellions is born; they soon prove to be harsh enemies of the rich and of the power-subservient Church.
    Far East:
    The Sino-barbaric kingdom of Qian Qin forms in northwestern China
    344
    Far East:
    The Xiongnu/Huns unify northern China under the Han/Zhou Hunnic dynasty
    345
    India:
    The Kadamba dynasty emerges on the western coast of India (in the region of Goa) with Mayurasarma/Mayuravarma, succeding the local Chutus, a branch of the Andhras
    346
    Far East:
    The Korean kingdom of Puyo falls at the hands of his rival Paekche
    347
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Arian bishop Wulfila translates the Bible in the Gothic language
    Far East:
    The eastern Jins of Nanking reconquer Sichuan. Manchuria hosts the foundation of the Xianbi kingdom of the earlier Yen.
    349-361
    Roman Empire:
    Emperor Constantius patronizes Arianism
    350
    Roman Empire:
    The Goth Magnus Magnentius usurps the Western throne in the Roman Empire, forcing the beleaguered Constans to suicide, then eliminates the rival Julius Nepotianus (a relative of Constantine the Great) in Rome
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    The invading Red Huns/Chionites from Central Asia force Shapur II of Persia to come to terms with Rome.
    ca. 350
    Roman Empire:
    Taking advantage of the political chaos in the Roman West, Ripuarian Franks and Alamanni invade Gaul again and again. The Sarmatians renew their invasions of Pannonia and Illyricum but they are defeated by the Roman emperor Constantius, who recruits them in great numbers in the imperial army. The Samaritan High Priest Baba Rabba gains wide autonomy for Samaria in the Roman Empire.
    India:
    Pushya Varman founds the Varman dynasty in Kamarupa (Assam); Samudragupta extends the Gupta Empire towards the Deccan. The Western Ganga dynasty emerges in Mysore
    Central Asia:
    The Kushanshas of Afghanistan and the Sogdians of Bokhara, frightened by Hunnic invasions, recognize Persian suzerainty
    East Africa:
    The Ethiopian Axumite empire vassalizes the Gojjam region in western Ethiopia and conquers the millenary kingdom of Meroe (northern Nubia/Sudan); the latter’s unseated dynasty takes refuge southwest in the Darfur region.
    ca. 350-450
    Far East, SE Asia:
    The Chinese slowly but surely retake from the Chams their southernmost lands plus Vietnam (Tonkin) and Annam
    351
    Roman Empire:
    Constantius defeats Magnentius in the great and bloody battle of Mursa/Osijek (52,000 casualties)
    Far East:
    The rebel Tibetan general Fu Jin conquers part of northern and northwestern China and sacks Chang’An/Xian (the ancient capital), then he’s defeated and killed by the Xiongnu/Hun general Wu Er-han, founder of the Xin dynasty in northern China.
    352
    Roman Empire:
    Taking advantage again of Roman inner troubles, Ripuarian Franks and Alamanni leak through the Roman limes into the region between the Rhine and the Moselle river
    353
    Roman Empire:
    Magnentius commits suicide in Lyon and Constantius remains sole ruler of the Roman Empire
    354
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    First mention of “Bulgars” amongst the Hunnish peoples of Tanais/Don and Kuban regions
    355
    Roman Empire:
    The Roman emperor Constantius enacts harsh laws against sorcery and astrology. Abortive usurpation by a Silvanus in Gaul; Constantius sends there his second cousin Julian (whose fathere he killed on his accession to the throne)
    357
    Roman Empire:
    The Caesar of Gaul Julian gains a crushing victory over the Alamanni at the battle of Argentorate (Strasbourg).
    Central Asia:
    Shapur II of Persia defeats and vassalizes the Red Huns/Chionites
    359
    Middle East Roman Empire:
    New Persian attack on the Roman Empire: the Roman border fortress at Amida (*OTL Diyarbakir) is starved into submission and razed
    360
    Roman Empire:
    Julian, once fully reestablished the Rhine “limes”, is hailed as emperor by his legions in Gaul.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Balamber’s western Huns attack and defeat the Alans north of the Caucasus; part of the Alan stock flees to the Caucasian range, part in the Ukraine where they divide into groups moving westwards
    361
    Roman Empire:
    When Constantius dies before confronting him, Julian restores State paganism
    362
    Roman Empire:
    Julian interdicts Christians from teaching classical authors and philosophy
    363
    Roman Empire, Middle East:
    Julian, last pagan emperor of Rome, dies fighting the Persians in Assyria after winning them again and again on the battlefield and being eventually forced to retreat due to Persian “scorched earth” strategy
    364
    Roman Empire:
    The new Roman emperor, Jovian, a Christian elected by the army, accepts a shameful peace favorable to the Persians, then dies by excessive banqueting. Then the two brothers Valentinian and Valens, chosen by the army, again divide the Roman Empire amongst themeselves: the former gets the West, the second the East
    365
    Caucasus:
    The Persians of the Sassanian Shah-in-Shah Shapur II the Great invade and ravage Armenia in support to the local Zoroastrian faction
    365-366
    Roman Empire:
    Failed rebellion led by Procopius, a relative of Julian, in the Roman east
    366-370
    Roman Empire:
    The quarrel between Ursinus and Damasus for the Bishopric of Rome provokes a massacre in the Urbs Aeterna and divides the Church for some years
    367
    British Isles:
    Saxons, Picts and Scots (Irish) attack Britannia at the same time but are repelled
    368
    Roman Empire:
    The Western Roman emperor Valentinian I defeats the Alamanni along the Rhine
    370
    Roman Empire:
    “Witch hunt” in Antioch and Rome: hundreds of people (even senators) are tortured and killed on charges of alleged sorcery.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Balamber’s Huns migrate to Ukraine, where they defeat and kill the aged Ostrogothic king Hermanaricus; Ostrogoths and Alans alike run away in awe and begin to fight each other for supremacy over Dacia.
    Far East:
    The Sino-barbaric Qian Qin kingdom conquers Manchuria from the Xianbi dynasty of the earlier Yens, imposing itself as the dominant power in the region
    371-376
    Middle East:
    New, futile war between Rome and Persia, with no victors
    372
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Huns subdue the Alans of the Tanais/Don region
    372-375
    North Africa:
    Revolt by Firmus, son a Berber landlord, in Numidia, repressed by the Roman general Theodosius
    374
    Roman Empire:
    Aurelius Ambrosius, a State officer, lay and not even baptized, is hailed as Bishop of Milan by the populace against his very will.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    In their desperate flee from the Huns, the Ostrogoths crush the Anti on the Dnieper
    375
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Balamber’s Huns, jointly with the Alans, rout the Ostrogoths of king Vitimir/Vinitharius (fallen on the battlefield) in the battle of the Erac/Tiligul river (Ukraine), pushing them beyond the Dnieper; then they proceed to vassalize the Cimmerian Bosphorus kingdom. Ostrogoths and Alans, now both under Hunnic suzerainty, occupy Dacia, pushing in turn the Visigoths on the Danube “limes”
    376
    Roman Empire:
    Young Gratian, Valentinian’s heir in the Western Roman empire, relinquishes the tradional pagan title of “pontifex maximus”.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Huns occupy eastern Moldavia/Bessarabia; the Roman Empire admits the fleeing Visigoths in Moesia
    378
    Roman Empire:
    The angered and ill-treated Visigoths, together with Ostrogoth, Hun and Alan forces, defeat and kill the eastern Roman emperor Valens at Adrianople and fiercely sack the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). The Alamanni invade Alsace, Helvetia and the Alpine regions.
    Caucasus:
    The Persians of the aged Shapur II the Great make Armenia a vassal and confirm Sassanian supremacy over Iberia/Georgia.
    Arabia:
    The Yemenite kingdom of Himyar frees itself from the Axumite yoke under Malik-Karib Yuhamin
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The kingdom of Teotihuacàn (Mexico) impose its suzerainty over the Maya city-State Mutul/Tikal.
    379
    British Isles:
    Niall Noìgillach of the Nine Hostages, king of Connacht and a member of the O’Neill clan (which will be known as such only from the 10th century onwards), becomes High King of Ireland at Tara; the High Kingship is a general overlordship, more often than not unrecognized by many local rulers
    380
    Roman Empire:
    The new eastern Roman emperor Theodosius (a Spaniard) “admits” (=recognizes) the Visigoths into the Roman Empire as “foederati” (=allies).
    Arabia:
    The Arab kingdom of Hirah conquers the island kingdom of Tylos/Bahrain and annexes the former kingdom of Characene between lower Iraq and Kuwait
    ca. 380
    Central-Eastern Europe, Caucasus:
    The Huns, now led by Alypbi, impose their yoke over northern Caucasus.
    Arabia:
    The Saracene kingdom of the Salihids, ally of Rome, forms amongst the northern Arab tribes
    380-381
    Roman Empire:
    With the Edict of Thessalonica and the Council of Constantinople the eastern Roman emperor Theodosius enforces Catholic (Nicene) Christianity as the sole State religion, persecuting pagans and heretics
    380-395
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The western branch of the Alans, subservient to the Huns, becomes the paramount power in Dacia
    382
    Roman Empire:
    The Western Roman emperor Gratian has the altar of Victory removed from the Senate in Rome. British Isles:
    The Celto-Roman Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig reestablishes the kingdom of Strathclyde between Roman Britannia and Caledonia and resettles Irish and Pictish clans in western Wales (Cambria), then is hailed as emperor by the legions in Britannia, Germany and Belgium.
    India:
    The Gupta Empire vassalizes the kingdom of Malwa
    383
    Far East:
    The eastern Jin of Nanking defeat the Xin in the battle of river Fei in the Anhui, but, wracked by inner struggles, can’t exploit their victory; the Xin empero Wu Er-han crushes his own nephews’ rebellion in the northern provinces.
    Roman Empire:
    Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig usurps the Roman throne in Gaul and Britain; the Western emperor Gratian is slain in Lyon.
    Central-Eastern Europe: The Visigothic king Athanaricus, fierce persecutor of Christians, abandons Dacia after vain attempts to resist Huns and Alans and dies (allegedly by poisoning) in Constantinople
    384
    Roman Empire:
    Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig is acknowledged as emperor in Britannia, Gaul, Spain and Roman Africa, the legitimate Valentinian II in Italy and Illyricum. Syricius succeeds to Damasus as Bishop of Rome, and for the first time he assumes the title of “Papa” (Pope). Caucasus:
    Armenia is divided in two kingdoms under close Roman and Persian protectorate: West (Roman, with Gordiene too), and east (Persian). This settlement has been achieved thanks to diplomatic efforts of the Vandal Stilicho, loyal to Theodosius.
    Far East:
    Buddhism is introduced in Korea and officially adopted by the Paekche kingdom
    386
    Far East:
    Upon Wu Er-han’s death a civil war of succession explodes in the Xin empire; northern China is quickly conquered by the Toba/Tabgach Xianbi, former mercenaries in the Xin army, who establish the northern Wei dynasty under Toba Gui/Dao Wu Di
    387
    Roman Empire:
    Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig invades and occupies Italy with his British legions
    388
    Roman Empire:
    Theodosius win the battle at Poetovio/Ptuj against Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig, then pursues, captures and eliminates the usurper at Aquileia; Magnus’ young son Flavius Victor is slain in Trier by Theodosius’ Frankish general Arbogast. Theodosius then proceeds to reinstall Valentinian II in Milan and enacts repressive laws against Jews. The Celts of Britannia who supported the usurper settle on the continent in Armorica/Brittany (the so-called “first migration”) under the sons of Conan Meriadoc of Dumnonia (Devon), who establish the local kingdoms of Domnonée, Cornouaille amd Bro Erech (though generally recognizing a High King in the Meriadoc family)
    British Isles:
    Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig’s many sons found several reigns amongst the Britanni: Anthony Donatus Gregory/Anwn Dynod ap Macsen becomes the de facto ruler of southern Wales/Cambria
    390
    Roman Empire:
    Massacre of Tessalonica (7,000 slain) perpetrated by Theodosius’ Gothic troops to avenge the assassination thir commander Buterichus lynched by the mob for arresting a very popular auriga (horse chariot driver); Theodosius is forced to make public penintence in Milan by Bishop Ambrosius.
    Caucasus:
    The kingdom of Western Armenia is directly annexed to the Roman Empire upon the death of king Arsaces IV
    India:
    Chandragupta II annexes Gujarat to the Gupta Empire, who also gets de facto suzerainty over the Vakataka empire of Maharashtra through dynastical ties.
    ca. 390
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Following the death of their supreme ruler Alypbi the western Huns swarm back to the Pontic steppes, where they divide into an eastern horde under Uldin and a western one under Mundzuk/Aybat.
    Central Asia:
    The Alchon Huns defeat the Red Huns/Chionites chasing them from Bactria towards Gandhara (between eatern Afghanistan and the Indus valley)
    392
    Roman Empire:
    The Western Roman emperor Valentinian II dies in Vienne (Gaul), allegedly assassinated. The magister militum per Occidentem, the Frank Arbogast, has the pagan Eugenius chosen as emperor
    392-394
    Roman Empire:
    Last pagan reaction in the Roman West under Arbogast and Eugenius
    394
    Roman Empire:
    Theodosius reunifies the Roman Empire for the last time by defeating and killing Arbogast and Eugenius at the Frigidus/Vipacco river, near Aquileia, thanks to a frightening “bora” blizzard, then banishes the millenary Olympic Games as “sinful”.
    Far East:
    The Ruanruan, forerunners of the Avars, gain a limited supremacy over eastern Turkestan
    395
    Roman Empire:
    Theodosius dies in Milan, dividing anew the Roman Empire between his two sons: Honorius gets the West, Arcadius the East. The dividing line between the Adriatic Sea and Sirmium becomes the millenary boundary between the Romanized West and the Romaic (Byzantine) East.
    Caucasus:
    The Huns sack the Caucasus region up to Syria. The kingdom of Iberia/Georgia annexes Lazica (northwestern Georgia), menaced by Huns and Alans.
    India:
    The Gupta Empire directly annexes the kingdom of Malwa
    Far East:
    The northern Wei, Toba/Tabgach barbarians, crush the Sino-barbaric kingdom of Qin Qian, who formerly held sway over Manchuria and northwestern China.
    396-397
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Visigoths devastate Greece but are eventually expelled by the Roman-Vandal general Stilicho
    397
    Roman Empire:
    St. Ambrosius dies in Milan.
    North Africa:
    In Roman Africa the Berber prince Gildon, brother of the former insurgent Firmus, asks to pass under the sovereignity of the Eastern Roman Empire and quits the grain transports to Rome; the revolt indicates the strength of African drive for autonomy following the Donatist schism
    398
    North Africa:
    Mascizel, Gildon’s brother and arch-enemy, reestablishes the Western Empire’s authority over Roman Africa.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The eunuch Eutropius and the Goth Gaina keep the Huns at bay along the Danube

    399-401
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Visigoths newly invade Greece, but Stilicho once again beats them. The revolt led by the Goth Tribigildus in Galatia and Bithynia (Asia Minor) provokes an antibarbaric reaction at Constantinople, where Gaina’s Gothic mercenaries are massacred or expelled from the city. Gaina is later defeated and killed on the Danube by the Huns
    5th century
    Southern Europe:
    In the central eastern Alps a Rhaeto-Romano-Germanic koiné takes shape, which in the centuries will form the Ladinian nation
    ca. 400
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Eastern Roman Empire retakes Amida (*OTL Diyarbakir) from Persian hands.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A Swabian horde fleeing the internecine tribal struggles of Germany occupies Moravia; the Vandals, pushed by the Huns, abandon Slovakia migrating westwards Arabia:
    The Saracene Salihids crush the Christian Tanukh kingdom between Jordania and northern Arabia
    East Africa:
    The Bantus, coming from the area between Congo and Camerun, invade eastern Africa from Kenya to Beira (*OTL southern Mozambico), briging there their iron-working technology.
    Black Africa:
    The Soninke people found the Ghana Empire with capital in Kumbi, Mali (western Africa).
    India:
    The Gupta Empire unifies northern central India and terminates the last Saka kingdoms in western India.
    SE Asia:
    Apogee of the powerful Funan Empire, helding sway over Indochina from the Menam river in the west to the boundaries of Annam in the east.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Teotihuacàn rules over the Mayans in the Chiapas region.
    402
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Visigoths under Alaric invade northern Italy, taking advantage of an imperial campaign against the Vandals and the western Alans across the Alps, but are defeated by general Stilicho at Pollenza (Piedmont); Stilicho arranges an alliance with the western Alans and the Huns to contain the Goths. The Emperor of the West, Honorius, moves his capital from Milan to Ravenna
    403
    Western Roman Empire:
    A new important victory of Stilicho against the Visigoths at Verona
    404
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Roman Emperor of the West, Honorius, abolishes the gladiatorial games when a monk, Telemachus, is killed while trying to stop the bloody “entertainment show”
    404-406
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Huns under Uldin, migrating once again on horseback through the Carpathians, impose their rule over an immense area between the middle Danube and the Black Sea.
    405-406
    Western Roman Empire:
    The huge barbarian horde guided by the pagan Ostrogoth Radagaisus, composed of varied Germanic and Sarmatian groups in flight from the Huns, invades Noricum and northern Italy from Pannonia and Moravia, but ends up destroyed by the imperial forces of Stilicho and the Huns under Uldin at Fiesole near Florence.
    406-407
    British Isles:
    Marcus’ and Gratianus’ revolts in Roman Britannia
    407
    Western Roman Empire:
    Large barbarian invasion of Roman Gaul: Swabians, Vandals, Burgundians and a portion of the western Alans (many are stillin Dacia) cross the frozen Rhine.
    British Isles:
    Constantine, ruler of Armorica (Brittany), usurps power over Britannia; the Roman troops abandon the island and the "limes" on the Rhine.
    Central Asia:
    The White Huns, or Hephtalites, acquire a huge part of Central Asia and begin to terrorize Persia and India with their raids.
    408
    British Isles:
    Britannia thwarts the Saxon raids.
    Western Roman Empire:
    Upon the death of his brother Arcadius at Constantinopole, the Roman Emperor of the West Honorius assassinates Stilicho; revolt and massacre of the barbarian
    mercenaries at Papia/Ticinum. Thousands of Goths desert the imperial army
    defecting to Alaric, who invades Italy once again and besieges Rome,
    exacting a rich ransom.
    409
    Western Roman Empire:
    Vandals, western Alans and Svevi establish themselves in Spain and Lusitania/Portugal; Spain, after acknowledging Constantine as emperor, rebels against him too under Gerontius and Maximus. Alaric continues his siege of Rome, because Honorius in Ravenna refuses to grant lands in Noricum, and subsequently (with the agreement of the Roman Senate) names a puppet anti-emperor, Attalus.
    410
    Western Roman Empire:
    Alaric attempts a siege of Ravenna, then as a gesture of good will repudiates Attalus, but is attacked by treason by Honorius’ troopes and unleashes his Visigoths in the Sack of Rome, an event which shakes the entire Roman world; he subsequently marches towards the south, taking hostage Galla Placidia, Honorius’ sister, and dies in Calabria.
    British Isles:
    Official independence of the Brythonic kingdom of Dumnonia, forerunner of Celtic Cornwall; official abandonment of Britannia by the Romans, and formation of the "Celtic" and "Roman" factions on the island. Coel Hen, ruler of northern Britannia, is the High King of Britain. Eugenius, a son of Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig, establishes the kingdom of Glywysing in southern Wales.
    Far East:
    The Ruanruan establish themselves as a hegemonical power among the Xianbi (proto-Mongolians).
    ca. 410
    Central Asia:
    The White Huns/Hephtalites destroy the residual power of the Kushanshah in Afghanistan, making Chorasmia and the western Sogdians of Bokhara vassals and conquering Alexandria of Aracosia/Qandahar and Kabul, and begin devastating raids in northern India.
    British Isles:
    After the Romans' abandonment of Britannia, the tribe of the Votadini, divided in a northern branch and a southern one, becomes enforces its ascendancy between Yorkshire and the Firth of Forth; the Irish begin constant raiding of Britain, especially targeting Cambria/Wales.
    411
    Western Roman Empire:
    The usurper Constantine is captured in battle at Arles by the Roman general Flavius Constantius, and put to death by the Emperor of the West, Honorius; also the rebellion of Gerontius and Maximus in Spain quickly collapses. Ataulf, brother-in-law and successor of Alaric, crosses Italy from the south to the north; passing passing through Liguria, they pillage Lunae/Luni and Albingaunum/Albenga. The Burgundians found a kingdom between the Rhine and the Rhone, straddling Gaul and Helvetia, with its
    capital at Geneva.
    North Africa:
    After almost a century the Donatist schism of the Christian churches of Roman Africa is settled at Carthage, partly through the eloquence of St.Augustine of Hippo in denouncing the "heresy" and promoting its extirpation (paradoxically St. Augustine will become more and more a symbol of North Africanism in the following centuries).
    411-415
    Western Roman Empire:
    In Gaul, after the collapse of Constantine’s usurpation, other pretenders spring up (the last is the Visigoth-backed Priscus Attalus, the former puppet emperor they backed in 409); all are liquidated either by Flavius Constantius or by marauding barbarians
    412
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Visigoths enter Gaul from Italy, settling west of the lower Rhone.
    British Isles:
    In Britannia, Pelagius spreads the Pelagian Heresy (no original sin, complete free will).
    414
    Western Europe:
    Galla Placidia marries Ataulf, becoming the (not so enthusiast) Queen of the Visigoths. The Roman general Flavius Constantius expels the Visigoths from
    Narbona, forcing them to move themselves to Catalonia (which takes its name from them) and captures their puppet emperor Attalus.
    415
    Western Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Assassination of Ataulfus and of his murderer Sigeric; Wallia is placed on the Visigothic throne. The emperors of Rome and Byzantium, Honorius and Theodosius II, abolish the office of Naśi (prince) of the Sanhedrin, until then hereditary within the Israelite clan Hillel, as the last claim of authority over the Jews, who are by now dispersed to the four winds.
    416
    Western Roman Empire:
    Galla Placidia is ransomed by Flavius Constantius in exchange for
    about 5000 tons of wheat.
    418
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Roman Emperor of the West, Honorius, grants Aquitaine to the Visigoths.
    419
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Vandals occupy Hispania Betica (from this point the region will be known
    as Vandalusia). The Visigoths, now under Theodoric I, choose Toulouse as their capital; their domains extend across the Pyrenees from southern Gaul to northern and eastern Spain
    420
    Far East:
    The Liu-Song succeed the eastern Jin at Nanking.
    ca. 420
    British Isles: Coel Hen, ruler of northern Britannia, High King of Britain and likely the last Roman Dux Britanniarum, dies; his domains are divided by his heirs in petty kingdoms, among whom are Bryneich (Bamburgh)
    Northern Europe:
    The Germanic tribe of the Sicambri, located in the Ruhr valley, intermingle with the Salian Franks
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Rugila’s western Huns migrate in turn in Dacia and Pannonia, establishing themselves between the Carpathians and the Danube; de facto reunification of western and eastern Huns. The Rugians occupy Bohemia and establish their rule as far as the Alps.
    Far East:
    Mongolian tribes (Xianbi) migrate to Tibet, where for two centuries representatives maintain power under the title of Tsenpo.
    421
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Visigoths and the Roman army fail an initial attempt to dislodge the Vandals from the Betica/Andalusia. Flavius Constantius is named coemperor of the West by Honorius, but dies almost immediately.
    British Isles:
    The Irish clan Dal Deisi, settled in Pembrokeshire from the times of Magnus Maximus/Macsen Wledig, establishes there the kingdom of Demetia.
    421-422
    Byzantine Empire:
    Short war between Persia and Rome predicated upon the persecution of the Christians in Persia; the Roman Empire of the East secures the right of asylum for the Eastern Christians
    423-425
    Western Roman Empire:
    Usurpation of John in Italy upon the death of Honorius, put
    down by the forces of the Eastern emperor Theodosius II; Valentinian III, young son of Galla Placidia and Flavius Constantius, ascends the Roman Western throne in Ravenna.
    424-425
    Far East:
    The Ruanruan invade northern China but are thwarted in the Gobi desert
    425
    India:
    The Chalukyas emerge as the dominant dynasty in the Karnataka (SE
    India).
    SE Asia:
    Introduction of Buddhism to western Indonesia
    ca. 425
    British Isles:
    Cunedda Wledig and his retinue move south from Gododdin (the Votadini kingdom) to Venedotia/Gwynedd (northern Wales) in order to expel the invading Irish; the kingdom of Gwent is founded in SW Wales by his relative Erb
    426
    Western Roman Empire:
    The king of the Alans of Spain, Attaces, is defeated and killed by the Visigoths; his people intermingles with the Vandals
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Yax K'uk' Mo founds the royal dynasty of the Mayan town of Xukpi/Copàn.
    428
    North Africa:
    Pressed by the Visigoths, the Vandals migrate to northern Africa at the invitation of General Bonifacius, who is rebelling against the Western Roman Empire.
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Salian Franks invade northern Gaul from Belgium, but are stopped by the Roman general Aetius, fresh from his victories against the Visigoths at Arles. Aetius then "federates" the Franks within the empire; their new king is Merovech, founder of the Merovingian dynasty.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople, spreads the Nestorian heresy, that has much success in Syria, where it is officially adopted by the local Church, and in Persia as well.
    Central Asia, Caucasus:
    The Persian emperor Bahram V severely defeats the White Huns and, at the request of the local Nakharars (lords), annexes eastern Armenia and the Gordiene (central Kurdistan) putting an end to the rule of the age-old Arsacid dynasty.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Mayan city-state of Mutul/Tikal frees itself from its servitude to Teotihuacàn.
    429
    British Isles:
    St. German, bishop of Auxerre, and a former soldier, is dispatched to Britain by Pope Celestine I to fight both the Pelagian heresy and the marauding Scots and Picts, duties that he succesfully accomplishes.
    429-431
    North Africa:
    The Vandals defeat their former ally Bonifacius (now pleading for forgiveness and help from Ravenna) and besiege him for one year at Hippo/Bona (during which siege St. Augustine dies). In the end, the Vandals raise the siege and Bonifacius flees to Ravenna, obtaining the forgiveness of empress mother Galla Placidia.
    ca. 430
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Huns impose their supremacy upon the Germanic tribes from the Taurida (*OTL Crimea) as far as the Rhine.
    North Africa:
    The Vandal invasion of North Africa opens the road for a large part of the Berbers to return to self-government in the Atlas Mountains; in Mauretania a weak Roman-Berber kingdom is formed with its capital at Volubilis/Ulili, while another state is formed around the town of Constantina
    430-432
    Byzantine Empire:
    Civil war between the generals in the Eastern Roman Empire: the Byzantine "magister militum" of Asia, Nicholas, rises up against his colleague and superior, the Goth Ataulf, defeating him on the Halys (Anatolia) and in the subsequent battles of the Dunes, of Syria and of the Long Orchard.
    431
    Byzantine Empire:
    Nestorian schism after the Council of Ephesus, which condemns the doctrines of Nestorius. Nestorianism becomes spread throughout the East, from Syria along the Silk Road as far as China.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Founding of the classical Mayan kingdom of B'aakal, with its capital at Palenque (Chiapas, *OTL Mexico), perhaps the work of a dynasty of Olmec origin.
    432
    Western Roman Empire:
    Galla Placidia pits Bonifacio against Aetius, who, defeated at first, returns to Pannonia gaining help from king Rugila’s Huns and afterwards eliminates his rival.
    India:
    The Pandyas of southern Deccan conquer the kingdom of Sri Lanka/Ceylon.
    434
    Central-Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Attila (west of the Don) and his brother Bleda (east of the same river) become kings of the Huns. Short conflict between the Huns and the Eastern Roman Empire of the East, which is forced to increase the tributes paid to the barbarians.
    434-440
    British Isles:
    St. Patrick is kidnapped by Irish pirates, then manages to break free and come back to Britain. In later years he’ll christianize Ireland from his see in Armagh (Ulster), making it a most important center of diffusion for monasticism and the Christian religion.
    435
    North Africa:
    The Western Roman Empire formally recognizes the Vandals' possession of a large portion of former Roman Africa.
    Western Roman Empire:
    Tibatto leads a great Bagaudae rebellion in NW Gaul
    436-437
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Roman general Aetius defeats the Visigoths, the Burgundians (who are beaten by the Huns, Aetius' allies, and forced to migrate to the region which becomes known as Savoy, from the Burgundian tribe of the Sapaudi) and the ever-rebellious Bagaudae peasants in Gaul.
    437
    British Isles:
    Ambrosius Aurelianus, leader of the “Roman” faction in Britain, is defeated at Wallop by Vitalinus, a relative of High King Vortigern
    438
    Caucasus:
    The Persians establish the stronghold of Derbent (between Daghestan and Azerbaijan) and build the blockade of the Caspian Gates between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus to contain the Hunnic raids.
    439
    North Africa:
    Carthage falls to the Genseric’s Arian Vandals, who impose a harsh racist rule and immediately begin to fiercely persecute the Nicene Catholics.
    Far East:
    Ashina founds the reigning dynasty of the Tu-jüe (Turks) in Mongolia, coming into conflict with the Ruanruan and wrenching their supremacy over eastern Turkestan from them.
    ca. 440
    British Isles:
    Angles, Saxons and Jutes, called by High King Vortigern as mercenaries, begin to settle in Britain, at first in Lincolnshire and nera the mouth of the Thames. Irish raiders conquer Powys (central-eastern Wales)
    441
    Byzantine Empire:
    Attila razes Singidunum (the future Belgrade) to the ground.
    441-447
    Byzantine Empire:
    Attila devastates the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) with his Huns and massacres their population.
    442
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Vandals conquer Sicily and Sardinia.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Destruction of Naissos and massacre of its inhabitants at the hands of Attila.
    Caucasus:
    Eastern Armenia reacquires a weak autonomy from Persia under Vasak Siuna.
    443
    British Isles:
    In SW Britain Dumnonia is plit in two parts; the western lands form the kingdom of Cornwall
    444
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Alexandrine abbot Eutiches spreads the Monophysite heresy in Constantinople.
    445
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    After murdering his brother Bleda, Attila becomes sole Khan of the Huns: his empire extends from the Rhine to the Caucasus.
    Ca. 445-450
    British Isles:
    General fragmentation of the Celtic kingdoms of Britain, devastated by a civil war between “Roman” and “Pelagian” (or nativist) factions; escaping Votadinian overlordship, Strathclyde reestablishes independence under king Ceredig.
    446
    Byzantine Empire:
    Attila defeats the Eastern Roman army at Marcianopolis and devastates Thrace.
    Caucasus:
    Vakhtang I Gorgasali (the Wolf's Head) founds in Iberia/Georgia the local dynasty of the Bagratids, succeeding the Khusrawids.
    447
    British Isles:
    St. German, in his second trip to Britain, leads the Britons to a great victory against Picts and Irish; the latter are expelled from Powys (eastern Wales)
    449
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Second Council of Ephesus imposes Monophysitism in the Eastern Roman empire. Honoria, daughter of Galla Placidia, exiled to Constantinople for having conspired against her brother Valentinian III, in a secret letter asks Attila to marry her.
    450
    Byzantine Empire:
    Upon the death of Theodosius II at Constantinople, his sister Pulcheria, instead of offering the crown to Valentinian III to reunify the empire, marries the Thracian general Marcian who ascends to the throne.
    Far East:
    Foundation of the kingdom of Kara-Khodjo/Kao Ch'ang at Turfan (Eastern Turkestan), which replaces the ancient kingdom of Chü-Sh'ih
    ca. 450
    British Isles:
    Hengest and Horsa establish the first germanic kingdom of Britain in the Cantium (Kent); other Germanic settlements in the north, at the behest of High King Vortigern, stop Pictish encroachments. The kingdom of Rheged/Brigantia is born, ruled by Gwrast Ledlwm, a grandson of Coel Hen. In northern Wales Cunedda Wledig establishes the kingdom of Venedotia/Gwynedd. In Ireland the Connacht army takes the the Ulster capital, Emain Macha; Ulster is weakened, seeing the secession of Aileach/Tyrone and Tyrconnel ads independent realms. This marks he end of the Celtic “heroic age” of Ireland, where the traditional “five fifths” division of the country (Munster, Leinster, Ulaidh/Ulster, Connacht and Meath) more or less persists, but the DalRiada Scots of Ulster are now put under increasing pressure.
    North Africa:
    The Arian Vandals, cruelly ruling former Roman Africa, gain Tripolitania (Libya) and exterminate the Circumcelliones.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Amida/Diyarbakir (Kurdistan) falls under Persian rule again.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    In the lower Volga area, the Sabir Huns subjugate the Onogurs (the Ten Arrows, from ten tribe components).
    India:
    The White Huns/Heptalites raze Taxila (Gandhara, *OTL Pakistan), which will never be rebuilt
    451
    Byzantine Empire:
    Monophysite schism after the council of Chalcedon, which restores orthodox (Nicene) Catholicism as state religion in Constantinople.
    Caucasus, Middle East, North Africa, East Africa:
    Monophysitism is adopted from Armenia to Egypt and Axumite Ethiopia (which however continues to have a strong Jewish bent).
    Caucasus:
    The Persians invade eastern Armenia and try to force conversion Mazdeism on its people, but, although victorious against Vasak Siuna in the battle of Avarair, do not succeed in eradicating Christianity from Armenia.
    Western Roman Empire:
    Demanding the hand of Honoria (and half of the Western Roman empire) Attila unleashes his hordes in the terrible Hunno-Germanic invasion of Gaul, but is stopped at the huge battle of the Catalaunian Fields by Aetius with an army of Romans, Burgundians, Salian Franks, Visigoths and Britons; Theodoric I, son of Alaric I and King of the Visigoths, dies in the battle
    452
    Western Roman Empire:
    Attila invades Italy from Carniola/Slovenia razing to ground Celeia/Celje, Emona/Lubiana, Aquileia and Altinum, and further sacks and sets fire to Vicenza, Brescia, Bergamo, Milan and Papia/Ticinum. He is stopped willy-nilly on the Mincio river by Pope Leo the Great and returns in Pannonia, also because his army is undermined by an epidemic. The populations of the Veneto flee to the coastal lagoons, establishing the foundations for the future power of Venice.
    Caucasus:
    Armenia adheres to Monophysitism, repudiating the Council of Chalcedon, and establishes its own Patriarchate at Dvin.
    453
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Unexpected sudden death of Attila in Pannonia.
    Caucasus:
    The Caucasian kingdom of Sarir (Daghestan) falls under the supremacy of the Alans of Caucasus; Lazica (NE Georgia) is liberated from Iberian/Georgian domination.
    454
    Western Roman Empire:
    Assassination of Aetius by Valentinian III the Western Roman emperor.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Arderic’s Gepids rebel against the Huns, weakened by succession struggles, eliminate Ellac, son of Attila, at the battle of Nedao and create a strong kingdom between the Tisza river and Transylvania. The Huns withdraw to Moldavia under Ernac, another son of Attila
    455
    Western Roman Empire:
    Assassination of Valentinian III near Rome at the hands of soldiers infuriated by the murder of Aetius; this marks the end of the Theodosian dynasty. Genseric’s Vandals plunder Rome (Pope Leo the Great obtains a pledge to respect the sacred places and not take part in any massacres and fires from Genseric; the new emperor Maximus Petronius is lynched by the crowd) and conquer Corsica.
    British Isles:
    Prince Vortimer, son of the High King of Britain Vortigern, rebels against Germanic encroachment but is defeated by Hengest at Derguentid/Crayford; this maks the beginning of the long struggle between the Germanic invaders and the Celts of Britain.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Ernac leads his Huns to settle between the Dniepr and Taurida (*OTL Crimea)
    India:
    The Gupta emperor Skandagupta stops the invasion of the White Huns (Hephtalites). The Kadamba kingdom in western India is carved between the two family branches of Triparvata and Banavasi, beginning a slow decline.
    456
    India:
    Skandagupta defeats the Traikutakas of western Maharashtra, fostering their final decline
    456-459
    Western Roman Empire:
    A first wave of Irish and Brythonic Celts (pushed away by the Anglo-Saxon-Jutish invaders) comes ashore in Spain’s nothwestern corner, Galicia/Gallaecia, where they establish a principality after fierce struggles with the local Swabians
    456-472
    Western Roman Empire:
    General Ricimerus, grandson of the former Visigothic king Wallia, takes power, eliminating Avitus, the Western Roman emperor of the West, and rules Italy through puppet emperors.
    457
    Byzantine Empire:
    Leo I is the first Roman Emperor of the East to receive his crown from the hands of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
    458
    British Isles:
    Hengest completes the Jutish conquest of Cantium (Kent)
    459
    British Isles:
    Ambrosius Aurelianus eliminates the much-hated Vortigern at Ganarew and succeeds him as High King of Britain; Vortigern’s descendants will rule over Powys, one the most powerful Briton kingdoms.
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    The White Huns help Firuz ascend to the throne of the Sassanian Empire, defeating the usurper Hormizd.
    India:
    Sri Lanka/Ceylon is liberated from Pandya's domination under Dhatusena, founder of the Singalese Moriya dynasty.
    460
    Far East:
    The Ruanruan/Avars defeat the Tu-jüe (Turks) between Mongolia and Manchuria and reduce them to vassal state.
    ca. 460
    Arabia:
    The prince of Kindah, Hujr Akil al-Murar, obtains from
    his stepbrother Hasan ibn Amr ibn Tubba' of Himyar the title of king and the dominion over the deserts of central Arabia, where the tribe had migrated from the Hadramaut; in the town of Mecca the Quraysh tribe gains ascendancy
    460-471
    Byzantine Empire:
    The powerful Alan Flavius Ardabur Aspar becomes "magister militum" (commander in chief) of the Roman army of the East after having helped emperor Leo I succeed to the throne, and is then assassinated by the antibarbarian faction at court.
    461
    North Africa:
    The imperial forces of the West are defeated by the Vandals in Africa.
    463-487
    Caucasus:
    Direct Persian occupation of Caucasian Albania/Azerbaijan
    464
    Western Europe:
    Syagrius, son of the local commander Egidius, establishes a strong Roman kingdom in northern Gaul between the Maas, the Scheldt and the Sein rivers, while the rest of Gaul lies in the hands of the barbarians
    465
    British Isles:
    Ambrosius Aurelianus narrowly defeats the Saxons at Lapis Tituli/Richborough, confining them in the Isle of Thanet; some years of peace ensue
    ca. 465
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Goths of Taurida (*OTL Crimea) found the kingdom of Taurogothia fighting against the Huns, and take control of the Cimmerian Bosphorus (strait of Kerč)
    467
    North Africa:
    Disastrous failure on the part of the Byzantines, led by the incompetent Basiliscus, in their attempt to wrest Carthage from the Vandals.
    469
    Central Asia:
    The Persian emperor Firuz is captured in battle by the White Huns who obtain a lavish ransom and take his heir Kavadh as hostage.
    Byzantine Empire, Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Huns of Pannonia attack the Eastern Roman Empire, but Khan Dengizich, one of the sons of Attila, dies in battle in Thrace against Aspar’s Byzantines, Alans and Ants. The Huns then withdraw east in the Ukraine and the lower Volga, where they will form the Bulgarian nation; a minority settles in Transylvania, from which originates the community of the Székely, while the remainder is divided in two confederations to the east and the west of the Don
    ca. 470
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Lombards settle in Bohemia.
    Caucasus:
    Foundation of the (Sabir) Hunnic Khanate of Caucasia in the northern Daghestan
    471
    Western Europe:
    The Western Roman emperor, Anthemius, the last competent men of arms to seat on the Roman throne, against the will of Ricimerus attacks the King Euric’s Visigoths in Gaul, but is defeated, and the Breton army of Riothamus summoned by Anthemius is wiped away by Euric’s forces.
    472
    Western Roman Empire:
    Siege and new sack of Rome by troops faithful to Ricimerus, who eliminates Anthemius but dies shortly afterwards.
    473
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric the Great’s Ostrogoths settle in Moesia as allies of the Eastern Roman empire.
    474-475
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Isaurian Zeno Tarasicodissa ascends to the throne of Constantinople, but is shortly chased from it by Basiliscus, in turn crushed and eliminated by Zeno after a few months.
    474-476
    Middle East:
    Ustus raises the flag of rebellion in Palestine: the revolt keeps brewing amongst Jews and Samaritans as well in the following years
    475
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Pannonian Roman Orestes, formerly in the service of Attila, overthrows the Western Roman Emperor, Julius Nepos, enthroning his own son Romulus Augustulus in his place
    ca. 475
    British Isles:
    The Celtic kingdom of Elmet rises in the Pennines by a secession from Rheged/Brigantia
    476
    Western Roman Empire:
    The Western Roman Empire falls to the hand of the Herul Odovacar, who defeats and kills Orestes at Papia/Ticinum and deposes his son Romulus, then formally remits the authority of the Roman West to Constantinople, which names him a "patrician;" but Italy is de facto under the heel of the barbarian confederation headed by Odovacar.
    India:
    Death of Skandagupta and beginning of the decline of the Gupta Empire in India; Bhatraka, a Gupta general, founds an indipendent kingdom in Gujarat at Vallabhi, establishing the Maitraka dynasty.
    Far East:
    Th Korean kindom of Paekche vassalizes Tamna (Cheju-Do island)
    476-480
    Southern Europe:
    The former Emperor of the West Julius Nepos "reigns" in Dalmatia under Byzantine protection, then the region passes under the control of Odovacar.
    477
    British Isles:
    Foundation of the kingdom of Sussex by the Saxons, led by Aella
    479
    Byzantine Empire:
    Marcianus, son-in-law of former emperor Leo I, rebels in Constantinople but is defeated and slain
    Far East:
    The southern Qi replace the Liu-Song on the throne of Nanking.
    ca. 480
    British Isles:
    The Angles, coming from Schleswig-Holstein and Frisia, settle in Britannia near Lindum Colonia (Lincoln), there defeating the Roman-British kingdom of Linnuin and establishing the kingdom of Lindsey; they also occupy Norfolk and Suffolk (East Anglia). King Arthur (son of Uther Pendragon, "Son of the Dragon", and Aurelius Ambrosius’ nephew) becomes High King of Britain and begins to unify the southern Britons against the Anglo-Saxons
    481-483
    Caucasus:
    Christian anti-Persian rebellion in Armenia and Iberia/Georgia guided by Sahak II Bagratuni (who later comes to be defeated), and by Vahan Mamikonian, the prince of Taron.
    481-488
    Byzantine Empire:
    Civil war between the Isaurian strongmen in the Byzantine Empire, won by the emperor Zeno against his rivals Illus and (later, from 484) Leontius, whose strongholds are Asia Minor and Isauria (southern Anatolia)
    482
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The three brothers Kiy, Šček, and Khoriv, of the Slavic tribe of the Polainai, found Kiev on the banks of the Dnieper.
    484
    Byzantine Empire:
    Zeno, the Byzantine emperor, crushes the Samaritan rebellion in Palestine.
    Middle East:
    Bar-Sauma, with the approval of Balash, establishes Nestorianism as the sole belief of the Christian Church of Persia.
    Central Asia, Caucasus:
    The White Huns defeat and kill the Persian emperor Firuz. His brother Balash, succeeding him, renounces the conversion of Armenia to Mazdeism.
    484-519
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Schism “of Patriarch Acacius” (it began under his Patriarchate) between Rome and Constantinople.
    485
    Caucasus:
    Vahan Mamikonian becomes Marzpan (governor) of Armenia for the Sassanians, guaranteeing his country a degree of autonomy.
    ca. 485
    British Isles:
    The DalRiada Scots of Ulster, pushed ahead by the Irish High Kings of the O'Neill clan, occupy Argyll (western Scotland) where they found a strong kingdom under Fergus I MacErc; Galloway secedes from Strathclyde.
    Middle East:
    Mazdak preaches a equalitarian and socialist variant of Mazdeism in Persia.
    486
    Western Europe:
    Chlovis’ Salian Franks defeat the Gallo-Roman kingdom of Syagrius and take Lutetia/Paris.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantines expel the Ostrogoths from Moesia with help from the Hunno-Bulgarians.
    487
    Western Europe:
    The Visigoths trade the fugitive Syagrius to Clovis I of the Franks, who has him stabbed to death in jail.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Odovacar defeats the Rugians (settled in Noricum/Austria).
    Far East:
    Foundation of the first Uygur Khanate in Mongolia under Ay Uzhru.
    SE Asia:
    Birth of the kingdom of Chenla at Champasak in southern Laos, established by the Khmer who immigrated from the north-west
    488
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric the Great’s Ostrogoths defeat the Gepids at Sirmium (Illiria) and invade Italy under a Byzantine mandate, with the support of the Lombards (rulers of Bohemia) and of the Rugians of Noricum. The Gepids remain masters of Dacia.
    488-496
    Middle East:
    Kavadh of Persia supports the Mazdakite movement against the clergy and nobility
    489
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric triumphs on the Isonzo and at Verona, then, betrayed by the turncoat Tufa, withdraws in Milan
    490
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric transfers himself to Papia/Ticinum, then decisively defeats
    Odovacar on the Adda river (Lombardy).
    ca. 490
    East Africa:
    The "Nine Saints", a group of Egyptian Monophysite theologians (Copts) exiled by the Byzantine authority, settle at Axum (Ethiopia) establishing the roots of the religious communion between the Christians of Ethiopia and Egypt and the Jacobites of Syria.
    Middle East, Arabia:
    The Syrian Arab kingdom of Ghassan annexes the Salihid state between Jordan and northern Arabia
    490-493
    Southern Europe:
    The Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great besiege Ravenna and
    complete their conquest of Italy.
    491
    Western Europe:
    Chlovis I defeats the Bretons at Blois and repels them in Armorica/Brittany.
    Southern Europe:
    Odovacar summons help from the Burgundians, who plunder Milan; Theodoric in turn calls for help Alaric II’s Visigoths
    491-497
    Byzantine Empire:
    Elimination of Isaurian power and rebellion by the Byzantine army after Anastasius I's ascent to the throne.
    492
    Southern Europe:
    The Ostrogoths wrest Sicily and Corsica from the Vandals.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine general Julian is defeated and killed in Thrace by Kutrigur Khan’s western Hunno-Bulgarians.
    493
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric treacherously murders Odovacar and its son and massacres their troops during the negotiations for the surrender of Ravenna
    495
    British Isles:
    Saxon warriors land in southern Britain laying the foundations for the kingdom of Wessex
    496
    Western Europe:
    The Salian Franks under King Chlovis rout the Alamanni at Tolbiac and Strasbourg, the Alamanni having already been deprived of some of their lands on the Neckar and on the Main by the Ripuarian Franks; Chlovis is converted to Catholicism.
    British Isles:
    The Britons of High King Arthur trounce the invading Saxons of Sussex and Wessex at Mount Badon, stopping their expansion for at least half a century
    496-498
    Middle East, Central Asia:
    Usurpation of the Sassanian throne of Persia by Zamasp, enemy of the Mazdakites and brother of Kavadh, who comes to be reinstalled on the throne of Ctesiphon by the White Huns (among whom he had been raised). Accompanying Kavadh in Central Asia, Nestorian priests begin to spread their variant of Christianity.
    499
    Far East, Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Chinese buddhist monk Hoe-Shin returns to his homeland after an incredibly long journey along the coasts of the Pacific as far as Mexico, from which he has returned, and tells of the far-off country, which he calls Fu-Sang. His stories, however, are not taken seriously and are treated as the stuff of legend among the learned.
     
    Ddmkm122 likes this.
  4. basileus Inflammable

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2004
    Location:
    Thema Kastrosibrion ton Langobardon
    VI sec.
    Southern Europe, Western Europe:
    General crisis of urban civilization in Europe and final crisis of the Classical World.
    British Isles, Western Europe:
    Gallant resistance of the Celts of Britannia to the Anglo-Saxon invaders; the Celtic culture is preserved in all of the north and the west of the British islands, while expanding in Brittany and in Galicia/Gallaecia with new colonizations.
    Northern Europe, Central-Eastern Europe:
    Expansion of the Frankish dominion in Germany, and dashing advance of the Slavs in central and eastern Europe.
    Arabia:
    Judaism is diffused widely in Yemen.
    Ca. 500
    British Isles:
    The Welsh kingdom of Demetia (Pembrokeshire) is rechristened as Dyfed; northern Wales suffers raids from Irish pirates. The tribal subdivisions of the Picts evolve into the traditional “seven kingdoms” of Cat, Fidach, Ce, Circind, Fotla, Fotriu and Fib. The Scilly islands are separated from Cerniw/Cornwall to form the kingdom of Lyonesse.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Pontic Steppes Hunno-Bulgarians split into the Kutrigur (west of the Don) and Utrigur (east) tribal compacts, from the names of their respective Khans Kutrigur and Uturgur. The Slavs settle in Slovakia.
    North Africa:
    The Zenete Berbers, partly still heathen, partly Christian or converted to Judaism, coming from the heart of the desert taking its name from them (*OTL Sahara) enforce their rule over northwest African Berbers, founding a number of tribal states between Numidia and Mauretania, notably the kingdom of the Djeddars at Tiaret/Tahert (Numidia). In the Fezzan (inner Libia) the kingdom of Phazana is founded under the Berauna berber dynasty as a successor to Garamantian hegemony.
    Arabia:
    The millennial kingdom of ‘Ad in western Oman, source of the best incense (olibanum) for the civilizations of classical aniquity, finally crumbles and disappears
    East Africa:
    From the shambles of ancient Meroe Nubia sees the rise of the kingdoms of Nobadia/Faras in the north and Dongola more southwards.
    Central Asia, India:
    The White Huns enforce their supremacy up to the borders of eastern Turkestan and invade northwestern India, absorbing the Chionite Hun domains, wreaking great havoc and provoking mass migrations and displacements.
    India:
    The first Chalukya dynasty takes power in Maharashtra in the wake of the final convulsions of the Vakataka empire.
    SE Asia:
    Foundation of the Indo-Malay kingdom of Srivijaya on Sumatra.
    Far East:
    The Kirghiz people coalesces in southern Siberia on the upper Yenisey (Tannu Tuva).
    Pacific Ocean:
    The Polynesians settle Rapa Nui.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Mutul/Tikal emerges as the paramount city-state among the Mayans, struggling especially against Calakmul and its ally Caracol/Oxuitza.
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Huari/Wari kingdom emerges as the paramount in central Peru, from the coast to the Andean range
    502
    Caucasus:
    King Dachi I makes Tbilisi the capital of Iberia/Georgia
    Far East:
    The Liang dynasty replaces the southern Qis on the throne at Nanking.
    502-504
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Kutrigurs pillage the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans)
    502-506
    Middle East, Caucasus:
    Conflict between Byzantium and Persia, with no clear winner
    504
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric the Great annexes the formally Byzantine town of Sirmium (Illyria) to the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy
    506
    Southern Europe:
    St. Benedict from Norcia founds the Benedictine monastic order in Italy.
    Arabia, Middle East:
    The Arab kingdom of Kindah occupies southwestern Mesopotamia
    507
    Western Europe:
    Chlovis I the Great routs the Visigoths at the battle of Vouillé, where the Visigoth king Alaric II falls on the battlefield, and extends the Frankish kingdom up to the Pyrenees; the Visigoths withdraw in Spain, where they set their new capital at Toledo. The Ostrogoth ruler Theodoric the Great (maternal grandfather of Amalaric, heir to the Visigothic throne) occupies Visigothic Provence
    508
    Northern Europe:
    The Ripuarian Franks end absorbed into Chlovis’ domains; now the Frankish kingdom dominates from the Pyrenees to Franconia (central Germany)
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Lombards, expanding their power from Moravia, clash with the Heruli (now inhabiting Pannonia).
    Far East:
    The northern Wei of China defeat and kill Futu, Khan of the Ruanruan/Avars, at the battle of Pu-lei Lake.
    510
    India:
    The White Hun ruler Mihiragula wrests once and for all Punjab and Malwa from the Guptas.
    Caucasus:
    The Persians reoccupy and partially annex Caucasian Albania/Azerbaijan, overthrowing the local Arsacid rulers of Armenian origin; the Mihranids, related with the Sassanians of Ctesiphon, reign over the vassal pincipality of Girdyaman/Kuchen
    ca. 510
    British Isles:
    Cornwall reverts back to Dumnonia (Devon)
    510-520
    Middle East:
    Anti-Persian revolt of the Jews, persecuted by the Mazdakists; the rebellion, led by the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) Mar Zutra II, is eventually crushed in its stronghold at Makhoza
    511
    Western Europe:
    The death of Chlovis I the Great strats an era of fragmentation in the Frankish kingdom, which ends up divided between Chlovis’ sons Theodoric, Chlodomir, Childebert and Chlotarius; their four domains are centered on the local capitals of Paris, Orléans, Soissons, Reims.
    British Isles:
    Death of King Arthur during a civil war; new unrest and fragmentation ensues in Britain
    511-514
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Theodoric the Great’s Ostrogoths subdue Noricum, Pannonia and southern Germany up to the Danube. The Rugii, won by Theodoric and threatened by the first Slavs from the East, start migrating towards the Upper Danube, taking the name of Boioari (Baiuvari, Bavarians).
    Western Europe:
    A second wave of Celtic migration to Galicia/Gallaecia (this time mostly form Britannia and Brittany) weakens the Irish hegemony and extends Celtic control and culture to the Asturias, forming the roots of the Gallastrian nation
    512
    Far East:
    The Korean kingdom of Silla vassalizes Usan-Guk (Ulleong-Do island)
    515
    Byzantine Empire:
    Anti-Moophysite rebellion led by Vitalianus in Thrace, only barely quelled by Byzantine loyalist forces
    516-518
    Byzantine Empire:
    First wave of Slav raids in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans)
    517-549
    British Isles:
    King Maelgwn of Gwynedd (northern Wales) is the paramount Celtic leader in Britain
    518
    Byzantine Empire:
    The aged Illyrian military officer Justin (a Nicene Catholic) succeeds the Monophysite Anastasius on the Byzantine throne
    519
    British Isles:
    Cerdic, a Celto-Saxon of mixed blood and former ally of king Arthur, founds on the remains of the Celtic local kingdom of Guinntguich (Winchester area) the Kingdom of the Western Saxons (Wessex) and a most important dynasty in Britain’s history
    ca. 520
    British Isles:
    The Angle warrior Wuffa founds the kingdom of East Anglia. The Irishman Brychan o’Anlaich founds the kingdom of Brycheiniog in southern Wales
    520-521
    Far East:
    The Ruanruan/Avars, troubled by internecine clanic struggles, are vassalized by the Wei of northern Cina
    522
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric the Great, driven to paranoia by old age and Byzantine intrigue behind the scenes, orders all the highest members of Roman Catholic nobility arrested as suspects of disloyalty in favor of Constantinople
    523
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine emperor Justin issues edicts against Monophysism and Arianism.
    Southern Europe:
    The last “ludi circenses” with wild beasts (“venationes”, “huntings”) are held in the Roman world
    Middle East:
    Massacre of the Mazdakists in Sassanian Persia.
    525
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric the Great has his minister of Interiors, Severinus Boethius, killed in jail at Papia/Ticinum. During his time in jail Boethius wrote “De consolatione philosophiae”, the last great work of classical philosophy.
    Arabia:
    Kaleb, Ethiopian emperor of Axum, invades and conquers Yemen with Byzantine backing; Himyar’s ruler Yusuf Ash'ar Masruq Dhu-Nuwas was a convert to Judaism, which news hadn’t been well received in Axum and even less in antisemitic Constantinople
    525-533
    Arabia, East Africa:
    Dhu Jadan keeps on fighting an 8 year-long guerrilla against the Ethiopians for Yemenite independence; during the struggle the island of Dioskoris/Soqotra, once held by Himyar, gains independence and becomes a century-long nest of piracy
    526
    Southern Europe:
    Theodoric the Great sends Pope John I at Constantinople as a peace feeler, but, after John solemnly crowned Justin as emperor, on his return the unlucky Pope is arrested at Ravenna and starved to death in jail by the paranoid Theodoric, who in turn dies a few months later, leaving as his sole heir the 10 years old Athalaric under Amalaswentha’s regency. After Theodoric’s death the Ostrogoths wrest Provence from the Visigoths once and for all, defeating them at the battle of Arles.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Lombards migrate into Pannonia and subdue the local Heruli and Swabians
    527
    Byzantine Empire:
    Peter, son of Sabatius, succeeds his uncle Justine on the Byzantine throne, taking the name of Flavius Justianian. Thrace is raided by the Ants (a Slavo-Iranic people, maybe composed by descendants of the Sarmatians).
    Southern Europe:
    Mavortius is the last Roman consul appointed in the West by the Ostrogothic rulers of Italy; afterwards, the millenary institution is abandoned.
    Western Europe:
    Constantine Maurice founds the unified kingdom of Celtic Gallaecia in northwestern Spain, sealing a matrimonial alliance with the Swabian kingdom of Lusitania
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Byzantines, in alliance with the Taurian (*OTL Crimean) Huns, wrest Cherson/Sebastopol and the Taman peninsula from Taurogothia.
    Caucasus:
    A new war between Byzantium and Persia is sparked by the Sassanian invasion of Armenia and Iberia/Georgia.
    528
    Caucasus:
    The Persians make Iberia/Georgia a vassal and install on the local throne their candidate, Parsman V.
    Arabia:
    The Arab kingdom of Kindah splits into five parts and falls prey to civil war
    India:
    The Gupta Empire de facto collapses under the pressure of Mihiragula’s White Huns, whose raids desolate northwerstern India with great bloodshed.
    Far East:
    The rulers of the Korean kingdom of Silla (in the southeast of the country) convert to Buddhism.
    529
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine emperor Justinian forcibly dissolves the Philosophical Academy of Athens, last refuge of classical paganism.
    Southern Europe:
    St. Benedict from Norcia founds the Abbey of Montecassino
    529-530
    Middle East:
    With Ghassanid help the Byzantines ruthlessly crush the rebellious Samaritans of Palestine led by Julianus, who styled himself “King of Israel”
    529-533
    Byzantine Empire:
    Justinian promotes the compilation of the “Corpus Iuris”, a collection of Roman laws which will become a pillar of the European legal systems
    530
    British Isles:
    King Cerdic’s West Saxons crush the Celts of the isle of Wight at the battle of Carisbrooke.
    Middle East:
    The Byzantine general Belisarius stops the Persians at the battle of Dara
    ca. 530
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Slavic invasion and colonization of Moravia and inner Bohemia. Vulgar/Boulgaros reigns over the Onogurs: his name will apply to all European Huns, which will be commonly called Bulgars
    531
    Western Europe:
    The Visigoth king Amalaric is attacked in Narbonne by his brother-in-law, the Frankish king Childebert II, whose sister he forced to convert to Arianism; Amalaric flees at Barcelona, where he is killed and replaced on the Visigothic throne by Theudis
    Middle East, Caucasus:
    The Persians defeat Belisarius’ Byzantine army at Callinicum (*OTL Raqqa, Syria). The new Sassanian Shah-in-Shah Khusraw I Anushirvan kills Mazdak and exterminates his followers, then strikes a peace deal with Byzantium, accepting a kind of condominium over Armenia.
    532
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantinople erupts into the Nika (“Win!”) rebellion, unleashed by the circus factions (the “greens” and the “blues”) to support the pretender Hypatius; Justinian and Belisarius crush the rebels with horrendous massacres. The persecution of heretics in the Byzantine Empire quits after provoking notable turmoil.
    Western Europe:
    The Franks destroy the Burgundian kingdom at the battle of Autun.
    532-562
    Far East:
    The Korean kingdom of Silla crushes and annexes one by one the Kaya/Gaya confederacy states of Geumgwam, Karak, Bihwa, Ara, Goryeong and finally Tae; this marks the end of Japanese influence in Korea, of which Kaya/Gaya was expression.
    533
    Arabia:
    Once defeated the local legitimist patriots, the Ethiopian Axumite general Abraha proclaims himself king of Southern Arabia (Himyar), while staying a loyal ally to Axum
    533-534
    North Africa, Southern Europe:
    Belisarius reconquers Carthage and (northwest) Africa for Byzantium by destroying the Vandal kingdom and deports the vanquished Vandals to Anatolia. The Vandal governor Goddas tries to create a kingdom for himself in Sardinia, but some months later a Byzantine expedition overthrows him
    534
    Far East:
    The northern Wei kingdom of China splits into an eastern and a western part.
    Southern Europe:
    Theodatus usurps the Ostrogothic throne of Italy on the death of young Athalaric. First mention of Romancia (*OTL Graubünden/Grigioni, Switzerland), whose Romanized Rhaetic people stages a successful defence against the Alamanni
    Northern Europe:
    The Franks defeat the Thuringians and conquer central Germany.
    535
    Southern Europe:
    Amalaswentha, the former Queen Dowager of the Ostrogoths, is jailed and killed at the isola Bisentina on Bolsena lake by his cousin Theodatus, thus giving Byzantium an excuse to make war on the usurper. Belisarius lands in Sicily, easily conquering the island; the Byzantine governor of Illyria, Mundus, takes over Dalmatia from the Ostrogoths. In the meantime, the Franks occupy Ostrogothic Provence.
    British Isles:
    In northern Britain Rheged/Brigantia is divided into a northern and a southern kingdom
    Far East:
    Buddhism is adopted throughout all of Korea after two centuries of spreading.
    536
    Southern Europe:
    Mundus is defeated and killed by Ostrogothic forces on the Sava river. Belisarius lands in Bruttium/Calabria, then marches north, besieges and conquers Naples. The Ostrogoth general Witigis, hailed as king by his troops near Rome, kills Theodatus, then vainly tries to appease the Byzantines, but Belisarius advances and occupies the Urbs Aeterna.
    Caucasus:
    Anti-Byzantine rebellion of the Armenians
    537-538
    Southern Europe:
    For an entire year Witigis besieges in vain Belisarius in Rome, destroying the ancient aqueducts and desolating the Agro Romano (the Roman countryside). Pope Silverius (resented by empress Theodora for his theological stances) is deposed by Belisarius in favor of Vigilius. The Byzantines land fresh troops in the Picenum (Marches) and at Genoa, then rout the Ostrogoths at Papia/Ticinum and conquer Milan; Witigis is forced to raise the siege of Rome and withdraw to Ravenna
    538-556
    Southern Europe:
    Frankish, Burgundian and Alamannic raids and encroachments utterly desolate northwestern Italy
    539
    Southern Europe:
    A horde of Ostrogoths and Burgundians led by Uraia, nephew of Witigis, besieges, takes and razes Milan to the ground, killing all of its male popluation. Belisarius conquers Papia/Ticinum and several other city north of the Po river, but he can’t reenter Milan; he then turns back to complete the conquest of central Italy. At Ravenna Witigis not only surrenders, but offers the crown of Italy to Belisarius: the Byzantine general, loyal to Justinian, refuses. Just while Belisarius proves his loyalty, in Constantinople Justinian undoes his work by deciding to leave Italy north of the Po river to the Ostrogoths.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Franks, taking advantage of the complete collapse of Ostrogothic power, conquer the northern watershed of the Alps up to the boundaries of Pannonia
    539-540
    Byzantine Empire:
    Kutrigurs and Slavs raid deep into Illyria
    540
    Southern Europe:
    The Ostrogoths reenter Papia/Ticinum: Uraia is offered the crown, but he doesn’t accept, then the army elects Ildibad, who as his first act as king has Uraia slain.
    Middle East:
    Taking advantage of Byzantine troubles in Italy and the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), the Persians retake arms against Byzantium, taking and razing Antioch.
    Arabia:
    The kingdom of Kindah (central Arabia) is overthrown and annexed by its northern neighbour, Hirah
    ca. 540
    British Isles:
    The Saxon kingdom of Essex (East Saxe) is established.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Huns, Bulgar Kutrigurs and Slavs cross the Danube and pillage the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans): the Slavs start settling the area, to whom they’ll give its new name.
    North Africa:
    Vast religious insurrection led by Iabda in the Aurés region of Numidia; the Byzantines lose control over the interor of North Africa
    541
    Southern Europe:
    After the sequential assassinations of Ildibad and his successor Eraric, the Ostrogoths find a new great ruler with Baduila/Totila, Ildibad’s nephew.
    Caucasus:
    The Persians conquer Lazica (Colchis, northwestern Georgia).
    Far East:
    The Ruanruan/Avars defeat and vassalize the first Uygur khanate in Mongolia
    542
    Southern Europe:
    The Byzantine general Artabazos cunningly occupies Verona; Totila reacts by first besieging and then pursuing the beleaguerd Byzantine up to Faenza, where he crushes Artabazos’ forces. The Ostrogoths thence proceed to cross the Apennines, rout agian the Byzantines at the Mugello, take Florence and reconquer (with the notable exception of Ravenna) all the area between the Po river and the Picenum (Marches), while in all of Italy slaves and peasants alike revolt against the pro-Byzantine aristocracy
    542-550
    Southern Europe, Western Europe, Byzantine Empire, North Africa:
    Devastating plague throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. With this last blow the classic urban civilization in the former Roman West collapses
    543
    Southern Europe:
    Totila’s Ostrogoths reconquer Naples.
    Western Europe:
    The Frank kings Childebert II and Chlotarius invade and sack Catalonia, but end up routed by the Visgoth ruler Theudis.
    SE Asia:
    The Chams attack Vietnam but are driven out by general Pham Tu
    544
    Southern Europe:
    Totila is forced to raise the siege of Otranto and turn back to central Italy when Belisarius comes back in Ravenna. Pope Vigilius abandons Rome for Sicily.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Justinian provokes the religious schism of the Three Chapters by anathematizing the works of three Syrian Fathers of the Church (Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrus, Ibas); the Patriarchate of Aquileia will lead the reaction against Justinian’s decision, taken to appease the Monophysites, who are majority in Syria and Egypt. Nonetheless, the same year the definitive split between Orthodox (Catholic) and the Jacobite (*from its founder, Jacob Baradaeus) Syrian Church is consumed, as the two parts chose each an own Patriarch.
    Middle East:
    Failed Persian siege of Edessa; afterwards, a five-years truce between Persia and Byzantium is declared.
    SE Asia:
    Vietnam frees itself from Chinese domination under the Li dynasty
    545
    India:
    The Western Gangas of Mysore are vassalized by the rising Chalukya power
    546
    Southern Europe:
    Totila conquers Ascoli, Fermo and Spoleto and occupies Rome. The Byzantines reconquer Bononia/Bologna, then Belisarius heads south but the Ostrogoths rout his army at Capua (Campania)
    547
    British Isles:
    The Angles, taking advantage of the chronic civil wars amongst the Britons, found the kingdom of Bernicia (from Bryneich, the Celtic state in the area) in Northumbria.
    Southern Europe:
    Belisarius eventually manages to reenter Rome and defeats Totila at Tivoli, but this success has no effect. In a matter of weeks the Ostrogoth ruler is able to reconquer and half-destroy Rome, whose inhabitants are temporarily moved out leaving the Urbs Aeterna void as a dead shell. Totila declares all remaining slaves of Italy free.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Pope Vigilius goes to Constantinople to discuss the Three Chapters schism, who finds the harshest resistance in the West
    547-548
    Byzantine Empire:
    Slavic hordes overrun Illyria to the Adriatic Sea; the barbarians destroy Epidamnos/Dyrrachion
    548
    Southern Europe:
    The Byzantine situation in Italy is awful: they still keep only Liguria, Ravenna, Otranto and Crotone and are besieged in Rome and Perugia. Belisarius is embittered by Justinian’s suspicions and by the resultant lack of reinforcements. So, when news reach him that his wife has died in Constantinople and Justinian wants to recall him, Belisarius accepts Totila’s startling offer of alliance and combines his forces with his former enemy’s Ostrogoth army. Belisarius is hailed as king of Italy and adopts Totila as his son and heir, viceroy and sole commander of the Ostrogoths. Romancia (*OTL Graubünden, Switzerland) recognizes Frankish supremacy but preserves its independence
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople Pope Vigilius is convinced/coerced into ratifying the condemnation of the Three Chapters.
    Caucasus:
    The Persians subdue Armenia.
    North Africa:
    Byzantium is forced to come to terms with the Numidian Berbers, enforcing a fragile control over Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) in exchange for practical independence of local Berbers and Zenetes in the interior between Septem/Sefta (*OTL Ceuta), just occupied by Spain’s Visigoths, and Ippona/Bona.
    549
    Byzantine Empire:
    Justinian keeps Pope Vigilius in Constantinople and allies with the Franks against Totila and Belisarius; his generals work hard to quell several military insurrections in favor of Belisarius, raging from Illyria to Assyria.
    Southern Europe:
    A loyalist Byzantine army under general Conon is routed by Totila at Avellino (Campania), while Belisarius with a motley collection of Hunno-Bulgarian and Lombard mercenaries stops the Frankish invasion of Italy at Lomello and Sirmione (Lombardy).
    550
    Southern Europe:
    Totila reconquers Corsica and Sardinia from the beleaguered Byzantines, while Belisarius occupies Sicily and Dalmatia.
    North Africa:
    Byzantine Africa rises in rebellion in favor of Belisarius
    Byzantine Empire:
    In the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) the Belisarist rebels end up crushed by Zabergan Khan’s Kutrigurs, cunningly called for help by Justinian
    Far East:
    The eastern Wei of China change their dynastical name becoming the northern Qi dynasty.
    ca. 550
    British Isles:
    The kingdom of Galloway is overrun by its southern neighbour North Rheged; its king Sennylt takes refuge in the Isle of Man, whence he keeps on reigning. Caer Gloui/Gloucester, the strongest Celtic state in central-southern Britain, is divided between king Aurelius Caninus’ sons, forming the three states of Caer Gloui, Caer Ceri/Cirencester and Caer Baddan/Bath. In Ireland, Ossory emerges as a buffer kingdom between Munster and Leinster under the Gilpatrick clan
    Northern Europe:
    Beowulf, ruler of the Geats of Götland (southwestern Sweden), inspires with his deeds the later Anglo-Saxon poem of the 8th-9th century.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Bavarians, coming from Bohemia, establish the Duchy of Bavaria north of the central Alps. Western Ukraine hosts the formation of the Slavic Drevlian tribe.
    Caucasus:
    The Alans of northern Caucasus create a strong kingdom, tightly bound to Byzantium, under their king Sarosius.
    Central Asia:
    Seceding from the crumbling White Hun/Hephtalite empire the Hindu Zabulistan kingdom arises in Afghanistan, with its capital in Kabul.
    India:
    The Gurjaras, nomads from Central Asia, found the royal dynasty of Mandor in Rajputana (India). The Chalukya kingdom of Badami/Vatapi is established in Karnataka (SW India). Vallabhi, the capital of Gujarat, is destroyed by Omani Arab raiders, but the local Maitraka dynasty survives.
    SE Asia:
    Bhavavarman I, heir to the throne of the Funan Empire in Indochina, inherits through dynastical marriage the crown of the Mon-Khmer kingdom of Chenla (Laos); in a matter of years, by will of the new ruler, this will become the real powerhouse. Funan will quickly decay, while in the nearby Lopburi region of central Siam the Mon kingdom of Dvaravati arises.
    ca. 550-600
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Climatic catastrophe along the coastl regions of Peru, where years of floods are followed by decades of drought: the Moche civilization suffers greatly
    551
    Northern Europe:
    The Franks finally subdue the Thuringians.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Byzantine monks coming back from a voyage to China smuggle silkworms in Europe. Southern Europe:
    Romancia (the soutwestern part of former Roman Rhaetia) overthrows local Frankish suzerainty with help from Totila. Additional troops from Byzantine Africa and Moorish/Berber mercenaries join Belisarius and Totila’s army in Italy
    551-552
    Far East:
    The Ruanruans, overlords of Mongolia, are routed by Bumin’s Tu-jües (Turks) di Bumin and start migrating westwards, where together with other nomads absorbed along their way west will form the Avar power. Bumin, paramount ruler of the Turks, takes the title of Khagan founding the first Turkic empire in Mongolia
    552
    British Isles:
    The Wessex Saxons led by king Cynric wrest Sarum/Salisbury from the Britons
    Southern Europe:
    Belisarius and Totila, reinforced by Hunnic and Slavic forces, trounce at Ostra (Marches) Narses’ Byzantines and Lombards, who had come from recentrly reconquered Dalmatia; afterwards they manage to starve Ravenna into surrender. Far East:
    Buddhism is introduced in Japan.
    552-554
    Caucasus:
    The Sabirs of Caucasia reject their old alliance with Persia in favor of Byzantium and invade Caucasian Albania/Azerbaijan, but their attack ends in defeat
    553-567
    Central Asia:
    The Turkic Gök Turkiut Empire splits into an eastern (and a western confederation; it stretches from Manchuria to Central Asia
    554
    Southern Europe, North Africa:
    Massive Frankish and Alamannic invasion of northern Italy; Verona is taken and destroyed. A new loyalist Byzantine army, after retaking Carthage and Sicily, is crushed at the Vesuvio near Naples.
    Central Asia:
    The Western Gökturks conquer Samarkand from the Wite Huns/Hephtalites
    554-558
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Sabirs gain a brief period of ascendancy over the Pontic steppes with Western Gökturk support, then are overwhelmed by the Avar break-in and come back to Caucasia/Daghestan
    555
    Far East:
    The Eastern Gökturks annihilate the remnants of Ruanruan power in Mongolia and subdue the Khitans and the Kirghizes.
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Vigilius dies in Constantinople; after eleven years of exile of the Holy See, in a desolate and almost completely abandoned Rome Liberius II, supported by Totila and Belisarius, is appointed as the new Pope and excommunicates the Church of Constantinople over the Three Chapters affaire
    555-560
    Western Europe:
    Aquitaine goes as appannage to another scion of the ever-quarrelling Merovingians, Chramm, before reverting to the Franksh crown
    556
    Southern Europe:
    Belisarius and Totila trounce the Alamanni at Monza (Lombardy) and the Franks at Acqui (Piedmont).
    North Africa:
    A loyalist Byzantine army coming from Carthage is crushed by the pro-Belisarian African rebels at Siliana
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople Justianian appoints Pelagius as anti-Tricapitoline antipope; the Catholic Church is in chaos because of the two rival popes in Rome and Constantinople and the Three Chapters schism, not to mention the Arian question still extant in Ostrogothic Italy and Visigothic Spain.
    Far East:
    The western Wei of northern China change their dynastical title into “northern Zhou”.
    557
    Southern Europe:
    Augustine, a North African, succeeds Liberius II as Peter’s sucessor in Rome. Caucasus:
    The Persians conquer Iberia/Georgia Far East:
    The Chen replace the Liang dynasty on the southern Chinese throne at Nanking.
    558
    British Isles:
    Brude MacMalcolm, king of the northern Picts, defeats and kills king Gabhran of the DalRiada Scots, who are vassalized
    559
    Central-Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire, Southern Europe:
    The Avar invasion in the Ukrainian steppes pushes forward Zabergan Khan’s Kutrigurs and Slavs, who plunge on the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) pillaging and destroying everything in sight. When news of the horde’s misdeeds reaches Italy, Belisarius marches south from Aquileia across Dalmatia, where he is hailed as a savior; then he enters the Sklavinian mountains and suddenly appears behind the Slavo-Kutrigurs vainly besieging Constantinople. The subsequent battle, coupled with a sortie of the Constantinopolitan garrison, sees the total extermination of Zabergan Khan’s horde; Belisarius enters Constantinople in triumph as is hailed as emperor (though many in the city still remember his role in crushing the Nika revolt) while Justinian retires to monastic life on the island of Proti; in Italy Totila remains the sole ruler of the Ostrogothic kingdom.
    British Isles:
    The Anglic kingdom of Deira arises south of Eburacum/Ebrauc/York
    560
    Byzantine Empire:
    Belisarius deposes the anti-Pope Pelagius, thus ending – for the moment being – the major quarrels about the Three Chapters affaire.
    British Isles:
    Prince Elidyr of Strathclyde invades Gwynedd (Wales), trying to dethrone his brother-in-law, King Rhun Hir, at the Battle of the Cadnant Brook, but is killed
    560-561
    Western Europe:
    Chlotarius reunifies for a while the Frankish kingdom upon Chramm’s death, then in turn quickly dies. The Frankish possessions are anew divided (according to the Salian customs) between Sigebert I, who in Reims founds the kingdom of Austrasia (north-eastern “Francia”), Gontran (Burgundy, with capital in Orléans), Chilperic I (the North, with his capital in Soissons) and Caribert (Paris and the southwest); needless to say, the four royal brothers hate each other passionately
    561
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    After conquering Taurogotia (Taurida [*OTL Crimea]) and subduing the Hunno-Bulgars from the Caspian Sea to the Carpathians, the Avars create a powerful empire under their Khagan Bayan, bringing in Europa the stirrup, formerly unknown of.
    Caucasus:
    The Byzantines expel the Persians from Lazica (nortwestern Georgia); afterwards a 50-years peace is brokered between Byzantium and Persia. The Persian crush a renewed Sabir invasion across the Caucasus.
    Byzantine Empire, Southern Europe:
    Belisarius recognizes Totila as the legitimate ruler of Italy (“patrikios”) ruling from Ravenna in exchange for control over Sicily and Sardinia; Byzantine public opinion prevents him from appointing the Arian and barbarian Totila as Western Roman Emperor and heir as he desired, having no sons; the stubborn Ostrogoths in turn prevent Totila from embracing Nicene Catholicism
    562
    Byzantine Empire:
    A Monophysite insurrection in Syria and Egypt and urban turmoil in Constantinople itself on both religious (the Three Chapters) and political (the attempt to install Totila as heir) forces Belisarius to appoint as his heir and co-emperor Justin (II), Justinian’s nephew and anti-Tricapitoline candidate for the throne. The former emperor actually kept scheming from his monastic retirement, where he wrote notable works of literature and theology in both Latin and Greek.
    Southern Europe:
    Totila routs a Bavarian invasion at Salorno (Tyrol) and chases the invaders beyond the Brenner Pass.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Mayan city-state of Calakmul, with help from her ally Caracol/Oxuitza, defeats and vassalizes Mutul/Tikal, wresting from her hegemony over the region between Yucatàn and Guatemala
    563
    Byzantine Empire:
    Justinian dies as a simple monk at Proti island; he’ll be later sanctified by the Orthodox Church
    Central Asia:
    The first diplomatic contacts are established between Byzantium and the Western Gökturk empire. Istemi Khan’s Western Gökturks and the Sassanian Persians trounce the White Huns at the battle of Bokhara
    565
    Central Asia:
    Fall of the White Huns’ empire after their annihilation in the battle of Neseph at the hands of the Western Gökturks, who proceed to conquer most of Afghanistan
    ca. 565
    British Isles:
    Brude mac Malcolm, king of the northern Picts, receives baptism from the Irish preacher St. Columba and defeats heavily the raiding Scots.
    Southern Europe:
    Romancia (*centered on OTL Graubünden, Switzerland) occupies Valtellina (the extreme north of Lombardy)
    566
    Byzantine Empire:
    Belisarius dies in Constantinople (allegedly poisoned); Justin II succeds on the imperial throne restoring the Justinians
    566-571
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Western Gökturks led by their Yaghbu (ruler) Istemi Khan gain suzerainty over the Pontic steppes and the region north of the Caucasus; the Utrigurs (eastern Hunno-Bulgars) are subdued by the Onogurs, who in turn had become Avar vassals.
    Byzantine Empire, Southern Europe:
    Justin II’s intrigues with Avars, Lombards and Franks to overthrow Totila and the Ostrogoths freezes Ostrogoth-Byzantine relations
    567
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Aiding the Avar onslaught through the Carpathians, Alboin’s Lombards destroy the Gepid kingdom in Transylvania; from the skull of the Gepid ruler Cunimond Alboin makes a cup in which he compels Cunimond’s daughter Rosamunda, forcibly taken as his “war bride”, to drink wine (“Drink, Rosamunda, in your father’s skull!”).
    Western Europe:
    Caribert of Paris dies, and his domains are happily carved up amongst his brothers; Chilperic’s domain, centered in Soissons and with Paris now included, becomes known as Neustria
    568
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Avars, bribed by the Byzantines, instead of crossing the Carpathians invade scarcely-inhabited Poland and settle down there (at least for the moment), while the Lombards are acknowledged as rulers of Pannonia. Part of the Avar horde remains in the northern Caucasus
    570
    Southern Europe:
    Totila, upset at discovering Justin’II treacherous plans by intercepting his letters to the Frankish kings, occupies Sardinia, Sicily and Dalmatia provoking a second Greco-Gothic conflict
    ca. 570
    British Isles:
    Foundation of the Welsh kingdom of Pengwern from a split of Powys, on the western bank of the Severn river
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Onogur Bulgars expel the Byzantines from the Taman peninsula on the Black Sea.
    Caucasus:
    Byzantium annexes Lazica (NW Georgia) undermining Persian power over Iberia/Georgia.
    571
    British Isles:
    The Saxons wrench the poor remains of Londinium (London) from the Britons; king Cuthwulf of Wessex defeats the Britons at Bedford, penetrating in central England.
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards, called for help by the ailing Justin II, soundly defat the Ostrogoths led by Widin at Salona (Dalmatia); a Byzantine force from Carthage retakes Sicily. Totila moves his capital from Ravenna to the less exposed Florence
    572
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombard king Alboin is murdered at Celeia/Celje by his wife Rosamunda, who tries to have his lover Elmichi enthroned as the new king, but both are killed and the Lombard army elects Cleph as king. The Franks try an invasion of Italy from the north in alliance with the Alamanni and the Bavarians, but are bottled in the Trentino and forced to withdraw; a Byzantine army crawls up the “boot” of Italy winning at Salerno and conquers Naples.
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople Justin II, who shows signs of schizophrenia, is de facto replaced by a regency under empress Sophia and general Tiberius Constantine.
    Caucasus:
    A new Byzantine-Persian war erupts over the renewed enforcing of conversion to Mazdeism on the Armenians
    573
    Southern Europe:
    The Franks invade Piedmont and raze Turin and Eporedia/Ivrea to the ground. The Byzantine army, now led By Tiberius Constantine, mauls the Ostrogoth rearguard at Cassino, then enters Rome unopposed, deposes Pope Augustine and replaces him with John III, the anti-Tricapitoline candidate; meantime the Byzantine fleet starves Ravenna into surrender. The beleaguered Totila, after calling Slavs and Avars for help, throws the full weight of the Ostrogothic army against the Lombards in the battle of Cividale; but when victory seems secured, a stray arrow kills Totila and the tide of the battle turns, with the Lombards going berserk over the battlefield and slaying everyone in sight, including the teenage Theodoric (II) Belisarius, Totila’s only male heir. After the battle, the Lombards (partly Arian, partly still heathen) invade all of Veneto settling their capital at Opitergium/Oderzo; the Roman populations flee to the coastal lagoons, where a Byzantine duchy is created, the forerunner of Venice; even the Patriarch of Aquileia Paulinus I takes refuge in the island of Grado (Friuli). Cleph marries Amalaswentha, Totila’s daughter.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Avars migrate through the Tatras into the Pannonian basin, which becomes their new homeland an the center of a powerful Avaro-Slavic kingdom
    574
    British Isles:
    The island of Iona is established by St. Columba as the main ecclesiastical see for both Picts and Scots
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards led by Cleph crush the Burgundian Franks and the Alamanni at the battle of Lodi Vecchia (Lombardy), entering Milan and Papia/Ticinum; Honoratus, bishop of Milan, flees in terror in Byzantine-held Genoa. Meantime the Byzantine army terminates the last Ostrogothic resistance led by the aged Teia, killed in battle at Mons Lunae (Tuscany).
    575
    British Isles:
    Prince Owain of North Rheged kills king Theodoric of Bernicia at Leeming Lane
    Byzantine Empire, Caucasus:
    The Byzantines led by Maurice gain a brilliant victory over the Persians at Melitene (*OTL Malatya) (Cappadocia); Iberia/Georgia overthrows Sassanian yoke under Guaram I/Gurgen III.
    Southern Europe:
    In Rome, a ghost city, Benedict I succeeds John III as Pope after a long and disputed election. Byzantium grants the Lombards the lands from the Po to the Danube and the Sava rivers (but Bavarians and Slavs think differently as for their part), except for the Venetic lagoons.
    ca. 575
    British Isles:
    Strathclyde, Ebrauc/Eburacum (York), North Rheged, Catreath, Bryneich and Elmet ally against the Saxons of Deira and Bernicia. The DalRiada Scots in both Argyll and Ireland reject Ulster’s overlordship
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Pushed ahead by the Avar onslaught, the Slovenians settle Carniola. The remnants of the Ostrogoths migrate through the Alps to Noricum/Austria fleeing Lombard domination and founds there a new fragile kingdom under a Hilderic.
    Caucasus:
    The Lazi (Abasgians/Abkhazians) of NW Iberia/Georgia, in the service of Byzantium, defeat on the Black Sea coast the Onogurs, which, deflected towards the interior, settle around the Terek river.
    East Africa:
    Christianization of Nubia/Sudan, which will follow the Monophysite Coptic Church of Egypt.
    India:
    The Pallavas of Tamil Nadu destroy Kalabhra power in southern Deccan.
    575-579
    Southern Europe:
    Several Lombard attempts to cross the Western Alps are thwarted by the Franks, who consolidate their hold over the Aosta valley. Groups of Bulgars, Gepids, and even Saxons fleeing the Avar scourge filter through Italy’s unguarded northeastern border and pour into the Padan plain, intermingling with the Lombards.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Kutrigurs in Moldavia and Wallachia are subdued by the Avars, whilst their cousins in the Ukraine submit to the Onogurs
    ca. 575-594
    Southern Europe:
    The tribal chieftain Hospiton leads his people’s resistance against the Byzantines in Sardinian Barbagia, still a heathen land, then, accepting defeat, converts to Catholic christianity and allows missionaries sent by Pope Gregory the Great to preach in the area
    576
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars, most loyal allies of the Western Western Gökturks, establish a semiautonomous khanate of theirs on the lower Volga river
    577
    British Isles:
    The Wessex Saxon invasion of the lower Severn valley is harshly repulsed by a Welsh coalition after conquering Caer Gloui/Gloucester
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Western Gökturks invade Taurida (*OTL Crimea).
    Far East:
    In Northern China the northern Qi state (the eastern kingdom) is conquered by the northern Zhou (the western one), thus reunifying the former Toba/Tabgach Wei empire.
    577-578
    Byzantine Empire:
    A Slavic horde led by Davrit invades the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) up to Greece before being crushed by the Avars on their way back.
    Southern Europe:
    A Bavarian invasion of Tyrol is crushed by the Lombard duke of Trento, Evin
    578-582
    Byzantine Empire:
    Tiberius II Constantine reigns in Constantinople, adopting the brilliant general Maurice as heir
    578-583
    British Isles:
    Irish forces from Ulster occupy the Isle of Man/Ynys Manaw, but are later expelled by the DalRiada Scots
    579
    Southern Europe:
    The Byzantines plot the assassination of the Lombard king Cleph and cross the Po river to complete their reconquest of Italy, but Cleph’s son Authari (not a grandson of Totila, he was born from a previous marriage) quickly gains recognition as king by Lombard dukes and exacts terrible revenge by besieging and razing Mantua to the ground; the Byzantine army is routed at Cremona at withdraws to Ravenna while the Lombards occupy most of Emilia
    580
    British Isles:
    King Maurice I of Gwent unifies southern Wales; the Angles conquer Eburacum/Ebrauc, renaming it York. Southern Europe:
    The Lombards invade and conquer Tuscany, but can’t advance further; the Byzantines stop them in Liguria and on the Rome-Ravenna rout. Authari sets the Lombard capital at Pavia (the former Papia/Ticinum).
    Caucasus:
    The eastern region of Khakheti secedes from the kingdom of Iberia/Georgia
    ca. 580
    Northern Europe:
    Götland (SW Sweden) splits in a western and an eastern kingdom: the local Geats (Goths) are weakened while the Swedes from north-east and the Danes south emerge as growing powers
    581
    Caucasus:
    The Byzantine general (and adopted heir to the trone) Maurice newly defeats the Persians at Constantia (Armenia).
    Far East:
    The Chinese general Yang Jian takes power in the northern Zhou capital at Chang’an/Xian and founds the Sui dynasty
    581-584
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Avars crush the weak Ostrogothic kingdom in Noricum/Austria and deport the Ostrogoths as slaves, deleting them from history
    582
    Byzantine Empire:
    Upon Tiberius II Constantine’s death, Maurice becomes emperor of Byzantium. Massive Slavic invasion of the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), which are almost completely emptied of the originary peoples and Slavicized; the Slavs sack Athens, a pale shadow of its former glory.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Avars oust the Byzantines from Pannonia, taking Singidunum and Sirmium.
    Central Asia:
    Final separation of the Western and Eastern Gökturk empires
    583
    Southern Europe:
    A Byzantine counteroffensive in the Padan Plain ends in a solemn defeat at the battle of the Scoltenna (Panaro) river
    Central Asia:
    The Western Gökturks invade Bactria but the Persian stem them at Herat.
    584
    British Isles:
    The Britons inflict a heavy defeat upon the Wessex Saxons at Fethanleigh
    584-604
    Middle East:
    Direct Byzantine occupation of the Syrian Arab vassal kingdom of Ghassan, that from his capital, Damascus, supported Monophysitism against Constantineple’s will
    585
    Southern Europe:
    Authari’s Lombards overrun Byzantine Liguria razing Genoa, Albingaunum/Albenga, Vada Sabatia/Vado Ligure, Lunae/Luni; the exiled Milanese clergy flees to Rome
    ca. 585
    British Isles:
    The kingdom of Lyonesse (Scilly Islands) reverts back to Dumnonia
    586
    Western Europe:
    Leovigildus, king of the Spanish Visigoths, unifies the Iberian peninsula by conquering the Swabian kingdom of Lusitania and vassalizing the Gallaecian Celts, whose king Alanus Maurician (Alan ap Meurig) is captured at the battle of the Narcea. The Bretons repel the Neustrian Franks in the battle of Dinan.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Slavs besiege Thessalonica.
    Southern Europe:
    Emperor Maurice reacts to Lombard encroachments in Italy by crowning his son Belisarius emperor of the West in Rome as Belisarius II, 110 years after Romulus Augustus’ deposition at the hands of Odovacar; Maurice then proceeds to put Byzantine West under the two Exarchates of Ravenna and Carthage
    587
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards, with enthusiastic Avaro-Slavic support, desolate Byzantine Histria as a revenge for the arrest of the Patriarch of Aquileia, Severus, by the Exarch of Ravenna Smaragdus, on charges of not adhering to the official condemnation of the Three Chapters
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Slavs colonize inner Greece, including the Peloponnesus/Morea.
    Far East:
    The Soga clan becomes paramount in Japan, supporting the spreading of Buddhism in the country.
    588
    British Isles:
    Bernicia overruns the other Anglic kingdom of Deira; a close struggle begins between the two neighbours
    Southern Europe:
    The Burgundian Franks invade Piedmont but are routed at Alba, their only gain being some land in the Maritime Alps; a Byzantine counterinvasion of Tuscany fails at Arezzo.
    589
    Western Europe:
    With the Council of Toledo the Visigoths of Spain renounce Arianism and convert to Nicene Catholicism
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards raid deep into the whereabouts of Rome. A matrimonial alliance is sealed between Lombards and Bavarians with the wedding of king Authari with Theodolinda, Catholic daughter of the Bavarian duke, Garibald; it has an anti-Frankish meaning.
    Caucasus, Middle East:
    The Persian commander Bahram defeats Western Gökturks, Khazars and Onoguro-Bulgars in the Caucasus, then is stemmed by the Byzantines on the Araks river; afterwards he rebels and deposes Hormizd IV replacing him with Hormizd’s son Khusraw II Parviz. The Byzantine army gains another victory over the Persians at Nisibis (Assyria). Arab tribes invade lower Mesopotamia.
    Far East:
    China is reunified by Yang Jian, founder of the Sui empire, who conquers Nanking liquidating the southern Chen kingdom.
    590
    British Isles:
    The Northern British alliance mauls the Bernicians at Ynys Metcaut (Lindisfarne), then falls apart in internal struggle. The king of DalRiada, Aedan, defeats the Picts at Leithri
    Southern Europe:
    Belisarius II’s Western Byzantines retake Padua and Mutina/Modena from the Lombards, who in turn plunder the poor remains of once thriving Aquileia. Agilulf succeeds Authari on the Lombard throne by marrying her widow Theodolinda, and moves the Lombard capital from Pavia to Modicia/Monza.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A Byzantine fleet conquers the seaports of Taurida (*OTL Crimea), whereas the interior of the peninsula is left to the Onoguro-Bulgars.
    590-591
    Caucasus, Middle East:
    Short usurpation by Bahram VI in Persia; after Maurice's great victory over Bahram at Sebastea/Sivas (Armenia) Khusraw II is reinstalled in power with support from Byzantium, and thanks for help by ceding in a peace treaty Armenia and suzerainty over Iberia/Georgia; in the latter the pro-Byzantine Stephen I ascends the throne
    590-604
    Southern Europe:
    St.Gregory I the Great is Pope in Rome: a distinguished and learned defender of Catholicism, scion of the noble Anicia gens
    591
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Slovenians invade Carantania/Carinthia
    592
    Far East:
    The Sui Chinese try to subdue the noprthern Korean kingdom of Koguryo but end up repulsed
    592-595
    Western Europe:
    Upon the death of its Merovingian Frankish ruler Gontran, Burgundy is briefly attached to Austrasia and then given as appanage to Theodoric I of the Austrasian line
    593
    British Isles:
    King Owain of North Rheged defeats and kills Morcant Bulc of Bryneich
    593-602
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine emperor Maurice leads a great campaign in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) against Avars and Slavs
    594
    Southern Europe:
    King Agilulf of the Lombards ravages Byzantine Pentapolis (Romagna and Marches), retakes and destroys Mutina/Modena and raids deep into central Italy, conquering Spoleto where a new Lombard Duchy is established; the Western Byzantines succesfully defend Perugia and the Rome-Ravenna route
    ca. 595
    Byzantine Empire:
    Macedonian Slavs begin piracy in the Aegean Sea and plunder Thasos and Samotrakia; they will go on marauding by sea up to the middle 9th century. A sizable part of the European Greek populations takes refuge in the Aegean island
    596
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards defeat Belisarius II’s Western Byzantines at the battle of Todi (Umbria) and defend the new Duchy of Spoleto
    597
    British Isles:
    The missionary Augustine, sent by Pope Gregory I the Great, christianizes the kingdom of Kent (England).
    Southern Europe:
    Agilulf briefly besieges Rome but is defeated by Belisarius II at Blera (Latium) and, after a meeting with Pope Gregory the Great, renounces any assault on Rome (also thanks to pressure from his Catholic wife Theodolinda, no doubt).
    North Africa:
    Great Berber rebellion in Western Byzantine Africa (known as Ifrigia); Carthage is under siege
    598
    British Isles:
    The Bernicians are narrowly defeated at Catreath/Catterick by the local Britons helped by Gododdin (Lothian), Dumnonia/Devon and North Rheged. The Picts defeat Aedan of DalRiada’s Scots
    599
    Southern Europe:
    The Slovenians plunder Histria, but are eventually expelled by Byzantine forces. Arabia:
    The Persians invade Yemen, destroy Ma’rib and the kingdom of Himyar; the Ethiopians are ousted from Yemen
    Far East:
    The Sui Chinese rout the Eastern Gökturks in the Ordos region, extorting tribute from them.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Mayan kindom of Calakmul heavily defeats B’aakal/Palenque, making it a vassal state.

    VII sec.
    Western Europe:
    The Irish spread Catholicism in the West and among the barbarians. Nadir of the “dark ages” in Europe, with a total collapse of the ancient urban civilization.
    Northern Europe:
    The Frisians impose themselves as trade masters in the North Sea.
    Central Asia:
    The post-Hephtalite Hunnish horde of the Nezaks dominates most of Afghanistan, ravaging from Seistan (eastern Persia) to the north of India.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Apogee of the Classic era of Mayan civilization, centered in the Petén region (Guatemala)
    ca. 600
    British Isles:
    Galloway passes from North Rheged/Brigantia to Strathclyde.
    Southern Europe:
    Emergence of a “roman” (Catholic) and a “barbarian” (Arian) parties in the Lombard kingdom. Romancia (*centered on OTL Graubünden, Switzerland) proclaims herself a Duchy, paying lip service to the Western Byzantine empire.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Slovenians, still heathen, settle down in Carantania/Carinthia and establish a Duchy of their own, occupying also Styria. The Avars enforce their ascendancy over the Slavs of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. Slavic tribes settle Germany between the middle Elba and the Oder: the Wends along the Baltic coast, the Sorbs in Lusatia, north of Bohemia. The Onoguro-Bulgars free themselves from the patronage of the Avars, now pressed by Maurice’s campaigns, and behave friendly towards the Western Gökturks
    East Africa:
    The Nubian kingdom of Nobadia/Faras is absorbed by its southern neighbour, Dongola; the strong kingdom of Mukurra is thus born, while, further south, another Nubian kingdom arises, Soba/Alwa.
    India, Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The zero is “invented” by Indian mathematicians; the Mayans too grasp the concept. Hephtalite/White Hun power in northern India comes to an end; the Rajputs (a group of warrior clans from the Rajputana region, mostly Hindu) take over with many local kingdoms. The first Chera empire in Kerala (SW India) arrives to an end.
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku rises to great power in the Andean plateau
    Pacific Ocean:
    The Polynesians settle in Tahiti and Hawaii.
    ca.600-ca.625
    India:
    Shashanka unifies Bengal for the first time, but after his demise his domains are carved between Harshavardhana of Kanauj and the kingdom of Kamarupa/Assam
    601
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Byzantine army defeats the Avars at Viminacium (Pannonia) and raids deep into the Tisza river plain
    602
    Byzantine Empire, Southern Europe:
    The Byzantine army, after receveing orders to camp and winter there, living off the land, revolts under a junior officer, Phocas, marches on Constantinople (herself revolting under the tax burden) where emperor Maurice is slain together with his entire family, save for Belisarius II who goes on ruling from Rome; this marks the end of any Byzantine authority over the Sklavinian (*OTL Balcanic) hinterland.
    Central Asia, Central-Eastern Europe:
    Fragmentation of the Western Gökturk empire, who splits in two parts, whereas the Khazars gain a wide autonomy.
    Arabia:
    The Persians wrest Tylos/Bahrain and ancient Characene (Kuwait and southernmost Iraq) from the kingdom of Hirah
    602-604
    Southern Europe:
    Lombards, Slovenians ed Avars follow one another in plundering war-torn Byzantine Histria, where Phocaists and Belisarists vie for power
    602-605
    SE Asia:
    The Sui Chinese general Liu Fang reconquers Nam Viet (Vietnam), defeats again and again the Chams and sacks their capital, Indrapura
    603
    British Isles:
    The DalRiada Scots invade Bernicia through Gododdin, but are narrowly defeated at Degsastan/Addinston
    Middle East, Caucasus:
    Khusraw II’s Persians after the assassination of Maurice (who was instrumental in enthroning Khusraw) renews war on Byzantium.
    Central Asia:
    The Eastern Gökturks distruggono destroy the first Uygur (Tele/Dulo) Khanate in Mongolia. Antipersian rebellion in Central Asia and Afghanistan (areas still colletively known as Tocharistan).
    604
    British Isles:
    The Saxon Essex kingdom accepts Christianity from Augustine
    Far East:
    Sui Yangdi murders his father Yang Jian and succeeds him on the imperial Chinese throne, moving the capital to Luoyang.
    605
    Middle East:
    The Persians oust the Bizantines from (northern) Mesopotamia.
    Far East:
    The Chinese complete the Great Canal, linking the Huang He and the Yang-tse-Kiang rivers. The Khitans rebel against the Eastern Gökturks
    606-647
    India:
    The Buddhist king Harshavardhana of Kanauj, a scion of the Guptas, reunifies most of northen India, but dies heirless and his work is quickly undone
    607
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Persians conquer Cappadocia and its chief city, Caesarea, briefly raiding up to the Bosphorus.
    Southern Europe:
    (Eastern) Byzantine Phocaist agents murder Belisarius II and his son and heir Maurice in Perugia; Pope Bonifacius III happily acknowledges Phoca’s authority in the West in exchange for a nominal recognition of Papal primacy ovver Constantinople in the Catholic church. The Aquileia Patriarchate splits in two over Belisarius II’s violent death: John Abbas, loyal to the memory of the murdered Western emperor, defects to the Lombards reopening the Patriarchal see at Aquileia under the protection of the Lombard (and Arian!) Duke of Friul Gisulf II, while Candianus takes an oath of loyalty to Phocas and keeps his see in Grado (in time, from Grad’s Patriarchate will form the Patriarchate of Venice). King Agilulf of the Lombards takes Bononia/Bologna but fails in his siege of the Byzantine/Venetic strongholds of Padua and Monselice.
    North Africa:
    Carthage and Byzantine Africa react to Belisarius II’s assassination by raising the flag of rebellion under the exarch Heraclius Crispus and his son Heraclius the Younger.
    India:
    Pulakesin II of the Vatapi/Badami Chalukyas conquers and annexes the Kadamba kingdom
    607-608
    Far East:
    The Sui Chinese invasion of Sichuan (Western China) ends in a dismal failure
    608
    Southern Europe:
    A formal peace treaty is brokered between Byzantium and the Lombards, whose possession of northern Italy (except Maritime Venetia and “Romania” around Ravenna), Tuscany and the Duchy of Spoleto (comprising most of the future Marches and Abruzzo) is recognized
    609
    Middle East, North Africa:
    The Persians conquer Osrhoene with its capital, Edessa. Heraclius’ revolt extends to Egypt and Palestine, where civil war rages; Phocas sends his troops south, thus weakening the Persian front, but to no avail
    610
    British Isles:
    The Angles of Bernicia crush and swallow the Celtic petty kingdoms of the North Pennines, Catreath/Catterick and Bryneich
    Southern Europe:
    Gisulf II, Duke of Friul, is trounced and killed at Castra Fluvii Frigidi/Aidussina by Khan Bayan’s Avars, who take and devastate Cividale together with the Slovenians of Carantania; the latter also leak into eastern Tyrol and defeat Lombards and Bavarians at Aguntum/Lienz.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Carthaginian rebel Heraclius the Younger, son of the exarch of Africa Heraclius Crispus, sails to Constantinople with his fleet, is hailed as a savior and liquidates the tyrant Phocas, ascending the Byzantine throne.
    Arabia:
    The Arab cameleer Muhammad, from the paramount Quraysh tribe of Mecca, receives the divine revelation of Islam and becomes the Prophet.
    610-620
    Byzantine Empire:
    Incessant (and unopposed) Avaro-Slavic raids throughout the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), Greece and Thrace. Quick abandonment of the Latin language in Byzantine army and bureaucracy in favor of Greek
    ca. 610-625
    India:
    king Sasanka rules Kalinga/Orissa (eastern India), then Harshavardhana of Kanauj conquers the state
    611
    Middle East, Caucasus:
    The Persians invade Syria, conquer Antioch and Theodosiopolis (*OTL Erzerum) and subjugate Armenia and Iberia/Georgia. Persian defeat against an Arab tribal army at Dhu Qar (southern Iraq).
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Mayan kingdom of B’aakal/Palenque suffers another defeat at the hands of its rival Calakmul
    612-614
    Far East:
    The Koreans of Koguryo thrice repulse imperial Chinese armies
    612-618
    Byzantine Empire:
    Thessalonica successfully resists repeated Avaro-Slavic sieges
    613
    British Isles:
    The Anglo-Saxons destroy the Celtic kingdom of South Rheged (in the area of Liverpool) reaching the Irish Sea, but the Welshmen stop them at Chester. Western Europe:
    Chlotarius II, king of Neustria, reunifies the Frankish kingdom by liquidating his relative Sigebert II, pretender to the thrones of Austrasia and Burgundy
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards resume war against Byzantium and invade southern Italy, carefully avoiding well-defended Rome.
    Middle East:
    The Persians complete their conquest of Syria and take Damascus.
    613-614
    British Isles:
    Wessex forces attack Dumnonia and kill king Bledric at Bangor-is-Coed; next year the Saxons King Clement of Dumnonia defeats them at Beandun (Bindon, Devon)
    614
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards take Benevento (Campania), where they found another powerful Duchy, and destroy the Abbey of Montecassino. The Irish monk St. Columban founds the monastery of Bobbio in the Trebbia valley (northern Apennines). Avars and Slavs destroy Salona, whose surviving inhabitants build Split/Spalato; inner Dalmatia is Slavicized, almost all of the region falls under Avar sway
    Middle East:
    Khusraw II’s Persians invade Palestine, take Jerusalem and deport its inhabitants to Mesopotamia, stealing the Christian relic of the True Cross.
    615
    Byzantine Empire:
    Renewed Persian invasion of Asia Minor up to the Bosphorus
    615-620
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Persians manage to conquer several Aegean islands
    615-683
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The very long rule of king K’inich Janaab’ Pakal I leads the Mayan city-state of Maya di B’aakal/Palenque to its apogee
    616
    British Isles:
    Edwin of Deira, with the help of King Redwald of East Anglia, conquers Bernicia at the Battle of the River Idle. King Aethelfrith of Bernicia and Deira is killed in the fighting and his children are forced to flee north to Alba/Pictland and Dalriada where they are converted to Christianity by the monks of Iona. Attempted pagan reaction in Kent and Essex
    617
    British Isles:
    The Angles of Deira terminate the Celtic kingdom of Elmet.
    Southern Europe:
    John Abbas, the pro-Lombard Patriarch of Aquileia, moves the Patriarchal See from Aquileia to Cormons (Friul).
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantines repel an Avaro-Slavic attack on Constantineple; emperor Heraclius narrowly escapes a treacherous attempted assassination during peace talks
    618
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Kubrat becomes Khan of the Onoguro-Bulgars
    Far East:
    After killing the despotic and cruel Sui Yangdi, general Li Yuan founds the glorious T’ang dynasty of China ascending the throne as T’ai-tzu and resetting the imperial capital in Chang’an/Xian.
    618-624
    Far East:
    Li Shi-Min, T’ai-tzu’s third son, crushes the rebels in northern China
    619
    North Africa:
    The Persians conquer Egypt, de facto restoring Darius’ and Xerxes’ ancient Achaemenid Persian Empire.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Heraclius, while seriously considering the idea of abandoning the beleaguered Constantinople, threatened by both Avars and Persians, on pressure from Patriarch Sergius decides for staying in the City of Constantine, provided that the local Church partakes in financing his military campaigns.
    Far East:
    The Eastern Gökturks revolt against Chinese overlordship and conquer the Tarim basin in eastern Turkestan, but lose control over the Orkhon Uygurs of Mongolia
    620
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards oust the Byzantines from northern Puglia defeating them at Fovea/Foggia
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Persians conquers Rhodes.
    India:
    Pulakesin II of the Vatapi/Badami Chalukyas defeats in battle Harrshavardhana of Kanauj, thus stopping cold his ambitions in the Deccan area.
    ca. 620
    British Isles:
    The Angles overrun the weak Celtic states in the Midlands (Caer Lerion/Leicester, Cynwidion and Calchwynedd), replacing them with a new Anglo-Saxon state, Mercia; Powys fragments into a southern and a northern half. Bernicia vassalizes its Anglic neighbor, Lindsey (Lincolnshire). The Bernician prince Enfrith marries A Pictish princess; their son Talorcan I will reign among the Picts with perfect legitimacy, being the Pictish royalty matrilineal in matters of succession.
    Arabia:
    The Prophet Muhammad preaches Islam in Mecca and gains a wide number of followers.
    East Africa:
    Axum, the capital of Ethiopia, once a simple bishopric, becomes the see of a Metropolite of the Coptic Church
    621
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards take the nothern half of Bruttium/Calabria with Cosenza and Crotone
    622
    British Isles:
    Prince Domnall Brecc of DalRiada defeats the Irish O’Neills at Cenn Delgthan, defending Scottish terrtory in Antrim (Ulster)
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine emperor Heraclius expels the Persians from Asia Minor.
    Arabia:
    The Hegira (Hijrah): the Prophet Muhammad flees from Mecca to Medina, where he soon manages to enforce his theocratic leadership.
    623
    Byzantine Empire:
    The southern Slavs raid Crete
    Caucasus:
    Heraclius’ brilliant campaign in Armenia, Kurdistan and Caucasian Albania/Azerbaijan, who are freed from Persian overlordship; Ganja, important religious center of Zoroastrism, is taken; the Mihranid ruler of Girdyaman, Varaz, accepts Christianity and reigns as Gregory over the whole of Caucasian Albania/Azerbaijan.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Frankish trader Samo creates the first Slavic kingdom in Moravia after successful revolts against the Avars, further supported by Onoguro-Bulgar raids.
    624
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards of Benevento wrest all of Lucania/Basilicata and the Cilento (southern Campania) from the Byzantines, who hold their positions in Salerno, Naples, Calabria and the southern two thirds of Puglia (plus the Rome-Ravenna “highway” in central Italy).
    North Africa:
    King Swinthila’s Spanish Visigoths conquer Tingis/Tangier on the North African coast
    Arabia:
    Muhammad defeats the Meccan forces at Badr.
    India:
    The eastern Chalukya kingdom is established when Pulakesin II of Vatapi/Badami takes the city of Vengi (coastal Andhra Pradesh region) and enthrones there his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana.
    Far East:
    Li Shi-Min of the T’ang dynasty of China eliminates his two elder brothers.
    624-627
    Arabia:
    Muhammad exiles, exterminates or sells as slaves the hostile Jewish tribes living around Medina
    625
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombard king, the Catholic Adaloald, son of Agilulfo and Theodolinda, is deposed and replaced by the Duke of Turin Arioald (an Arian) for trying an appeasement with Rome and Byzantium; the Lombard capital is finally set in Pavia. The Byzantines successfully defend their Venetic stronghold at Heraclea by killing there Duke Caco of Friul and his brother Tasso
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Persians stage a counterinvasion of Anatolia.
    Arabia:
    Inconclusive battle of Uhud between Muhammad Islamic army and the Meccan heathens.
    626
    British Isles:
    Decisive battle of Caer Gloui/Gloucester in England: the Welsh are defeated by the Saxons, who advance to the Irish Sea and conquer Caer Baddan/Bath cutting Wales from Dumnonia/Devon and creating in the newly-conquered area the kingdom of Wiccia/Hwicce.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Avar, Slavs and Persians jointly siege Constantinople, but in the end are decisively routed.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Kubrat’s Onoguro-Bulgars again fall under Avar influence and free themselves from Western Gökturk hegemony.
    Caucasus:
    Turkic-Khazar invasion of Persian Caucasus.
    Far East:
    Li Shi-Min of the T’angs of China forces his father’s abdication and ascends the throne of the Heaven’s Son as T’ai-tsung
    626-633
    British Isles:
    Brief Deiran domination over the Isle of Man, which thereafter frees itself
    627
    British Isles:
    King Edwin of Deira converts to Christianity; Paulinus founds the Archbishopric of York.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Samo’s Slavs heavily defeat the Avars.
    Middle East, Caucasus:
    Heraclius invades Mesopotamia and finally overcomes the Persians led by general Rhahzadh at Nineveh, while the Khazars take Tbilisi eradicating the Persian presence from Iberia/Georgia.
    Arabia:
    Muhammad breakes the Meccan siege of Medina in the Battle of the Trench (al-Khandaq).
    India:
    The Karkota dynasty ascends the throne of Kashmir with Prajhaditya, succeeding the Gonanda dynasty.
    SE Asia:
    The kingdom of Chenla (Laos) annexes the quickly decayed Funan empire; the Khmers, now the paramount power in the region, migrate south to Cambodia
    627-629
    Central-Eastern Europe, Southern Europe:
    Altzek’s Hunno-Bulgars, bursting out from Taurida (*OTL Crimea) at Byzantine invitation, try to shake the Avar power in Pannonia, but are defeated and take refuge in Bavaria; in the their footsteps the the Croats and the Serbs, in alliance with Byzantium, migrate from the Carpathian and settle between southern Pannonia, Illyria and Dalmatia, wresting those lands from Avar hands, while the Byzantines manage to reassert their authority over the surviving coastal towns of Dalmatia
    628
    Arabia:
    The Treaty of Hudaybiyya establishes a ten-year truce between Muhammad and the Meccans
    628-632
    Middle East:
    After the assassination of Khusraw II civil war erupts in the Sassanian Persian Empire, now reduced to servitude towards an exhausted Byzantium; conflict and anarchy persist till Yazdagird III ascends the throne
    629
    Arabia:
    The Persians abandon Yemen, where Muslim forces quickly prevail
    629-632
    Western Europe:
    New short-lived partition of the Frankish kingdom upon Chlotarius II’s death: Charibert II has Neustria, Dagobert I Austrasia and the rest
    629-649
    Far East:
    Tibet rises to great power in eastern central Asia under king Songtsen Gampo
    630
    British Isles:
    King Cadwallon of Gwynedd crushes the forces of Deira at the Long Mountain and plunders up to their territory; a Wessex invasion of Gwent (SW Wales) is routed by king Maurice at Pont-y-Saeson
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards raze Capua, thus cutting land contact between Byzantine-held Rome and Naples.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Kubrat Khan frees the Onoguro-Bulgars from Avar vassalage and creates the Khanate of Greater Bulgaria straddling the areas surrounding the Azov Sea; the new Khanate gains recognition from the Western Gökturks too; indeed one of the two Western Gökturk Khans vying for power, Bagadur Kiliug Sibir/Shibir of the Tele/Dulu (Uygurs), is a maternal uncle of Kubrat.
    Arabia:
    Muhammad reenters Mecca hailed in triumph by the populace; Meccan and Islamic forces, now united, defeat the heathen bedouins of Ta’if in the battle of Hunayn.
    Far East:
    The Chinese T’ang emperor T’ai-tsung/Li Shi-min destroys the Eastern Gökturks’ empire in Mongolia, forcing them to recognize him as their Khagan instead of the defeated Kat Il-Khan Tugbir; Chebi Khan keeps on resisting in the Altai range, but the Eastern Gökturk empire is de facto overthrown.
    630-651
    Caucasus:
    The Sabirs of Caucasia exert their supremacy over the Sarir kingdom in Daghestan, then are subjugated by the Khazars
    ca. 630
    Southern Europe:
    Altzek’s Bulgars are slaughtered by the Bavarians on pressure from the Frankish king Dagobert; Altzek leads the survivors in Italy, where they settle in the Duchy of Benevento in the Sannio subregion (between Campania and Molise).
    East Africa:
    The weakened Ethiopian Empire, abandons its old capital, Axum, being now centered in the mountain ranges south of the city
    630-640
    Far East:
    The T’ang Chinese conquer the Tarim basin (eastern Turkestan)
    631
    Central Asia:
    The Western Gökturk empire is reunified upon Sibir/Shibir Khan’s murder.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Avars quell the rebellion staged by the Kutrigurs, the western branch of the Hunno-Bulgars.
    Arabia:
    The Persians liquidate the Arab kingdom of Hirah
    631-646
    Far East:
    The Seyantos, a Tele/Dulo tribe akin to the Uygurs, create an empire between Dzungaria and the Gobi desert in the wake of Eastern Gökturk collapse, but in the end are completely wiped out by an Uygur-Chinese alliance
    632
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Samo’s Slavs defeat king Dagobert’s Franks at the battle of Wogastisburg (Germany).
    Arabia:
    Muhammad dies in Medina, hailed as the Prophet and founder of Islam. His followers, ardent with faith, already have unified Arabia and set off to the conquest and conversion of the known world.
    India:
    Chach founds the royal dynasty of Sindh
    632-634
    Arabia:
    Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s father-in-law and successor (“Caliph” meaning precisely “successor”), crushes the rebellious tribes in the Ridda, or Apostasy Wars
    632-639
    Western Europe:
    Dagobert is the last strong Merovingian ruler, reigning over the entire Frankish kingdom
    633
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Kubrat Khan is finally able to unify all Onoguro-Bulgars and manages to avoid falling under Western Gökturk patronage.
    Arabia:
    The Muslim Arabs, led by Caliph Abu Bakr, assault the Sassanian Persian empire conquering the former kingdom of Hirah
    633-634
    British Isles:
    The Celts of Wales and North Rheged/Cumberland, led by King Cadwallon of Gwynedd, gain a resounding victory at Hatfield Chase over the Anglo-Saxons of Deira, whose king Edwin dies in battle. Cadwallon even conquers York, then is defeated and killed at Heavenfield by the formerly exiled Oswald of Bernicia, allied with the DalRiada Scots, who reestablishes Bernicia as the ruling power in the Nortumbrian area. Irish monks introduce Christianity in the Northumbrian region.
    633-642
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Deira, now without a king, is newly annexed by Bernicia, but breaks upon Oswald’s death
    634
    Middle East:
    Under their new Caliph Omar the Arabs, galvanized by Islam, undertake the attack on the Byzantine Empire, beating the Byzantines at Ajnadayn (Palestine) and conquering Bosra (Syria)
    635
    British Isles:
    Wessex is converted to Christianity
    Western Europe:
    Brittany accepts Frankish suzerainty; Bro Erech, its esternmost principlaity, is shared between the Franks and the Breton state of Domnonée.
    ca. 635
    Arabia:
    The Muslim Arabs wrench Bahrain from the Persians
    636
    Southern Europe:
    Upon the death of the Lombard king Arioald, Rotharis succeeds him by marrying his widow Gundiperga, the daughter of Agilulf and Theodolinda
    Middle East:
    The Arabs heavily defeat the Byzantines at the Yarmuk (Jordan) and the Persians at Qadisiyya, where the Persian general Rustam is killed, then subdue ancient Characene (Kuwait and southernmost Iraq).
    637
    British Isles:
    The Irish O’Nell clan ousts the DalRiada Scots and their allies from Ulster at the Battle of Mag Rath
    Middle East:
    The Arabs conquer the Sassanian capital, Ctesiphon, and take Damascus overthrowing the local Monophysite Christian kingdom of Ghassan.
    India:
    Arab pirates sack Tana (near future Bombay).
    638
    British Isles:
    The Bernicians invade Gododdin but fail in the siege of Din-Eydin/Edinburgh. The Picts stop DalRiadan expansion at the battle of Glen Morriston
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombard king Rotharis (from the “barbarian” faction) destroys the Byzantine/Venetic strongholds of Padua and Monselice.
    Byzantine Empire:
    In a new attempt to broker a lasting accord with the Monophysites (who are supporting en masse the invading Muslims) emperor Heraclius and Patriarch Sergius of Constantinople abandon Monoenergism (Christ has two natures, human and divine, but one “energy), rejected by Rome and the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, and start the Monothelite controversy (Christ has only one will).
    Middle East:
    Jerusalem falls to the Muslim Arabs with Palestine, Lebanon and Edessa.
    638-662
    Byzantine Empire:
    St. Maximus the Confessor (of Carthaginian origin) is the paramount defender of Catholicism anganinst Monothelism, finally enduring martyrdom and exile for his stance
    639
    Western Europe:
    New subdivision of the Frankish kingdom upon king Dagobert’s death; the dead sovereign leaves Austrasia to Sigebert III and Neustria to Chlovis II, both weak rulers who’ll foster the ascendance of the powerful Mayors of Palace as the real force beyond the Frankish thrones. Austrasia trades Burgundy to the formerly lesser Neustria; Aquitania follows a rather independent path with a local dynasty of dukes.
    Middle East, Caucasus:
    The Arabs conquer Amida/Diyarbakir and Kurdistan
    640
    British Isles:
    King Morgan Glas of Gwent stops the Anglo-Saxon onslaught at the battle of Glastenning/Glastonbury/Avalon.
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombard duke of Benevento Arechis conquers Salerno from the Byzantines. North Africa, Middle East, Caucasus:
    The Arabs, led by ‘Amr, conquer Egypt after defeating the Byzantines at Heliopolis; they also conquer Antioch and attack Armenia taking Dvin, where they set up a local governorship.
    Far East:
    The T’ang Chinese take Turfan (eastern Turkestan) overthowing the Kara-Khodjo kingdom
    ca. 640
    Middle East:
    Caliph Omar enforces the poll-tax (jizya) and land tax (kharadj) on non-Muslims, which will result in mass conversion to Islam in most conquered lands. In the mountains of inner central Lebanon a solid block of Christians, led by the Mardaite warrior elite, resists the Muslim conquest and founds the Marada States, de facto free from Muslim yoke for centuries onwards
    641
    North Africa, Middle East:
    The Arabs take Alexandria and the last Byzantine stronghold in Palestine, Jaffa; in Alexandria they commit the unspeakable crime of burning the books of the ancient hellenistic Library, likely the greatest in the world.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Upon Heraclius’ death in Constantineple, Heracleonas, son of Heraclius and his niece and second wife (!) Martina, and Constantine III, Heracleonas half-brother, expected to reign over the West from Rome, are enthroned according to Heraclius’ last will; but when Constantine quickly dies, Patriarch Pyrrhus and the Senate, following popular hate against Martina, depose and mutilate her and Heracleonas (plus Martina’s other surviving sons). In their place the young Belisarius III (*OTL Constans II), son of Constantine III, is enthroned under the regency of the Senate. During this succession crisis, the Byzantine exarch of Africa Gregory the Patrician rebels, backed by the local fleet, and has himself hailed as Western Roman emperor; most Aegean Sea islands, controlled by his fleet, side with him
    642
    British Isles:
    Mercia, with help from the Welshmen, gains supremacy over central England defeating and killing king Oswald of Bernicia at Maes Cogwy/Oswestry. King Owen of Strathclyde halts DalRiadan Scottish expansion by killing King Domnall I Brecc of Dalriada at the Battle of Strathcarron.
    Southern Europe:
    The Slavic Narentan tribe, pushed ahead by the onrushing Serbs, with Byzantine help stages an all-out invasion of southern Italy through the Adriatic Sea: the Lombards of Benevento, caught by surprise and ridden with internal conflicts, are overwhelmed at Ausculum/Ascoli Satriano, Benevento is taken and razed by the Slavic horde, who soon proves to be completely out of Byzantine control and goes rampant throughout the south of Italy. Surviving Lombard forces withdraw north to the Spoleto Duchy.
    Caucasus:
    Khazars and Arabs begin to clash in the Caucasus region
    Middle East:
    The Arabs beat the Persians at Jalula and finally trounce them at Nehavend, near Hamadan, securing their hold on western Persia.
    India:
    The Pallava king of southern Deccan Narasimhavarman defeats and kills the Chalukya ruler Pulakesin II and destroys his capital, Vatapi/Badami (Karnataka, SW India).
    643
    Southern Europe:
    The Slavic horde in southern Italy narrowly fails the siege of Naples, frantically held by the staggered Byzantines, then heads north in the Apennines
    North Africa:
    The Arabs conquer Barce, Cyrenaica.
    644
    Middle East:
    Caliph Omar is murdered; his appointed successor Uthman will arrange the final layout of the Quran, the holy text of Islam.
    Southern Europe:
    The Narentan Slavic horde is stopped by an unholy Byzantine-Lombard alliance in the battle of the Marmore Waterfalls (Umbria); but neither the Lombards nor the Byzantines can chase the surviving Slavs from the inner south of Italy, where the tribal Slavic duchy of Idalska is established with its capital in Avlengrad/Avellino
    644-646
    Far East:
    The Korean kingdom of Koguryo stages a brilliant defence against two subsequent Chinese invasions
    645
    North Africa:
    The Arabs take Tripoli (Libya) and the island of Djirva (*OTL Djerba).
    Caucasus:
    The Arabs conquer Tbilisi and install there an emirate: the Christian kingdom of Iberia/Georgia survives as a vassal state.
    Far East:
    The Nakatomis/Fujiwaras replace the Sogas as the paramount Japanese clan. The Vijaya (Buddhist) kingdom of Khotan (eastern Turkestan) frees itself from T’ang Chinese yoke under Futushin/Fudu Xiong/Vijaya Sangrama
    645-647
    North Africa:
    The Byzantines retake Alexandria, but their desperate attempt to reeconquer Egypt is frustrated at the battle of Naqyus by general ‘Amr, the Muslim conqueror of the county; then Alexandria itself falls again to the Arabs
    645-648
    British Isles:
    Wessex is temporarily overrun by king Penda of Mercia, who also gains suzerainty over Wiccia/Hwicce
    646
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Arabs conquer the Byzantine fortress of Melitene (*OTL Malatya) on the upper Euphrates
    Far East:
    The Uygurs, dwelling in the Orkhon region of Mongolia, after destroying the Seyanto power become vassal to the T’ang Chinese empire.
    647
    Southern Europe:
    The Slavs of Idalska (southern Italy) take and raze Naples; the surviving Byzantine forces in the region are besieged in Salerno and the Amalfi peninsula. The loyalist Byzantine fleet clears the Aegean from Gregory’s supporters. Following the Byzantine-Lombard thaw after the Slavic aggression in Italy, the archbishop of Milan John Bonus reinstates the Ambrosian see in its due town after 73 years of exile.
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East, Central Asia:
    The Arabs unleash their first raids into Anatolia; they also conquer Cyprus and the Persian regions of Fars/Persis and Seistan.
    India:
    Harshavardhana of Kanauj is newly repulsed by the Chalukyas in the Malwa, then dies heirless and his empire splinters into local kingdoms. He was the last great Budddhist ruler of India: Buddhism itself begins to quickly disappear from northern India, save for the Bengal area.
    648
    Byzantine Empire:
    The young basileus (Byzantine emperor) Belisarius III renounces Monothelism as a gesture of good will towards the Papacy. The Arabs sack and destroy Salamis, the ancient capital of Cyprus
    Far East:
    T’ai-tsung/Li Shi-min, the T’ang ruler of China, defeats and vassalizes the Tibetans.
    649
    Southern Europe:
    The Lateran Council, held in a beleaguered Rome under the threat of Idalskan Slavic raids and the influence of St. Maximus the Confessor, condemns as heresies both Monothelism and Monoergism; another Council in Carthage confirms the rejection of these doctrines in the Christian West
    North Africa:
    The Arabs attack Byzantine Africa (Ifrigia) but the self-proclaimed emperor Gregory abandons his capital at Sufetula/Sbeitla and locks himself in Carthage, whence he sharply repels the invaaders.
    649-653
    Byzantine Empire:
    Temporary Byzantine recapture of Cyprus
    650
    India:
    The Salasthambhas replace the extinct Varman dynasty on the throne of Kamarupa/Assam (NE India). The Somvamsi dynasty takes over in Kalinga/Orissa
    Central Asia, Far East:
    The Qarluq/Kipchak, a collateral Uygur group, under the pressure of the T’ang Chinese and their Uygur vassal migrate to the upper Irtyš river region
    ca. 650
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The White Croats’ kingdom arises straddling the Tatra Mountains, Silesia and Bohemia. The Khazars free themselves from Western Gökturk tutelage.
    Southern Europe:
    The Slavic wave of colonization in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) stops, the area having beeen almost completely Slavicized; only the Vlachs, dispersed in semi-nomadic groups in the area, Greek and Dalmatian coastal strongholds and the solid block of Illyrians in Albania resist the barbarians. The Serbians eenforce theire rule between Macedonia and Bosnia under their “ban” (leader, prince) Svevlad. In southern Italy/Idalska, the local Slavs go rampant with piracy in both the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea, sacking and pillaging from Greece to Sardinia and distant Africa.
    North Africa:
    The Zenete (Berber) tribe of the Jarawas, paramount in the Aurés region of Numidia, converts en masse to Judaism under its chieftain Tifanes.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Theme State structure is finally established within the Byzantine empire: each theme is a civilian and military province, inhabited by peasant-soldiers and ruled by a strategos (generalissimo).
    Caucasus:
    The Arabs vassalize the Georgian kingdom of Khakheti.
    Central Asia:
    An independent Turkic-Sogdian kingdom arises in the Usrushana (the region north of Samarcanda, centered around Chach/Tashkent)
    East Africa:
    The Arabs start spreading Islam along the eastern coast of Africa.
    SE Asia:
    The Srivijaya kingdom enforces its power as master of the Malacca and Sunda Straits; it also conquers the kingdom of Taruma on western Java. Buddhism spreads into the Chenla kingdom (Laos and Cambodia).
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The city and empire of Teotihuacàn in Mexico are destroyed; local ascendancy now passes over to Cholula (near Puebla).
    651
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Greater Bulgaria wrests control over Moldavia from the Avars, who are repelled beyond the Carpathian range.
    North Africa, Southern Europe:
    The African rebel Gregory passes in Sicily and conquers the island in a short campaign
    East Africa, North Africa:
    The Arabs sign a non-aggression pact (“bakt”) with Christian Nubia (kingdom of Mukurra).
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    The last Sassanian emperor of Persia, Yazdagird III, is murdered at Merv; the Arabs subjugate Khorasan conquering Nishapur and defeat on the upper Euphrates Khazars and Alans, called for help by the Byzantines.
    Far East, Central Asia:
    T’ang Chinese supremacy extends up to the Kirghiz and Khakassian lands on the upper Yenisey.
    652
    British Isles:
    King Penda of Mercia invades Bernicia and vainly besieges Oswiu in Bamburgh
    Southern Europe:
    The self-proclaimed Western Roman emperor, Gregory, sets his capital in Syracuse and has the ancient Sicilian town fortified. The new Lombard king Aribert I, Theodolinda’s grandson, formally enforces Catholicism over Arianism. The Slavs of Idalska, now unified under their ban/duke Zveroboj, vainly besiege Rome, then ravage the Lombard duchy of Spoleto before withdrawing south again.
    Central Asia:
    Persia is finally tamed by the Arabs, who also leak into northern Afghanistan where they take the town of Balkh. Despite the Muslim conquest and the spreading of Islam, Zoroastrism will survive stubbornly, though as a minority, throughout the lands between the Caucasus and Central Asia. Khorezm frees itself from Western Gökturk vassalage and strongly opposes Arab encroachments.
    East Africa:
    The Arabs invade Eritrea and spread Islam there.
    653
    British Isles:
    King Penda of Mercia accepts baptism
    Southern Europe:
    Belisarius III, angered by the Western church’s independence and condemnation of Monothelism (he never really renounced it) sends an army to Ravenna; the Byzantines then march on Rome, but the Western emperor Gregory, with a naval expedition, anticipates them entering Rome and carries Pope Martin I and most prelates to safety in Syracuse. The Pope was in danger of being kidnapped by Belisarius III’s men, who thereafter occupy the Urbs Aeterna, where they severely mistreat the remaining Catholic clergy.
    Byzantine Empire, Caucasus:
    Arab takeover of Byzantine (western) Armenia, ridden with internal squabbling, of Rhodes and the Dodecanese.
    653-660
    British Isles:
    Talorcan I reigns over the Picts under Bernician overlordship (he is Oswiu’s nephew), later rejected upon his death
    654
    British Isles:
    King Penda of Mercia invades East Anglia, whose ruler Anna dies in battle
    655
    British Isles:
    King Penda of Mercia agan invades Bernicia with Welsh allies, then, at the battle of Winwaed, he is killed by Oswiu’s army
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Belisarius III is defeated at Phoenix (off the Lycian coast, SW Anatolia) by the Arab fleet.
    655-658
    British Isles:
    King Oswiu of Bernicia briefly dominates Mercia
    ca. 655
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Christian heresy of Paulicianism (from the name of St. Paul) appears in Anatolia, preached by the Armenian Constantine of Manamali (near Samosata, on the upper Euphrates). Dualist and Manichaean in nature, with a drive for restoration of primitive Christianity, it will gain a wide following between Syria and Armenia; later its Bogomil and Cathar variants will be widely accepted in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), in France and northern Italy and in Christian North Africa.
    North Africa:
    The Arabs begin constant raids into Byzantine Africa
    655-672
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Mayan city-state of Mutul/Tikal is vassal to its rival Calakmul
    656
    British Isles:
    The Anglo-Saxons led by king Oswiu of Bernicia complete their conquest of the Midlands, then a Welsh alliance led by Maurice II repel them on the Severn river.
    Arabia, Middle East:
    Caliph Uthman is murdered in Medina at the hands of rebel Egyptian Muslims; he is succeeded by Alì, cousin of the Prophet Muhammad and husband to his daughter Fatima, but soon civil war erupts. Alì overcomes his enemies, led by Aysha, Muhammad’s last wife, at the Battle of the Camel near Basra
    657
    Southern Europe:
    The exarch of Ravenna, Olympius, has himself hailed emperor by the Byzantine troops in Rome; he subsequently appoints a Pope of his own, John (V) Venantius, while in Syracuse Vitalian succeeds Pope Martin I. Zveroboj’s Slavic heathen horde again heads north, then trounces and kills Olympius at Praeneste/Palestrina; thereafter the Slavs horribly sack and put to the torch Rome, slaying its inhabitants and carrying away John (V) as a slave
    Middle East:
    The Muslim governor of Syria, Mu’awya, of the Arab Umayyad clan, rebels against Alì; a tense struggle for power, not without attempts to broker accords, ensues. Some of Alì’s followers abandon him in favor of di Mu’awya and create the Kharijite sect of Islam (egualitarian and and rigorist, which will gain wide acceptance in Egypt, Libya and parts of Arabia and Syria).
    Central Asia:
    The T’ang Chinese, taking advantage of internecine strife, destroy the Western Gökturk empire; they will occupy for some years Sogdiana (Central Asia), turning it thereafter into an increasingly weak protectorate, while the Western Gökturks will reorganize. A branch of the Eastern Gökturks, the Turgesh/T’u-Ch’ueh, splinters in two groups composed by five tribes each. They migrate from the Orkhon valley in Mongolia respectively to the Volga (the Yellow Turgesh, who merge with the Khazars) and to the Talas river in Central Asia (the Black Turgesh, later known as Oghuz/Ouzoi).
    657-658
    Byzantine Empire, Caucasus:
    Byzantine temporary recapture of Melitene (*OTL Malatya) and (western) Armenia; the Arabs quickly regain both. The news from Rome shock the Byzantines and Carthaginians alike
    658
    British Isles:
    Mercia shakes off Bernician suzerainty, asserting its independence under king Wulfhere, son of Penda, and gains the obedience of Lindsey (Lincolnshire).
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombards occupy abandoned Rome, reduced to an impressive field of ruins
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Samo’s death is followed by the quick disintegration of his Slavic empire; the Slovenians reestablish their own principality of Koroška/Carantania. Greater Bulgaria divides into two main hordes, the Black Bulgarians west of the Don river, the White Bulgarians east of it.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantines also retake Rhodes from Arab hands.
    Caucasus:
    The kingdom of Sarir (Daghestan), a vassal to the Khazars, converts to Zoroastrism.
    Middle East:
    Caliph Alì defeats the Kharijites at Nahrawan.
    Far East:
    The T’ang Chinese vassalize the kingdom of Kucha (eastern Turkestan).
    658-659
    Byzantine Empire:
    Belisarius III kills his brother and co-emperor Theodosius to eliminate a possible rival for the crown for his sons; then, hated by the populace because of this crime, abandons Constantinople to lead a vast campaign against the Slavs in Thrace and Macedonia, vanquishing and deporting thousands of them to Anatolia, and sets his new headquarters in Thessalonica. St. Maximus the Confessor is jailed, tortured, mutilated and exiled to Schemarion (Lazica) for his opposition to Monothelism.
    Far East:
    Two renewed T’ang Chinese offensives against Koguryo fail
    658-661
    British Isles:
    A renewed Wessex offensive wrests Somerset from Dumnonia/Devon
    660
    Southern Europe:
    Basileus Belisarius III sails from Thessalonica with a fleet and army and regains control over coastal Dalmatia, where he recruits thousands of Serbs and Croats; with these he crosses the Adriatic Sea and winters in Siponto (northern Puglia).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khagan of Greater Bulgaria, Kubrat, dies; he is succeeded by his elder son Bat-Boyan, while his second son Kotrag gains independence east of the Don river with his horde.
    Central Asia:
    The Arabs take Herat (Afghanistan)
    Far East:
    After striking an alliance with the southern Korean kingdom of Silla, the T’ang Chinese destroy its neighbour state, Paekche, with a naval expedition.
    ca. 660
    Caucasus:
    Lazica (NW Georgia) becomes formally independent from Byzantium under king Barnuk I: it nevertheless remains a staunch ally of the Byzantines against the Arabs
    661
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombard king Aribert I dies at Pavia: a civil war ensues between his sons Gothefrid (supported by the “barbarian” faction) and Bertharid (a “Romanophile”), with the latter fleeing for safety to the Avar Khaganate
    Middle East:
    A Kharijite assassinates Caliph Alì: Mu’awya, now the new Caliph, transfers the capital from Medina to Damascus and founds the Omayyad dynasty. Alì’s remaining followers, instead, create the Islamic Shi’a sect, who supports Muhammad’s direct descendants, opposed to the majoritary “Sunnis” (followers of the Sunnah and the Hadith of the Prophet, the tradition).
    661-662
    Southern Europe:
    In a fierce series of campaigns Belisarius III mauls and enslaves the heathen Slavs of Idalska in the south of Italy; their ban/duke Zveroboj is impaled after losing the battle of Drevnja Gora/Mt. Terminio (Campania)
    661-670
    British Isles:
    Wessex vassalizes Sussex, but Mercia intervenes and wrests from Wessex the Meonware and the Isle of Wight, later handed to Sussex
    662
    British Isles:
    Definitive conversion of Essex to Christianity
    Southern Europe:
    Grimoald, son of the former Duke of Friul Gisulf II, an Arian from the “barbarian” faction of the Lombards, usurps the throne at Pavia by eliminating his brother-in-law king Gothefrid. The Arabs stage their first pirate raids on Sicily.
    662-663
    Far East:
    The Japanese are newly ousted from Korea after vainly trying to help Paekche against Silla and China
    663
    British Isles:
    King Oswiu of Bernicia attempts to take over North Rheged on dynastical claims but is killed by a Rheged-Gododdin-Pictish alliance
    Southern Europe:
    Basileus Belisarius III marches on Rome; Grimoald’s Lombards entrench in the ruined city, stubbornly resisting the Byzantine siege and calling for help the new Western Byzantine emperor Maurus Heraclian, Gregory’s eldest son. When Maurus lands in Naples and marches north, Belisarius III raises the siege of Rome. The two Byzantine armies clash at Arpino (Latium): when Belisarius III seems to be on the winning side, he falls, pierced by a javelin, and his army surenders. Duke Lupus of Friul sacks Grado and carries the Patriarchal treasury in Aquileia.
    Caucasus:
    When king Guaram II dies the kingdom of Iberia/Georgia, vassal to the Arab Caliphate, sinks into a very long era of dynastical struggles.
    663-664
    Southern Europe:
    Duke Lupus of Friul tries to usurp the Lombard throne in Pavia taking advantage of Grimoald being stuck in subduing the rebellious Duchy of Spoleto; the Avars and Slovenians then stage a devastating invasion of Friul to support the fugitive Bertharid in a three-sided civil war. Maurus Heraclian, now the sole ruler of Byzantine West, deports by the thousands the vanquished Slavs of Idalska to Sicily and the exarchate of Carthage as a barrier against the Arabs; Ravenna and the Venetic Duchy confirm instead their loyalty to the new basileus in Constantinople, young Constantine IV
    663-668
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Greater Bulgaria, already threatened by the Khazars, implodes in a succession war between Kubrat’s sons
    664
    Southern Europe:
    Chaos in Lombard Italy, with Bertharid controlling Friul and inner Veneto supported by Avars, Slavs and Eastern Byzantines, Grimoald holding central Italy supported by the Western Byzantines and Lupus keeping most of the north with support from the Franks and the Bavarians
    665
    Southern Europe:
    The Neustrian Franks enter Italy in support of Lupus - who swore loyalty to the Catholic cause to gain their support, then clash with Bertharid’s Avaro-Slavs at the Mincio river: Bertharid is captured and blinded, his allies routed back to Friul. In the meantime Grimoald takes and razes the Eastern Byzantine fortress of Forlimpopoli (Romagna) and occupies Emilia.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Avars newly enforce their rule over the Moravian Slavs, whose power has decayed after Samo’s demise.
    Central Asia:
    Tabaristan, a mountainous region south of the Caspian Sea whose inhabitants didn’t convert to Islam, frees itself from Arab yoke under Bau ibn Qabus, founder of the local Bavandid dynasty, and becomes a troublesome Zoroastrian enclave shielded by its mountains
    ca. 665
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars become the paramount rulers between the Caspian and the Black Sea and absorb the remains of Greater Bulgaria; they establish a powerful empire whose influence extends from the middle Volga to the Caucasus range. The southern Onoguro-Bulgarians of the Terek river region, pushed west by Khazar power, settle in future Circassia (NW Caucasus) and in Taurida (*OTL Crimea)
    666
    Southern Europe:
    Grimoald’s army, led by his sons Garibald and Romuald, marches on Luni and Genoa, then suddenly appears in the Frankish rear in Piedmont: Lupus and his son Arnefridus then fall in battle at Pontestura (Montferrat), where the Franks are annihilated; then Grimoald himself ousts the Avars and Slovenians from Friul overcoming them at Opitergium/Oderzo.
    667
    North Africa:
    The Arabs conquer the kingdom of Phazania (Fezzan, Libya)
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars, with Western Gökturk support, defeat on the Volga the Onoguro-Bulgarians ridden by succession struggles.
    Central Asia:
    The Arabs kill the last Sassanian pretender to the throne of Persia, Firuz, and invade Transoxania (Central Asia) beyond the Oxus/Amu Darja river.
    668
    British Isles:
    King Ecgfrith of Bernicia repels an invasion led by the southern Picts, pushed ahead by the DalRiada Scots.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Onoguro-Bulgarians defat the Khazars at the Khalka river, near the Don river’s mouth, nevertheless they must acknowledge Khazar suzerainty
    Far East:
    The kingdom of Silla, with T’ang Chinese support, crushes its northern rival Koguryo and unifies Korea under king Munmu.
    669
    Southern Europe:
    Basileus Constantine IV sails to Sicily with the Eastern Byzantine fleet and puts Syracuse under siege; Pope Vitalianus, with a safe-conduct, is allowed to leave the besieged town for Carthage. The Lombard king Grimoald destroys the last Eastern Byzantine strongholds on mainland Veneto, Concordia Sagittaria and Eraclea, whose inhabitants take refuge into the lagoons.
    North Africa:
    The Arabs invade inner Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) and massacre the local Christians; in the ensuing chaos many deported Idalskan Slavs desert and convert to Islam, others stay loyal.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Black Bulgarians west of the Dnieper river secede from the remains of Greater Bulgaria under Asparukh, the third son of Kubrat; the tribes dwelling between Don and Dnieper recognize instead Bat-Boyan as their Khan
    670
    Southern Europe:
    Constantine IV takes Syracuse by famine after a one year long siege: the Western Emperor Maurus Heraclian is tortured and slain. Then Constantine heads to Carthage, where Constantianus, Maurus’ son and heir, flees to the Arabs for safety: the Byzantine empire is thus reunified
    North Africa:
    The Arabs found al-Kayrawan as their outpost in Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia).
    Central Asia:
    The Arabs subdue Afghanistan (though leaving in place the existing pre-Islamic rulers).
    Far East:
    The Tibetans vassalize the entire region of eastern Turkestan.
    ca. 670
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Bat-Boyan’s Onoguro-Bulgarians are finally subdued by the Khazars
    671
    Southern Europe:
    Upon Grimoald’s death his sons Garibald and Romuald divide the Lombard kingdom among themselves, establishing the kingdoms and dynasties of Lombard Neustria (centered at Pavia) and Austrasia centered at Zividal tal Friul [*OTL Cividale del Friuli]); the former rules northern Italy up to the Adda river, Tuscany and Rome; the latter Veneto, Friul, Trentino, Tyrol, and has a theoretical suzerainty over the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto
    North Africa:
    Constantine IV overcomes the Arabs at al-Kayrawan, razing the new city.
    672
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Arab fleet retakes Rhodes (where the remains of the Colossus are sold to a cameleer...) and leaks into the sea of Marmara, where they take the strategic Cyzicum peninsula, whence they blockade Constantineples itself. When news arrive in Carthage, Constantine IV hurries back to Thessalonica, where he eliminates the rebellious Slav chieftain Perbundus (whose warriors vainly siege the city in revenge); thereafter he reaches his capital by land.
    Southern Europe:
    A new schism arises when Pope Vitalianus dies in Carthage: some of the exiled Roman prelates, fearing both Byzantine power and renewed Muslim aggression, come back in Rome where Adeodatus II is elected Pope with Lombard agreement (while the city itself is left de facto under Papal authority by king Garibald, eager to avoid any problem with the Catholic church), while in Carthage another faction, supported by Constantine IV, elects Donus
    672-678
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantinople successfully resist the Arab naval blockade; the Byzantine fleet exploits a most ingenious weapon, the “Greek Fire”, a forerunner to the flamethrower
    672-680
    Western Europe:
    In Visigothic Spain King Wamba pesecutes the Jews, accusing them to be in favor of a Berber invasion of Spain
    673
    British Isles:
    After various postponements because of the papal vacancy from Rome, the Synod of Whitby (Northumbria) seals the complete Christianization of the British islands; the Irish church, grown in authority and independence, pays obedience to the Roman Popes
    673-676
    Western Europe:
    Childeric II and Chlovis III briefly reunify the Frankish domains under the Austrasian line, then Neustria reasserts independence under Dagobert II
    674
    India:
    The Chalukyas of SW India sack the Pallava capital, Kanchi (near Madras).
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Arabs conquer Crete
    674-678
    British Isles:
    Bernicia momentarily wrests suzerainty over the Anglic kingdom of Lindsey/Lincolnshire from Mercia
    675
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The western Bulgarian horde led by Asparukh arrives on the lower Danube.
    North Africa:
    The Arab general Abu’l Muhajir reinvades Byzantine Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), where only Carthage and a handful of coastal fortresses resist the Muslim onslaught; he installs in Sufetula/Sbeitla Constantianus as Amir al-Kafirun (Prince of Infidels), a useful pawn against the Byzantines
    675-676
    British Isles:
    The Mercians, repulsed in Wessex, turn against Kent and ravage it
    676
    Southern Europe:
    With the Peace of Spoleto Byzantium and the Neustrian Lombard king Garibald broker a lasting accord on both religious and military matters, taking advantage of the death of the Roman Pope Adeodatus II. The Carthaginian candidate Donus is installed in Rome as the new sole Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, which also reconciles with the Archbishopric of Ravenna, always loyal to Constantinople in previous disputes (notably the Three Chapters, but also Monothelism); Rome is acknowledged as the Pope’s estate, with a joint Byzantine-Lombard garrison “to protect the Holy See”. Ravenna, Romagna and the Pentapolis (northern Marches) are recognized as Byzantine possessions, while Perugia and the Rome-Ravenna corridor pass under the Lombard Duchy of Spoleto, whose independence (and Catholicism) is agreed upon by all parts. Lombard Neustria finally accepts Catholicism, while tolerating Arianism (still paramount in Lombard Austrasia). Middle East:
    While Byzantium itself is rejecting Monothelism as a useless tool, the Christians of Lebanon accept the Monothelite doctrine and found the Maronite Church (from the name of St. Maron, a monk living two centuries before), whose Patriarch will be recognized by the Marada State of inner Lebanon as their supreme authority
    677
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantines gain a decisive victory over the Arab fleet at Syllaeum (Sea of Marmara).
    North Africa:
    Abu’l Muhajir invades Numidia, takes Constantina and Stifa (*OTL Sétif) and defeats prince Kusayla of Tlemsen (*OTL Tlemcen), who converts to Islam to have his life spared
    678
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Arabs, utterly defeated, raise the blockade of Constantinople
    Central-Eastern Europe, Southern Europe:
    The Ultzindur Onoguro-Bulgarians of Taurida (*OTL Crimea), led by Kuber, the fourth son of Kubrat, migrate to Pannonia accepting vassalage to the Avars; Emnetzur, Kuber’s leads his own group in a peaceful migration to Italy, where they settle in Byzantine Romagna and Pentapolis, intermingling with local Italians.
    679
    British Isles:
    Deira is finally annexed to Bernicia to form Northumbria
    Western Europe:
    Dagobert II of (Frankish) Austrasia is killed and the Frankish kingdom is newly unified by Neustria under Theodoric III.
    679-680
    Southern Europe:
    Asparukh’s Bulgarians defeat Constantine IV’s Byzantines, cross the Danube and set their new capital at Pliska (Bulgaria); Byzantium accepts defeat and recognizes the new power, which starts recruiting the Slavic tribes already dwelling in the region
    679-681
    Far East:
    The Eastern Gökturks free themselves from T’ang Chinese yoke and rebuld their empire
    679-682
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Mutul/Tikal is temporarily subjugated by Dos Pilas during the incessant warfare between the Mayan city-states
    680
    Southern Europe:
    Austrasian Lombards and Bavarians decisively stem the Carantanians/Slovenians in the battle of the Drava springs (Tyrol).
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Omayyad Caliphate accepts a peace with Byzantium, which regains Crete, Rhodes, Cyprus and most of Anatolia and even a gold tribute from the Arabs.
    Caucasus:
    The Arabs subdue the Christian kingdom of Caucasian Albania/Azerbaijan, where a century-long process of conversion to Islam begins.
    Middle East:
    Upon Mu’awya’s death a brief but violent civil war erupts in the Caliphate between the Shiites, led by Husayn, a grandson of Prophet Muhammad, and the Sunni Omayyads; Husayn in the end is murdered at Kerbala (Iraq), while Hijaz with the holy cities of Mecca and Medina secede from Caliphal authority under Abu Khubayb Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr, nephew of Khadija, the Prophet’s first wife, and grandson of Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, who gains support in Iraq, Arabia and parts of Syria and Egypt.
    Central Asia:
    The Turkic-Uygur confederation of the Qarluqs, dwelling to the east of the Aral lake, overthrows Chinese suzerainty.
    SE Asia:
    When the Indochinese kingdom of Dvaravati falls under Srivijayan Sumatran suzerainty, the Mon Buddhist kingdom of Haripunjaya arises in the Chiang Mai region of northern Siam, as an offspring from Dvaravati
    ca. 680
    British Isles:
    Sussex is finally Christianized
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Tutul Xiu tribes begine their migration into Yucatàn.
    680-681
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Quinisextum Council, held in Constantineple under the auspices of Constantine IV and recognized by all parts involved (save the eastern Jacobite/Nestorian, Monophysite and Coptic Churches) finally rejects Monothelism and reimposes Nicene Catholicism. When things are settled, Constantine IV has his younger brothers Heraclius and Tiberius mutilated of the nose to ensure they’ll not defy Constantine’s son, Belisarius, for the throne
    680-683
    British Isles:
    Brude III, king of the southern Picts, subdues almost all of Alba/Pictland an vassalizes DalRiada
    682
    British Isles:
    Death of St. Cadwallader the Blessed of Gwynedd (Wales), the last Celtic king to claim the title of High King of Britain.
    North Africa:
    The Arab general Uqba bin Nafe, after refounding al-Kayrawan, reaches the Atlantic Ocean in Mauretania with his Muslim Arabs, sacking and massacring on the way, but on his way back he is surprised by the Judeo-Christian Berber rebellion led by the prince of Tlemsen Kusayla, who renegades his forced conversion to Islam. Kusayla’s rebels push Uqba bin Nafe south in the desert, where the Zenetes kill him at Ghardaya.
    Central Asia, Far East:
    The Western Gökturks rebuild their empire under Kutlugh Ilteres Khagan and wrest from T’ang China suzerainty over the Uygurs of Mongolia and the Khirghizes/Khakassians
    682-690
    Byzantine Empire:
    Byzantine repression of the Paulician movement in Anatolia: its leader Constantine of Manamali is stoned to death, but very officer who had him martyred, Simeon, converts on the spot becoming the new Paulician leader, till he himself is burned at the stake
    683
    North Africa:
    Kusayla of Tlemsen invades Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), razes al-Kayrawan and Sufetula/Sbeitla and personally beheads the Arabs’ puppet, Constantianus
    Arabia:
    Caliph Yazid I marches on Mecca against Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr, but dies while besieging the holy city and his army withdraws.
    684
    Middle East:
    The Banu Kalb, supporters of the ruling Omayyad clan, defeat the rebellious Banu Qays at the battle of Marj Rahit.
    India:
    The second Lambakanna dynasty replaces the Moriya rulers in Sri Lanka/Ceylon
    684-685
    Middle East, North Africa:
    Caliph Marwan I briefly rules for one year, managing to wrest all of Syria and Egypt from Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr’s hands before dying
    685
    British Isles:
    Northumbria vassalizes North Reged/Cumberland, then invades southern Scotland overrunning the Celtic kingdom of Gododdin, but in the end the Northumbrians suffer a disastrous rout at the hands of a Pictish-Briton alliance at Nechtansmere, where their king Ecgfrith is killed in battle; the Anglo-Saxons are thus ousted from the Lowlands. The kingdom of Man gains overlorship over Galloway and Strathclyde. In the south of England the Saxons of Hwicce/Wiccia finally take Glastenning/Glastonbury from the Britons of Avalon, who resisted here for decades.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Belisarius IV (*OTL Justinian II), a paranoid sociopath, begins his infamous rule on the Byzantine throne by treacherously massacring thousands of Lebanese Mardaites who didn’t want to be deported to Anatolia and the Peloponnese (like instead Byzantine-Arab accords imposed)
    685-687
    Middle East:
    At Kufa (Iraq) the Shiites stage a great revolt under al-Mukhtar and Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya, a natural son of Alì: the rebellion is crushed by Omayyad forces
    686-688
    British Isles:
    Wessex, now fully united under king Caedwalla, reconquers Surrey, Meonware and Wight, overruns Sussex and vassalizes Essex; also Kent is vassalized, but quickly breaks free again, though losing London in favor of Essex. In the end, when Caedwalla abdicates to go on a pilgrimage to Rome, Mercia is able to reestablish its supremacy and gains overlorship over Kent
    Byzantine Empire, Caucasus:
    The Byzantine general Leontius leads a successful campaign in Armenia and Iberia, up to Caucasian Albania; Belisarius IV leads a successful expedition against the Slavs in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and resettles them in the thousands in Anatolia as buffers against further Arab encroachments. In the end a new truce between the Arabs and Byzantium “neutralizes” the island of Cyprus, Armenia and Iberia making them “shared” domains whose revenue goes equally to the Arabs and Byzantium.
    687
    British Isles:
    Danish raiders destroy the abbey of Whitby (Northumbria)
    Western Europe:
    Pepin II of Heristal enforces his rule over local lords as Theoderic III’s mayor of palace.
    688
    North Africa:
    The Arabs defeat Kusayla of Tlemsen at the Battle of the Shotts and reconquer Ifrigia (save Carthage and other Byzantine coastal fortresses)
    688-698
    Middle East:
    Kharijite revolts shake Caliphal power in Iraq and Persia
    690
    British Isles:
    The kingdom of Dunbar succeeds the overthrown Gododdin in the Lothian region. Northern Europe:
    The Anglo-Saxon preacher Willibrord begins his evangelization in Frisia and Germany
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Byzantines lose Soldaia/Sudak (Chersonese/Taurida [*OTL Crimea]) at the hands of the Khazars.
    Caucasus:
    Basileus Belisarius IV resumes the war with the Arabs over Armenia.
    Far East:
    The Chinese empress mother Wu Zetian takes power on her own setting apart the legitimate T’ang heirs in favor of her relatives (which bore the new dynastic name of Zhou); she will prove capable, but greedy and cruel.
    691-697
    Caucasus:
    The renewed Byzantine occupation of Lazica (NW Georgia) ends with the Arab conquest
    692
    Northern Europe: The Frankish mayor of palace Pepin of Heristal defeats the king of the Frisians, Radbod I, and forces him to abandon the royal title to assume that of Duke
    Caucasus, Byzantine Empire:
    At Sebastea (*OTL Sivas), Armenia, the Arabs gain a brilliant victory over the Byzantines led by general Leontius, thanks to the desertion of the Byzantine Slavic troops, then Belisarius IV (after arresting Leontius for “his” failure) obtains a peace that abolishes Caliphal tribute to Byzantium and leaves to the Arabs the whole of Cyprus, Armenia and Iberia.
    Arabia, Middle East:
    Caliph Abd al-Malik defeats and kills Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr in the Hijaz, retaking Mecca and Medina; the revolts in Basra and southern Iraq in favor of Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr are crushed with great bloodhsed by the Omayyad Caliphate.
    India:
    The Arabs reach the Indus river.
    693
    Southern Europe:
    Basileus Belisarius IV has the Benedictine abbey of Montecassino rebuilt
    694
    Far East:
    The T’ang Chinese defeat Tibetans and Eastern Göktürks; they wrest from Tibet suzerainty over eastern Turkestan, where in the Khotan kingdom the Sinicized Wei Ch’ih dynasty replaces the Vijaya (Buddhist) rulers
    695
    North Africa, Caucasus:
    Destruction of Barce (Cyrenaica) and fierce sack of Djirva (*OTL Djerba) at the hands of Idalskan Slavic pirates in the service of Byzantium; the Arabs react by conquering most of Iberia/Georgia and putting Carthage under siege.
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople the cruel and unpopular basileus Belisarius IV is overthrown by Leontius, the strategos of the Hellas theme, who after his release from the jail was hailed as emperor by the troops; the new basileus mutilates the deposed one cutting his nose and exiles him at Cherson/Sebastopol in the Taurida (*OTL Crimea).
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    King Jasaw Chan K'awiil I of Mutul/Tikal heavily defeats his rivals of Calakmul, turning them from overlords into vassals
    696
    Far East:
    The Khitans, rebelling against Chinese overlordship, found an own independent State in northern Manchuria
    697
    British Isles:
    Final unification of the Pictish kingdom, Alba, in the northernmost region of Britain, under king Brede IV of the Cruithne dynasty.
    North Africa:
    The Arabs take and raze Carthage; this most grave news shakes the Byzantine empire.
    East Africa:
    King Mercury of Mukurra reunifies the whole of Christian Nubia
    698
    Southern Europe:
    The Synod of Pavia finally condemns the Three Chapters once and for all; Patriarch Peter of Aquileia abjures his Tricapitoline stance, so the long schism comes to an end. King Gisulf I of Lombard Austrasia (mainland Veneto and the central-eastern Ladinian lands) officially renounces Arianism and converts to catholicism and brokers an accord by which the nearby Patriarchates of Aquileia and Grado recognize each other and divide their spheres of influence – Aquileia up to Austria and the central Alps, Grado on the Venetic lagoons, Byzantine Histria and Dalmatia.
    North Africa:
    Basileus Leontius I retakes Carthage and successfully resists the Arab counter-siege; then Kusayla’s Numidians attack from the interior and annihilate the Arab army, freeing Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) from the Muslim yoke. Ifrigia reverts to Byzantine possession, while Kusayla is granted the second and third names of Constantine and Sarakenoktons (the Arab-slayer) and the title of Exarch of the Moors as a permanent ally of the empire.
    Central Asia:
    The Black (or eastern) Turgesh/T’u-Chueh, now completely free from Chinese overlordship, establish their Khanate in the Talas-Balkhash area of eastern Kazakhstan.
    Far East:
    With the support of the Korean-Tungusic Mohe tribe, Tae Ko/Da Zuruong, former general of the Koguryo army, founds in southern Manchuria the kingdom of Bohai/Parhae, a vassal to T’ang China

    8th century
    East Africa:
    In eastern Africa the encounter between Islam brought by Arab and Persian merchants and the local tribal cultures fosters the birth of the Swahili culture.
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Final decline of the ancient Nazca culture of southern coastal Peru
    ca. 700
    Northern Europe:
    Irish monks discover the Faer Oer archipelago. The Norwegian kingdom of Vestfold absorbs its neighbour Solor
    Western Europe:
    The Basques enforce their independence from both Franks and Visigoths; Frankish Aquitaine too gains de facto independence under Duke Eude.
    Southern Europe, Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Bulgarians of the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) wrench from the Byzantines the strategic fortress of Durostorum/Drystra/Silistra on the lower Danube; The Bulgarians north of the Danube retain the name of Onogurs, while those south undertake a slow path to Slavicization.
    North Africa:
    After Kusayla-Constantine’s death the Kahina, a Jewish prophetess of the Jarawa tribe who already distinguished herself against the Arabs, is hailed as the Queen of North African Berbers; she will lead their successful resistance against the Spanish Visigoths, founding the Judeo-Christian Kahinid Exarchate. Black Africa:
    Daura, the most ancient city-State of Hausaland (*OTL southern Niger and northern Nigeria), is founded.
    Central Asia:
    Tuhun/Tarhun establishes an independent Turkic kingdom in Samarkand.
    India:
    The Pallava ruler of SE Deccan, Srimaravarman, converts to Saivism (a branch of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme God) and has 8,000 Jains impaled in a single day in Madura.
    SE Asia:
    The Khmer kingdom of Chenla dominates over the middle and lower Mekong valley.
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    In the Mississippi plains the Hopewell culture is replaced by the Mississippian or proto-Mandan culture.
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Moche civilization of northern coastal Peru declines significantly.
    700-701
    Middle East:
    A new failed anti-Omayyad revolt at Kufa (Iraq)
    701
    Southern Europe:
    The Duke of Turin Regimpert and his son Aribert rebel against king Anfus of Lombard Neustria. The Franks, supporting the rebels, invade northern Italy and win the battle of Novara, after which Aribert II is enthroned in Pavia (his father died in the battle); king Anfus flees to Lombard Austrasia, where his cousin Gisulf I reigns
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    When hearing news that Leontius wants to eliminate him, the exiled and mutilated Belisarius IV the Rhinotmetus (the slit-nose) escapes from his exile in Cherson/Sebastopol, finding hospitality among the Khazars, who attack and conquer Cherson.
    Middle East:
    New anti-Caliphal rebellion in Basra led by al-Ash'ath.
    702
    Southern Europe:
    The Spoletan Lombards occupy Tuscany, enlarging their domains to most of central Italy
    705
    Byzantine Empire:
    Belisarius IV, escaped from Khazaria when his brother-in-law, Khan Busir Glavan, tried to hand him over to Byzantine agents to appease Leontius, finds new friends in the Bulgarians; but when they try to help him reenter Constantinople, Leontius quickly reacts, crushing them at Adrianople and killing Belisarius on the spot
    706
    SE Asia:
    The Khmer kingdom of Chenla splits into a northern (between Laos and Siam) and southern (Cambodia and Mekong delta) half
    707
    British Isles:
    The Welshmen of Pengwern raid Mercia
    North Africa:
    Basileus Leontius leads a naval expedition to Africa: Tripoli is sacked, in the island of Djirva (*OTL Djerba), an obnoxious nest of Arab piracy, all Muslims are slain and replaced by Idalskan Slavs, Cibyrrheotes (a people from SW Anatolia) and Mardaites (Lebanese Christians), who also are sent to repopulate devastated Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia).
    708
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine attempt to chase the Bulgarians beyond the Danube is frustrated by their defeat at Ankialos.
    North Africa:
    Leontius rebuilds Carthage
    709
    Western Europe:
    In Visigothic Spain King Witiza is slain whn he tries to pass the crown to his son; the (mostly) elective character of the Visigothic Crown of Spain is confirmed
    North Africa:
    In Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) an Arab invasion is trounced by Leontius at Matmata. After long pressure by Leontius, Pope Constantine bestows on the Archbishopric of Carthage the title of Primate of Africa.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Arabs invade Anatolia, defeating the Byzantines at Tiana.
    Central Asia:
    The Arabs conquer Bokhara and Samarkand in Central Asia.
    710
    British Isles:
    King Gerren/Gerontius III of Dumnonia/Devon defeats the Wessex Saxons at Exeter.
    East Africa:
    The Arabs destroy the Ethiopian port of Adulis/Zula: the decaying Axumite empire, ridden with internecine strife, cannot counter Muslim encroachments along the coast.
    Far East, Central Asia:
    Khapgham, Khagan of the Eastern Gökturks, subdues Kirghizes and Qarluqs, then invades Transoxiana (Central Asia) establishing contact with the Omayyad Arabs Far East:
    Nara is set as the new capital of Japan. The legitimate T’ang dynasty is restored in China with Ruizong/Li Dan.
    ca. 710
    Northern Europe:
    The Norwegian kingdom of Vestfold vassalizes Vendeyssel (the northern “tip” of Jutland)
    710-711
    Byzantine Empire:
    Sergius, Leontius’ eldest son, hurries back in Constantinople to fight back the Arab invasion of Anatolia, but after early successes his forces are routed at Samosata; on the way back to the capital a high officer, Smaragdus, rebels and kills Sergius, entering Constaninople as the new emperor
    710-718
    Far East, Central Asia:
    Great rebellion staged by Uygurs, Qarluqs and Western Gökturks from Mongolia to Turkestan, crushed in the end by the Eastern Gökturks
    711
    British Isles:
    Supported by the Picts of Alba, the Britons of Dunbar repel Northumbrian aggression in the battle of Mannand/Manaw.
    Western Europe:
    The Visigothic kingdom of Spain experiences a severe war of succession, won by Roderic/Rodrigo I thanks to the support of Mauretanian mercenaries.
    Southern Europe:
    Leontius dies in Syracuse (he will be later sanctified by both the Catholic and the Orthodox churches); his younger son assumes the imperial Roman crown of the West (Ifrigia, southern Italy, Ravenna) as Tiberius III with Papal approval (in Constantinople Smaragdus supports again Monothelism as the state doctrine).
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Arabs take Vannadopolis/Kars in Armenia, Amorion and Angora in Anatolia, but fail in the siege of Nicaea.
    Central Asia:
    The Arabs take Khiva.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Itzàs migrate into Yucatàn, founding Chichén Itzà
    712
    Southern Europe:
    Anfus, the legitimate king of the Neustrian Lombards, reenters Lombardy with a Bavarian army, then defeats and kills Ariberto II on the Adda river, restoring the Gariboldingians on the throne of Pavia. Tiberius III reorganizes his southern Italian possessions in the Exarchate of Salerno, and raises the Venetic duchy to an Exarchate, centered in Metamaucus/Malamocco, with domain over Histria; Paulucius Anaphestus, ruling there since 697 ad Duke, is the new Exarch.
    North Africa:
    Helped by Tiberius III’s fleet, the North African Berbers of the Kahina retake Septem/Sefta/Ceuta from the Spanish Visigoths, ousting them from Africa.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Khan Tervel’s Bulgarians take advantage of Byzantine weakness to devastate Thrace. The Arab fleet conquers Rhodes and Smyrna
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars give back Cherson/Sebastopol to the (Eastern) Byzantines in exchange for money and an alliance.
    Central Asia, India:
    The Arabs subdue Khorezm and Transoxiana in Central Asia, tame the rebellious Samarkandans and raid distant Kashgar (eastern Turkestan); they also cross the Indus, overrun and vassalize Punjab and Sindh.
    712-717
    Central Asia:
    The Western Gökturks temporarily subdue the Turgesh/T’u-Ch’ueh, who free themselves with Eastern Gökturk help
    713
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Tiberius III’s fleet gains the obedience of the Dalmatian towns; the Arab armies raid deep into Anatolia, reaching even Chalcedon (on the Asian side of the Bosphorus)
    714
    Byzantine Empire:
    Tiberius III’s fleet sails towards Constantinople to reunify the empire, but the Eastern Byzantines prevail at Naxos; Philippicus Bardanes, the Armenian commander of the winner fleet, is hailed emperor by his seamen and heads back to Constantinople, which he puts under siege.
    Caucasus:
    The Arab wrest Derbent (Daghestan) from the Khazars and destroy the Zoroastrian kingdom of Sarir in the nearby Caucasian mountains
    Central Asia:
    The T’ang Chinese defeat the Western Gökturks at lake Issik-Kul and at Byshbalyk (Kirghizistan).
    715
    Byzantine Empire:
    Philippicus Bardanes, with help from the Green “deme” (one of the factions of the hippodrome hooligans, the other major one being the Blues), enters Constantinople where he blinds and sends to a monastery Smaragdus; being himself too a fellow Monothelite, the religious policy remains the same.
    Far East, Central Asia:
    The Chinese score new impressive victories in eastern Turkestan and Central Asia against both Gökturkic confederations, the Tibetans and even the Arabs
    716
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Arabs conquer Pergamum in Asia Minor and dominate over most of Anatolia; Byzantium pays tribute to the Bulgarian khan Tervel
    716-719
    Northern Europe:
    Duke Radbod I leads a last, fierce heathen reaction in Frisia before dying
    716-754
    Northern Europe:
    St. Boniface (the Anglo-Saxon Winfrid) evangelizes Germany
    717
    Byzantine Empire:
    Strategos Leo the Isaurian, after successfully defending Nicaea from the Arabs, is hailed as basileus by his troops and marches on Constantinople, where an angry mob lynches Philippicus Bardanes.
    British Isles:
    Domnonée, a Breton principality, is absrbed into the kingdom of Brittany; only Cornouaille (isolated on the southwerstern coast) keeps its independence in the Breton peninsula
    717-718
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantinople is besieged by land and sea by the Arabs, led by Maslama, but resists succesfully: during the winter the Bulgarians, honoring the pacts, attack the Arabs under the walls of the city, slaying them in the thousands, while the Byzantine fleet proves agains invincible with its Greek Fire; the Arab defeat is made a disaster by the Byzantine theme armies attacking the Omayyad rearguards in Anatolia
    717-719
    Western Europe:
    After a last attempted breakaway of Austrasia with Chlotarius IV, the Frankish kingdom is eventually reunified under Chilperic III, but real power is held by the former Austrasian Mayor of Palace, Charles Martel (the Hammer), who defeated and replaced Chilperic’s Mayor of Palace Raginfrid
    719
    Western Europe:
    This year witnesses the first mention of the concept of “feudal homage” in Europe
    719-720
    Middle East:
    Failed anti-Omayyad revolt led by Yazid ibn al-Muhallab in southern Iraq and Basra
    720
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The king of Lombard Austrasia, Romuald II, leads a successful expedition against Carantania/Koroška.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantines free Smyrna and Rhodes from the Arabs
    Central Asia:
    The Turgesh/T’u-Chueh defeat the Chinese, preserving their freedom.
    ca. 720
    British Isles:
    The Welsh kingdom of Dyfed/Pembrokeshire suffers a brief period of overlordship by its neighbour, Ceredigion/Cardigan (a subkingdom of Gwynedd)
    720-721
    Southern Europe:
    The Neustrian Lombards conquer Valtellina from the Romancians, who are bound to pay tribute; in response Charles Martel invades Piedmont and enforces Frankish suzerainty over Lombard Neustria, imposing the restitution of Valtellina to Romancia and the cession of Susa to the Franks. King Anfus of the Neustrian Lombards retires to a monastery on the lake of Como, his second son Grimoald II is enthroned as a Frankish vassal
    721-740
    Western Europe:
    The long Aquitanian Wars waged by Charles Martel subdue the Basques north of the Pyrenees and impose Aquitaine a reluctant obedience.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Leo III the Isaurian struggles to expel the Arabs from Anatolia
    722
    British Isles:
    Dumnonia thwarts a Wessex Saxon invasion
    Caucasus:
    The Arabs invade Daghestan ousting the Khazars.
    724
    Western Europe:
    Foundation of the Basque kingdom of Sobrarbre in Navarra by Garcìa Jiménez
    724-743
    India:
    Arab raids devastate Gujarat and Broach (NW India)
    ca. 725
    India:
    Omayyad forces crush the Hindu uprising of Sindh, which ends up annexed
    725-ca.775
    India:
    Panchala (the central Ganges plain around Benares) is ruled independently, then it is again swallowed by the Gurjara-Pratiharas
    726
    British Isles:
    Alpin I of the DalRiada Scots ascends the Pictish throne of Alba; a long era of struggles between the matrilineal Pictish Cruithne clan and the patriarchal Scots ensues
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Eastern Byzantine basileus Leo III the Isaurian issues decrees against the worship of sacred images, thus starting the iconoclastic controversy.
    727
    North Africa:
    The Western Byzantine emperor Tiberius III denounces iconoclasm and has this doctrine formally condemned by a synod held in Carthage; this opens a state of undeclared war between the two halves of the Byzantine empire.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Abortive anti-Iconoclastic rebellion by one Cosmas in Thessalia and the Cyclades, promptly quelled by Leo III’s forces
    728
    Southern Europe:
    The Eastern Byzantine fleet occupies Gallipoli and Otranto (Puglia), blockading the Adriatic Sea, then enforces obedience upon Dalmatia; Tiberius III visits Rome (causing some concern among the Spoletan Lombards) and is formally crowned by Pope Gregory II as Roman Emperor of the West
    Caucasus:
    An Arab invasion overthrows the Sabir khanate of Caucasia, formerly a vassal to Khazaria.
    729
    Southern Europe:
    The Eastern Byzantines assault Ravenna but in the end are defeated, also thanks to Venetic support by the exarch Ursus Hypatus; having the Exarch of Ravenna Maurusian died in battle, Tiberius III unifies both the Venetic lagoons and Ravenna in a single Exarchate of Adria, de facto an independent ally of the Western Byzantine empire centered at Syracuse. Taking advantage of the Eastern Byzantine defeat, Dalmatia rebels and reverts to Syracusan rule
    729-730
    Southern Europe:
    Tiberius III ousts Leo III’s forces from Puglia
    Caucasus:
    The Lezghians and Avars of Caucasus free themselves from Muslim domination with help from the Khazars and found in the Daghestan region the Khanate of Avaristan (a successor to defunct Sabir Caucasia).
    730
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Leo III formally confirms it bend towards iconoclasm with new laws against icon-worship
    Middle East:
    The Arabs suffer a devastating defeat against the Khazars and Avaristanis in the battle of Ardabil (southern Azerbaijan).
    ca. 730
    Central Asia:
    The Omayyad Caliphal forces eventually break and scatter the Nezaks, White Hun/Hephtalite clans who had been domineering and raiding for over a century between Afghanistan and Punjab
    SE Asia:
    The Thai prince P'i-Lo-Ko unifies large swathes of SW China (Yunnan) and northern Indochina, establishing there the kingdom of Nanzhao.
    731
    Middle East:
    The Omayyad Caliphal army stops and kills the Khazar Khagan Barjik at the battle of Mosul in northern Iraq.
    India:
    The Tomar Rajput ruler Anangpal I founds Lal Kot/Dhillika over the site of modern Delhi
    732
    British Isles:
    The Celtic kingdom of Dumnonia/Devon repels a Mercian invasion.
    Southern Europe:
    When Grimoald II of Lombard Neustria dies leaving a 13 year old heir, Cleph, King Gisulf II of Lombard Austrasia invades the kingdom, but Charles Martel trounces and kills him at the battle of Sesto San Giovanni between Milan and Monza.
    North Africa:
    A renewed Arab invasion of Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) is thwarted by Western Byzantine general Prodromos and allied Kahinid forces in the battle of Saltus Byzacensis
    Far East:
    The Tartars make their fist appearance when migrating from the Kerulen river valley to the Amur taiga.
    SE Asia:
    The Hinduist kingdom of Mataram arises in central Java.
    733-734
    Southern Europe:
    Leo III’s forces suddenly assault Syracuse with a fleet and a siege army, but the Sicilian stronghold resists and the Western Byzantine fleet led by Leontius II, son and co-emperor of Tiberius III, crushes the invaders off Capo Passero, forcing the surrender of the invaders. The Constantinopolitan general Artavasdes is captured, tortured and killed. Meantime Thrasamund, Duke of Spoleto, invades southern Italy
    733-737
    Southern Europe:
    Repeated invasions by the Slovenians of Carantania/Koroška desolate Friul: Lombard Austrasia barely survives thanks to the regent Wimpold, who defends Zividal (*OTL Cividale) from two Slavic sieges
    733-746
    India:
    The Western Chalukya ruler Vikramaditya II thrice takes the Pallavan capital, Kanchi, sealing the enemy’s decline
    734
    Northern Europe:
    The Franks subdue and vassalize Frisia forcibly introducing Christianity into the country
    India:
    Bappa Rawal founds the Rajput kingdom of Mewar (south-central Rajasthan), seceding from Paramara hegemony and establishing the Gehlot dynasty
    735
    Southern Europe:
    The Patriarchate of Aquileia moves its see from Cormons to the safer Zividal (*OTL Cividale, Friuli). Tiberius III’s Western Byzantine army clashes with the Spoletan Lombards at lake Matese (Campania), where Thrasamund is killed, then the emperor forces the Spoletans to cede northern Latium to the Papacy
    Caucasus:
    The Arabs invade Alania (NW Caucasus), defended by her king Itaz.
    737
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Arabs advance through Avaristan/Daghestan up to the Volga mouths, overthrow Khazaria in the battle of Itil (the Khazar capital, near later Astrakhan) and force conversion to Islam upon the Khazars. The Onogurs of Taurida (*OTL Crimea) are thus freed from subservience to Khazaria
    737-738
    North Africa:
    An attempted Visigothic invasion of Mauretania from Spain led by King Theodoric III ends in an epic disaster in the Ruel (*OTL Rif) mountains
    737-743
    Western Europe:
    The Mayor of Palace Charles Martel and his son Pepin the Short directly rule the Frankish kingdom after Theodoric IV’s death, afterwards Pepin and his brother Carloman choose Childeric III, a distant cousin of the dead Merovingian king, as puppet king
    738
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Mayan king of Xukpi/Copàn 18 Rabbit is defeated and killed by his rival Cauac Sky of Quiriguà (Guatemala)
    738-741
    Southern Europe:
    Wimpold usurps the Lombard Austrasian throne slaying the young legitimate heir Ansoald, then is overthrown and killed by Ansoald’s cousin Lupus
    739
    Southern Europe:
    Sevar, the last khan of the Danubian Bulgarians from the main branch of the Dulo clan, dies; he is succeeded by Kormisosh, of the related Ukil clan
    739-748
    British Isles:
    The Scottish Angus I MacAlpin of Alba ascends the throne of DalRiada, unifying the two kingdoms, then, when his son Talorcan suffers a defeat at Mugdock against the Strathclyde Britons, he is dethroned in Dalriada, keeping Alba only
    740
    Byzantine Empire:
    Leo III the Isaurian gains a most great victory over the Arabs at Akroinon, Anatolia.
    Central-Eastern Europe, Caucasus:
    The Khazars rebel against Caliphal overlordship and rebuild their Khanate under Bulan Sabriel; the Arabs are chased beyond the Caucasus, having been ousted from Avaristan/Daghestan too. Having briefly experienced the forced imposition of Sunni Islam, and not wanting to depend in religious matters neither from damascus nor from Constantinople, the Khazar court begins to seriously consider conversion to Judaism.
    Middle East:
    Zayd ibn Alì, grandson of Husayn and pretender to the title of Imam of the Shiites (at first against Muhammad al-Bakir, recognized by most Shiites as the legitimate Imam, then against Ja’far as-Sadiq), revolts at Kufa (Iraq) but is killed by Omayyad forces; his followers establish the Zaydi sect of Shi’a, which will prove paramount especially in Yemen and Oman.
    Far East:
    Kutlug Bilgekul Khan founds the second Uygur khanate in Mongolia
    740-742
    North Africa:
    A Kharijite rising shakes Libya and Egypt and is only hardly repressed by the Caliphate
    741
    British Isles:
    Mercia establishes overlodship over Pengwern (eastern Wales)
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople Leo II dies, succeede by his son Constantine V, an ardent supporter of Iconoclasm.
    Far East:
    The Qarluq tribal compact, together with the Uygurs, overthrows Eastern Gökturk ascendancy.
    742
    Southern Europe, North Africa:
    Tiberius III dies in Syracuse; his son Leontius II has to deal with the abortive usurpation led by drungarios (admiral) Mastanarius in Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia). The Spoletan Lombards overrun the Pentapolis (northern Marches), wresting it from the Exarchate of Adria
    743
    Middle East:
    Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik dies after twenty years of strong rule: the Omayyad Caliphate plunges into civil war
    744
    North Africa:
    In southern Mauretania/Mauria, between the Atlas range and the ocean the Berghawata tribal confederation arises
    Far East:
    The Uygurs destroy once and for all the Eastern Gökturk empire and impose their supremacy from the Asman Tau (*OTL Tien Shan) range to the Amur river, whilst the T’ang Chinese again vassalize the Turgesh/T’u-chueh khanate.
    744-756
    British Isles:
    The Celtic kingdom of Strathclyde, ruled by king Tudor, successfully resists the double pressure of the Picts and DalRiada Scots from the north and the Northumbrian Anglo-Saxons from the south, culminating in the brilliant victory at Newburgh-on-Tyne against the latter
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantine V wages victorious campaigns against the Caliphate up to northern Syria, Cyprus and Armenia.
    745
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A joint Franco-Bavarian-Austrasian Lombard expedition subdues the Slovenians of Koroška/Carantania and introduces Christianity among them.
    Central Asia:
    The Uygurs extinguish the Western Gökturk empire too
    746
    Far East:
    The Tibetans again invade Eastern Turkestan and destroy the town of Lijien/Alexandria, where in 40 BC a small Roman military colony had been established (the legionaries, in Crassus’ army, were captured by the Parthians at Carrhae and sent in Central Asia, where they deserted to the local Xiongnu/Huns and eventually were taken by the Han Chinese)
    747
    Western Europe:
    Carloman retires to monastic life, leaving his brother Pepin the Short as the only Mayor of Palace and de facto ruler of all Franks
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    The decisive Abbasid revolution against the Omayyads starts in Khorasan when Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, from a collateral branch of the Hashemite clan, rises in revolt; upon his death in battle his brother Abu Al-Abbas as-Saffah (the Bloody) takes the leadership among the rebels, who gain wide support in Persia and Iraq. Far East:
    The T’ang general Gao Xianzhi invades Tibet. The Uygurs defeat the Tartars along the Selenga river (Mongolia).
     
    Ddmkm122 likes this.
  5. basileus Inflammable

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2004
    Location:
    Thema Kastrosibrion ton Langobardon
    750
    Middle East:
    The Abbasids decisively defeat the Omayyad Caliph Marwan II at the Great Zab river in northern Iraq, forcing him to flee to Egypt, then they conquers Damascus and exterminate most of the Omayyad clan; the Abbasid (or Second) Caliphate is thus established. Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah takes the Caliphal title for himself, despite hopes by the Shiites, strong Abbasid supporters during the revolution, for an appointment of their Imam (spiritual leader) Ja’afar Sadiq. Though being Arab, the new Caliph crushes former absolute Arab predominance in favor of Persians and other non-Arab Muslims and moves the capital from Damascus to Kufa in southern Iraq.
    Central Asia:
    Gao Xianzhi leads a T’ang Chinese army through Pamir up to the upper Hindukush, threatening the newborn Abbasid Caliphate’s positions in both Central Asia and Afghanistan
    SE Asia:
    A Chinese invasion of Nanzhao/Yunnan ends in defeat.
    ca. 750
    Northern Europe, Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    During their enterprising voyages in search of uninhabited lands for hermitage, Irish monks reach Hesperia (*OTL America) and notice Iceland: the fact, largely ignored at the time and only proved by archaelogical evidence centuries later, will be hazily recorded in the Navigatio Sancti Brendani.
    British Isles:
    Sussex is vassalized by Mercia, who also takes control over London.
    Southern Europe:
    The Serbian principality of Raška (later Kosovo) is founded by the great zupan (grand prince) Viseslav Vlastimirović.
    India:
    Nagabhata I defeats the Muslim invaders in NW India, thus imposing the Gurjara dynasty of the Pratiharas of Ujjain as the ruling power in that region. Foundation of the Buddhist Pala kingdom in Bengal.
    Pacific Ocean:
    The Maoris (Polynesians) colonize New Zealand/Aotearoa.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Zapotec civilization of Monte Albàn (Oaxaca, Mexico) reaches its apogee
    751
    Middle East, Arabia:
    The Egyptian Omayyad forces rallied by Marwan II and led by his distant relative Abd ar-Rahman defeat the Abbasid army at Aqaba and retake the holy cities of Jerusalem, Mecca and Medina.
    Central Asia, Far East:
    The T’ang Chinese army led by Gao Xianzhi conquers Chach/Tashkent and kills the local Qarluq ruler, Baghatur Tudun; thereafter the Chinese suffer a crushing and decisive defeat against Abbasid forces and rising Qarluqs at the Talas river (on that occasion, captured Chinese soldiers spread the knowledge of paper into the Muslim world). Western Göktürks, Turgesh/T’u-ch’ueh and Tibetans take advantage to rise in rebellion and attack the Chinese rearguards; Khagan Bayanchur’s Uygur replace the Chinese as overklords of the Tarim basin (eastern Turkestan). This year is the date for the most ancient printed book known in the world, a Korean copy of a Buddhist “sutra”
    Western Europe:
    Pepin the Short dethrones Childeric III, the last weak Merovingian king of the Franks, and is hailed as the new king; his accession to the throne marks the beginning of the use of having the sovereign anointed with blessed oil at the hands of high prelates.
    752
    British Isles:
    Dumnonia/Devon is vassalized by Wessex
    Southern Europe:
    Premature death of the Western Roman/Byzantine emperor Leontius II in Syracuse; empress Theodota acts as regent for the infant Maurice II. The Spoletan Lombards, led by Duke Anspert, take advantage to invade southern Italy, seizing parts of Puglia and Campania and reclaiming back upper Latium from the Papacy.
    North Africa, Middle East:
    Marwan II adopts Abd ar-Rahman as his heir and successor in Egypt despite his defeat at Quneitra against the Abassids.
    Arabia:
    Abbasid forces take over Oman by killing Al-Julanda, the local Ibadi-Zaydi imam, but the interior of the country remains firmly in the hands of the Shiite rebels.
    753
    Southern Europe:
    After a lengthy siege the Austrasian Lombards conquer Ravenna from the Exarchate of Adria, then their king Lupus dies from malaria. After vainly trying to appease the Spoletan Lombards, marauding southern Italy and threatening Rome itself, Pope Stephen II departs to France to call Pepin the Short for help. Then Constantine V of Byzantium plunges in Puglia with a strong fleet, taking Taranto, Gallipoli, Brindisi, and defeats the Spoletan Lombards at Murgia Basilica (*not existing OTL, inner central Puglia).
    Arabia:
    The Abbasid general Abu Muslim retakes Hijaz with Mecca and Medina from the Omayyads
    India:
    King Dantidurga Rashtrakuta of Kannada overthrows the ruling Western Chalukyas of Vatapi/Badami, establishing the Rashtrakutas as the new regional power.
    753-775
    Byzantine Empire:
    Open, harsh struggle between basileus Constantine V and the “idolatric” Byzantine monks adverse to iconoclasm
    754
    Northern Europe:
    The archbishop of Mainz, The Anglo-Saxon Boniface, after evangelizing Germany for decades is martyred by hetahen Frisians at Dokkum; despite this setback, the Frisian archbishopric of Utrecht is to become a strong center of ecclesiatic power.
    Southern Europe:
    Young Maurice II dies in Syracuse, thus extinguishing the Leontidian dynasty; a long civil war for the imperial crown of the West ensues, because whilst in Syracuse empress Theodota rules, outside no less then seven pretenders spring up with one thing in mind: forcibly marry her and reign. (Eastern) Byzantium takes further advantage of the chaos imposing anew its rule in Dalmatia and conquering almost all of southern Italy save Naples, held by Duke Totilian, a pretender to to the Syracusan crown; Constantine V also subjects the church of southern Italy to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, enforcing unpopular Iconoclasm. Pepin the Short meantime enters Italy, trounces the Spoletans at Pistoia with Neustrian Lombard help and enters Rome with Pope Stephen II; Tuscany reverts to Neustrian Lombardy, the Papacy has back its land in Latium and gains the Perugia strip in western Umbria under Frankish protection.
    Far East:
    The T’ang Chinese lose Kashgar at the hands of the Uygurs.
    SE Asia:
    Also the second Chinese invasion of Nanzhao/Yunnan fares very badly.
    754-756
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantine V has Iconoclasm reaffirmed and confirmed as Byzantium’s state confession, despite heavy and often violent opposition from the clergy and people, especially in Europe
    755
    Central Asia:
    The Abbasid Caliph al-Mansur order the murder of Abu Muslim, one of the paramount leaders of the Abbasid revolution from their beginnings; at the news Khorasan is shaken by an uprising led by the Zoroastrian Sunpadh.
    Southern Europe:
    Constantine V’s Byzantines and Pepin the Short’s Franco-Lombards clash in the epic battle of Tuscolo, south of Rome, where the Byzantines are narrowly defeated; thereafter the basileus abandons Italy for Constantinople, leaving his generals there to deal with the Frankish menace
    755-756
    Southern Europe:
    General John Vivariotes conquers Syracuse after a long siege and forcibly maries empress Theodota, having himself styled Roman Emperor of the West, but gaining no recognition by both his rivals and the Papacy; he cannot even rule over western Sicily, where the pretender Jannakes has his own strongholds
    755-763
    Far East:
    General An Lushan rises in rebellion in the T’ang Chinese empire; despite his violent death in 757, his revolt triggers mass uprisings and upsets the empire
    756
    Western Europe:
    The North African Berbers of the Kahinid Exarchate invade Visigothic Spain but are completely routed by King Reccared III at the Rio Grande (*OTL Guadalquivir)
    Southern Europe:
    Pepin the Short, while reducing Byzantine strongholds in Puglia, hurries back to northern Italy to confront the Austrasian Lombard invasion led by king Anscarius, who is decisively defeated and killed at Brescello on the Po river with help from the Venetic fleet of the Exarch of Adria, Galla (who falls in battle); Ravenna is thereafter reverted to the Exarchate, while Lombard Austrasia becomes another Frankish client, thus completing Frankish overlordship upon the Lombard states.
    North Africa:
    Abd Ar-Rahman I succeeds Marwan II as Caliph in al-Fustat (Egypt); the division of the Muslim world in two rival caliphates is confirmed. The strategos (governor) of Byzacena (eastern central Ifrigia, *OTL Tunisia) and pretender to the Syracusan throne Marcianus Bulla crushes the Kharijite Arabs of Libya (paying lip service to Omayyad Egypt) and his local rival Facundus in the battle of Midnatha; the Arabs, however, are able to retake the island of Djirva (*OTL Djerba) and stage devastating pirate raids in the Mediterranean.
    757
    Western Europe:
    The first official feudal oath in Europa is taken by Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria, who swears loyalty to king Pepin the Short.
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Stephen II then invites Pepin in Rome and crowns him as Holy Roman Catholic Emperor of the West, a precise choice against the Western Byzantines still locked in endless civil war.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantine V takes Melitene (*OTL Malatya) and Theodosiopolis (*OTL Erzurum) from the Abbasids.
    India:
    The defeated Western Chalukyas, now vassals to the Rashtrakutas of SW India, move their capital from Badami/Vatapi to Pattadakal
    758
    North Africa:
    Arabs and local Islamicized Berbers, led by Abu-l-Khattab Abd al-A'la ibn Assamh al-Ma'afiri, found a theocratic Kharijite state in the Djebel Nefusah, south of Tripoli (Libya).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Slavic Duchy of Pannonia is established between the Danube and Drava rivers after a successful Franco-Lombard expedition against the Avars led by emperor Pepin; a reduced Avar Khaganate is confined east of the Danube
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantine V deports the Slavs from Thrace to Anatolia as soldier-peasants.
    Far East:
    An Abbasid fleet sacks Canton/Guangzhou, China, after a bewildering trip following the monsoon from the Persian Gulf to the Southern China Sea.
    758-759
    Southern Europe:
    A new Eastern Byzantine offensive in southern Italy conquers Lucania/Basilicata and Calabria; Duke Stephen II of Naples is able to hold his own in Campania
    759
    Western Europe:
    Emperor Pepin Magnus (the Great) ousts the Visigoths from Septimania (the region around Narbonne), then tames the rebellious northern Basques, reaching the Pyrenees.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantine V defeats the Bulgarians at Markellai (Thrace)
    760
    Far East:
    The T’ang Chinese, who are suffering most grave internal disturbances, are completely ousted from Eastern Turkestan
    ca. 760
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Tat-Ugek’s White Onoguro-Bulgars, vassals to Khazaria, migrate from their lands in the Don river region onto the middle Volga, where they establish a strong khanate under only nominal Khazar suzaerainty; their arrival finally separates the Finnic peoples from the Ugric ones; the latter, the Magyars, dwelling across the Uralic range, clash and intermingle with the Onoguro-Bulgars starting a migration towards the Ukraine
    761
    Southern Europe:
    In Rome the Papal Chancery writes the “Donation of Constantine”, a forgery to “prove” Papal rights over Rome and central Italy since a long time; it will take up to the 15th century to prove it a fake. Marcianus Bulla gathers his forces and lands in western Sicily, where he crushes Jannakes’ army in the battle of Monreale. Eastern Byzantine forces take Salerno. In Bulgaria Teletz murders his predecessor Vinekh and his family, usurping the Khanate.
    762
    Southern Europe:
    Marcianus Bulla kills John Vivariotes in the battle of Lentini and enforces his rule as co-emperor of the widow empress Theodota (Marcianus already has a wife, Alexandra); he rules from Syracuse as the sole Western Byzantine emperor, but Papal recognition is already on the more reliable Frankish Carolingian (from Charles Martel, Pepin the Great’s father) Empire. Pope Paul I excommunicates the Eastern Byzantine basileus Constantine V on the Iconoclastic issue.
    North Africa:
    The Vikings, pirates coming from Norway and Denmark and already infamous for their isolated but fierce assaults from Alba (*OTL Scottish Highlands) to Ireland and Celtic Gallastria (*Spanish Galicia), for the first time appear in the Mediterranean with the horrible sack of the Maurian (*OTL Moroccan) town of Temsamana near the Ruel (*OTL Rif)
    North Africa, Middle East:
    The Abbasid Caliphate and Omayyad Egypt (where Abd ar-Rahman I has gained the strong support of the Kharijite movement) have to recognize the status quo after the huge and inconclusive battle of Gaza; however Egypt has to cede Jerusalem and Palestine. The Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur founds Baghdad, soon to become one of the most fabled capitals in the world.
    Caucasus:
    Khazars ed Alans invade Transcaucasia (the lands south of the Caucasus range).
    Far East:
    The second Uygur khanate accepts Manichaeism and Nestorian Christianity as state religions.
    762-763
    Middle East:
    The Shiites, disappointed at their hopes of having their Imam installed as the new Caliph, stage a new unsuccessful revolt in Arabia and Iraq under Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya (the Pure Soul) ibn Abdallah and his brother Ibrahim.
    Far East:
    Luoyang is sacked by Chinese rebels and by a Tibetan invading army, thereafter ousted by the Uygurs, intervened to help the T’ang rulers of China
    763
    Far East:
    The Tibetans conquer the Tarim basin (Eastern Turkestan), inflict harsh defeats upon the Turgesh/T’u-Ch’ueh and sack the Chinese capital,
    Ch’ang-an/Xian. The Uygur Khagan, Bögü Eltekin, converts to Manichaeism
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantine V routes the Bulgarians in the great battle of Ankialos; Khan Teletz is deposed and killed by his own men after this defeat.
    763-775
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Constantine V of Byzantium repeatedly routes the Bulgarians; the Iconoclastic controversy reaches its climax
    764
    Caucasus:
    The Khazars wrest for a while Tbilisi (Iberia/Georgia) from the Abassid Caliphate and free the eastern Georgian region of Khakheti from Baghdad’s rule
    764-766
    British Isles:
    Dumnonia/Devon rejects Wessex suzerainty with help from Brittany and the HRCEW Southern Europe:
    Marcianus Bulla, with Berber Kahinid reinforcements, smashes Eastern Byzantine positions in southern Italy, ousting Constantinopolitan forces from the peninsula; Sisinnios, the appointed Constantinopolitan strategos of the Apulia and Calabria theme (Puglia), is beheaded after capture in Otranto. The Duke of Naples, Stephen III, submits and is appointed as the Exarch of Salerno; Marcianus also carves another Exarchate in Taranto for his son and heir Maximus.
    765
    Middle East:
    A new rift opens in the Shi’a community about the succession of Ja’afar as Sadiq, the sixth Imam, between the majoritary supporters of his son Musa al-Kazim and those of his other sob Isma’il, who’ll be known as the Ismailis.
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople Constantine V’s struggle against the power of monasteries and monks reaches its climax when the basileus has Stepehen the Younger from Mt. Auxentios abbey, a staunch Iconophile, tortured to death
    766
    Southern Europe, Western Europe:
    Emperor Pepin I the Great dies suddenly in Lucca while on his route to Rome to keep an eye on Marcianus Bulla’s intentions. He divides the Holy Roman Catholic Western Empire (from now onwards: HRCWE) between his two sons, Charles and Carloman, who eye each other with great suspicion: Charles gets Burgundy, Provence, Frankish Germany and the imperial title and capital in Aquisgrana/Aachen, Carloman most of France as co-emperor with his capital at Orléans.
    Central Asia, Far East:
    The Turkic-Uygur tribal compact of the Qarluqs finally destroys the Turgesh/T’u-Ch’ueh Khanate and creates an own State between Kazakhstan and Zungaria; the defeated Turgesh/T’u-Ch’ueh migrate to the Western Kazakh steppe, where they’ll take the name of Oghuz/Ouzoi
    India:
    Incessant Muslim raiding finally disrupts the Maitraka kingdom of Gujarat: the region is taken over by the Hindu kingdom of Zabulistan/Kabul, a vassal to the Abbasid Caliphate.
    767
    Southern Europe:
    Charles narrowly manages to escape from Italy with his life when the Neustrian Lombard king Cleph is killed by his cousin Charispert, who rises in rebellion against Frankish overlordship; Marcianus Bulla takes advantage to enter Rome unopposed (the Spoletan Lombards turn a blind eye) and forcibly enthrone as a successor to Pope Paul I the Sicilian candidate Stephen IV, who crowns him in St. Peter as the “only and perpetual Roman Catholic emperor of the West”. Afterward his wife Alexandra has fomer empress Theodota strangled and thrown in the sea in Syracuse.
    North Africa:
    Mauretania (*OTL Marocco) secedes from the Kahinid Exarchate under Samuel I the Ulilite (from his birthplace and capital, Ulili [*OTL Volubilis, not abandoned in TTL]), a Christian scion of a Jewish family expelled from Spain by the Visigoths; the secession is supported by the Berghawata army.
    Caucasus:
    Lazica (Nw Iberia/Georgia) frees herself from Abbasid rule; the kingdom of Abasgia/Abkhasia is establihed there as an Eastern Byzantine protectorate
    767-770
    Western Europe, Central-Eastern Europe, Southern Europe:
    Harsh civil war in the Frankish Empire, Bavaria and the Lombards take advantage to claim back independence
    768
    Northern Europe:
    Emperor Charles stages a successful defence against Saxons and Frisians, called upon for help by his brother Carloman.
    Southern Europe, North Africa:
    Marcianus Bulla crushes ruthlessly the rebellious Idalskans in Sicily, then, back in Africa, campaigns against the marauding Djebel Nefusah Kharijite Arabs, wresting back Djirva (*OTL Djerba) from them
    769
    Western Europe:
    Carloman advances into Burgundy, then is roued by Charles’s forces at Saverne (Alsace) and withdraws.
    North Africa:
    A new Synod held in Carthage issues another firm condemnation of Iconoclasm and launches anathema against basileus Constantine V of Byzantium.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Slavic pirates from the Peloponnese and Macedonia plunder Lesbos
    770
    Western Europe:
    After a last stand ends in disaster in the battle of Melun, Carloman flees to safety in Brittany, then in Dumnonia/Devon, where he’ll die the following year; Charles thus reunifies the Frankish empire.
    Far East:
    In the kingdom of Khotan (Eastern Turkestan) a new Vijaya (Buddhist) dynasty takes over replacing the Sinicized Wei-Ch’ih rulers
    ca. 770
    British Isles:
    The Dal Deisi clan replaces the o’Anlaich on the throne of Brycheiniog (southern Wales)
    Western Europe:
    Emperor Charles begins to set the rules of feudalism, a system who’ll dominate Europe for a millennium, appointing military commanders and powerful abbeys to rule on provinces and fortresses in exchang for a loyal service to the person of the sovereign
    771
    Western Europe:
    The Visigothic king of Spain Fafila massacres and expels the Jews, who flee in the dozens of thousands to Mauria and to Frankish Septimania; in the latter they’ll prove such a loyal border guard that emperor Charles will entrust them of the local rule
    772
    Western Europe:
    Emperor Charles subdues rebellious Aquitaine gaining recognition from duke Lupus II
    North Africa:
    Foundation of the Berber Jewish kingdom of Sijilmasa (SW Mauria), holding sway over the western Zenete Desert (*OTL Sahara) and Mauretania Ultima (*OTL Mauritania).
    Caucasus:
    A dynastical marriage brings about the unification of Khazaria and Alania (northern Caucasus).
    773
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantine V gains a new great victory over the Bulgarians at Lithosoria; the Bulgarian Khan Toktu, who usurped the throne eliminated his predecessor Umor, is captured and slain by the Byzantines
    773-774
    Central-Eastern Europe, Northern Europe:
    In two swift campaigns emperor Charles I crushes and annexes Bavaria and defeats the ever rebellious and stubbornly heathen Saxons. Duke Tassilo III of Bavaria, a first cousin of Charles, is quartered for treason in Mainz, extinguishing the Bavarian Agilolfingian dynasty.
    Southern Europe:
    Marcianus Bulla’s Western Byzantines occupy Dalmatia, in revolt against the imposition of Iconoclasm; they also enforce formal recognition from the Venetic Adria Exarchate
    774-775
    Caucasus:
    A failed anti-Abbasid revolt in Armenia marks the fatal decline of the fortunes of the Mamikonian clan, soon to be obscured by the rise of the Bagratunis
    775
    Western Europe:
    Extinction of the “Arthurian” dynasty of Celtic Gallastria (Galicia and Asturias) with Alan V; the Visigoths, taking advantage of the succession struggles, overrun the country, which will prove a most rebellious area.
    Southern Europe:
    Liutpert, a nephew of the usurper of Lombard Neustria Charispert, flees to Charles’s court in Aquisgrana/Aachen.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Eastern Byzantine basileus Constantine V dies from fever during one of his incessant campaigns against the Bulgarians, succeeded by his elder son, Leo IV nicknamed the Khazar (actually his mother was a Khazar princess, daughter of the Khagan).
    India:
    The surviving western Chalukyas of the Deccan repel Rashtrakuta aggression and set up a new reduced kingdom in Kalyani (Mysore).
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Itzà Confederation is established in the Yucatàn
    ca. 775
    British Isles:
    The Welsh kingdom of Ceredigion/Cardigan rejects Gwynedd’s supremacy under king Seisyll, who’ll give a new name to the kingdom (Seisyllwg)
    Ca. 775-844
    Western Europe:
    The Judeo-Christian Duchy of Septimania (Maritime Languedoc, around Narbonne), under Frankish suzerainty. The Septimanian Jews, a majority after their mass escape from the rabid Visigothic persecution, elect as Duke with the name of Theodoric I Makhir Natrionai ben Habibi, the former Resh Galuta (Exiliarch of the Jews in Baghdad, one the foremost figures of the Jewry), exiled after being ousted by a cousin from his high appointment in the Abbasid capital. He took refuge first in Omayyad Egypt, then in Numidia and finally in the new Jewish “homeland” of Septimania
    776
    Southern Europe:
    The Frankish emperor Charles plunges in Italy through Bavaria and the Alps: Lombard Austrasia is crushed in the battle of the Berici Hills (Veneto), while Charispert of Nesutria, badly defeated at Brescia, flees to Romancia (*OTL eastern Switzerland and Valtellina), whose Duke Ursicinus trades back his corpse to Charles in sign of friendship. Liutpert is enthroned in Pavia as the ruler of all Lombards in northern Italy, but the local Lombard dukes are mostly replaced with Franks and Alamanni. Then Charles heads south through the Apennines, receiving the immediate submission of Duke Adelchis of Spoleto, and enters Rome, well received by Pope Adrian I. The decisive clash with Western Byzantine forces happens at Campo Imperatore on the Gran Sasso massif, where the Exarch of Taranto Maximus Bulla, Marcianus’ elder son and heir, is defeated and killed; afterwards Pope Adrian I crowns Charles as the Holy Roman Catholic emperor of the West
    776-779
    Central Asia:
    Khorasan erupts in the great equalitarian revolution led by Hashim ibn Hakim al-Muqanna, the Veiled Prophet, whose teachings trace back to the Mazdakist creed: he gains a wide following among both Muslims and Zoroastrians and military support from the heathen Oghuz Turks, but in the end is defeated and commits suicide
    776-785
    British Isles:
    King Egbert II of Kent frees the country from Mercian overlordship, then the country is directly annexed by Mercia
    778
    Western Europe:
    The Franks are defeated by the Basques of the Sobrarbre kingdom at Roncesvalles; Roland, a nephew and Paladin (personal ward) of emperor Charles, is killed in the battle, and his valor will be remembered in the Chanson de Roland, the first milestone of French popular literature.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantines defeat the Abbasids at Germanicea and wipe them from Anatolia. Caucasus:
    Groups of Lazes/Lesghians converted to Islam secede from Avaristan under Shahbaal ibn Abdallah, founding the Ghazi-Ghumuq kingdom (inner Daghestan)
    780
    Western Europe:
    The HRCEW Charles moves against the Bretons, vassalizing them and deposing Duke Arecstan; he also disinherits his first son, Pepin the Hunchback, in favor of the children born from his new marriage, Charles, Theodoric/Pepin, Lothar and Chlovis/Louis.
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople Leo IV dies prematurely, leaving empress Irene (an Iconophile from Athens) as regent for the infant Constantine VI; a plot by Caesar Nicephorus, Constantine’s uncle, is crushed and the people involved forcibly tonsured and made monks (thus not eligible for state charges).
    Far East:
    An era of growing turmoil in Korea, marked by uprisings and banditry, culminates in the murder of king Hyegong of Silla, whose State begins to decline
    781
    British Isles:
    Mercia overruns and annexes rebel Pengwern
    Byzantine Empire:
    A strong Abbasid army reinvades Anatolia and defeats the Byzantines at the Mauropotamos, not far from Nicaea.
    782
    Southern Europe:
    Marcianus Bulla dies in Syracuse, leaving the Western Byzantine crown to his second son Leontius III
    783
    Byzantine Empire:
    The (Eastern) Byzantine general, the eunuch Staurakios, subdues the Slavs of Macedonia, where a new Byzantine theme (province) is established. In Anatolia Byzantium is instead defeated when the strategos of the Buccellarion theme, Tatzates, defects to the Abassids: the Byzantines have to pay tribute and return the border fortress of Melitene (*OTL Malatya) to Caliph Harun ar-Rashid
    784
    British Isles:
    Offa the Mighty, king of Mercia, builds Offa’s Wall against Welsh encroachments.
    North Africa:
    The Maurians (*OTL Moroccans) take and sack Tlemsen: the Kahinid Exarchate fragments in local Numidian petty principalities, divided between the influence of Mauretania and that of Western Byzantium/Syracuse
    Far East:
    The Japanese capital is moved to Nagaoka.
    785
    Northern Europe:
    Saxony is finally conquered and forcibly Christianized by HRCEW Charles I the Great after almost thirty years of bloody campaigns
    ca. 785
    Black Africa:
    Foundation of the kingdom of Kanem northeast of Lake Chad under king Dugu, from the mixed-blood black-Berber Kanuris
    786
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople empress regent Irene has a council of bishops held to renegade Iconoclasm, but the army, strongly Iconoclast, forcibly dissolves it.
    Caucasus:
    Leo II, prince of Abasgia/Lazica/Abkhazia and a grandson of the Khazar Khagan, expels the Byzantines from western Iberia/Georgia, which passes under Khazar suzerainty. Ashot I Bagratuni the Great puts an end to the civil wars in inner Iberia/Georgia and ascends the royal throne at Tao-Klarjeti
    786-802
    British Isles:
    Beortric, a scion of Penda of Mercia, rules Wessex, then the Cerdicingian dynasty retakes the throne with Egbert, who menatime lived in exile at the Frankish imperial court
    787
    British Isles:
    First large Danish Viking raid upon England.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars subdue the Bishopric of Doros, the last independent Gothic stronghold in the Taurida (*OTL Crimea)
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Council of Nicaea, this time held peacefully, condemns Iconoclasm.
    788
    Southern Europe:
    A new swift campaign of emperor Charles in southern Italy, with Lombard support, crushes the Western Byzantine Exarchates of Salerno and Taranto at the battle of Conza (Campania); the former is entrusted as appanage to Pepin the Hunchback, Charles’s first disinherited son, as King of Salerno; the latter goes to Anspert, younger brother of king Liutpert of (northern) Lombardy, as Duke of Taranto, while its territories north of the Ofanto river are annexed to Spoleto. Leontius III Bulla, withdrawing south, leads the strong defence of Calabria, gaining a defensive victory at Castroleone (*OTL Campo Tenese), where he builds a strong fortress.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Franks quash Slovenian unrest in the vassal principality of Koroška/Carantania (Carinthia).
    SE Asia:
    Reunification of the Arakan kingdom (western Burma) under the Wethali dynasty
    788-790
    Southern Europe:
    The (northern) Lombard king Liutpert attacks the Venetic Exarchate of Adria wresting Triest and Histria from it, while the Spoletan Lombards besiege Ravenna; in the end the Venet(ic)ians of Doge (Duke) John Galbaius, seeing their profitable trade with the interior blocked, surrender and accept to pay tribute and recognize a nominal Frankish-Lombard suzerainty in a peace accord brokered by Pope Adrian I: in exchange for the intermediation the Papacy gains Ravenna
    789
    British Isles:
    King Conall MacTadg of Alba is defeated and dethroned by his rival, Constantine MacFergus of Dalriada, who, through the right of his mother, a sister of King Alpin ipe Ferach of Alba, succeeds to the Pictish throne. Though Constantine still doesn’t rule directly Dalriada, the two countries are de facto unified
    789-791
    North Africa:
    Idris ibn Abdallah, a Shiite scion of Prophet Muhammad through ‘Alì, exiled with many followers first from Baghdad, then from Egypt, conquers Tripoli and crushes the Kharijite State of Djebel Nefusah, founding the first Shiite Caliphate in Libya; now Islam has no more two, but three rival Caliphs!
    790
    North Africa:
    Idris ibn Abdallah’s forces retake the island of Djirva (*OTL Djerba) from Western Byzantium/Syracuse
    Byzantine Empire:
    The (eastern) Byzantine army dictates the end of Irene’s regency at Constantinople, enthroning as the legitimate basileus 20-year-old Constantine VI.
    SE Asia:
    The Malay kingdom of Srivijaya, ruled by the Sailendra dynasty (claiming descendance from the Funan empire rulers), conquers lower Chenla and vassalizes the Khmers.
    ca. 790
    Central Asia:
    Daylam (an area of northern Persia/Iran between Rayy and the Caspian Sea), a Zoroastrian stronghold, breaks free from the Abbasid Caliphate under Justan I
    India:
    Dhruva Rashtrakuta of Karnataka defeats Vathsaraja of the Gurjara-Pratiharas of central India and Dharmapala of Bengal and extracts tribute from the ruler of Kanauj, enforcing Rashtrakutan paramountry on southern-central India.
    790-791
    Far East:
    The Tibetans enforce their rule on Eastern Turkestan by taking or subduing Kashgar, Beytin, Kucha, Aqsu and Khotan
    792
    Southern Europe:
    The (northern) Lombard king Liutpert bestows temporal power upon the Patriarchate of Aquileia, sharing power with the Frankish-appointed duke of Friul Eric; Aquileia is by now the greatest European diocese
    Byzantine Empire:
    Kardam Khan’s Bulgarians rout basileus Constantine VI at Markellai.
    792-793
    Byzantine Empire:
    The ungrateful Constantine VI reinstates his mother’s clique in power, alienating his former supporters in the Armeniakon theme, who rebel against him and are brutally suppressed
    793
    British Isles:
    Viking raids harass the Alban Isles (*TTL collective name for Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides)
    794
    Northern Europe:
    HRCEW Charles I the Great exterminates by treason the ever rebellious Saxon nobles at Verden on the Aller river.
    British Isles:
    King Offa of Mercia directly annexes East Anglia.
    North Africa, Southern Europe:
    Leontius III dies in a hunt accident in Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), leaving Western Byzantium/Syracuse to his only son, the young Marcianus II Bulla.
    Far East:
    The Council of Lhasa enforces Buddhism as Tibet’s state religion. Japan finally sets its capital at Heian/Kyoto
    794-795
    Far East:
    Tibetans and Western Göktürks rout the Uygurs, but general Khutlugh (an Eastern Göktürk by origin) saves the Uygur Khanate and ascends to the throne
    795
    Northern Europe:
    Irish monks (re)discover Iceland and settle it as a hermitage.
    Western Europe:
    Charles the Great plunges on the Visigoths of Spain on behalf of a pretender to the crown of Spain, Fredegarius; the Franks, heartily supported by the half-Jewish army of Septimania, trounce and kill king Sigisbald’s army in the battle of the Ebro and Fredegarius is enthroned in Toledo as a Frankish vassal, with Frankish-appointed margraves to control the “marches” (border lands) of Barcelona, Gerona and Saragossa. In Brittany the Meriadoc dynasty of Dukes (related to the royal families of Wales) goes extinct and is replaced by the Frodaldingians, a collateral branch.
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Adrian I dies in Rome after an impressive 23 year long pontificate; Charles the Great will call him “father” in the epitaph.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Constantine VI of Byzantium divorces his wife Maria to marry Rotrude, daughter of the HRCEW Charles the Great.
    Far East:
    The T’ang Chinese defeat the Tartars
    796
    British Isles:
    The fierce plunder of Lindisfarne Abbey (Northumbria) by the Norsemen marks the beginning of the Viking Era.
    North Africa, Middle East:
    The common Shi’a menace brings about a peace between two of the three rival Caliphates, the Abbasids of Baghdad and the Omayyads of al-Fustat.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Khan Kardam’s Bulgarians raid into Avar territory in Pannonia
    796-803
    North Africa:
    A Jewish religious uprising, led by the messianic figure of Isaac Reba, upsets Numidia. After subduing (or destroying) several town and lands the rebels in the end are crushed by the concerted reaction of the Numidian post-Kahinid states, led by the Tiaret/Tahert principality. The Shi’a Idrisids of Libya mount increasing raids into Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), depopulating the south
    797
    British Isles:
    Mercian forces invade Wales, but suffer a most grave defeat at Rhuddlan by the combined forces of Dyfed, Gwynedd, North and South Powys; Offa’s Wall is destroyed and the two Powys regain the lands up to the Severn river formerly held by Pengwern
    Western Europe:
    HRCEW Charles the Great enforces the reestablishment of the Celtic kingdom of Gallastria (Galicia and Asturia) under king Sevan, who takes the name of Tiago I.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Constantine VI of Byzantium is deposed and blinded by his own mother Irene, who thereafter rules by herself; Constantine’s wife Rotrude manages to escape to Italy with her infant son Leo, the legitimate heir to the Eastern Byzantine throne, taking afterwards refuge first in Rome, then in Aquisgrana/Aachen.
    798
    Southern Europe:
    Pepin the Hunchback, king of Salerno and son of Charles the Great, kills the teenage Desiderius, Duke of Taranto and nephew of Liutpert of (northern) Lombardy, and steals his Duchy
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Abbasids of Caliph Harun-ar Rashid, no more checked by the Byzantine themes’ armies, overrun anew Anatolia up to the Marmara Sea; empress Irene is forced to renewe tribute. A few weeks later, catching the unique opportunity of the moment, Marcianus II Bulla sails from Syracuse with a very powerful fleet. The eastern Byzantine fleet, instead of confronting Marcianus II, hails him as basileus and escorts him through the Dardanelles up to Constantinople, where empress Irene experiences her turn of being blinded and forever confined in a nunnery, while his all-powerful ally, Staurakios, is beheaded: the Byzantine Empire is thus reunified.
    799
    Southern Europe:
    Charles the Great comes back to Italy to reinstall Pope Leo III, who had been almost lynched in Rome by the local anti-Frankish party; but when he is moving against his disinherited son Pepin the Hunchback, he is poisoned in a conspiracy led by Pepin himself, who thereafter marches on Rome (while most of the Frankish army withdraws north) and forces Pope Leo III to crown him as the new Holy Roman Catholic Emperor of the West, to the horror of his surviving half-brothers Charles, Theodoric/Pepin and Louis the Pious. Duke Eric of Friul falls in battle against the Croats near Fiume/Rijeka.
    Caucasus:
    Yazid I ibn Mazyad al-Shayban founds the emirate of Shirvan, the first Muslim state in Azerbaijan
    Middle East:
    The Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad Harun ar-Rashid murders in jail the seventh Shi’a Imam, Musa al-Kazim (not recognized the Ismaili Shiites).

    800
    Southern Europe:
    Pepin the Hunchback’s suzerainty is rejected by the Lombards, who call the three sons of the murdered emperor (none of whom has still claimed the crown for himself) for help, but no avail for the moment; in fact Charles’s three sons are already quarrelling about their respective spheres of influence.
    Caucasus:
    Leo II of Abasgia/Abkhasia (NW Iberia/Georgia), vassal to the Khazars, assumes the royal title as Leo I
    ca. 800
    Northern Europe:
    In Norway the local kingdom of Romerike is absorbed into Hedmark; the Norwegian Vikings embark in a string of methodical raids on the British Isles, especially targeting Ireland.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Viseslav Trpimirović is the first ban (duke) of Croatia. A new Slavic principality arises at Nitra (Slovakia), breaking free from Avar overlordship. The Magyars, vast Ugro-Turkic tribal compact coming from the Urals and western Siberia, are pushed towards the southwest by the Volga Bulgarians and become paramount in eastern Ukraine. The Khazars retake Bosporon/Kerč from the Onogurs of Taurida (*OTL Crimea).
    North Africa:
    The Berghawata Maurians develop an own Judeo-Christian apocalyptic heresy based on the wait for a Second Messiah to announce the end of times; it also contemplates the presence of a High Priest and a Temple the Berghawata proceed to build in Warzazata (*OTL Ouarzazate).
    Black (or Transzenetian) Africa:
    The Songhais, coming from NW Nigeria, found their kingdom at Gao on the middle Niger under king Alyaman. Foundation of the Jewish kingdom of Beta Yisrael in the Ethiopian highlands.
    Central Asia:
    Conversion of Khorezm (western Central Asia) to Sunni Islam; the Persian Samanids start acting as Abbasid governors in Samarkand.
    India:
    Tripartite struggle for power in central-northern India: Nagabhata II of the Gurjara-Pratiharas takes Kanauj from Chakrayudha, protegé of Dharmapala of Bengal, only to be ousted by Govinda III Rashtrakuta. The Paramara Rajputs, vassal and related to the Rashtrakutas of Karnataka and Deccan, reestablish the kingdom of Malwa (central India). Mazdeism begins to spread in Western peninsular India. Kulasekhara Varman founds the second Chera empire in Kerala (SW Deccan)
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    B’aakal/Palenque is destroyed, the city abandoned; many other Mayan city-State in the south are suddenly destroyed or abandoned for untold reasons (invasions? famine? mass insanity?)
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Chachapoyas establish a strong kingdom in the eastern Peruan Andes (Urubamba-Marañon area)
    801
    Western Europe:
    The Treaty of Weissenburg carves the HRCEW between Charles’s three “legitimate” sons: Charles II the German, the elder son, receives East Francia (Germany), Bavaria and the imperial title, Theodoric/Pepin obtains the lands from Frisia to Aquitaine and Louis the Pious Burgundy, Provence, Septimania. The three brothers then strike a deal to jointly attack Pepin the Hunchback “to free the Papacy and avenge our beloved father”
    802
    Western Europe:
    When his half-brothers move against him appearing in Italy, Pepin II the Hunchback is lynched by a mob in Rome; Charles II, therafter, is crowned in St. Peter in the presence of his brothers, not before humiliating and deposing Pope Leo III for crowning his father’s assassin, and replacing him with the Irish St. Cassian of Hibernia, the most brilliant scholar of the Carolingian court, who takes the name of Patricius. Salerno and Taranto, now both reduced to Duchies, are entrusted to Frankish dukes loyal to Charles II. The Venet(ic)ians, led by their Doge John Galbaius, sack Grado and kill Patriarch John.
    British Isles:
    The Norwegian Vikings sack and destroy the great Irish abbey of Iona, in the Hebrides. Anglo-Saxon Wiccia (Hwicce) is finally annexed to Mercia.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine general Bardanes the Turk, an important strategos (theme governor) in Anatolia, rebels in support of iconoclasm and against the “Syracusan Iconophile usurper” Marcianus II Bulla and actually deprives Byzantium of control over its main Asian stronghold.
    SE Asia:
    King Jayavarman II of upper Chenla, grown at the Srivijayan court, frees the Khmers and the Mekong delta region from Srivijaya and founds the new kingdom of Kambuja, holding sway over Laos, Siam, Cambodia and Cochinchina
    803
    Byzantine Empire:
    Marcianus II Bulla attacks Bardanes the Turk in Anatolia but is routed at the battle of Dadastana; hunted by the winner, Marcianus flees back first to Athens, thence to Syracuse, and the Byzantine Empire is anew divided.
    Western Europe:
    Charles II and Liutpert of (northern) Lombardy make Friul a March and occupy Dalmatia taking advantage of Byzantine weakness.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    After wresting the region between the Tisza and Transylvania from the crumbling Avars, the fierce Krum, lord of the Pannonian Onogurs and a scion of the Dulo clan, ascends the throne of Bulgaria: his kingdom stretches from the middle Danube to the Black Sea.
    India:
    Govinda III Rashtrakuta defeats and vassalizes an alliance of Pallava, Pandya, Chera and Ganga forces in SE Deccan; his younger brother Indra founds a second Rashtrakuta dynasty in Gujarat
    804
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A joint action between Charles II the German and Khan Krum of Bulgaria crushes the Avars in Pannonia; the Bulgarians gain vast swathes of land in Dacia and Pannonia, the surviving Avar are vassals to the HRCEW.
    Byzantine Empire:
    A new council summoned in Chalcedon by basileus Bardanes reimposes Iconoclasm, supported by most of the army, in the eastern Byzantine empire.
    Caucasus:
    After long struggles Ashot I Bagratuni nicknamed the Carnivore, king of Iberia/Georgia, is able to take over also the throne of Armenia (as Ashot III); he rebels against Abbasid suzerainty with eastern Byzantine support, but cannot take Tbilisi (where a Caliphal emir rules) and break ties with Baghdad
    805
    Western Europe:
    King Godfred’s Danes repel a Frankish invasion led by HRCEW Charles II; in the campaign an Indian war elephant, a kind present of the Abbasid Caliph Harun ar-Rashid, is used, but to no avail, then Godfred is killed by his men and order on the border is restored.
    British Isles:
    The Celtic kingdom of Strathclyde annexes North Rheged through dynastical ties.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Avar Khan Zodan, vassal to the Franks, receives baptism with the name of Theodore.
    Middle East:
    Harun ar-Rashid manages to newly subdue the rebellious Daylamites of N Persia
    Ca. 805
    British Isles:
    The Celtic kingdom of Dumnonia/Devon is newly vassalized by Wessex; Cornwall secedes and keeps independence
    806
    North Africa:
    Marcianus II Bulla lands in Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) to confront the marauding Idrisids from Tripolitania, but is trounced and killed by the Muslim invaders at St. Maximus oasis in the south; the Idrisids then assault, take and raze Carthage to the ground, while the Primate of Africa, archbishop Maximus IV, takes refuge in Sicily, where a succession war quickly begins. A massive flow of refugees flees to Numidia. Peter the Brigand, a Berber chieftain of the western Atlas, conquers Tlemsen (Numidia) from Mauretania with support from Visigothic mercenaries, and founds a kingdom centered on that city
    806-808
    Byzantine Empire:
    Abbasid forces invade and overrun most of Anatolia, conquering key fortresses like Angora and Amorion and extracting renewed tribute from Byzantium
    807
    Southern Europe:
    In Sicily the legitimists rally in Syracuse behind empress Euphemia and the five-years-old Constantia, while the pretenders Augustin of Malta and John Chrisostratos vie for supremacy in most of the island.
    Byzantine Empire:
    An Abbasid fleet plunders Rhodes. The Slavs of Peloponnesus/Morea besiege Patras, but are wholly defeated and subdued by eastern Byzantine forces
    808
    North Africa:
    The Shiite Caliph of Tripolitania and Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) Idris II founds Tunis near the ruins of Carthage.
    Southern Europe:
    Frankish and Lombard forces led by emperor Charles II take Calabria, land in Sicily and crush the two pretenders to the Western Byzantine crown, then force the submission of Syracuse. Sicily, deprived of Calabria attached to the Duchy of Salerno, of Corsica attached to the (nominally Lombard) Duchy of Tuscany and of Sardinia left to cope for herself, becomes a vassal kingdom of the HRCEW, where the eleven year old Leo, son of the defunct Constantine VI of Byzantium and nephew of Charles II, will reign by marrying little Constantia Bulla: the Western Byzantine empire doesn’t exist anymore. The Papacy assumes a theoretical suzerainty over Corsica and Sardinia; in the latter, the western Byzantines had organized the four “judicates” (local provinces) of Gallura, Torres, Cagliari and Arborea.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Paulician revolt led by Arsaviros between Anatolia and Armenia; basileus Bardanes crushes the rebels
    809
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Bulgarian Khan, Krum, routs the Byzantine army on the Struma, killing basileus Bardanes (with whose skull he makes a cup) and conquers Serdica/Sofia, the last Byzantine stronghold in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans); in Constantinople, after a brief struggle, general Leo V the Armenian (an Anatolic Mardaite, actually) has himself crowned
    809-813
    Middle East:
    In the Abbasid Caliphate the death of Harun ar-Rashid is followed by a succession war between his sons al-Amin and al-Ma’mun: the latter, based at Marv (Khorasan), prevails
    810
    North Africa:
    The Idrisid Arabs invade Numidia and subdue several towns and tribes in the country, despite a heavy resistance.
    Western Europe:
    Theodoric/Pipin dies, leaving his part of the HRCEW (from Frisia to northern France and Aquitaine) to the 13 year old son Bernard; the Bretons take the opportunity to break free from Frankish control, while the Danes invade and conquer most of Frisia; Charles II, ill, can’t intervene; Louis the Pious does nothing to help
    ca. 810
    Far East:
    The Japanese complete the submission of the Ainus in northern Honshu.
    Northern Europe:
    The Norwegian Vikings conquer the Alban Isles (*TTL colective name for Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides).
    Western Europe:
    The work of Pope Patricius (St. Cassian of Hibernia), who’ll be hailed as the last great Father of the Catholic Church, encourages the use of local languages in the Christian liturgy; in the centuries, first the prayers, then the very holy texts will be translated. Foundation of the HRCEW march of Vasconia/Navarra under duke Adalric of Gascony
    811
    Western Europe:
    HRCEW Charles II the German dies while his son Roland is still in his teens; in the Diet of Metz, Louis the Pious enforces the system of the Majorate for the governance of the Empire (the older member of the family is crowned as emperor, no matter who was the emperor before) and has himself crowned and anointed in Rome in the place of young Roland
    812
    Byzantine Empire:
    Khan Krum’s Bulgarians are repelled by Leo V after a most heavy siege of Adrianople and the devastation of Thrace.
    North Africa:
    Helped by Fredegarius’ Visigoths, the Numidians led by Peter the Brigand decisively stem the Idrisid Arab invaders at Ikhuzi (*OTL Algiers).
    Western Europe:
    Foundation of the Frankish county of the Razès/Rennes-le-Chateau (between Carcassonne and the Pyrenees), a former Visigothic border stronghold. Brittany is again reduced to obedience by the Frankish armies.
    British Isles:
    Essex is vassalized by Mercia, which in turn loses suzerainty over Sussex in favor of Wessex
    813
    Byzantine Empire:
    Krum directly tries to assault Constantinople’s wall with a large horde of Slavs, Avars and Bulgarians, but fails miserably and withdraws home.
    Western Europe:
    Duke Bernard of Septimania, a Jew, converts to Christianity to confirm his loyalty to Louis the Pious, who is an ardent Catholic
    813-826
    Middle East:
    Revolt by Nasr in northern Syria and Cilicia; in the end he is captured and executed by the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’mun
    814
    Byzantine Empire:
    Just after Krum’s death the Bulgarians are overrun by basileus Leo V at Burtudizos (Thrace).
    Western Europe:
    The Council of Tours, held under the auspices of Pope Patricius (St. Cassian of Hibernia), invites the Catholic clergy to preach in the vernacular languages of Europe and North Africa (“rusticam romanam linguam”) rather than in Latin. The Venet(ic)ians move their capital from Methamaucus to the lagoon islets of Rialto: in time, the city will be called Venice
    814-815
    Middle East:
    Great revolt led by Abu Saraya in Kufa and Basra; when it threatens Baghdad, general Harthama crushes the rebels
    ca. 815
    Northern Europe:
    The Yngling clan (the ruling dynasty of Vestfold) ascends the throne of Sogn in central Norway with Harald Goldbeard.
    North Africa:
    The Idrisids win the favor of the local Kharijite tribes and wrest Cyrenaica from Omayyad Egypt
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Iconoclastic issue again heats the climate in Constantinople, with the monk Theodore of Studium leading the Orthodox (icon-worshipping) front and John Grammatikos the Iconoclasts.
    India:
    Mahasivagupta Yayanti II of Kalinga unites the kingdoms of Kalinga, Kangoda, Utkala and Kosala reviving the century-old empire of Orissa under his dynasty, the Somvamsis
    816-838
    Caucasus:
    The great Zoroastrian uprising led by Babak in Azerbaijan shatters the kingdom of Caucasian Albania, a client of the Abbasids of Baghdad but still formally Christian; Babak creates an ephemeral but strong theocratic empire based on Mazdakism but also open to Manichaean and even Hinduist influences; its bare existence fosters the rise of a militant Paulicianism in Cappadocia
    817
    Western Europe:
    At the Diet of Aquisgrana/Aachen the HRCEW Louis the Pious determines that his eldest son, Lothar, being some weeks older than Roland, has to be his successor as emperor; he also entrusts Bavaria and Aquitaine respectively to his sons Louis II and Pipin III, both with royal title, setting the countdown for the feudal implosion of the HRCEW. Roland and Bernard refuse to accept this arrangement and prepare for the inevitable clash.
    Middle East:
    To quell the unrest among the Shiites, the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad al-Ma’mun appoints as successor the eighth Shi’a Imam, Alì al-Rida, who a few months thereafter dies, likely poisoned
    817-819
    Middle East:
    The disturbances in the Abbasid Caliphate reach a new heighth with the usurpation by Ibrahim al-Mubarak (a mixed-blood son of an African slave girl) in Baghdad, then al-Ma’mun retakes power and remains in Baghdad leaving his former capital at Marv. The Egyptian Omayyads of Caliph al-Hakam I, though, take advantage to conquer Palestine with Jerusalem and obtain the submission of the Holy Places of Islam in the Hijaz (Mecca and Medina)
    818-819
    Western Europe:
    Louis the Pious defeats his nephews Roland and Bernard one at a time, respectively in the battle on the Sieg river (Westfalia) and at Arlon (Belgium). Bernard flees to Wessex, while Roland takes refuge among the Pannonian Slavs; their ban (duke) Ljudevit Posavski, then tries to bring back Roland in Italy, annihilating Carantania/Koroška on his way; he also invades and ravages Friul. Roland tries to reach Rome and his allies in the south of Italy but is killed by the Lombards at Florence, leaving Louis only emperor of the Holy Roman Catholic Empire of the West. Meantime the marquis of Friul, Cadolaus, beats back Ljudevit’s horde beyond the Alps
    818-821
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Sklavinian (*OTL Balkan) Bulgarians conquer southwestern Ukraine defeating Slavs and Magyars up to Kiev
    819
    Western Europe:
    Oliba I, son of count Borrell/Bellon, founds the county of Carcassonne.
    Arabia:
    Zaydi Yemen gains de facto independence from the Abbasid Caliphate
    819-823
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Ljudevit Posavski puts up a gallant defence of Slavic Pannonia (Croatia and Hungary west of the Danube), but in the end he is defeated and flees through Serbia; his uncle, Borna, ban of the Croats of Liburnia and Dalmatia, jails and kills him to please the Franks.
    Western Europe:
    After the Papacy mediates to avoid bloodshed in Italy, Louis the Pious has to pardon the two former Rolandist dukes of Salerno and Taranto, Adalgerius and Hermann. Roland’s and Bernard’s infant sons, Pepin and the illegitimate Odoacer, are held in Louis’ court at Aquisgrana/Aachen; decades later they will be entrusted respectively the counties of Vermandois, Senlis, Peronne and St. Quentin and the county of Flanders
    820
    North Africa:
    After mustering a strong fleet, king Leo of Sicily sails to Africa, but fails in the siege of Tunis and withdraws.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Leo V the Armenian foils a plot to overthrow him and kills the rebel leader, general Michael of Amorion.
    Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The line of kings in Xukpi/Copàn comes to an end; this Mayan city-State crumbles and is abandoned in less than ten years
    ca. 820
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantines reassert their control over the inner mountain region east of Dyrrachium and Valona, where the resistance of the Illyrians to the Slavs is resulting in the birth of the Albanian people.
    Western Europe:
    In the HRCEW Louis the Pious bestows even greater power on the Roman Church and local abbeys
    820-835
    Middle-East:
    Southern Iraq is shaken by the long rebellion of the Zotts, a people partly deported by the Arabs from NW India, where they were known as Jats
    British Isles:
    Fierce Viking raids on Western Scotland and Alba force king Angus II of Dalriada and Alba to move his capital east from Argyll
    821
    Central Asia:
    Tahir ibn al-Husayn, governor of Baghdad and strongman of the Abbasid Caliphate, de facto carves an own State in Khorasan and northern Afghanistan with capital at Nishapur and founds the Tahirid dynasty
    821-823
    Byzantine Empire:
    A huge revolt based on ethnic, social and religious issues (contact with Babakist/Mazdakist rebels in Azerbaijan is proved) erupts in Anatolia, led by Thomas the Slav and heartily supported by both the peasantry and the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’mun; Constantinople suffers two long years of siege, then, when Bulgarian khan Omurtag too overtly sides with the rebels, the imperial fleet mutinies and kills basileus Leo V; Thomas is hailed as the new ruler and pays tribute to Bulgaria
    822
    Central Asia:
    Abbasid (Tahirid) forces finally complete the conquest of Central Asia by vassalizing the kingdom of Usrushana in the Chach/Tashkent), where Islam begins to spread.
    British Isles:
    Bernard is killed in Wessex upon orders of king Egbert, eager to appease Louis the Pious
    822-826
    Western Europe:
    After another long and bloody civil war (not without Maurian, Frankish, Gallastrian and even Viking encroachments) Roderic II, Fredegarius’ nephew, ascends the Visigothic throne of Spain in Toledo and ensures dynastical continuity to the kingdom, partially reforming it according to the feudal Frankish model
    823
    British Isles:
    Cyngen ap Cadell of North Powys repels a major Mercian invasion of Wales at the battle of Powys Castle.
    Southern Europe:
    The town of Gaeta, on the border between the Papal lands and the Duchy of Salerno, gains de facto independence
    824
    Caucasus:
    Ashot III Bagratuni the Carnivore, ruler of Armenia and Iberia/Georgia, dies. Armenia is divided between his sons Smbat III the Confessor, who gets most of the country, and Bagrat I, who gets the principality of Taron replacing the local Mamikonian rulers; after six years Bagrat I will also gain the Iberian/Georgian crown
    North Africa: the Idrisids of Tunis and Libya conquer Malta, then stage an invasion of Omayyad Egypt which is utterly repulsed at el-Daba
    825
    British Isles:
    King Egbert’s Wessex Saxons first suffer a defeat at Galford against the Cornish, then, in alliance with the Welsh kingdoms, gain a most great victory over Mercia at Ellandon and proceed to annex Essex and Kent. Mervyn the Freckled, son of king Gwriad of Man, gains the throne of Gwynedd (northern Wales) upon the death of Howell I, the last scion of the ap Edern family (descendants of Cunedda Wledig); thus the House of Cole (descendants of Coel Hen) rules now on the most important Welsh state
    SE Asia:
    Thmala founds the Mon kingdom of Pegu (southern Burma)
    ca. 825
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    the Magyars vassalize the Onoguro-Bulgarians of Taurida (*OTL Crimea). Rise of the Greater Moravian empire north of Slavic Pannonia.
    North Africa:
    The Idrisids gain an effective supremacy over eastern Numidia, but conversion to Islam still is a minoritary choice, and Berber resistance, with incessant raiding by the Zenetes from the south, persists.
    British Isles: East Anglia regains complete freedom from Mercia, whose power has been shaken by the rise of Wessex
    Hesperia (*OTL America):
    In central Mexico the Toltec kingdom takes shape around the city of Tula
    826
    Middle East:
    Upon the final quashing of Nasr’s rebellion in northern Syria, Omayyad and Abbasid forces clash just outside Damascus: the latter prevail, but Omayyad Egypt gains control over coastal Lebanon, with the Christian Marada states to act as a buffer with Abbasid Syria
    North Africa:
    The Idrisids conquer Pantelleria
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The pathetic remains of the Avar Khaganate cease to exist and are divided between Bulgaria and Greater Moravia
    827
    Byzantine Empire:
    Thomas the Slav, a most ineffective ruler who humiliated Byzantium with his subservience to Bulgaria, is slain in a coup by that same drungarios (chief admiral) who took him in power, Eustace, now crowned in St.Sophia as the new basileus, establishing the Rhodian dynasty (from Rhodes, Eustace’s birthplace). Eustace is an Iconophile, but doesn’t press abolition of Iconoclasm to keep the army’s loyalty
    Southern Europe:
    King Leo of Sicily dies without issue fighting the Idrisid invasion at the Belice river battle: a war of succession at once erupts in the areas not under Arab rule. At the Synod of Mantua a major issue is authority over the bishoprics of Histria: it is thus decided to divide the peninsula between the Patriarchates of Aquileia (eastern part) and Grado (west), which division will remain in the centuries between Venice and the HRCEW
    827-848
    Middle East:
    In this years a cultural renaissance blooms in Baghdad, with the translation of ancient Classical philosophy and science into Arab. The Abbasid Caliph al-Ma’mun creates the Mihna (sort of Islamic Inquisition) to enforce his own religious views, based on Mutazilism (a rationalistic variant of Sunni Islam, with Hellenistic philosophical influences).
    828-853
    India:
    Maharaja Rawal Khuman II of Mewar (northwestern India) fights 24 battles against the Abbasid armies, gaining the title of “Guardian of Hinduism”
    828
    Southern Europe:
    King Liutpert of (northern Lombardy) dies after 52 years of reign and loyal allegiance to the HRCEW; emperor Louis the Pious installs on the throne of Pavia Liutpert’s nephew Adaloald II over the deceased king’s grandson, Babila. Louis the Pious also installs Hunroch II and his young son Eberhard as rulers in the march of Friul. The Venetian traders Rustico from Torcello and Bono from Methamaucs/Malamocco steal the corpse of St. Mark the Apostle from Alexandria and bring it to Rialto/Venezia, where a church will be built for him; actually the corpse stolen is not St. Mark, but Alexander the Great! (This will be discovered many, many centuries later). In Sicily the Idrisid invaders besiege and capture Palermo and sink the once powerful Syracusan fleet in the battle of Mazara
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Bulgarians conquer lower Pannonia and stage raids up to Histria; Pannonia east of the Danube becomes known as Honoguria, from the Onogur Bulgar tribe dwelling there
    828-830
    British Isles:
    Mercia experiences a brief takeover by Wessex, then king Wiglaf frees the country
    829
    Western Europe:
    In the Diet of Worms HRCEW Louis the Pious entrusts Swabia and parts of Burgundy to his last son, Charles (later known as the Bald), born from his second marriage; his half-brothers don’t enjoy the news
    Southern Europe:
    The Idrisids rout and kill in Castrogiovanni/Enna Leontius Tyndarenus, the stronger pretender to the Syracusan throne
    Far east:
    The kingdom of Nazhao (Yunnan) conquers the city of Chengdu in the Chinese province of Sichuan
    830
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    With Byzantine help the Khazars build the fortress of Sarkel to control the mouths of the Don river. Aydar, Khan of the Volga Bulgarians, establishes the Khanate of the Black Bulgarians in the Ukraine. Greater Moravia conquers Bohemia and enforces its supremacy over Slovakia and Galicia/Ruthenia: a new powerful Slavic empire is thus born
    ca. 830
    India:
    King Amoghavarsha I Rashtrakuta, the paramount ruler of western and southern India, converts to Mazdeism.
    Central Asia:
    The Kirghizes gain supremacy over the lands between southern Siberia and Dzungaria.
    Caucasus:
    Rise of the christian kingdom of Sheka in northwestern Azerbaijan
    830-831
    Southern Europe:
    Suitgerus, son of duke Adalgerius of Salerno, lands in Sicily but is beaten back and barricades himself in Syracuse, which falls after a terrible siege: the Idrisids now control all of Sicily
    830-855
    Caucasus:
    Long anti-Arab revolts drag on in Bagratid Armenia; Abbasid control over the region is severely weakened
    831-832
    Western Europe:
    In the HRCEW Lothar dethrones his father Louis the Pious, discontent at the emperor’s decision to give an appanage taken from his heritage to young Charles; then, abandoned by his brothers Pepin of Aquitaine and Louis II the German, Lothar is forced to reinstall his father and wait his time, but imperial authority, especially in Italy, is jeopardized
    831-836
    Middle East: A semi-independent emirate forms in Melitene (*OTL Malatya) on the upper Euphrates. Omayyads and Abbasids vie for control of Hijaz and its Holy Cities (Mecca, Medina), with the former keeping it
    832
    SE Asia:
    Nanzhao (Yunnan) swallows his western neighbour, the Burmese kingdom of Pyu.
    Western Europe:
    Foundation of the Visigothic county of Portugal around Oporto (known in Latin as Portus Cale, whence the name)
    833
    Southern Europe:
    The Frankish duke of Salerno, Ademarus, vassalizes Gaeta.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Mojmir, ruler of Greater Moravia, conquers the principality of Nitra (western Slovakia); its prince, Pribina, takes refuge in Slavic Pannonia.
    Western Europe:
    The Frisian Gerulf founds on the west side of the Zuiderzee the county of Western Frisia or Kennemerland, known in later times as Holland. The Basque kingdom of Sobrarbre is peacefully absorbed by Vasconia/Navarra upon the death of its last ruler, Sancho Garcés
    833-863
    Western Europe:
    Incessant Viking/Norse raiding and a shift of the lower Rhine’s course bring about the abandonment of the rich trade port of Dorestad (Holland); consequently, Frisian trade supremacy in the North Sea declines
    ca. 835
    SE Asia:
    The Srivijayan ruler, Patapan Sailendra of Sanjaya, reestablishes Hindu hegemony over Buddhism in Java.
    Middle East:
    Daylam (south of the Caspian Sea) anew breaks free from the Abbasid Caliphate
    835-838
    Byzantine Empire:
    In response to Abbasid raiding in Anatolia, basileus Eustace leads successful campaigns up to northern Syria and the Euphrates
    836
    British Isles: The Norwegian Vikings, led by the mixed-blood Irish-Viking Godred MacFergus, conquer the Isle of Man, abandoned by king Mervyn the Freckled, who had gained the crown of Gwynedd in Wales.
    India:
    Mihir Bhoja conquers Kanauj (central northern India, along the Ganges) for the Gurjara-Pratiharas and moves his capital there
    837
    Southern Europe:
    An Idrisid fleet sacks Naples.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Magyars again cross the Dnieper to western Ukraine
    838
    Western Europe:
    The Venetians from Rialto sack and destroy the rival town of Comacchio, gaining permanent supremacy in the Venetic Exarchate (whose ruler keeps, though, the title of Doge, Duke). On the death of his son Pepin I, Louis the Pious bestows Aquitaine on Charles the Bald, which fact reopens never healed wounds in the Carolingian dynasty.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Abbasid army counterinvades Anatolia and inflicts a grave defeat upon the Byzantines at Guziliurta, then takes and razes Caesarea Esusebia in Cappadocia
    British Isles: Wessex invades Cornwall, but the latter gets reinforcements from Brittany and repels the invaders
    838-842
    Far East:
    The power of Tibet is severely curtailed by the fierce civil war that puts Buddhists and followers of the traditional Bon religion one against the other
    838-846
    British Isles:
    A massive Viking invasion of Ireland, led by Thorgest, shatters for some years the succession of the Irish High Kings
    839
    British Isles:
    The Norwegian Vikings of the Orkneys, in alliance with the Scottish prince Kenneth MacAlpin, kill king Eoganan of the united house of Fergus, ruling both Dalriada and Alba; Kenneth’s father, Alpin, is enthroned in Dalriada, while Ferach mac Bargoch, a relative of Eoganan, manages to secure the Pictish throne of Alba. In England, Sussex is de facto annexed by Wessex.
    Western Europe:
    At Worms Louis the Pious, having recently died Pepin of Aquitaine, revises the future division of the HRCEW Empire between his sons: Charles the Bald will gain the whole territory west of the Rhône and Somme rivers, Lothar will receive the imperial crown of as Holy Roman Catholic Emperor of the West plus the central territories of Provence, Burgundy, Rhineland, Flanders (soon collectively known as Lotharingia, whence Lorraine) and suzerainty over Italy; the German territories east of the Rhnine will be Louis II’s domain. Ranulf I becomes count of Poitou, founding the dynasty of the same name
    Southern Europe:
    Idrisid pirates from Sicily leak into the Adriatic Sea, defeat the Venetians and sack Ancona. The Bulgarians expand in Macedonia and Serbia under khan Malomir (their first ruler to bear a Slavic name).
    839-840
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The dethroned prince of Nitra (Slovakia), Pribina, ascends the throne of the Slavic Duchy of Pannonia, by now known as Balaton, a vassal of the HRCEW
    839-841
    Central Asia:
    The prince of Usrushana, Afshin Khaydar ibn Kawush, a general in the Abbasid army, rises in rebellion but is betrayed and deported to Samarra (Iraq), where he is starved to death in jail
    840
    Western Europe:
    HRCEW Louis I the Pious is finally deposed by his sons and dies in a monastery a broken man. Aquitaine, who should go to Charles the Bald according to Louis I’s will, rebels under Pepin II, son of Pepin I, hailed as king by local feudatories
    Southern Europe:
    An Idrisid fleet takes Taranto, whose duke Roland had headed north to uphold his favoured candidate, Lothar, for the imperial succession; the Idrisids establish there a Muslim emirate. Idrisid fleets also sack the coastal cities of Dalmatia and extort tribute from the Sardinian judicates. Meantime Naples rebels against duke Fulmar of Salerno and chooses as its new duke Sergius from Cuma
    Byzantine Empire:
    General Melissinos gains a brilliant victory against the Arabs at Daranaseia and temporarily conquers Melitene (*OTL Malatya). Idrisid pirates from Cyrenaica first choose as their base the island of Chalki near Rhodes, then, expelled by the Byzantines, assault and conquer Heraklion in Crete making it a harbor for Muslim piracy with the name of al-Khandaq.
    Far East:
    The second Uygur Khanate in Mongolia is overthrown by Khakassians, Khirghizes and Qarluqs, who destroy the Uygur capital, Kara Balghasun.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars vassalize Kiev and install there the Magyars under voivoda (prince) Olom. The latter will call western Ukraine Lebedia, from their chieftain, Lebedias
    ca. 840
    Central Asia:
    The Turks begin the process of Islamization. In western Kazakhstan dwell the Oghuz, while the Qarluqs are splitting into Kimaks (in southern Siberia) and Kipchaks (in the northern Central Asian steppes).
    North Africa:
    St. Cyprian of Constantina finally Christianizes the northern Zenete Berbers of the desert.
    Middle East:
    The Abbasid Caliph of Baghad al-Mu’tasim creates an army of Turkic slaves (the Ghulams, later known as Mamluks) to counterbalance the rival factions, and particularly the dubious loyalty of the powerful Daylamite mercenaries.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Piast the Wheelmaker, from the Slavic tirbe of the Polanians, founds the kingdom of Poland, centered in the Posen-Gniezno area
    840-847
    Central Asia, Far East:
    Pushed ahead by the victorious Khirghizes, the Uygurs migrate en masse in the Tarim basin area of eastern Turkestan, permanently destroting Tibetan supremacy in the area. In time many of them will convert to Buddhism, already followed by the local Indo-European Tocharians, who are finally absorbed and disappear as a distinct culture. The Chinese T’ang emperor Wuzong, an ardent Taoist, persecutes all other religions: Buddhists, Zoroastrians, Manichaeans and Nestorian Christians
    841
    Western Europe:
    Fighting soon breaks out between Lothar and Pepin II of Aquitaine on one side and Charles II the Bald and Louis II the German on the other: it’s the Carolingian war of succession. Lothar and Pepin’s forces are defeated at Fontenay (near Auxerre).
    Suthern Europe:
    Lombardy falls in chaos when Babila kills king Grimoald III and rejects Frankish overlordship: some Frankish dukes support his bid for independence, others, notably duke Unroch II of Friul, do not and resist harshly.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Council of Thessalonica finally condemns Iconoclasm and reimposes Nicene Catholicism at Byzantium
    Southern Europe:
    The Idrisid invaders of Puglia take Bari, where they set up another emirate
    British Isles:
    The Norwegian Vikings found Dublin, pillage and subdue a sizable chunk of eastern Ireland
    841-843
    Western Europe:
    Taking adavantage of the Carolingian war of succession the Vikings mount a vast pirate attack against the Frankish kingdoms: they plunder Rouen and Nantes and forever destroy Quentovic (on the Channel’s coast just opposite Kent)
    842
    Western Europe:
    The Oath of Strasbourg seals the alliance between Charles the Bald and Louis the German against Lothar and attests the birth of the French and German languages. The Visigoths of Spain, taking advantage of the Carolingian war of succession, reject Frankish overlorship and try to subdue Vasconia/Navarra but are heavily routed by marquis Siguin II
    Southern Europe:
    In Lombardy the independentist faction led by the usurper Babila overcomes the loyalist dukes at the battle of Corteolona, near Pavia
    North Africa:
    Constantina resists a long Idrisid siege; it preserves independence and Christianity, though at the price of vassalage to Tunis
    843
    Western Europe:
    The Treaty of Verdun divides the HRCEW in three parts and, by an irony, confirms Louis the Pious’ will at the last Diet of Worms. Charles III the Bald gains Carolingia or West Francia (France proper) with Pepin II as sub-king in Aquitaine, Louis/Ludwig II gets East Francia/Germany, Lothar the imperial crown plus Lotharingia (Burgundy, the Netherlands, Provence, Rhineland), overlorship over Romancia and a pledge by his brothers to help him in the reconquest of Italy, to be made another Frankish kingdom for Lothar’s son Louis
    844
    Southern Europe:
    The Frankish army, united for the last time, storms into Lombardy through allied Romancia (*OTL eastern Switzerland and Valtellina) and annihilates Babila’s army at the battle of Castelseprio, thus forever ending Lombard power in northern and central Italy; even duke Berengarius of formerly independent Spoleto, having supported Babila is forcibly deposed and replaced with the Frank Guido I. Lothar’s son, Louis, is crowned in Rome by Pope Sergius II as Louis I of Italy (and later Louis II as emperor). The Idrisids, now masters of the central Mediterranean, take the sea-trading towns of Gaeta and Amalfi, where they establish two local emirates; duke Fulmar of Salerno moves against them but is defeated and captured and will end his days as a slave
    Western Europe:
    Duke Bernard of Septimania is executed on orders of the king of West Francia Charles III the Bald (five years later his son William will meet the same fate); the Judeo-Christian Duchy thus reverts to the Eastern Frankish crown, but the region will remain a hotbed of unorthodox feeling and a world center of Jewry for centuries.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine fleet briefly retakes Heraklion /al-Khandaq on Crete, but the Arabs rapidly oust the imperial forces
    845
    North Africa:
    The Berghawata general Simon of Arzaya repels the last Visigothic attempt to conquer Mauretania by king Theodoric V, defeated and killed in the failed siege of Ulili, the Maurian capital.
    Western Europe:
    Duke Nominoë’s Bretons heavily defeat the Western Franks at Redon and regain full independence; meantime a Danish Viking fleet led by king Ragnar Lodbrok plunders northern France, conquers Paris itself and extorts rich tributes from Charles the Bald.
    British Isles:
    The Vikings conquer Limerick in Ireland and establish a local kingdom there.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Borivoi I becomes duke of Bohemia under Greater Moravian suzerainty, thus establishing the Premyslid dynasty
    846
    Southern Europe:
    The Idrisids conquer Naples, then fiercely sack Rome itself. St.Peter’s is set ablaze and Pope Sergius II is martyred on the spot, then Guido I of Spoleto with a crack force chases away the Arabs. All of southern Italy is now in Muslim hands
    India:
    Vijayalaya I founds the Chola Empire in SE Deccan, in the wake of the final eclipse of Pallava rule
    847
    Southern Europe:
    The new Pope Leo IV the Great and Louis, Lothar’s son and king of Italy, fortify Rome against further Muslim aggression, Louis turns them on the Idrisids retaking from them vast swathes of southern Italy, but is unable to retake the coastal cities, lacking a fleet on par with the Muslim one
    British Isles:
    Kenneth mac Alpin, king of Dalriada, tries to eliminate the Pictish royal family but is killed by Drust IX MacFergach of the MacFergus dynasty of Alba, which now comes to rule also the Scots; from now on Dalriada/Scotland and Alba will remain two distinct kingdoms in personal union under a single king.
    Western Europe:
    The Vikings sack Bordeaux, which gives herself from Aquitaine to Charles III the Bald’s Western Francia for protection
    848
    Middle East:
    The Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil quits the Mihna (a sort of Islamic inquisition) and leaves the intepretation of the Q’uran to the Sunni Council of the Ulema, who proceed to elect a Wali, or supreme guardian of the faith; in time this figure will gain the prestige of a Sunni Islamic Pope. Meantime the Shiites are still persecuted and non-Muslims suffer strong discrimination.
    British Isles:
    The Irish defeat the Vikings at Cork, freeing the town.
    Central Asia:
    Balkh (northern Afghanistan) gains independence under the Bani Juris
    850
    Southern Europe:
    A second Idrisid assault against Rome is routed at the battle of Ostia by Louis II, who is afterwards anointed as coemperor of his father Lothar by Pope Leo IV.
    Central Asia:
    Kol Bilge Kara Khan founds the Qarluq-Uygur Karakhanid clan in Transoxiana (Central Asia). Pan Tegin/Mangri establishes the Uygur kingdom of Turfan in eastern Turkestan.
    Western Europe:
    Rurik, son of the duke of the Abodrites (Slavs of northeastern Germany) Godoslav and maternal nephew of duke Gostomysl of Novgorod, but raised among the Danes in Frisia, conquers Dorestad, the capital of Frisia.
    Northern Europe:
    The Norwegians of Vestfold are ousted from Vendeyssel (the northern “tip” of Jutland)
    British Isles:
    Cornwall counter-invades Wessex with Viking help, but the Saxons win at Hingston Down
    850 ca.
    India:
    The Gurjara-Pratiharas unify most of northern India under Mihir Bhoja, blocking the expansion of the Abbasid Caliphate and his successor states. Buddhism disappears from northern India, surviving only east of Bihar and in southern Deccan.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    the great župan (prince) Vlastimir of Raška/Kosovo rejects Bulgarian overlordship accepting, instead, that of Byzantium; this starts the Orthodox Christianization of the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). The Slavic Duchy of Triballia emerges between Zahumlje (future Dukovina, *OTL Hercegovina) and Raška/Kosovo
    SE Asia:
    King Pyinbya founds Pagan as capital of his kingdom in central Burma, after the downfall of the Pyu hegemony at the hands of neighboring Nanzhao. Buddhism begins to replace Hinduism in the kingdom of Champa (*OTL southern Vietnam).
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Paulicians, helped by the Arab emirate of Melitene (*OTL Malatya), break free between Anatolia and Cappadocia under the leadership of Carbeas, rejecting Byzantine authority and building an own State centered at Tephrike (*OTL Divrigi)
    Western Europe:
    The Danes invade Zeeland, making it a base for their pirate raids
    Northern Europe:
    The Norwegian kingdom of Vestfold, in its way to national unification, conquers the petty kingdom of Svithjod, a former vassal to Sogn
    British Isles:
    The Norwegian Vikings conquer the Hebrides
    Black Africa:
    The kingdom of Bornu is founded north of Lake Chad
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The strong Mayan kingdom of Uxmal arises in northern Yucatàn.
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The kingdom of Chimor is established in northern Peru by the Chimù people, descendants and heir to the late Moches
    ca. 850-ca.870
    Northern Europe:
    The Norwegian kingdom of Hålogaland is under the sway of the Danish rulers of Sjælland
    851
    Western Europe:
    Duke Erispoë of Brittany proclaims himself king
    851-858
    Caucasus:
    The Abbasid army conquers the Armenian kingdom of Taron, but after a few years Ashot I Bagratuni expels the Arabs
    852
    British Isles:
    Danish Vikings settel at the Thames’ mouth and enterprise the methodical plunder (and later conquest) of England
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Louis II the German’s Eastern Franks invade Greater Moravia and dethrone Mojmir in favor of his son Rastislav.
    Southern Europe:
    King Louis of Italy retakes Gaeta and Naples from the Idrisids
    Western Europe:
    Pepin II, the rebel sub-king of Aquitaine, is captured and confined in a monastery at Soissons by Charles the Bald. Visigothic Spain enforces suzerainty over the Celts of Gallastria (Galicia and Asturias)
    853
    Western Europe:
    The Vikings mount an invasion of the Loire valley in western France.
    British Isles:
    Ketil Flatnose Bjarnarsson, former ruler of Svithjod in Norway, takes the power as king in the Isle of Man
    854
    Southern Europe:
    The Venetian fleet is defeated by the Idrisids at Gallipoli (Puglia).
    British Isles:
    King Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd seizes Powys, enforcing his rule over most of Wales.
    Middle East:
    The Abbasid army finally subdues Tabaristan and enforces conversion to Islam, but the Tabaristanis who comply turn to Zaydi Shiism instead of Sunnism
    855
    Western Europe:
    Upon the death of HRCEW Lothar his possessions are again divided among his three sons: Louis, king of Italy, gets the imperial crown as Louis II, while Burgundy and Provence make Charles IV’s domain and Lotharingia (from Lorrain north to all of Rhineland and the Low Countries) goes to Lothar II. The HRCEW is thus divided among no less then five rulers
    Byzantine Empire:
    A campaign against the Paulicians founders due to the fierce rivalry among the two sons of basileus Eustace, Constantine and Belisarius, popularly known as “the two Cains”.
    Caucasus:
    Ashot IV Bagratuni ascends the throne of Armenia as king Ashot I
    India:
    Avantivarman founds the Utpala dynasty of Kashmir, which replaces its predecessors, the Karkotas. The Abbasid governor Umar Hibari gains independece for Sindh, establishing its first Muslim dynasty.
    855-857
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Greater Moravia resists Eastern Frankish encroachments
    856
    Byzantine Empire:
    An unholy Omayyad-Byzantine alliance wrests Cyprus from the Abbasid Caliphate, sharing the island as a co-dominium; the Byzantine fleet also takes and burns the Syrian port of Latakia.
    Western Europe:
    After escaping from his confinement in a monastery, Pepin II of Aquitaine allies with the marauding Vikings, setting ablaze the town of Poitiers.
    British Isles:
    A major invasion of Wales by the Dublin Vikings is routed by Rhodri Mawr, who kills the Norse king Gorm; the Dublin Vikings then recognize as their next king Olaf I of the Norwegian Yngling royal clan
    857
    Northern Europe:
    Rurik of Frisia conquers Haithabu/Hedeby,a rich sea-trading town on the Baltic between Denmark and Saxony
    Western Europe:
    King Erispoë of Brittany is killed by his cousin Salomon, who takes the crown
    858
    North Africa:
    Solomon Bar Yehuda founds the Judeo-Christian Berber kingdom of Lesvallia (*OTL Kabylia)in the mountains of central northern Numidia (*OTL Algeria), a bulwark against Idrisid encroachment
    858-859
    Western Europe:
    Supported of Charles IV of Burgundy and Provence and of Pepin II of Aquitaine, Louis the German, king of East Francia/Germany, invades West Francia and overthrows his deeply unpopular half-brother Charles the Bald; Pepin II is enthroned in France despite objections from the Church. The emperor Louis II “Murus Ecclesiae” (the Church’s Wall), concentrated on retaking the south of Italy from the Idrisids, doesn’t act at all
    858-863
    Western Europe:
    King Tiago III of Gallastria (Galicia and Asturias) allies with the Irish Vikings, who unleash a pirate campaigns against Visigothic Spain; many Spanish cities, notably Sevilla, are fiercely set on fire by the Vikings, who also flock to serve as mercenaries in Gallastria, which in turn regains freedom from Spain
    859
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars defeat the Black Bulgarians of the Khanate of Rus at the battle of Baltavar/Poltava; afterwards they entrust Kiev to the Varangians (Swedish Vikings).
    Southern Europe:
    Emperor Louis II retakes Salerno from the Idrisids after a long siege
    Western Europe:
    Rurik of Frisia plunders Bremen
    859-862
    Caucasus:
    Abbasid general Bogha al-Kabir plunders rebel Armenia and captures various princes, later freed by the Caliph.
    860
    Byzantine Empire:
    A Russo-Varangian army and fleet suddenly appears under the walls of Constantinople; the city holds, but the shock is great. The Byzantines suffer a new defeat in Crete at the hands of the local Arabs.
    Southern Europe:
    The Idrisids, having gained de facto domination of the Adriatic Sea, sack Grado. Khan Boris I of Bulgaria suffers a setback against the Serbs.
    British Isles:
    Wessex annexes Kent.
    Northern Europe:
    Viking seafarers discover Iceland (already inhabited by small Irish monastic communities). The Norwegian kingdom of Sogn, ruled by Harald the Young of the Yngling clan, becomes a vassal of Vestfold, ruled by Harald’s father Halfdan III the Black
    Western Europe:
    Rurik is deprived of his Frisian possessions by king Louis II the German of East Francia/Germany
    ca. 860
    Southern Europe:
    The Bulgarians enforce their supremacy over inner Albania; the coast remains in Byzantine hands. The town of Pisa, with the favor of HRCEW Louis II, becomes the main Christian sea power of the Western Mediterranean
    Northern Europe:
    Alvheim is annexed by Vestfold/Norway
    SE Asia:
    The kingdom of Mataram ousts Srivijayan forces from Java.
    861
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Historic religious debate at the Khazar court at Itil (near Astrakhan) between the Byzantines Cyril and Methodius, the Jewish Rabbi Yitzhak HaSangari and the Islamic Sunni clerk Farabi ibn Kora.
    Caucasus:
    Northern Azerbaijan secedes from the Abbasid Caliphate establishing the Shirvan emirate under the Yazidids.
    Central Asia:
    Abu Yusuf Ya’qub al-Saffar founds the Saffarid dynasty in Seistan (eastern Persia/Iran)
    861-871
    Middle East:
    The deah of Caliph al-Mutawakkil is followed by a time of rapid changes on the Abbasid Caliphal throne in Baghdad. The Caliphal Turkish guard becomes the paramount power in the Abbasid Caliphate from its base in Samarra, undermining the power of the Tahirid clan; meantime the Sunni Council of the Ulema, ruled by Wali Abdurrahman I, becomes a strong religious power shadowing the Caliphs, de facto prisoners ibn Baghdad; the Egyptian Omayyads will never recognize the spiritual power of the Walis, opening the schism between the Waliist (or Eastern) and Caliphist (or Western) branches of Sunnism
    862
    Southern Europe:
    The Viking chieftain Hastein, after raiding Mediterranen Spain, fiercely plunders Luni (eastern Liguria), which begins to decline.
    Western Europe:
    Judith, daughter of the deposed king of West Francia/France Charles the Bald, marries the count of Flanders Baldwin Iron Arm, an illegitimate scion of the Carolingians (grandson of the late Bernard, rival of Louis the Pious); he gets the title of margrave (marquis) of Flanders by king Pepin II, establishing the Baldovingian dynasty.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    An alliance is sealed between Byzantium and Greater Moravia against both the HRCEW (Carolingian Empire) and Bulgaria. The Varangian-Slav Rus’ state is born when Rurik of Frisia, once moved to the eastern Baltic, conquers Staraja Ladoga and Novgorod
    863
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Eustace I the Great dies at 78 in his bed, the first Byzantine ruler to do so since Leo IV the Khazar; he is succeeded by his elder son Constantine VII, who as his first act blinds and mutilates his brother Belisarius, gaining the passionate hatred of the Patriarchate and the people. The Byzantine army gains most great victory over the Abbasids, the Arabs of Melitene (*OTL Malatya) and the Paulicians in central Anatolia at the river Halys and at Martinopolis, weakening all these enemies.
    Western Europe:
    Charles IV of Burgundy and Provence dies without heirs, and hid domain are carved between his relatives. Burgundy is annexed to Lothar II’s Lotharingia, Provence by emperor Louis II’s kingdom of Italy.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Byzantine saints Cyril and Methodius, mixed-blood Graeco-Slavs of Thessalonica, convert Greater Moravia to Orthodox (Byzantine) christianity and invent the Glagolithic alphabet (ancestor to the simpler Cyrillic one): this marks the beginning of a close struggle between the Papacy in Rome and the Patriarchate of Constantinople to evangelize the Slavs. Khan Shilki of the Black Bulgarians restores the Rus Bulgarian Khanate in Poltava.
    Northern Europe:
    Harold I Fairhair, still a child, succeeds his father Halfdan III the Black on the throne of Vestfold; in later years he’ll quickly unifiy all of Norway
    864
    Western Europe:
    Upon the death of Pepin II of West Francia/France and Aquitaine, Charles the Bald tries to regain the crown from his monastic exile in Soissons (the psame monastery he previously confined Pepin II in...) together with his son Louis the Stammerer, but the two are overcome and killed by Baldwin of Flanders at the battle of Nanterre near Paris. Thereafter Baldwin has himself anointed king of West Francia/France in Reims, founding the Baldovingian dynasty of France. King Salomon III of Brittany takes advantage of the war to seize Anjou and Cotentin. Marquis Arnald of Vasconia/Navarra instead acknowledges the suzerainty of emperor Louis II to thwart Visigothic Spain’s ambitions
    Southern Europe:
    Emperor Louis II retakes Amalfi from the Idrisids, who preserve their hold on Calabria and Puglia
    864-867
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Constantine deposes and jails in a monastery the Patriarch of Constantinople Ignatius, its more bitter adversary, and replaces him with the more compliant Photius. Pope Nicholas I, from Rome, refuses this imperial appointment and a schism opens between Rome and Constantinople, already competing for religious influence in Bulgaria and Greater Moravia and divided by a doctrinal issue about the origin of the Holy Spirit
    865
    Western Europe:
    To acknowledge the most irregular accession to the throne of West Francia/France of Baldwin Iron Arm (who is an illegitimate scion of the Carolingians), HRCEW Louis II forces Baldwin to cede Aquitaine as an appanage for Lothar II’s son, Hugo of Els, in exchange for the detachment of Baldwin’s Flanders from Lotharingia and their attachment to West Francia/France.
    Southern Europe:
    The Venetian fleet thwarts a renewed Idrisid attack on Grado.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Khan Shilki of the Black Bulgarians of Rus inherits the throne of the Volga Bulgarians and proclaims conversion to Sunni (Waliist) Islam of the Khanate, changing his own name to Khan Gabdula/Abdullah; Bolgar is made the capital of the Volga Bulgarian Khanate
    865-867
    British Isles:
    The Danish king Ragnar Lodbrok assaults Anglo-Saxon Northumbria, but is defeated in battle by king Aella, who throws him a pit full of poisonous snakes. Ragnar’s fourth son, Ivar the Boneless, thereafter invades Northumbia and avenges his father by killing Aella with the excruciating torment of the “blood eagle”
    866
    Southern Europe:
    Upon the death of Caliph Yahya II, the Idrisid Shi’a Caliphate begins to fragment and decline; Sicily, Calabria, Bari and Taranto establish de facto independent Shi’a emirates
    Western Europe:
    Viking raiders invade Brittany, beginning a long struggle with local rulers
    867
    Byzantine Empire:
    A coup in Constantinople, schemed by the logothetes ton dromon (minister of the interiors) Symbatios, leads to the assassination of the hated Constantine VII, who is replaced with his maternal nephew Bardas II. Symbatios remains as the true emperor behind the scenes, and has Patriarch Photius replaced by Ignatius to compose the schism with Rome. A Byzantine fleet breaks the apparently endless siege the Idrisids had laid to Ragusa/Dubrovnik, retakes Dalmatia and conquers Otranto, the first (Eastern) Byzantine foothold in Italy in a century.
    British Isles:
    The Covenant of the Double Crown allows Picts and Scots to preserve each an independent kingdom (Alba and Scotland respectively) in personal union under the MacFergus royal clan. It is also affirmed that the crown will pass in a matrilineal succession, but that it will never stay on a woman’s head (the Alban law of succession)
    868
    Southern Europe:
    The Sklavinian (*OTL Balkan) Bulgarian Khan (from now on Czar, that is Caesar) Boris I converts to Orthodox Byzantine christianity after four years of doubts because of Rome’s attempts to have its influence prevail in the area; Christianization will be enforced by Boris with great bloodshed.
    North Africa:
    Ahmad ibn Simba, vizir (prime minister) of Omayyad Egypt and son of a Swahili slave-soldier, despite being an eunuch, enforces his own power and his relatives’ upon the weak Omayyads, becoming Egypts’ strongman
    869
    British Isles:
    The Danish Viking Guthrum assassinates king Edmund and makes East Anglia his own domain.
    Southern Europe:
    Emperor Louis II defeats the Idrisid emirs of Puglia at the battle of Siponto
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Greater Moravian ruler Rastislav is captured and blinded by the eastern Franks/Germans in a coup plotted by his nephew Svätopluk.
    Caucasus:
    Hashim ibn Suraqa founds at Derbent the sultanate of Daghestan as a Muslim rival to Avaristan, still paramount in the inner mountains.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Last date recording in Mutul/Tikal, afterwards this major Mayan city too is abandoned to the jungle, as happens to Caracol/Oxuitza; meantime Chichén Itzà, in the Yucatàn, ruled through an oligarchic republic (the “multepal”), has become the most important ceremonial center of the Mayan world
    869-870
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Fourth Council of Constantinople, the last recognized by both the local Patriarchate and Rome, settles the Photian schism. Photius, though no more the Patriarch and officially condemned, will remain a most influent man of letters and piety, leaving his strong mark on the Byzantine Church
    869-871
    Northern Europe:
    Atli hinn Mjovi and his son Hesteinn try to free the Norwegian kingdom of Sogn from Vestfold’s/Norway’s hegemony, but are quickly defeated and their domain is annexed
    869-883
    Middle East:
    The Great Rebellion of the Zanj (black slaves from eastern Africa), led by the Persian Alì ibn Muhammad, erupts in lower Iraq; though finally tamed, it stops the use of slavery in agriculture in the Islamic world
    870
    Western Europe:
    The Treaty of Mersen brings about a partition of Lotharingia after Lothar II’s death between Baldwin I of France and Louis the German: the former gains only Lorraine proper, Louis, backed by his nephew, the emperor Louis II, Rhineland, Alsace, parts of Frisia.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Rurik, now ruler of “Russia” (from ruotsi, the Finnish name given to the Swedes) regains his possessions in Frisia.
    British Isles:
    The Vikings take and sack Dumbarton, capital of Strathclyde, and annex Dunbar and Galloway to their domains. Wessex annexes the remnants of Dumnonia/Devon, but the Cornish, in alliance with the Vikings, reconquer part of Devon.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Bardas II, despite lacking any military exprience, sets out for an expedition against the Paulician strongholds in Anatolia. Bardas proves lucky and able, and the campaign is a stunning success: the Paulician rebel state of Tephrike is annihilated in the battle of Bathiriacos, where the Paulician Heresiarch, the Chrisocheiros, is killed.
    North Africa:
    The kingdom of Tlemsen (western Numidia) is jointly overrun and annihilated by king David I of Mauretania, king Joshua of Lesvallia (*OTL Kabylia) and prince Solomon II of Tiaret/Tahert
    ca. 870
    Northern Europe:
    Hålogaland, a Norwegian local kingdom formerly under Danish influence, is absorbed by Namdalen, actively resisting the Norwegian unification promoted by Harald Fairhair of Vestfold
    871
    Southern Europe:
    The HRCEW and king of Italy Louis II “Murus Ecclesiae” campaigns in Puglia, wresting Bari from the local Muslim emirs; the Byzantines, meantime, take Leuca and Gallipoli at the southern end of the “heel” of Italy.
    British Isles:
    Caithness, the northernmost tip of Alba/Pictland, is conquered by the Vikings of the Orkneys. Rhodri Mawr of Gwynedd and Powys gets also the crown of Ceredigion/Cardigan/Seisyllwg, solidifying his primacy in Wales
    872
    Central Asia:
    The Samanid sultanate of Bokhara secedes from the Abbasid Caliphate and holds sway over Central Asia and northern Afghanistan
    872-874
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Bardas II leads ruthless campaigns against the Arab emirate of Melitene (*OTL Malatya) and the Abbasid forces; with Armenian help a decisive victory is gained at Samosata and Melitene falls back on Byzantine hands
    873
    Central Asia:
    The Saffarids overthrow Tahirid power in Afghanistan and Khorasan, exerting a theoretical overlordship even upon the Samanids of Bokhara
    Far East:
    The Chinese complete the expulsion of Nanzhao forces from their Sichuan province
    874
    North Africa:
    The Battle of the Bagradas (*OTL Medjerda) river between a Lesvallian/Numidian coalition and Arab forces marks the end of Idrisid encroachments westwards: the Shi’a Caliphate is indeed put on the defensive.
    Northern Europe:
    The Norwegian Vikings settle Iceland, bringing with them many Irish and Pictish slaves; the few Irish monks living there are killed, enslaved or put on a quick flight.
    British Isles:
    Danish Vikings overrun and conquer weakened Mercia. The central English kingdom is partly annexed, divided into the “Five Boroughs” of Lincoln (the seat of the former kingdom of Lindsey), Nottingham, Stamford, Leicester, Derby, which form the “Danelaw” (Danish domain); another part is left as a rump state under the Anglo-Saxon puppet king Ceolwulf II. Rognvald Eysteinsson founds the powerful Viking Jarldom of the Orkneys.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Greater Moravia accepts to pay tribute to the Eastern Franks of Germany; it also conquers the Duchy of Lesser Poland (Cracow and the upper Vistula)
    874-877
    Western Europe:
    King Solomon III of Brittany is murdered by his son-in-law Pasquitan of Vannes, but soon the Vikings shatter the kingdom. King Baldwin I of West Francia/France regains Anjou from Brittany
    875
    British Isles:
    The Danish Vikings take York from Anglo-Saxon Northumbria, renaming it Jorvik, and establish there an own heathen kingdom under Halfdan I, holding sway from Strathclyde to the Danelaw and most of England.
    Far East:
    The great rebellion led by Huang Chao erupts in the central chinese region of Henan.
    Southern Europe:
    The Venetians crush a fleet of Dalmatian Slavic pirates (the Narentans, leftover of the Idalskans) at Grado; in sign of gratitude, basileus Bardas II allows free trade with Dalmatia for Venice, which by now has completely shaken off any sign of subjection to the HRCEW apart from words and occasional gifts to the emperor
    ca. 875
    Central Asia:
    Khorezm regains independence from the Abbasid Caliphate.
    Northern Europe:
    Harald I Fairhair completes the process of national unification of Norway by absorbing Sondmor, Agder and Hedmark. Many rebels and dissidents emigrate to the British Isles and Iceland
    875-876
    Western Europe:
    The Holy Roman Catholic Emperor of the West and king of Italy Louis II “Murus Ecclesiae” dies without male issue; he is succeeded as king of Italy by his cousin Charles the Fat and as emperor by Charles’s father, Louis III the German. When Louis III dies too lss than a year later, Charles the Fat becomes the emperor as Charles III, while the kingdom of the East Franks (Germany) is carved between the other two sons of Louis the German, Pepin, (*OTL Carloman) who gets Bavaria and Swabia, and Louis IV who gets Saxony and Franconia
    876
    British Isles:
    Alfred the Great, king of Wessex, at firt suffers heavy defeats at the hands of the Viking invaders, then soundly repels them out of the core of his domains.
    Southern Europe:
    In Romancia (*OTL eastern Switzerland plus Valtellina) duke Waltarius, the last of the native house of the Firmians (a three century old dynasty), marries his daughter Theodula to an Alamannic feudatory, Everhard Strong Arm, to ensure a smooth succession
    Middle East:
    Ya’qub as-Saffar from his power base in eastern Persia invades Fars and Khuzistan heading for Baghdad, but his attempt is thwarted by Abbasid Caliphal forces (the Turkish Guard and the Tahirids) at the battle of Deyrol-Aqul.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Upon the death of prince Kocelj Pribinović, the Slavic principality of Balaton is peacefully absorbed into the Carolingian march of Carantania/Carinthia (vassal to the kingdom of the East Franks/Germany).
    876-877
    Western Europe:
    HRCEW Charles III the Fat and his brothers Pepin (*OTL Carloman) and Louis begin to quarrel about their respective domains and to plot against each other
    Southern Europe:
    A Byzantine expedition led by basileus Bardas II lands in Puglia and crushes the emirate of Taranto, freeing the ancient city from Muslim yoke, then heads to Calabria reconquering Crotone and Rossano. Being this territories theoretically belonging to the HRCEW, an undeclared state of war between the latter and Byzantium follows
    877
    Middle East:
    Taking as pretext the will to help his Zanj brothers still revolting in Iraq, the strongman of Omayyad Egypt Ahmad ibn Simba invades and conquers Syria, taking Antioch, Damascus and Aleppo; the Egyptians, though, can’t advance further.
    Southern Europe:
    Gaeta (southern Latium) is made a Duchy under John I.
    India:
    Amoghavarsha I Rahstrakuta dies after firmly implanting Zoroastrism in western India aside traditional Hinduism. The eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, former Rashtrakuta vassals, proclaim independence
    877-878
    British Isles:
    Alfred the Great routs the Danes: by the Treaty of Wedmore they cede overlorship upon eastern Mercia to Wessex, retaining instead the Danelaw with the “Five Boroughs”. The Danish Viking Ubbe, a son of Ragnar Lodbrok, briefly enforces his rule over Wales; a few months after Rhodri Mawr, aging but still vigorous, comes back from his exile in Ireland and wipes away the invaders, establishing full kingship over the whole of Wales, whose other rulers are reduced to vassal state
    Southern Europe:
    Duke Lambert I of Spoleto and his brother Guido II attack the Byzantines in Puglia, forcing basileus Bardas II to raise the siege of Arab-held Reggio Calabria. The Byzantines then conquer Bari, Siponto and the whole of Puglia, establishing there the theme (province) of the Italian Chersonesos; Lambert and Guido, being inferior in numbers, withdraw north
    877-896
    British Isles:
    The Viking kingdoms of Limerick and Dublin are unified, then each goes its way again
    878
    British Isles:
    Anglo-Saxon Northumbria is finally conquered: king Egbert II is sacrificed to Odin by Halfdan I of the York/Jorvik Vikings. The Picto-Scots raid Viking-held Strathclyde.
    Western Europe:
    The county of Gerona is absorbed into that of Barcelona, which becomes a march under constant threat from Visigothic Spain
    Caucasus:
    The Armenians drive the last Abbasid governor from Dvin, their major city
    India:
    In Nepal the Raghavadevas/Thakuri succeed to the long-lasting rule of the Licchavi dynasty
    879
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Bardas II advances quickly up to Latium and threatens Rome; then, confronted by an army led by HRCEW Charles III the Fat and Lambert I and Guido II of Spoleto, and hearing news of a plot to replace him with his crippled brother Theodore, he hurries back to Constantinople, having the scheming Symbatius beheaded and Theodore confined in a monastery.
    Western Europe:
    King Baldwin I Iron Arm of West Francia/France dies and his succession is immediately disputed between his young son Baldwin II, the king of Saxony and Franconia Louis, and the sub-king of Aquitaine Hugo of Els; though major battles don’t take place, chaos is rampant
    Far East:
    The Chinese rebels led by Huang Chao attack Guangzhou/Canton and massacre there thousands of Muslim, Christian, Manichaean and Jewish merchants
    880
    Western Europe:
    To summon support from the feudatories, young Baldwin II of France ensures heritability of major fiefs with the Capitular of Quierzy: the move will soon force other rulers in Christian Europe to comply and set the stage for further feudal anarchy. Hugo, son of Louis of Saxony-Franconia, is then killed at the battle of Auxerre; Louis himself is murdered by his nephew Arnulf of Carinthia, who thus reunifies East Francia/Germany under his rule
    Southern Europe:
    In Italy duke Guido II of Spoleto and his son Guido III force Pope John VIII to crown them as co-emperors and co-kings of Italy; the deposed Charles III the Fat is killed by treason in Pavia before even being informed about that. Taking advantage of the chaos count Boso of Vienne wrests lands to both West Francia/France and Italy and founds the kingdom of Lower Burgundy, holding sway over Savoy and Provence, between the Rhone, the Alps and the Jura
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Foundation of Prague as the capital of the Premyslid Duchy of Bohemia
    880-889
    Caucasus:
    Iberia/Georgia gains complete independence from the Abbasid Caliphate; at Tbilisi, though, a Muslim emirate loyal to Baghdad persists
    880-907
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Ostmark (Austria) is detached from Bavaria under margrave Aribo
    881
    Western Europe:
    The Treaty of Ribémont redesigns the main partitions of the HRCEW. France and Lower Lotharingia (Netherlands, Belgium) are acknowledged as the legitimate possession of Baldwin II, Boso is accepted as the ruler of Lower Burgundy, Hugo of Els has Aquitaine detached by France and elevated to a full kingdom on its own, with domain over the border marches with Visigothic Spain; Germany is reunified under Arnulf of Carinthia. The latter and Baldwin II both want the imperial crown, but distrust each other: so they accept as a compromise to proclaim as emperor Hugo of Els, weaker than both, as the Carolingian candidate to the HRCEW crown against the usurper Guido III of Spoleto. Meantime, taking advantage of the civil wars, the Danes occupied Flanders and Hainault (the region between Valenciennes and Liege)
    Far East:
    Huang Chao’s Chinese rebels occupy the imperial capital, Chang’An/Xian, forcing the T’ang to flee for help to the Sichuan whence they ask the Dangxiang/Tangut Tibetans for help
    882
    Southern Europe:
    Hugo of Els, with support fom Boso of Lower Burgundy and many counts and dukes of northern Italy, crosses the Alps and the Apennines, deposing Guido III of Spoleto. Guido III takes refuge in Byzantine Puglia; his domains are occupied by count Berengar of Friul, loyal to Hugo. Venice enforces overlordship upon western Histria. A Byzantine fleet defeats the Muslim Sicilian navy at Capo Rizzuto (Calabria)
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Greater Moravia invades Bohemia to quell a rebellion and spread Christianity. The Varangian (Swedish) Oleg, brother-in-law of the deceased Rurik of Frisia and Novgorod-Rus’, ascends the throne of Kiev
    883
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Greater Moravia wrests overlorship on Balaton (Slavic Pannonia, west of the Danube) from Carinthia, thus beginning a lethal confrontation with king Arnulf of the Eastern Franks.
    Western Europe:
    King Theodomiro II of Spain conquers Vasconia/Navarra, killing marquis Sancho Mitarra and installing there his second son Raynaldo as marquis: thus the Raynaldez dynasty of Navarra is founded. Theodomiro II then crosses the Pyrenees and subdues Aquitaine while emperor Hugo is still in Italy; he advances up to the Loire, where he is finally killed by the marauding Vikings, who thereafter sack Bordeaux and Limoges
    British Isles:
    Mercia is de facto annexed to Wessex and reduced to an important earldom
    884
    Southern Europe:
    Basileus Bardas II the Great stages his second Italian campaign. Landed at Taranto with a 20,000 strong army, he heads north in support of the Spoletan claim to the throne of Italy and the imperial crown of the West. The decisive clash with Hugo’s forces takes place at Larino (Molise) and resolves in a crushing victory for the Byzantines: Hugo is killed on the battlefield, while count Berengar of Friul flees to organize resistance north of the Apennines. Bardas II then enters Rome, received by Pope Adrian III. Here Guido III is reinstated as king of Italy under Byzantine suzerainty
    British Isles:
    Rhodri Mawr dies, dividing Wales among his sons Gwriad (Powys and the High Kingship of Wales) and Anarawd (Gwynedd and Cardigan/Seisyllwg)
    North Africa:
    Djirva (*OTL Djerba) successfully resists a Byzantine naval assault
    India:
    The Saffarids invade and vassalize Hindu Kashmir and Muslim-ruled Punjab (held by the emirs of Multan), wreakin great carnage among the Hindus (the Hindukush name is born in these years, meaning literally: “massacre of the Hindus”)
    Central Asia:
    An independent Zaydi kingdom is established in Tabaristan, which broke free from Abbasid rule again under the local Bavandid dynasty.
    Far East:
    T’ang loyalist forces and Turkic mercenaries finally crush Huang Chao’s revolt in China, but the T’ang are approaching the end
    885
    Southern Europe:
    Historic meeting in Florence between basileus Bardas II, Baldwin II of France and Arnulf of Carinthia and Germany. It is convened that the Papacy should remain a neutral border land between Byzantium and the Spoletan kingdom of Italy to the south and east and a new Kingdom of Lombardy to the north and west to bestow upon Berengar of Friul. Byzantium gains direct rule over most of the Italian south, divided in the themes (provinces) of Italian Chersonesos (Puglia), Idalikon (Campania and Basilicata/Lucania), Roxaneia (Calabria, from its capital in Rossano). Bardas guarantees no further claims on the HRCEW crown by Guido III of Spoleto; Arnulf and Baldwin, always refusing to see the imperial crown on the other’s head, jointly decide to appoint as emperor the king of Lower Burgundy Boso of Vienne, a non-Carolingian in good relations with both. Venice’s complete independence from any power is also agreed: Doge John II Badoer is now a sovereign on par with the HRCEW and the Basileus.
    Western Europe:
    Baldwin II of France, on his way back, forcibly seizes Aquitaine and Septimania, wiping away Vikings and Visigoths; meantime Eudes, count of Paris, soundly defeats the Viking invaders of northern France.
    Northern Europe:
    Vendeyssel, the northern tip of Jutland, is annexed to the kingdom of Denmark, which is completing the national unification
    886
    Northern Europe, Western Europe:
    The Danes are driven from Frisia by Arnulf of Carinthia, king of the East Franks; in Flanders, instead, Baldwin II of France is badly defeated by the Vikings and, wounded, is saved by the young and brave count of Paris, Eudes. In sign of gratitude Baldwin II renounces Flanders and concedes it as a march to Eudes and his descendants, the Robertingians (*OTL Capets)
    British Isles:
    Alfred the Great’s Anglo-Saxons wrench London and Lincolnshire to the Danes. Caucasus:
    Armenia, now completely free from Abbasid domination, becomes a fully independent kingdom under Ashot IV (I as king of Armenia) the Great of the Bagratids (a cousin of the deceased Ashot I of Taron, not the same person).
    Arabia:
    Central Arabia gains formal independence from the Abbasid Caliphate under the Banu Jannabi tribe
    886-888
    Western Europe:
    Feudal unrest shakes the unity of West Francia/France; the count of Poitou Rainulf II proclaims himself King of Aquitaine with Viking support; the margrave of Transjurania, Rudolf I of the house of Welf, is proclaimed king of Upper Burgundy (Romandie and Burgundy proper). At first Baldwin II of France tries to react, but Arnulf of Carinthia intervenes in support of the secessionists and bribes Baldwin’s vassals, who leave him alone and humiliated; royal authority is largely discredited, and effectively confined to the northern parts of the kingdom, while Arnulf becomes the main strongman of the HRCEW
    887
    Southern Europe:
    Boso I dies suddenly in Vienne and is succeeded as king of Lower Burgundy by his 5 year old son Louis, who is also enthroned as puppet emperor of the HRCEW (Louis IV).
    Middle East:
    The twelfth Shi’a Imam, Muhammad al-Muntazar, a boy only six years old, suddenly disappears in Samarra (Iraq), likely eliminated by agents of the Sunni Wali Abdulmumin I. No other Shi’a Imams will be recognized since then by the majoritary Shiite confession, the Twelvers, who will wait for his future return as Mahdi (Messiah); the Ismailis, though, will always recognize one of their fold as Imam
    888
    British Isles:
    The Anglo-Saxon earldom of Bamburgh/Bernicia is founded under Eadulf I in the Northumbrian territories recently taken by Wessex from the York/Jorvik Danish Vikings
    Western Europe:
    Alain I the Great takes over in Brittany ending Norse domain in the country
    Southern Europe:
    The Byzantines finally crush the resistance of the emirate of al-Byrutts (Calabria, Roman Bruttium) taking Reggio after landing in Sicily and conquering Messina
    889
    Southern Europe:
    The Magyars stage their first raid in depth across Pannonia and up to Friul, whence they withdraw when king Berengar of Italy moves against them. Romancia, after the death of duke Waltarius, is established as a kingdom under Everhard I Strong Arm.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Pechenegs (likely an Oghuz tribe descending from the Turgesh/T’u-Ch’ueh), after long struggles with the Kipchaks, migrate west and settle along the Don river, starting the decline of Khazaria. Greater Moravia subdues the Sorbs of Lusatia (eastern Germany, immediately east of Upper Saxony).
    Middle East:
    Southern Azerbaijan (Tabriz) too secedes from the Abbasid Caliphate under the Sajids
    889-891
    Southern Europe:
    Third and last Italian campaign of basileus Bardas II: after two years of bloody campaigning Sicily is forcibly wrested from Muslim hands and made another Byzantine theme
    890
    North Africa:
    The Byzantine fleet takes Malta.
    Western Europe:
    King Rodrigo IV of Spain, by the Capitular of Mérida, concedes heritability of major fiefdoms, a lethal blow in perspective for the unity of the Visigothic kingdom
    ca. 890
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Greater Moravia is forced by the armies of Arnulf of Carinthia to abandon its ties with Byzantium and to adopt the Roman Catholic liturgic rite.
    Central Asia:
    The Karakhanid clan emerges as the most powerful among the Qarluqs of eastern Kazakhstan. The Shahi dynasty takes power in Kabul, capital of the Hindu kingdom of Zabulistan.
    SE Asia:
    Angkor becomes the capital of the Khmer empire under Yasovarman I.
    891
    Western Europe:
    Margrave Eudes of Flanders crushes the Danes on the Dyle river: the Viking invaders are thus driven from Belgium. He afterwards sets the boundary between West Frankish Flanders and East Frankish Frisia at the Lower Rhine
    British Isles:
    A new Viking kingdom is founded in Ireland at Waterford
    892
    Middle East:
    the new Abbasid Caliph al-Mu’tadid escapes the suffocating control of the Turkish Guard and relocates the actual capital from Samarra to Baghdad. He is however unable to smash in a decisive way Turkish power, and soon falls under the influence of the Sunni Waliate (*the Sunny “Papacy” of TTL).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Bohemia breaks free from Greater Moravia under duke Spytihnev I thanks to eastern Frankish support
    Far East:
    In the wake of the slow disruption of the unified kingdom of Silla, a second Paekche State forms in the southwest of the Korean peninsula (Hubaekche, or Later Paekche)
    892-893
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Pechenegs are attacked by the Oghuz/Ouzoi, and relocate to southern Ukraine, between the Dnieper and Lower Bug rivers. This, in turn, pushes the Magyars in Moldavia and towards the Carpathian range
    892-895
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Eastern Franks repeatedly invade Greater Moravia and finally gain overlordship over Balaton/Slavic Pannonia; Greater Moravia itself is weakened and acknowledges East Frankish/German supremacy
    892-900
    India:
    The emir of Multan (Punjab) Asad al-Qurayshi cuts the last ties with Baghdad; some years later he allies with the Ismaili Qarmatians of Arabia
    893
    Southern Europe:
    The former czar of Bulgaria Boris I comes back from the monastery where he retired and crushes a heathen reaction, deposing and blinding his son Rasate/Vladimir and replacing him with his other son Simeon. The Bulgarian capital is moved from da Pliska to Preslav
    894
    Byzantine Empire:
    Simeon’s Danube Bulgarians invade Byzantine Thrace: the imperial army led by basileus Bardas II confronts them at Bulgarophygon, where a most bloody and indecisive battle is fought. Bardas II, severely wounded, is brought to safety in Constantinople and will never more lead an army; but also the Bulgarians leave the battlefield with a bloody nose.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Magyars, summoned by Byzantium, together with western Khazar tribes (the Kabars) attack the Bulgarians on the lower Danube
    British Isles:
    Earl Ethelred II of Mercia routs the Welsh of Powys at the battle of Wolverhampton, pushing beyond the Severn river
    894-895
    Western Europe:
    Worried by the growing power of Eudes of Flanders, Arnulf of East Francia/Germany attacks him, also with the aim of carving a kingdom for his illegitimate son Zwentibold, but in the end he is defeated by the alliance between Eudes and Baldwin II at the battle of Arlon and murdered
    895
    Caucasus:
    The Alans of northern Caucasus and the Volga Bulgarians free themselves from Khazar overlordship
    895-898
    Caucasus:
    A renewed Abbasid offensive against Armenia is repulsed with Byzantine and Alan help
    896
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Czar Simeon of Bulgaria reacts quickly to the Magyar onslaught by calling for help the Pechenegs. These quickly smash Magyars and Kabars, who, led by their Gyula (military leader) Arpad, cross the Carpathians to Transylvania and Honoguria, the Tisza basin, whence the Magyars will take the name “Hungarians” (reinforced by the fact of being ten tribes, seven Magyar plus three Kabar tribes: “On Oghur, the ten arrows”); the lands between the Tisza and Transylvania, called Bihar, are settled by the Kabar Iltuvers (princes)
    896-898
    Northern Europe, Western Europe:
    A war of succession rages in Germany. After pitched battles Eudes, alredy on the verge of prevailing, suddenly dies: Zwentibold is thus able to kill his infant half-brother Louis, Arnulf’s only legitimate son and the last legitimate Carolingian, and get the royal crown of Germany. Young Guy, Eudes’ son, takes refuge in Paris at Baldwin II’s court to escape both Zwentibold and count Reigner of the Ardennes (the founder of the Luxemburg dynasty), who usurped Flanders
    896-903
    Far East:
    Zhu Wen, a former general in Huang Chao’s rebel army, allies with the prime minister Cui Yin to fight the power of the Eunuchs at court. In the end the Eunuchs are slain and Zhu Wen becomes China’s strongman
    897
    Arabia:
    Imam Husayn al-Rassi founds a Zaydi Shi’a State in northern Yemen. Hamdan Qarmat establishes in Bahrain (Persian Gulf) the Qarmatian movement, a sect of Ismaili Shi’a creed, soon to assume control over the Jannabi emirate in central Arabia. The Qarmatians will later gain support from Egypt to Central Asia, coming to control most of the Arabic Desert and extort money from pilgrims heading for Mecca.
    India:
    Aditya I of the Cholas defeats and kills the Pallava ruler Aparajitavarman with help from the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi; this marks the end of the century-old Pallava kingdom and the true foundation of the Chola empire in SE Deccan.
    Southern Europe:
    Amalfi, Naples, Salerno, Capua and Benevento become local Byzantine Duchies (known as the Hexapolis, the Six Towns, with Gaeta) entrusted to local magnates or Byzantine military commanders. Theodore II, a son of the former Patriarch of Constantinople Photius, reigns as Pope for twenty days, the last Greek Pope of the Roman Catholic Church
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A Greater Moravian offensive against Bohemia ends in a failure
    898
    Southern Europe:
    The Magyars raid Friul and Veneto
    898-901
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A civil war and Magyar raids wreak havoc to Greater Moravia
    899
    Southern Europe:
    The Magyars stage a major raid in northern Italy/Lombardy: king Berengar at first repels them at Verona, then is routed on the Brenta river and barricades himself in Pavia, where he resists a heavy siege. The Magyars then devastate Emilia and pillage at will almost all of Lombardy (here means: northern Italy) before retreating with a huge booty
    North Africa:
    A Byzantine fleet lands in Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), blockades and takes Tunis, carrying away as prisoners Caliph Yahya III and most of the Idrisids; meantime the Numidians led by prince Galwa of Constantina swarm in the interior, destroying Idrisid rule over the region. The local governor Ahmad bin Abd ar-Rahman al-Ifriqi,a distant relative, proclaims himself Caliph in Tripoli (Libya), establishing the Ifriqid Shi’a Caliphate; Cyrenaica fragments into warring Kharijite and Shiite tribes
    899-900
    Southern Europe:
    Supported by Pope Stephen VII, king Lambert II of (Byzantine) Italy invades Lombardy through Papal lands, killing Berengar at the battle of the Trebbia river. Then, at Monza, he proclaims himself emperor of the HRCEW, usurping Louis of Provence’s title. The count of Camerino Alberic I, of Lombard origin, seizes Spoleto as the new king of Italy with Byzantine approval (Lambert’s acts are held as treason by basileus Bardas II); in Rome Pope Stephen VII is jailed and killed by the populace
    899-902
    British Isles:
    The Vikings of Dublin occupy the Isle of Man
     
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  6. basileus Inflammable

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2004
    Location:
    Thema Kastrosibrion ton Langobardon
    10th century
    Western Europe:
    Feudal fragmentation prevails in the West, especially in France and Aquitaine; the modern nations and languages of Europe begin to emerge. Magyar raids terrorize post-carolingian Europe.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The southern Slavs of the Greek peninsula are mostly Grecized
    North Africa:
    Recolonization of Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) with Byzantine, southern Italian and Numidian Christians
    Central Asia, India:
    Islam establishes footholds in eastern Turkestan and India.
    Eastern Africa:
    A second wave of Indonesian people reaches Madagascar and intermingles with the Africans living there
    900
    Southern Europe:
    Louis of Provence crosses the Alps to Italy and gets the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Monza against Lambert II, who flees back to Spoleto, where Alberic I slays him. Thus the emperor of the HRCEW unifies the crown of Lower Burgundy/Provence and Lombardy, giving a new sense to his title
    Western Europe:
    Baldwin II of France and Rudolf I of Upper Burgundy move against Zwentibold, who is killed by treason by the twice disloyal Regnier of the Ardennes, who abandons Flanders, where Guy is reinstated as the legitimate margrave, to have himself crowned king of Germany. Reginar I Langhals becomes Duke of Upper Lotharingia (Lorraine)
    Central Asia:
    The Bokharan forces Ismail I Samani conquer Khorasan and capture in battle Amr as-Saffar, thus breaking Saffarid supremacy.
    Ca. 900
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    German missionaries complete the conversion of Greater Moravia to Roman Catholicism. The Bashkirs, a Turkic people of eastern Russia dwelling between the Volga and the Urals, free themselves from Khazar suzerainty.
    British Isles:
    Argyll, the first foothold of the Scots in Britain, is conquered by the Vikings of the Alban Isles (*TTL collective name for Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides)
    Northern Europe:
    Götland (both the western and eastern parts) is absorbed into Sweden.
    Southern Europe:
    The four Sardinian judicates (kingdoms) of Cagliari, Gallura, Torres and Arborea acknowledge Byzantine suzerainty. Rise of the Slavic principalities of Zahumlje (future Dukovina, *OTL Hercegovina) and Duklja (ancient Dioclea, later Zeta, eventually Melanoria [*OTL Montenegro]).
    North Africa:
    Christianity slowly replaces Jewry among the Zenetes of the kingdom of Sijilmasa.
    Black Africa:
    The Ghana Empire formally converts to Christianity by the efforts of North African missionaries, but the new faith largely lives along with traditional pagan beliefs, and doesn’t root. The Christianized Nilotic Tungurs migrate to Darfur establishing their domain there. The Nubian kingdom of Dotawo is founded. The Berber Zaghawa kingdom rises in the Tibesti region, between Fezzan and Chad.
    India:
    The Tibetan kingdom of Ladakh is established in the mountains between Kashmir, Tibet proper and eastern Turkestan.
    Central Asia:
    The Kirghizes vassalizes the Kimaks in southern Siberia. The Oghuz/Ouzoi found an own State around their stronghold of Enikert in NW Khorezm.
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Inuits of the Thule culture reach northern Greenland. The agricultural Chaco-Anasazis of New Mexico thrive. The Desategués (*OTL Iroquois) migrate from the southeast to their historical seat east of the Great Lakes.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Mayan civilization crumbles in Guatemala, while in Mexico the Toltecs of Tula are paramount. The city-state of Mayapan is founded in the Yucatàn. The Mixtecs migrate in the Oaxaca region of Mexico clashing with the native Zapotecs.
    Pacific Ocean:
    A group of Hesperindian (*OTL Amerindian) seafarers, likely coming from the coast of Peru, reaches Rapa Nui, where they become the local ruling caste.
    Ca. 900-902
    India, Central Asia:
    Kashmiri forces take Kabul, but are rapidly beaten back by the local Hindu Shahi rulers
    901
    Southern Europe:
    HRCEW Louis IV of Provence gets a solemn coronation at the hands of Pope Benedict IV after marrying Theodora, niece of basileus Bardas II. New Magyar incursion into northern Italy/Lombardy.
    Western Europe:
    Upon king Rainulf III’s death, Aquitaine passes to the Dukes of Auvergne with William I the Pious: the royal title is discarded and Aquitaine is reduced again to a Duchy, acknowledging at least formal French suzerainty
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Magyars conquer the Slavic Balaton principality and subdue the local Slavs.
    901-918
    Far East:
    In the turmoil going along with the slow crumbling of Silla, in central Korea the ephemeral State of Majin/T’aebong quickly rises and falls
    902
    British Isles:
    The Irish take Dublin from the Vikings; the Isle of Man is taken over by their comrades in York/Jorvik. Most of the Welsh principalities acknowledge Anglo-Saxon overlordship.
    North Africa:
    The Byzantines crush the Ifriqid army at Tafrura (*OTL Sfax) consolidating Constantinople’s hold over coastal Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia)
    Far East:
    Amidst the chaos of the Chinese empire’s decline, Qian Lui establishes the Wuyue state in the lower Yangtze valley, with capital in Hangzhou. The kindom of Nanzhao (Yunnan) is overthrown and the area plunges into a period of unrest
    902-905
    British Isles:
    The Viking Ingimund temporarily rules Anglesey/Mona, which is afterwards retaken by Gwynedd
    902-911
    Byzantine Empire:
    The renegade Leo of Tripoli, in the service of the Ifriqids, leads devastating pirate raids in the Aegean sea from his base in Crete.
    902-922
    Northern Europe:
    Due to the weakness of the power held by Regnier and his son Wigerich, royal authority over Germany declines, and the so-called Stem Duchies (Saxony, Bavaria, Franconia, Thuringia, Swabia) take strength
    903
    Byzantine Empire:
    Bardas II, one of the greatest Byzantine rulers ever, dies in Constantinople. He is succeeded by his son Eustace II
    Middle East:
    The rebel Qarmatians invade Syria and besiege Damascus; the Abbasids take advantage to wrench most of Syria and Lebanon from Omayyad/Zanjid Egypt.
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    The Saffarids fail in the attempt to subdue Daylam and Tabaristan (regions of northern Persia/Iran)
    904
    Byzantine Empire:
    The renegade Leo of Tripoli settle a new pirate base in Thasos, destroys Demetrias (Thessaly) and sacks Thessalonica, the second city of the empire.
    Middle East:
    Abbasid forces retake Jerusalem and enforce overlordship over Mecca and Medina (Hijaz), frightened by Qarmatian raids.
    Far East:
    Zhu Wen eliminates the Chinese emperor Zhaozong and installs on the throne his own puppet, Zhaoxuan, another T’ang scion.
    Southern Europe:
    In Rome the pro-Byzantine faction prevails, led by the Tuscolo family: Sergius III ascends the throne of Peter after strangling with his own hands his predecessor Christopher (who in turn had eliminated Leo V...) marking the nadir of the Papacy, the years of the “pornocracy”, with the Holy See in the greedy hands of Theodora, wife of count Teofilatto of Tuscolo, and their perverse daughter, Marozia. Meantime the Magyars again ravage Lombardy exacting tribute from HRCEW Louis IV of Provence
    905
    Northern Europe:
    Wigerich succeeds his despised father Regnier as king of Germany
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Upon the death of his ceremonial co-king (kündü) Kurszan, Gyula Arpad remains the sole ruler of the Magyar people
    North Africa:
    The Abbasid army, fanaticized by the Sunni Wali (the Muslim “Pope”) Abdallah I ibn Fuad, the real power behind the throne of Baghdad, invades and conquers Egypt crushing Zanjid rule of the country and killing the Omayyad Caliph Abdullah. The young heir to the Egyptian throne of Fustat (*OTL Cairo), Abd ar-Rahman III, takes refuge in Cyrenaica under the protection of friendly Kharijite tribesmen
    Far East:
    Yelü Abaoji founds the Khitan empire in Manchuria
    906
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Magyars annihilate Greater Moravia; the local Slavs, fragmented by German and Magyar encroachment on their homeland, divide themselvs into the Moravians and Slovakians (in the northeast) and the Slovenians (in the southwest); the southern Slavs are thus isolated. The interior of the Taurida (*OTL Crimea) passes under Pecheneg domination
    906-907
    Byzantine Empire:
    The abortive revolt staged by Andronikos Dukas in Anatolia points out the growing strength of landholding and military aristocracy in the Byzantinosphere
    907
    Byzantine Empire:
    A new Varangian-Russian fleet vainly assaults the mighty walls of Constantinople; basileus Eustace II, worried also by the growing hostility of Simeon of Bulgaria, pays tribute to the Varangians of Kiev to keep them quiet. Cyprus is occupied by Leo of Tripoli's Muslim pirates
    Western Europe:
    Foundation of the county of Namur (Belgium)
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Magyar crush also Ostmark/Austria overrunning in battle the local Bavarians.
    Far East:
    Zhu Wen ascends the imperial throne of China ending the glorious T’ang dynasty and founding the Later Liang dynasty in Kaifeng; this marks the nbeginning of the so-called Five Dynasties era.
    908
    Byzantine Empire:
    Czar Simeon of Bulgaria retakes arms against Byzantium and ravages bith Thrace and Macedonia
    Western Europe:
    Hainault (the land between Liege and Valenciennes) is made a county.
    Caucasus:
    The Armenian principality of Vaspurakan (around Lake Van) becomes an indedendent kingdom under Gagik I Artzruni.
    Central Asia:
    The Bani Farighun succeed the Bani Juri in ruling Balkh (northern Afghanistan)
    909
    Arabia:
    The Syrian Ismaili Shiite Said ibn Husayn Ubaydallah proclaims himself Caliph at Mascat (Oman) with the support of several southern Arab tribes, founding the Fatimid dynasty, a major rival for the powerful Qarmatians; Qarmatian rejection of the Fatimid Caliphs will soon provoke a schism between Qarmatism and Ismailism.
    Western Europe:
    The duke of Aquitaine and Auvergne, William the Pious, founds the Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy. A movement for the renewal of the Catholic Roman Church will spring up from there, furtherly distancing it from the Eastern rites
    910
    Caucasus:
    Byzantium sends missionaries to Alania (still partly heathen, partly Arian or Jewish)
    ca. 910
    India:
    The Rashtrakutas defeat the Pratiharas and gain supremacy over the Paramara Rajput kingdom of Malwa
    911
    Byzantine Empire:
    Drungarios (admiral) Imerius and general Romanus reconquer Crete: the renegade pirate chief Leo of Tripoli is brought in chains in Constantinople and there blinded, mutilated and burnt alive in the Hippodrome. Also Cyprus is brought under Constantinople’s sway. In Thrace the Byzantines try a counterattack against Bulgaria but are heavily routed at Philippopolis.
    North Africa: the Christian Primates of Africa, long exiled in Sicily and then in Rome, under Byzantine protection reestablish their see in Tunis, rechristened as Bardapolis.
    Western Europe:
    The Viking Hrolf/Rollon is entrusted the Duchy of Normandy with his warriors by the increasingly weak king of France Baldwin II, provided they put an end to Norse raids in the country. Iñigo Raynaldez gains the independence of Navarra from the decaying Visigothic kingdom of Spain.
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Sergius III dies and is succeeded by his illegitimate son (!) Anastasius III
    British Isles:
    Upon the death of Earl Ethelred II, “the Scourge of the Welshmen”, the Old Mercian royal dynasty is extinct; Mercia finally reverts to Wessex through the widow countess Ethelfleda, a daughter of the deceased Alfred the Great
    912
    North Africa:
    With Byzantine support the Kharijite Arab tribes of Cyrenaica invade and free Egypt from the oppressive Abbasid rule: Abd ar-Rahman III is hailed as the legitimate Omayyad Caliph. The Byzantine strategos of Ifrigia, Gregory Rantzas, reimposes direct imperial rule over the Numidian and Zenete clans settling the interior of the country, then moves against the principality of Constantina but, despite help from Lesvallia, is defeated and killed at the battle of Ippona/Bona
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Bulgarians invade Thrace, razing Adrianople after a terrible siege, then vainly besiege Constantinople itself. Basileus Eustace II, impressed with the strength of Bulgaria, agrees not only to rebew and increase tribute, but also to the official engagement between his 5 years old daughter Zoe and Michael, the adolescent first son of Czar Simeon of Bulgaria. The Bulgarian Czar will now adopt the style “basileus” and mints coins in which he appears as co-emperor with Eustace II
    912-923
    Caucasus:
    Iberia/Georgia is occupied by the kingdom of Abasgia/Abkhasia
    913
    Western Europe:
    The Vikings, having their way now blocked in France, invade and sack Brittany. Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars, helped by Byzantium, destroy a Russo-Varangian fleet in the Azov Sea.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Abortive revolt by Constantine Dukas in Constantinople: the plot is crushed, the would-be usurper blinded and confined into a monastery. But Eustace II’s rule is now deeply resented by the Church and the populace for his weakness towards Bulgaria
    913-914
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Lando reigns in Rome, the last pope to bear his own name and the only one with a Germanic name
    914
    North Africa:
    The Abbasids try a last invasion of Egypt but are repulsed in the Delta by yhe Omayyad Caliph, Abd ar-Rahman III.
    Central Asia:
    Nasr II ibn Ahmad, the Samanid ruler of Bokhara, converts to Zoroastrism taking the name of Khusraw I.
    915
    Southern Europe:
    Ifriqid pirates from Djirva (*OTL Djerba) sack and set on fire Syracuse, marking its decline as a major center in the Mediterranean. The king of Italy, Alberic of Camerino, marries the beatiful and nefarious Marozia: soon afterwards he rejects Byzantine suzerainty, attacking the Byzantines in the south and inflicting them a solemn defeat at the battle of the Garigliano; he afterwards cedes Gaeta and Capua to the Papacy and annexes most of the inner south of Italy into his own kingdom.
    Northern Europe:
    The Magyars raid Germany
    British Isles:
    The Vikings again take Anglesey/Mona but are quickly ousted
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Varangian lord of Kiev, Ingvar/Igor, a late son of Rurik and founder of the Rurikid clan, acknowledges Pecheneg domination over the Pontic steppes of southern Ukraine.
    Central Asia:
    The Samanid army invades Persia/Iran, where Abbasid and Saffarid forces resist; a major series of local conflicts ensues, the Persian Wars or Wars of Apostasy.
    SE Asia:
    Foundation of the Hinduist kingdom of Bali
    915-918
    India:
    The Rashtrakutas attack and sack Kanauj, the Pratihara capital
    916
    Byzantine Empire:
    Byzantium finally subdues the Slavs of Macedonia, Thessaly and Epirus, thus completing the reconquest of mainland Greece.
    Far East:
    The Khitans enforce their domination over a siizable chunk of northern China: Yelü Abaoji proclaims himself emperor, founding the Liao dynasty
    916-919
    Southern Europe:
    A chaotic civil war rages in northern Italy/Lombardy, with repeated Magyar raids to add havoc and terror: HRCEW Luis IV of Provence and king Alberic I of Italy vie for the crown of Lombardy, till the latter, supported by Rudolf II of Upper Burgundy, prevails and has himself crowned as king of Lombardy and rival emperor of the HRCEW in Pavia. Both Baldwin II of France and Wigerich of Germany assist with supreme indifference to the struggle: the Holy Roman Catholic Empire of the West is now little more than a mere name. The Byzantines are forced to inactivity in Italy, having to face the Bulgarian threat at home
    917
    British Isles:
    The Vikings retake Dublin from the Irish and reestablish their kingdom there
    Central-Eastern Europe, Southern Europe:
    The Pechenegs conquer Wallachia from the Bulgarians; many local inhabitants take refuge in the Sklavinian (Balkan) regions, where they establish a strong presence of the semi-nomadic Vlach nation amidst and aside the southern Slavs.
    Arabia:
    The Fatimids wrest the al-Hasa region along the Persian Gulf from the Qarmatians
    918
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    The Samanid army defeats the Abbasids in the great battle of Qom, expelling Caliphal forces from central Persia/Iran, where Muslim domination is ovethrown. Khusraw I Samani moves his capital from Bokhara to Nishapur, in Khorasan.
    Far East:
    Wang Kon (later known as king T’aejo I) ends the era of turmoil plaguing Korea and founds the kingdom of Koryo (from the name of the ancient Korean State of Koguryo).
    Western Europe:
    King Baldwin II of France dies, leaving the throne to his son Arnulf I; in Flanders duke Robert (brother of Eudes) secedes and founds the kingdom of Lower Lotharingia (from Lorraine to Hainault, Picardy and the Rhine)
    British Isles:
    Prince Athelstan of Wessex conquers East Anglia from the Vikings.
    Southern Europe:
    Simeon of Bulgaria defeats and subdues the Serbs of Raška/Kosovo.
    North Africa:
    The Banu Khattab Arabo-Berber Kharijite tribe of Fezzan (southern Libya) secedes from the Ifriqid Shi’a Caliphate of Tripoli
    919
    British Isles:
    Mercia officially reverts to Wessex: this marks, de facto, the birth of the kingdom of England. A renewed Irish attempt to drive the Vikings fails: the High King of Ireland, Niall Glùndubh macAedo Findliath O’Neill, dies in battle
    North Africa:
    A Byzantine fleet led by drungarios (admiral) Romanus Lecapenus takes the Ifriqid stronghold of Djirva (*OTL Djerba), crushing Muslim piracy in the central Mediterranean.
    919-923
    Western Europe:
    Vain French attempts to subdue Lower Lotharingia bring to nothing; instead Robert of Flanders comes close to taking the French crown for himself, but in the end he is killed in the battle of Soissons and France and Lower Lotharingia go on as separate kingdoms
    920
    North Africa:
    The queen of Lesvallia (*OTL Kabylia) Tarkhane the Great conquers Constantina and Tiaret/Tahert, thus reunifying the whole of Numidia under the Tarkhanid dynasty, a close friend of Byzantium.
    British Isles:
    Prince Athelstan of Wessex/England invades Cornwall, who acknowledges English overlordship. Upon the death of his older brother Clydog II king Hywel Dda (the Good) of Gwynedd inherits Cardigan/Seisyllwg and attaches it to Dyfed to form the new kingdom of Deheubarth (“the southern part”), comprising most of southern Wales.
    Southern Europe:
    At Verona Alberic I massacres by treason the rebellious feudatories of Lombardy, incited by Louis IV of Provence.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Varangian prince of Kiev, Ingvar/Igor, subdues the Drevlian tribe of western Ukraine. Lél, Bulchu and Shur found in Slovakia an indipendent northern Magyar kingdom.
    Middle East:
    The Qarmatians conquer all of Syria and Lebanon, plus Palestine with Jerusalem
    Central Asia:
    The Samanids vassalize the Justanids of Daylam
    ca. 920
    India:
    The Pratihara ruler Mahipala I avenges earlier defeats by wresting Malwa from the Rashtrakutas, but his kingdom is weakened by the long conflict
    920-930
    Far East:
    The Uygurs found the kingdoms of Su-chou and Kan-chou in the Gansu (NW China)
    921
    Edward the Elder, king of Wessex/England, gains tribute and a pact of alliance by the Picto-Scots of the double kingdom of Alba/Scotland.
    Southern Europe:
    Louis IV invades Lombardy, but the allied forces of Alberic I and Rudolf II of Upper Burgundy prevail in the battle of Cigliano (Piedmont). Frederick I, Patriarch of Aquileia and true ruler of Friul, defeats the Magyars at Lupoglava. 921-941
    British Isles:
    The Viking thrones of Waterford and Dublin (Ireland) are unified, then split again
    922
    Southern Europe:
    Rudolf II of Upper Burgundy murders Alberic I in Verona and marries his widow Marozia, who helped him in plotting the crime; the couple then has their imperial coronation in Monza, so the Holy Roman Catholic Empire of the West (or the mere name it represents) continues to have two rival emperors. The legitimate ruler, Louis IV, declares Rudolf’s royal title over Upper Burgundy null and void and tries to occupy the country, but local feudatories openly resist
    Northern Europe:
    King Wigerich of Germany dies, leaving several infant sons. The German dukes put aside the heirs and elect one of them, duke Henry I the Fowler of Saxony, as the new king of Germany, marking the traditional elective character of the German monarchy. Wigerich’s young sons are put under the protection of the Archbishop of Cologne Hermann I, and will later carve between themselves the family possessions in the Ardennes
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Volga Bulgarians confirm their conversion to the Sunni Waliist branch of Islam, allying with Baghdad and the Muslim Caucasian states to counterbalance the Jewish Khazars
    923
    Western Europe:
    Duke Giselbert I of Upper Lotharingia/Lorraine secedes from Lower Lotharingia and proclaims himself king, adding further chaos to an already chaotic picture.
    Middle East:
    Basra is pillaged and set on fire by the Qarmatians.
    Far East:
    The Later T’ang succeed the Later Liang on the Chinese throne at Kaifeng.
    Southern Europe:
    Rodolf II of Upper Burgundy again defeats an attempt by HRCEW Louis IV of Provence to recover Lombardy in the battle of Tortona; Pope John IX (*OTL John X), a former lover of Marozia’s mother Theodora, declares Rudolf the legitimate emperor and excommunicates Louis IV
    924
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople a coup staged by the anti-Bulgarian party with the full support of Patriarch Nicholas the Mystic deposes basileus Eustace II and forces him and his relatives to a monastery. Drungarios (admiral) Romanus I Lecapenus is crowned as the new basileus in St. Sophia
    Southern Europe:
    Zoltan’s Magyars, called by Louis IV, again ravage Lombardy; they besiege and destroy Pavia capturing Rudolf II and Marozia, then head south and pillage Italy up to the Byzantine themes in the south; then, coming back, they also try to take Rome but have to renounce. Rudolf and Marozia will remain in their hands as useful pawns. William I founds the county of Monferrato (Piedmont). Czar Simeon of Bulgaria proclams himself “basileus of the Greeks and Czar of the Bulgarians” and creates an autonomous Bulgarian Patriarchate under Leontius of Preslav, turning to Rome for recognition. Tomislav I is crowned king of Croatia with Papal approval; the Croats will be Roman Catholic
    British Isles:
    Athelstan ascends the throne as the first true king of England
    924-926
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Bulgarians besiege Constantinople, in vain, having no navy
    925
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Bulgarians take and destroy Thessalonica, the second city of the empire.
    Western Europe:
    By the Treaty of Metz HRCEW Louis IV of Provence and Giselbert I of Upper Lotharingia/Lorraine carve Upper Burgundy between themselves; Giselbert acknowledges Louis’ overlordship in exchange for the recognition of his royal title.
    Southern Europe:
    Louis IV of Provence retakes Lombardy, then marches on Spoleto (fell into anarchy after Alberic I’s death) and Rome, where he stages the deposition, trial and murder of Pope John IX (*OTL John X) and installs in his place Leo VI, who crowns him both king of Italy and Holy Roman emperor; thus Louis controls the crowns of Lower Burgundy, Lombardy, Italy, and the Papacy. Alberic II, the young son of Marozia’s first marriage with Alberic I, is brought to safety in Byzantine Sicily
    Western Europe:
    The Magyars, unopposed after the death of the strong Patriarch of Aquileia Frederick I, pass through ravaged Lombardy and put to sack Provence. Then they head north and free Rudolf II in his former domains of Upper Burgundy in exchange for a huge ransom, keeping in Hungary as a hostage his pregnant wife Marozia, who gives birth to a male baby, Conrad. Eventually the horde retreats devastating Swabia, Romancia (where they destroy the Abbey of St.Gall) and Bavaria on its way, and Rudolf is quickly killed by king Giselbert I of Lorraine
    ca. 925
    Northern Europe:
    King Gorm the Old completes the final unification of Denmark
    British Isles:
    Theodore III of Brycheiniog dies, his kingdom is absorbed by Dyfed
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Toltecs conquer Guatemala and import into Mexico many features of the crumbled Mayan culture.
    926
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Simeon of Bulgaria conquers and devastates rebel Raška/Kosovo, then dies, leaving an empire stretching through the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) from the Adriatic coast to the Black Sea: his son Michael, a dangerous pretender to the Byzantine throne being Eustace II’s son-in-law, is killed by his younger brother Peter in a plot orchestrated by Constantinople. Peter will prove a loyal friend of the Byzantines, renouncing any claim to the imperial throne and giving back stolen lands in Thrace and Macedonia in echange for tributes; he, anyway, will ever refuse to trade back his sister-in-law Zoe and his nephew Simeon (Eustace II’s grandson), well knowing their value as hostages.
    926-929
    Southern Europe:
    Hugh, count of Arles and Vienne, kills by treason his distant relative Louis IV at Turin and has himself crowned Holy Roman emperor with his son Hubert as co-emperor, starting a bitter civil war with Louis’ son, Charles Constantine. In the end the latter prevails slaying Hugh in the battle of the Var river (near Nice) and Hubert (who had taken over Spoleto) at Arezzo, to be eventually crowned in Monza as Charles IV Constantine, emperor and king of Burgundy, Lombardy and Italy
    927
    British Isles:
    King Athelstan of England crushes and annexes the Danish kingdom of York/Jorvik; after this successful feat, though, he suffers a setback at the battle of Glanmiwl against the Welsh of king Hywel Dda of Gwynedd and Deheubarth.
    Western Europe:
    Ebles Manzer, count of Poitou and half-brother of the long deceased Rainulf III, becomes Duke of Aquitania and Auvergne.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Duchy of Carinthia is reestablished under Berthold of the Luitpoldingian family, brother of duke Arnulf of Bavaria.
    Southern Europe:
    Časlav Klonimirovič, escaped from his captivity in Preslav, frees the Serbs from Bulgarian yoke, and reigns over Raška/Kosovo.
    Central Asia:
    Mardawi al-Ziyar founds the Waliist Sunni Ziyarid dynasty of Mazandaran (south of the Caspian Sea).
    Far East:
    The Khitans/Liao overthrow the Korean-Tungusic kingdom of Parhae, thus conquering southern Manchuria
    927-928
    Southern Europe:
    The Magyars invade Italy again in the height of the war for the imperial throne of the HRCEW, pillage Friul and then Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo: afterwards, both Spoleto and Rome are taken. The Urbs Aeterna is terribly devastated, Pope Leo VI dies in the fire of the Lateran basilica. Not content with the devastation, they free Marozia in the city in exchange for a record ransom and hostages from the Tuscolo-Teofilatti family
    928
    Northern Europe:
    The Saxons led by their duke, the king of Germany Henry I the Fowler, defeat the Slavic Wends along the lower Elbe and conquer Branibor/Brandenburg, founding there the Northern March/Nordmark.
    Middle East:
    The Qarmatians sack Baghdad; the Abbasid court and the Waliate (*the Sunny "Papacy") temporarily take refuge in Samarra.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Itzàs abandon Chichén Itzà
    929
    Western Europe:
    A joint Viking-Breton invasion of Gallastria (*OTL Galicia and Asturias) led by the Pictish-Norwegian Einar Thorsteinsson overthrows king Tiago VI establishing the Mabinardo dynasty in the country
    Middle East:
    Nasir ad-Dawlah al-Hasan, governor of Mosul (northern Iraq), secedes from the Abbasid empire establishing the Hamdanid state.
    SE Asia:
    Because of the eruption of the Merapi volcano, the kingdom of Mataram moves towards estern Java, with its capital in Kediri
    930
    Northern Europe:
    The Icelanders establish the Althing, the oldest sovereign Parliament in northern Europe, as their form of government.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Bohemia conquers the Duchy of Lesser Poland (Cracow, upper Vistula)
    British Isles:
    The southwestern Welsh kingdoms of Glywysing and Gwent merge to form Morgannwyg/Glamorgan
    Caucasus:
    The Alans convert to Jewry and reaffirm their historical alliance with the Khazars.
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    The Ziyarids of Mazandaran defeat the Samanids and take several towns in northern Persia/Iran; with Daylami and Tabaristani help they also crush the Sajids of southern Azerbaijan (Tabriz).
    Arabia:
    The Qarmatians, at the apogee of their power, conquer and sack Mecca, assuming full control over Hijaz; their leader Abu Tahir proclaims himself Caliph in its turn, so there are no less then five rival Caliphates now in the Dar al-Islam, the Ifriqid Twelver Shiite one in Tripoli, Libya, the Sunni Caliphist one in al-Fustat, Egypt, the Sunni Waliist Abbasid one in Baghdad, the Qarmatian Caliph in Mecca and the Ismaili Fatimid Caliph in Mascat, Oman!
    ca. 930
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    Byzantine forces under general John Curcuas conquer Cilicia
    Southern Europe:
    Grand Župan Časlav Klonimirovič of Raška/Kosovo subdues to his rule Duklja/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro), Triballia, Zahumlje (Dukovina, *OTL Hercegovina) and most of Bosnia
    930-943
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Michael, Christian son of Almush Djafar Khan, takes power among the Volga Bulgarians to be later killed by his Muslim brother Muhammad idb Djafar, who finally sets the Sunni Waliist creed of the khanate
    931
    Southern Europe:
    Marozia, now again the true ruler of Rome, enforces the election as Pope of his first son John X (*OTL John XI), born from an illicit relation with Pope Sergius III when she was only 16. The Byzantine navy enforces Constantinople’s rule (and taxes) over Sardinia
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine general John Curcuas quickly retakes Melitene (*OTL Malatya) from the Hamdanids who had seized this key border fortress
    931-934
    Middle East:
    The Qarmatians are driven from Iraq, Syria and Lebanon by the Hamdanids of Mosul
    932
    Southern Europe:
    John Curcuas leads an expedition to Italy that restores Byzantine authority over the south and the Hexapolis and enters Rome unopposed, installing there Alberic II as king of Italy (Spoleto), senator and prince of the Romans under Byzantine influence (he married a niece of basileus Romanus I). Alberic’s mother Marozia is jailed in Castel Sant’Angelo; her infant son Conrad (Alberic’s other half-brother, and son of the deceased Rudolf of Upper Burgundy) is brought to Byzantium, where he’ll be raised as the Byzantine pretender to the HRCEW. Charles IV Constantine, the Western emperor, is humiliated by his lack of troops to answer the Byzantine move.
    Byzantine Empire:
    A peasant revolt led by Basil the Copper Hand shakes Bythinia, and is painfully repressed by Constantinople
    Central Asia:
    An alliance is sealed between the Khazars and the Oghuz/Ouzoi Turks against the Pechenegs. Saltuk Bughra Khan founds the Karakhanid khanate between the Issyk-Kul and Balkhash lakes
    933
    Northern Europe:
    The king of Germany, Henry I the Fowler, defeats the Magyar raiders at Riade.
    Western Europe:
    The Vikings of Normandy gain control over the Channel Island
    Southern Europe:
    The Venetians defeat at Caorle raiders from Trieste who kidnapped some young brides; centuries of enmity will follow between the two cities. The Magyars renew their incursions in the Padan Plain.
    Central Asia:
    Khusraw I Samani defeats Marwan al-Ziyar at Gurgan and vassalizes the Ziyarid state in northern Persia/Iran.
    934
    Southern Europe:
    Charles IV Constantine is murdered by his vassal Berengar, margrave of Ivrea, who is thereafter enthroned as the new emperor of the HRCEW. The Magyars plunder the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) exacting tributes from both Byzantium and Bulgaria.
    Northern Europe:
    Henry I the Fowler, king of Germany, routs the Danes of king Gorm the Old who invaded Frisia and wrests Holstein from them.
    Northern Europe, British Isles:
    Erik I Bloodaxe is deposed in Norway by his half-brother Haakon I the Good, who came back converted to Christianity from his exile in England; Erik flees to the Orkneys and thence to York/Jorvik, where king Athelstan of England entrusts him with the defence of Northumbria against the Picto-Scots.
    Western Europe:
    Upon Ebles Manzer’s death, Aquitania and Auvergne are taken over by Raymond III, the powerful count of Toulouse
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Hamdanids again conquer Melitene (*OTL Malatya) from the Byzantines and hold it.
    North Africa:
    A Byzantine naval and land expedition takes Tripoli (Libya) finishing off the Ifriqid Shi’a Caliphate, but can’t advance in the interior, held by fierce Arab and Berber Muslim tribes.
    Middle East:
    The Egyptian Omayyads invade Palestine but are routed by the Qarmatians at Emmaus. The Daylam-born Twelver Shiite soldier Alì ibn Buya founds the Buyid dynasty in the Fars (southern Persia/Iran).
    934-937
    British Isles:
    Alba/Scotland shakes English overlordship with the nativist revolution led by Fergus III, who overthrows and kills his cousin Ferach II
    Southern Europe, Western Europe:
    Berengar of Ivrea and Giselbert of Lorraine struggle for control over Burgundy and Provence; in the end the Diet of Geneve assigns Burgundy to Giselbert and Provence to Berengar, both provinces reduced to duchies and incorporated into Lorraine and Lombardy respectively
    935
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Boleslav I the Cruel, supported by the anti-German heathen faction, overtghrows and kills his brother, the duke of Bohemia Wenceslas I the Saint. The Kabaro-Khazar principality of Bihar, between the Tisza and Transylvania, is absorbed into Hungary
    Southern Europe:
    the Magyars invade Lombardy but are repulsed at Bergamo by emperor Berengar of Ivrea.
    935-936
    Far East:
    The kingdom di Koryo, under king Wang Kon/T’aejo I, completes the reunification of Korea crushing Silla and Later Paekche/Hubaekche
    936
    Far East:
    With Khitan/Liao help the Later Jin overthrow the Later T’ang on the Chinese imperial throne.
    Southern Europe:
    Anscarius, brother of Berengar of Ivrea, gains the Margraviate of Tuscany. The Magyars plunder Histria
    937
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    After winning the great battle of Shurab, which finally decides the Wars of Apostasy, Khusraw I Samani annihilates the Saffarid state in southern Persia/Iran and vassalizes Buyids, Ziyarids, Tabaristanis and Daylamites, enforcing mass conversions to Zoroastrism through high taxation upon Muslims. Khusraw I proclaims himself Shah-in-Shah (king of the kings) of Persia, thus founding the Samanid Empire.
    British Isles:
    A wide alliance of Picto-Scots, Welshmen and Vikings defeats and kills king Athelstan of England at the battle of Brunanburh: Erik I Bloodaxe becomes the first Norse king of England, gaining recognition as sovereign also by the Jarls of the Orkneys. Edmund and Edred, Athelstan’s brothers, take refuge together with earl Uthred I of Bamburgh/Bernicia at the court of their brother-in-law, the king of Germany Otto I of Saxony. The Briton kingdom of Cumbria (Cumberland) is established as a client of Norse England.
    Far East:
    Duan Siping takes over the remnants of the Nanzhao empire in Yunnan to form the new strong kingdom of Dali
    937-938
    Western Europe, Southern Europe:
    The Magyars, called upon by Otto I of Saxony, raid Lorraine and Burgundy (whose king Giselbert submits and accepts German suzerainty), then enter Lombardy from the western Alps and sack the entirety of Italy up to the whereabouts of Naples before withdrawing
    937-945
    Western Europe:
    Otto I of Saxony thrice invades and tries to subdue Lower Lotharingia (into submission, but king Hugh I the Bold (*OTL Hugh, father of Hugh Capet) resists strongly; in the end the German king is however able to wrest from Lower Lotharingia overlordship over Rheinland and the archbishoprics of Cologne and Mainz by the Treaty of Bonn
    British Isles:
    Strathclyde gains freedom from Alba/Scotland, but after suffering devastating Norse raids from Erik Bloodaxe, returns under the Picto-Scots
    938
    Western Europe:
    Duke Alain Barbe-Torte drives the Vikings from Brittany.
    Byzantine Empire:
    John Curcuas is defeated by the Hamdanid Saif ad-Dawla when he tries to retake Melitene (*OTL Malatya)
    Far East:
    The Khitan/Liao set their capital in Yanjing/Peking.
    939
    Western Europe, Northern Europe:
    King Giselbert of Lorraine and Burgundy revolts against Otto of Saxony together with duke Everhard of Franconia (pretender to the German crown), but the two rebels are crushed at the battle of Andernach and subsequently killed. Lorraine and Burgundy are annexed to Germany as two distinct duchies (another duchy of Burgundy, centered in Autun, is part of France since 877).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Khazars defeat a Varangian-Russian invasion.
    SE Asia:
    Vietnam breaks frees from China under the Ngo dynasty
    939-944
    Caucasus:
    The emirate of Shirvan (Azerbaijan) occupies Debent and coastal Daghestan, but can’t control them for long
    940
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Hisdai ibn Shaprut, the former Jewish vizir of the Omayyad Caliph of Egypt Abd ar-Rahman III, ascends the throne of Khazaria as Khan Joseph
    Byzantine Empire:
    Saif ad-Dawla’s Syrian forces sack the Byzantine city of Colonea
    ca. 940
    India:
    Mularaja I, a prince from the Solankis/Chalukyas of Kalyani, takes power in Gujarat overthrowing the local Rashtrakuta branch
    SE Asia:
    The Mro brothers, Pai-Pru and Ah-Mar-Tu, usurp the throne of Arakan
    940-950
    India:
    Three kings from the Yadjaskara family briefly rule Kashmir upon the fall of the Utpalas, then Parvagupta establishes his own dynasty in the kingdom
    941
    Byzantine Empire:
    A Varangian-Russian naval armada led by knyaz (prince) Ingvar/Igor of Kiev is defeated under the walls of Constantinople.
    Northern Europe:
    The Norse (and heathen) king of England Erik I Bloodaxe stages a naval expedition to his native Norway to overthrow his brother Haakon I but is routed at the Sognefjord and barely saves his own life
    941-944
    British Isles:
    Again in York/Jorvik, Erik Bloodaxe crushes with cruelty the Anglo-Saxon rebels; he also begins persecutions against the Church
    942
    Southern Europe, Western Europe:
    The Magyar stage a new great raid in Lombardy and Italy; Rome’s Byzantine garrison resists the horde, who then turns north, cross the Alps and the Pyrenees and plunges on Visigothic Spain, defeating king Rodrigo VII at the Ebro and sacking up to Andalusia before heading back home.
    Western Europe:
    King Arnulf I of France invades Lorraine but is defeated at Metz and forced to concede the disputed duchy to Germany. The county of Carcassone passes to Arnold de Comminges.
    British Isles:
    The Vikings of Dublin conquer the Isle of Man
    Central Asia:
    Khusraw I, the founder of the Samanid Empire, dies in Nishapur, succeeded by Shapur I Nuh.
    942-944
    Southern Europe:
    Civil war rages in Provence, where count Rotbald, emperor Berengar’s brother-in-law, has seized power together with his son Boso; in the end the two pretenders, despite help from some Italian feudatories in Lombardy, are forced to flee to Spain from Marseille by the superior forces of Berengar of Ivrea
    943
    Southern Europe:
    The Magyars raid Bulgaria, where young Simeon tries to overthrow his uncle Peter, then, having failed, takes refuge in Hungary: his mother Zoe, daughter of the deposed Eustace II of Byzantium, is blinded and confined in a nunnery
    944
    Western Europe, Northern Europe:
    The king of Germany Otto I of Saxony entrusts the duchy of Lorraine to his son-in-law, Conrad the Red. The county of Loon/Looz is established in the Limburg region of Lower Lotharingia
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Magyars defeat the combined forces of Carinthia and Friul (the Aquileia Patriarchate) along the Drava river. The Pechenegs stage a major raid in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), especially targeting Bulgaria.
    Byzantine Empire:
    John Curcuas defeats the Hamdanids in Cilicia, then raids and briefly conquers Edessa, bringing back the Sacred Mandylion, the Holy Shroud of Jesus, in a solemn triumph in Constantinople; he is thereafter appointed as katepano (“captain”, that is High governor) for southern Italy. Shortly after his departure basileus Romanus I Lecapenus is deposed and forced to become a monk by his sons Stephen and Constantine, who rule jointly as co-emperors, Stephen I in Europe and Constantine VIII in Asia.
    Caucasus:
    A “Rus” (Viking) fleet, coming via the Volga and the Caspian Sea, wreaks havoc in Muslim Azerbaijan until it is finally repulsed
    Arabia:
    Sulayman ibn Abi Sa'id Abu Tahir, the Qarmatian Caliph of Mecca, dies, and his brothers and sons immediately begin a civil war which fosters Fatimid ascendancy
    944-949
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine world falls into a chaotic civil war following Stephen and Constantine’s usurpation of the throne: the main noble families, led by the Dukas and the Phokas, rebel in their Anatolian strongholds, while some other families, notably the Melissenoi, reject imperial authority in Greece
    945
    British Isles:
    The royal families of Cornwall and Brittany are tied by a dynastical marriage
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Magyars again plunge across the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and enforce Simeon the Bulgarian as the ruler of vast swathes of land in Slavic and Greek Macedonia, amidst the chaos of the Byzantine civil war
    Middle East:
    Shapur I Samani invades Iraq but his siege of Baghdad is a dismal failure. Saif ad-Dawla Alì establishes his own Hamdanid emirate at Aleppo seceding from Mosul and reconquers Cilicia from the Byzantines, torn apart by the civil war
    945-946
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Helga/Olga of Kiev avenges her killed husband Ingvar/Igor annihilating the rebel Drevlians
    946
    Byzantine Empire:
    Simeon the Bulgarian conquers Thessalonica and crushes in the battle of Lamia the forces of Michael Melissenos, conquering all of mainalnd Greece
    Southern Europe, North Africa:
    General John Curcuas is hailed as Byzantine basileus for the West by his army in southern Italy, and later confirmed in this title in Rome by Pope Agapithus II, reestablishing the Western Byzantine empire. He sets his capital in Messina, holding domain from the south of Italy (and, through Alberic II, Spoleto) to most of Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia)
    India:
    Vairisimha II frees the kingdom di Malwa and reestablishes there the Paramara dynasty
    946-948
    Southern Europe:
    Civil war in Lombardy between emperor Berengar of Ivrea and his brother Anscarius, margrave of Tuscany
    946-949
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Dukas and Phokas pretenders fight each other to exhaustion in Anatolia
    947
    Byzantine Empire:
    Simeon the Bulgarian, gathered an army of Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians and even Magyars, conquers Gallipoli, then crosses the Dardanelles despite the opposition of the fleet (still loyal to the Lecapenus brothers) and takes Nicaea, Nicomedia and Chalcedon, putting Constantinople under siege
    Southern Europe:
    The Magyars again invade Lombardy; emperor Berengar pays tribute and they head south to pillage first Tuscany, against the rebel Anscarius, then Byzantine Puglia, till John Curcuas repels them
    Northern Europe:
    The king of Germany Otto I of Saxony concedes the Duchies of Bavaria and Carinthia to his brother Henry upon the death of duke Berthold. Tension between Germany and Lombardy will soon arise over the possession of Tyrol (*still Lombard ITTL)
    Far East:
    The Khitan/Liao take Kaifeng, the Chinese capital, overthrowing the rebellious Later Jin and completing the conquest of northern China. The Later Han are installed there on the Chinese throne as allies.
    947-954
    Middle East, Central Asia:
    Repeated Sunni and Shiite revolts shake the power of the Samanid empire, which comes to depend upon the dubious loyalty of the Turkish mercenaries (mostly Waliist Sunnis). Buyid Fars regains complete independence
    948
    Byzantine Empire:
    Simeon’s army, now reinforced by Varangian-Russian warriors, swarms into Anatolia crushing both the Phokas and Dukas provincial armies; the imperial pretenders are both killed. Meantime Simeon’s uncle, Czar Peter of Bulgaria, joins forces with the co-basileus Stephen and Constantine Lecapenus and occupies most of Macedonia and Thrace, raising the land siege of Constantinople
    Southern Europe:
    Margrave Anscarius of Tuscany is decisively defeated by his brother, emperor Berengar of Ivrea, at the battle of Bardi (Emilia); he flees to Corsica and establishes there a rogue domain, resorting to piracy. The margraviate of Tuscany is bestowed upon Guido, Berengar’s teenage second son; Adalbert, the eldest son of Berengar, is crowned in Arles as co-emperor and king of Burgundy and Provence. Soon afterwards duke Henry of Bavaria and Carinthia invades Tyrol and takes Trento, then Friul where he executes the Patriarch of Aquileia, Lupus II, for an alleged betrayal in the previous battles in Carinthia against the Magyars, who are now ousted from Lombardy. The conquered regions are annexed to the kingdom of Germany as dependancies of Bavaria (Tyrol and Trento) and Carinthia (Friul); from now on the Patriarchs of Aquileia will be German nobles for a long time, just as the local rulers of (eastern) Histria, Grizza (*OTL Gorizia), Carniola/Slovenia.
    949
    Byzantine Empire:
    When the two imperial brothers admit Bulgarian troops into Constantinople a rebellion breaks out in the fleet, who calls Simeon to enter the city. The Lecapenus brothers are spared life, but are blinded and jailed in remote monasteries in the Taurida (*OTL Crimea); their brother, the Patriarch Theophylactus, is deposed and made a monk in a Greek island. Simeon I the Bulgarian, the grandson of Eustace II and of Simeon the Great of Bulgaria, is crowned basileus in St. Sophia by the new Patriarch Polyeuctes
    949-951
    Southern Europe:
    Berengar, emperor of the HRCEW only in name (more than ever now that the Papacy recognizes again a Western Byzantine empire), declares Otto I of Saxony a felon for his brother’s invasion of NE Lombardy, then calls for help... the Magyars, who begin repeated raids from Friul to Austria, Bavaria and Germany. Berengar isn’t able, thogh, to gain back more more than Trento, while in Germany no one dares to defy Otto’s power
    950
    Western Europe:
    Auvergne is recovered by William III of Poitou, who retakes it to the counts of Touluouse
    Southern Europe:
    In Bulgaria Czar Peter is deposed by rebel generals and basileus Simeon is hailed as Czar, unifying Byzantium and Bulgaria (the Bulgarians soon divide into a “Byzantine” and a “Slavic” faction over the issue). The great župan (prince) of Raška/Kosovo, Časlav Klonimirović, formally acknowledges basileus Simeon’s overlordship in an effort to gain protection against Magyar raiding. In Lombardy Berengar of Ivrea reorganizes the western territories of Lombardy into three Marches: the Arduinic March, entrusted to his own son and co-emperor Adalbert, from western Piedmont and the Alps to Nice and Ventimiglia; the Aleramic March (western Liguria, southern Piedmont), entrusted to Aleramo of Montferrat; the Obertingian March (eastern Liguria and Piedmont, western Emilia, western Lombardy proper) bestowed upon margrave Oberto, scion of a noble Lombard family and ancestor to a number of future dynasties and noble families (notably the Este, the Later Welfs, Pallavicino, Malaspina etc.).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Germans force Boleslas I of Bohemia to acknowledge Otto I’s suzerainty. Arabia:
    The Fatimids gain the upper hand after long and obscure struggles against the Qarmatians and conquer Najd and Hijaz with the Holy Cities of Islam, Mecca and Medina.
    ca. 950
    British Isles:
    Upon the death of Hywel Dda his domains are shared between his sons, and quickly a new phase of fragmentation ensues in Wales. The English earldom of Mercia is entrusted to the Leofricson family
    Western Europe:
    Foundation of the county of Arlon in SE Belgium.
    Southern Europe:
    Bogomilism (“friendship to God”) is introduced into Bulgaria by exiled prisoners of the Byzantine civil war, late Paulicians coming from Cappadocia; the doctrine will spread with immediate force in the country.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Poland wrests Galicia/Ruthenia from Magyar overlordship.
    Middle East:
    The Sunni-Shi’a schism becomes endemic in the Muslim world, such as the rift between Waliist (“Papist”, loyal to the Walis of Baghdad) and Caliphist Sunnism; meantime Sufism, a trans-confessional mystical approach to Islam (and not only that faith) emerges as a significant philosophy in multicultural Persia/Iran.
    Black Africa:
    The Haussas impose themselves as the paramount people of northern Nigeria, where they found a network of city-states bound together by alliances. The kingdom of Benin is founded in SW Nigeria.
    East Africa:
    The Arabs establish the trading post of Mogadishu in Somalia and discover Mauritius, though they don’t settle the island.
    SE Asia:
    The Khmer empire attacks and vassalizes the Cham kingdom (Annam, *OTL southern Vietnam). Batara Guru I founds the first dynasty of kings of Gowa/Makassar on Celebes/Sulawesi island
    Central Asia:
    The Karakhanids of Transoxiana (eastern Kazakhstan and Kirghizistan) and the Uygurs convert to Waliist Sunni Islam
    951
    Southern Europe:
    John Curcuas dies in Messina; he is succeeded as Western Byzantine emperor by his nephew Theophilus. Otto I of Saxony stages an expedition to Lombardy, retaking Trento on the way, but Berengar’s forces bottle him up in the Adige valley between Trento and Verona and force him to withdraw. Count Sigifred of Lucca and his young son, Adalbert Atto, powerful vassals of margrave Guido of Tuscany from an ancient Lombard family, complete the building of the fortress of Canossa in the Apennines near Reggio Emilia: their descendants will take their name from the castle.
    Arabia:
    The Ismaili Fatimids of Caliph al-Mansur annihilate the Qarmatian power in central Arabia in the battle of the Ten Thousands Jinns (in the al-Hasa region); the last Qarmatian Caliph, Ahmad Abu Mansur, is killed on the battlefield. The remaining Qarmatians take refuge in their last strongholds, Palestine and the northern deserts of Syria and Jordan.
    Far East:
    The Later Zhou take over the Chinese throne of Kaifeng from the Late Han.
    952
    Southern Europe:
    Otto I of Saxony strikes a deal of alliance with the king Rodoald of Romancia, marrying his sister Hedwige
    Northern Europe:
    Otto I of Saxony at the Diet of Augsburg enforces his system of the count-bishops as temporal rulers of many important territories. They, having no sons, pose less a threat than the lay feudatories
    953-954
    Western Europe:
    The Duke of Lorraine Conrad I the Red rises in rebellion against his father-in-law Otto I of Saxony in support of an invasion led by Adalbert of Burgundy; Otto quickly intervenes and overcomes the enemies at the battle of the Falkenberg, then appoints his brother, Archbishop Bruno of Cologne, as duke of Lorraine
    954
    British Isles:
    Edwy and Edgar, grandsons of the deceased king Athelstan, land in England and inspire the rebellion against the crule rule of Erik I Bloodaxe, who is thereafter defeated and killed at the battle of Burton Hill; Viking power is abruptly ended throughout England, whose capital comes back from York/Jorvik to Winchester. Liberated Northumbria is made a powerful and autonomous earldom under the Eadulfsons of Bamburgh
    Western Europe:
    Rodrigo VII of Spain dies without heirs, thus extinguishing the Earlier (or Visigothic) Rodriguez dynasty: civil war, feudal anarchy and fragmentation ensue.
    Southern Europe:
    Alberic II, king of Italy and ruler of Rome, dies after extorting from the Papacy a solemn oath of electing his young son Octavian, the new king of Italy, as Pope upon the death of Agapithus II; central Italy quickly crumbles into feudal anarchy. Despite showing little interest for Italy, basileus Simeon I the Bulgarian allows Conrad, son of the Marozia and Rudolf II of Upper Burgundy (both deceased by now), raised in Constantinople, to land in southern Italy and overthrow Theophilus Curcuas, but the campaign is only a partial success, with Conrad conquering Puglia and ruling it as katepano and duke. Meantime Simeon feels secur enough to abandon Constantinople (not before having slain some dozen nobles of dubious loyalty) and stages a most successful campaign in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), where the Magyars are routed on the Morava river and all the Serbs and Vlachs recognize Byzantine-Bulgarian overlordship up to Bosnia and the Danube
    Arabia, Middle East:
    The Fatimids repel at Gebel Ismail an Abbasid invasion instigated by the Wali of Baghdad Abdurrahman III and crush at Bahrain the last Qarmatian stronghold in Arabia.
    955
    Northern Europe, Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Magyars, called by Berengar, ravage southern Germany till they are trounced by Otto I of Saxony at the Lech (where Henry I of Bavaria and Carinthia, Otto’s brother, dies in battle) and at Augsburg: in this second battle the northern Magyars of Slovakia are destroyed and their kingdom is annexed by Arpadid Hungary. Meantime emperor Berengar of Ivrea invades and overruns Romancia, where he kills king Rodoald, then advances to Swabia and Franconia. Otto cuts his way back and finally kills him at the battle of Gundelsheim on the Neckar river. Having Romancia no more rulers upon the extinction of the main Everardingian branch, Otto assumes the Romancian crown himself and divides local power between the Abbey of St. Gall in the north and the bishops of Coira in the south.
    Middle East:
    The Buyids wrest control over Khuzistan and western Persia/Iran from the Samanid Empire
    955-956
    Northern Europe:
    the Slavic Wends of eastern Germany raid Saxony till they are heavily defeated at the Recknitz by king Otto I.
    Southern Europe:
    Guido of Tuscany gets the Iron Crown of Lombardy in Monza succeeding his father Berengar; his elder brother king Adalbert of Burgundy proclaims himself emperor of the HRCEW
    956
    Western Europe:
    The Maurian chieftain from the Ruel (*OTL Rif) Marmazon nicknamed Rodrigo, born in Spain froma Maurian mercenary and a Visigothc noblewoman, crosses the Strait leading a powerful force made of rebel Maurians, Zenetes and North african Jews. He invades the Iberian peninsula crushing the two pretenders to the Visigothic crown, Louis of Mérida and Pedro Berengar of Valencia, respectively in the battles of the Frontera and of Linares, therafter conquers Toledo and Castilla; the remaining Visigothic forces subdue or flee to Barcelona and Saragossa, ruled by Frankish dukes. The place where Marmazon/Rodrigo landed will be named Arx Roderici, whence Arrodriga (*OTL Gibraltar)
    Southern Europe:
    King Octavian of Italy, the grandson of Marozia, is elected as Pope John XI (*OTL John XII), thus establishing the formal rule of the Papacy over the whole of central Italy
    North Africa:
    The Christian Nubians from the kingdom of Mukurra invade Upper Egypt and take Asyut. The Byzantine stronghold at Tripoli is besieged by the Arab-Berber tribes of inner Libya but resists successfully
    956-957
    Southern Europe:
    Duke Conrad of Puglia defeats the Western Byzantines of Theophilus Curcuas at Capua and marches on Rome, where John XI (*OTL John XII) accepts his suzerainty and protection. King Guido of Lombardy, fearing German power, doesn’t move
    957
    Western Europe:
    The powerful county of Hainault is carved into the counties of Mons and Valenciennes
    SE Asia:
    The Khmer Empire subdues the kingdom of Dvaravati (central Siam/Thailand).
    A Shan invasion dethrones the Mro ruler of Arakan, Pai-Pru.
    958
    Southern Europe:
    The Magyars raid Lombardy passing through German Friul with Otto I’s consent.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Simeon I the Bulgarian leads the imperial army, reinforced with thousands of Bulgarians, Albanians, Serbs and Magyars, in a successful campaign against the Hamdanids of Syria: Melitene (*OTL Malatya) is retaken after a harsh siege, northern Syria and Kurdistan suffer Byzantine raids. Thousands of Slavs and Magyars are resettled in Cappadocia as border guards (the “kleisuriotes”). Princess Olga of Kiev is baptized in Constantinople, the first Rus’ ruler to embrace Christanity
    Caucasus, Middle East:
    The Rawwadid clan leads the Muslim revolt in southern Azerbaijan against the Samanids, who retaliate by razing Tabriz
    959
    Western Europe:
    William III of Poitou, Auvergne and Limoges manages to retake Aquitaine from the counts of Toulouse with help from his king, Arnulf I of France
    Arabia, Middle East:
    The Fatimids vassalize Zaydi Yemen but fail an attempted invasion of Iraq; there the Abbasid-Waliid forces stop them at Nassiriya, but can only defend central Iraq when the Persian Buyids occupy Basra and the south; the Abbasid Caliphate is de facto reduced to Baghdad and its neighborhoods, and comes to rely upon the Hamdanids of Mosul for protection.
    960
    Byzantine Empire:
    A massive Byzantine campaign against the Hamdanids led by basileus Simeon I brings about the reconquest of Cilicia and the takeover of Edessa and, finally, Aleppo itself; humiliated, emir Saif ad-Dawla has to recognize Byzantine overlordship, for Constantinople this marks the apogee of power since centuries. Southern Europe:
    The prince of Raška/Kosovo Časlav Klonimirovič dies fighting Magyar raids; his Serbian confederation fragments into local chiefdoms under Magyar of Byzantine overlordship.
    Western Europe:
    Duke Ramiro II of Portugal submits to the king of Spain, Rodrigo VIII the Maurian
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Pechenegs, now put under pressure by the growing power of Russo-Varangian Kiev, set their base in Moldavia.
    Caucasus:
    The sultanate of Derbent annexes the other Muslim state of Ghazi-Ghumuq (inner Daghestan).
    Central Asia:
    The Karakhanids start their jhad (holy war) to spread Islam in Central Asia.
    Far East:
    General Zhao Kuangyin founds the Song dynasty of China at Kaifeng as emperor T’ai-Tsu; the Khitan/Liao abbandon a sizable part of their northern Chinese possessions.
    960 ca.
    Western Europe:
    A web of matrimonial alliances ties together France, Lower Lotharingia, Burgundy and Lombardy, checking Otto I of Saxony’s power.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Refoundation of the Austrian March under duke Burchard of Regensberg. The Bohemians free Moravia from the Magyar yoke. Duke Wislaw dominates a mixed Slavic-Prussian state at the mouth of the Vistula
    Caucasus:
    The king of Abasgia/Abkhasia (NW Georgia) Leo II the Great breaks free from the double tutelage of the decaying Khazar empire and of the Alans.
    961
    Northern Europe:
    Harold II Greycloak, son of Erik Bloodaxe, defeats and kills his uncle Haakon I the Good and usurps the throne of Norway with the help of his other uncle Harold Bluetooth of Denmark, who offered him refuge after the fall of Viking power in England.
    Southern Europe:
    Nantelmo founds the dynasty of the counts of the Seprio (NW Lombardy proper).
    Middle East:
    The Shiite Alì I ibn Mazyad al-Asadi founds the emirate of Hillah (southern Iraq), a buffer state between the Buyid empire and the pitiful shadow of the Abbasid Caliphate
    Central Asia:
    The Oghuz Turk Seljuk, escaped from Khazaria, enforces his rule at Jend/Hojent (Khorezm), south of the Aral lake, establishing there a Sunni Waliist emirate; his descendants will be the known as the Seljuks.
    962
    British Isles:
    Stratchlyde again gains independence, but its rulers are by now intermingled with the MacFergus royal clan of Alba/Scotland
    Southern Europe:
    Oberto I is appointed as count palatine for Lombardy with his seat in Milan; he alredy is the margrave of a territory stretching from Genoa to Milan and western Emilia that will take the name of Obertingian March. Byzantine suzerainty over distant and rebellious Sardinia is “outsourced” to Tarkhanid Numidia by basileus Simeon I the Bulgarian in exchange for a matrimonial alliance and troops for the next Byzantine campaigns in Italy (against Theophilus Curcuas) and in the Middle East. The Magyars stage their last major raid in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), where the Byzantine army repels them
    North Africa:
    The Christian Nubians wrest Upper Egypt from the Omayyad Caliphate of al-Fustat.
    Caucasus:
    Vannadopolis/Kars secedes from Armenia under a branch of the Bagratids
    963
    Western Europe:
    The March of Luxembourg is founded under the two brothers Frederick (*OTL Frederick I of Bar) and Siegfried from the Ardennes family, sons of the late king Wigerich of Germany; it is intended as the main defense of Lower Lotharingia against German aggression.
    Caucasus:
    The ancient principality of Siuna (eastern Armenia) secedes from Armenia under Smbat I Orbeliani
    963-975
    Far East:
    The Song emperor Zhao Kuangyin/T’ai-Tsu reconquers southern China; only Vietnam, Dali (Yunnan) and Wuyue (Hangzhou and lower Yangtze) can resist the new imperial power
    964
    Southern Europe:
    In Rome Pope John XI (*OTL John XII) is murdered by a jealous husband after the most shameful pontificate ever; Benedict V succeeds him as both Pope and king of Italy, though this last title is mostly ceremonial and the local Spoletan feudatories largely ignore it; Conrad of Puglia, as half-brother of the deceased Pope-king, marches on Rome and reaffirms his overlordship, being awarded the coronation as Western Roman emperor in St. Peter with Byzantine approval. Moreover, Pope Benedict V declares the Holy Roman Catholic Empire of the West‘s title null and void, proclaiming the doctrine by which it is the Roman Church’s duty to acknowledge and crown emperors
    Western Europe:
    King Arnulf I of France dies, leaving only a grandson, Arnulf, two years old, under the regency of the Queen Dowager Adele de Vermandois, descendant of the other surviving Carolingian branch (descendant from Bernard, Charles the Great’s grandson), and her four brothers, Herbert, Adalbert, Robert and the archbishop of Reims, Hugh
    Middle East:
    Basileus Simeon I the Bulgarian has the Hamdanid ruler of Syria Saif ad-Dawla murdered and crushes the subsequent Muslim revolt with great ferocity, razing Aleppo and Latakia.
    965
    Western Europe:
    A chaotic conflict erupts upon the death of the Bruno, brother of Otto I of Saxony, archbishop of Cologne and duke of Lorraine. Adalbert of Burgundy overruns Lorraine in alliance with the marquises of Luxembourg, then Otto plays a trick card and suborns the regents of France into stabbing Burgundy and Lower Lotharingia in the back. Adalbert of Burgundy, in turn, calls for help Rodrigo VIII the Maurian of Spain, who first subdues the margraves of Barcelona and Saragossa/Aragon, then invades Septimania and Languedoc, taking Narbonne and Toulouse
    Southern Europe:
    Theophilus Curcuas’ sons, Stephen, Demetrius and Basil, move against emperor Conrad of Puglia but the three are trounced and killed at the battle of the Basento river in Lucania/Basilicata. Once lost any hope with his sons, Theophilus abdicates and retires to die in a monastery in Numidia; his niece Anna is forced to marry the widowed Conrad, establishing the Ghiffiotto imperial dynasty of the Byzantine West. King Guido of Lombardy invades Romancia, Trentino and Friul wresting them back from German hands. Corsican pirates sack Pisa
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Svjatoslav, prince of Kiev, allies with the Oghuz/Ouzoi Turks against the Khazars: he subdues inner Taurida (*OTL Crimea) and takes Bosporon/Kerč, then crosses the Don rivel and sacks Sarkel, Tamatarkha/Tmutarakan and Itil, the Khazar capital.
    Middle East:
    Basileus Simeon I the Bulgarian leads a 30,000 strong army against the Qarmatians, who had occupied Damascus, and takes the city after a long siege; then, while the Byzantine fleet blockades and takes the Syrian and Lebanese seaports, the basileus enters Palestine, crushes the Qarmatian forces at Ayn Mahil and conquers Jerusalem
    965-968
    Western Europe:
    The war over Lorraine continues unabated and senseless till a cunning compromise is reached between the Ardennes-Luxembourg brothers and Otto I of Saxony. Frederick is made king of Lorraine, just as his brother Siegfried is raised to king of Luxembourg; both agree to recognize a purely nominal German supremacy. Hugh II of Lower Lotharingia (*OTL Hugh Capet), besieged in Lovanio by Robert de Vermandois, is “liberated” by Otto’s forces and has to pay feudal homage to the German crown, being reduced to be only the margrave of Flanders. In the final peace accords brokered at Metz by Pope John XII (*OTL John XIII) the outcome of the war is clear, with the destruction of Lower Lotharingia, Flanders made a border German march, Mons under Luxembourg and Valenciennes under France. Nothing is said over the contested German-Lombard border lands
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Pechenegs invade Byzantine-Bulgarian Wallachia and start raiding the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans)
    SE Asia:
    The Song army briefly ovveruns Vietnam, but Dinh Tien/Dinh Bo Ling ousts them and renames the kingdom Dai Viet
    966
    Middle East:
    Basileus Simeon I the Bulgarian rechristens the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem as the Church of the Holy Virgin
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Svjatoslav of Kiev destroys the old capital of the late Greater Bulgaria of Kubrat, Bandja/Phanagoria (NE coast of the Black Sea). King Mieszko I of Poland converts to Christianity
    967
    Western Europe:
    Rodrigo VIII of Spain tries to invade Auvergne and Aquitaine but is defeated at Tulle by the young count of Aquitaine William IV of Poitou; he however gets overlordship in Septimania and Languedoc, between the Rhone and upper Garonne
    Central-Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Prince Svjatoslav of Kiev crushes Khazaria taking and razing its capital, Itil, then, called for help by Byzantium, turns against the Pechenegs. These, defeated, pour on Bulgaria, utterly devastating a sizable part of the country. Byzantine Empire, Caucasus:
    Coming back from his glorious campaign in the Middle East, basileus Simeon I annexes the Armenian kingdom of Taron, making it an imperial theme (province).
    968
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Simeon I crushes the Pechenegs at Dristra/Silistra on the Danube, then pursues them up to Moldavia, ending their menace for some time onwards.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Svjatoslav of Kiev, the last heathern ruler of the Rus’, is ambushed and killed by the Pechenegs on the Lower Bug river; his skull will serve as drinking goblet for the Pecheneg Khan, Kurya. His three sons Yaroplk, Oleg and Vladimir will be raised in Kiev under strong Byzantine influence
    969
    Southern Europe:
    The Magyars, in one of their last raids, invade Lombardy as allies of Otto of Saxony (and, secretly, of Adalbert of Burgundy, who has been promised the crown of Lombardy). Guido of Lombardy tries to stem them at the Piave but is beaten back and later killed in battle at Brescia; so Adalbert of Burgundy inherits from his betrayed brother the crown of Lombardy, and Otto I of Saxony gets back Romancia, Trentino and Friul plus mainland Veneto up to the Adige river. In Sicily empress Anna Curcuadina poisons to death his husband Conrad, but is later killed by her stepson, the adolescent Theophylactus.
    Western Europe:
    Rodrigo VIII vainly tries to subdue Vasconia/Navarra, but is defeated at the battle of Logroño; margrave Ferdinand I the Righteous proclaims himself king of Navarra
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Destroyed Khazaria is carved between the Volga Bulgarians and Alania.
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids overrun the Byzantines in Palestine and reconquer Jerusalem; in the meantime the Hamdanids of Mosul raid Syria up to Cilicia and Cappadocia.
    970
    Northern Europe:
    Harold Greycloak is defeated and killed in a naval battle off the Jutland coast By Harold Bluetooth’s Danes, allied to the rebels of the Trondelag (central Norway)
    Basileus Simeon I the Bulgarian invades Transylvania campaigning against the Magyars (despite his wife is a Magyar princess) but is badly routed on the Tisza
    river and barely saves his life.
    970-974
    Southern Europe:
    Adalbert of Burgundy and Lombardy and Theophylactus of Sicily (*Sicily being the title now associated with the Western byzantine throne) struggle heavily for the possession of Rome: the kingdom of Italy-Spoleto becomes a battlefield run by feudal armies, Rome itself is occupied and evacuated no less then five times and torn apart by factions. Adalbert installs Benedict VI as the new Pope and re-gets the imperial crown of the West in St. Peter, but in the end he is murdered his vassal Adalbert Atto, count of Reggio Emilia and Modena and lord of Canossa. His “Lombard” Pope is thereafter strangled at the instigation of Crescentius the Elder, cousin of the deceased Alberic II and a powerful supporter of emperor Theopylactus. His successor, after the wise refusal of the saintly abbot Mayol of Cluny, will be Benedict VII, a relative of Crescentius
    Middle East:
    The Muslim populations of Syria rise in rebllion against Byzantine oppression; most of the country falls to Hamdanid reconquest or Fatimid aggression; the Byzantines defend themselves in key fortresses
    ca. 970-980
    Byzantine Empire:
    A Bogomil insurgence creeps through Bulgaria, gaining strength despite the official condemnation and repression. Meantime basileus Simeon I is hard pressed by the Patriarchate of Constantinople to abolish the autonomous Bulgarian patriarchate of Preslav, which he refuses
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Toltec prince Ce Acatl Topiltzin, nicknamed Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Snake, overthrows his uncle Ihuimatl, a fratricide usurper, and becomes a king-prophet, banishing human sacrifices. But the sacerdotal caste forces him into exile, and his figure will give rise to a popular Mexican cult
    971
    Byzantine Empire:
    Bardas and Nicephorus Phokas, exiled members of the Phokas family crushed by basileus Simeon after the civil war, appear in their clan’s former strongholds in Anatolia on tow of a Hamdanid raid. They quickly gain the help of many Armenian princes, but their forces are crushed in battle and the two rebels return to their exile in Mosul.
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids defeat a Byzantine army at Samaria and vainly besiege Damascus. Alì Lashkari I of the Shaddadid clan founds at Ganja (Azerbaijan) the Shiite kingdom of Arran
    971-972
    British Isles:
    The Vikingds fail another attempt to establish their power over Anglesey/Mona
    971-977
    British Isles:
    The Norwegian Vikings of the Orkneys, led by the Harold Greycloak’s widow and son, repeatedly try the invasion of Alba/Pictland but are finally repulsed
    972
    Northern Europe:
    Otto I of Saxony invades Danish Jutland, forcing Harold Bluetooth to recognize German suzerainty and accept baptism and Christianity. Mieszko I of Poland defeats margrave Dietrich of Nordmark at Cedynia
    972-974
    Middle East:
    Two major Byzantine campaigns against the Hamdanids of Mosul are staged, with little success except for the consolidation of Byzantine control in northern Syria; Damascus is held against two Fatimid assaults
    972-976
    North Africa:
    The Egyptian Omayyads enforce their rule over the Arab and Berber tribes of Tripolitania and eventually take Tripoli from the Western Byzantines
    972-989
    British Isles:
    The Isle of Man regains independence under local Viking rulers, then it is subdued by the Jarls of the Orkneys
    973
    Northern Europe:
    Otto I of Saxony dies leaving as heir and king of Germany his son Otto II, but Bavaria and Bohemia rebel against the succession supporting the claim of the duke of Bavaria Henry II the Quarrelsome, Otto II’s cousin: a harsh civil war ensues.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Mieszko I of Poland, who conquered the lands between the Warta and Oder rivers, is defeated by margrave Gero of Nordmark and made a vassal of Germany.
    Western Europe:
    The counts of Poitou take the title of dukes of Aquitaine despite their scarce control over the region
    North Africa:
    The Numidians of the Tarkhanid Empire trounce the Maurians at the battle of Cumana and destroy the kingdom of Mauretania, which is partly annexed or reduced to local petty states; tens of thousands of Maurians will relocate to Spain in the following decades.
    India:
    The Chalukya ruler of Kalyani Taila Avahamalla overthrows the Kannarese Rashtrakuta dynasty in SW India and annexes the eastern Chalukya kingdom at Vengi, fostering an era of renewed Chalukya power in the area.
    974
    Northern Europe:
    Harold Bluetooth unifies Norway and Denmark under his own sceptre, leaving Norway to the regency of jarl Haakon the Great.
    Southern Europe, Western Europe:
    After “emperor” Adalbert’s assassination Lombardy falls prey to feudal chaos, where powerful bishops and rich abbeys emerge as factors of order; in Burgundy Adalbert’s son William takes over struggling with local lords, but he shows little interest for Lombardy
    India:
    Mularaja I foundes the Chalukya kingdom of Anahillapura (western Deccan)
    975
    Northern Europe:
    The German war of succession is finally resolved when Siegfried of Luxemburg and his brother Frederick of Lorraine throw the might of their armies in favor of Henry II; Otto II is besieged and killed in Mainz and the two brothers get the German part of Burgundy in exchange for their help
    Middle East:
    Basileus Simeon I reconquers Jerusalem from the Fatimids
    ca. 975
    British Isles:
    Alba/Scotland ousts the Englishmen from Dunbar/Lothian
    976
    British Isles:
    Brian Boru, from the Dàl Cais clan, ascends the throne of Munster succeeding his brother Mahon/Mathgamain, killed by the Vikings, and retakes Limerick slaughtering the invaders.
    Western Europe:
    The Numidian pirate Yusf Garamma conquers the Balearic Islands. Balearic piracy will remain for a long time a major threat in the Western Mediterranen.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The king of Germany, Henry II of Bavaria, concedes the margraviate of Austria to Leopold I von Babenberg, a scion of the Leopoldingian family already powerful in Bavaria and Carinthia
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids fail in their attept to retake Jerusalem, but manage to take Damascus
    977
    North Africa:
    Djirva (*OTL Djerba) resists an Omayyad assault
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids defeat the Byzantine army at the battle of Tiberias (Galilee)
    Central Asia:
    The Turkic ghulam (slave-soldier) Subaktagin founds at Ghazni (Afghanistan) the Waliist Sunni dynasty of the Ghaznavids, at first vassals of the Samanid Empire.
    978
    British Isles:
    King Edward the Martyr is murdered by his step-mother Elfrida, who enforces her own son, 10 years old Ethelred II, as king of England
    Western Europe:
    Rodrigo VIII the Maurian, king of Spain, is defeated and killed at Orense together with count Peter of Portugal when he tries to subdue Gallastria (*OTL Galicia and Asturias), ruled by the aged but vigorous Einar II the Victorious. In Toledo Rodrigo VIII is succeeded by his son Augustin II.
    North Africa:
    Berghawata power in southern Mauretania is crushed by the Tarkhanids of Numidia: the heretics are annihilated, their Temple razed.
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids smash the Buyids in southern Iraq and Khuzistan at the battle of al-Qusayr, repulsing them beyond the Zagros mountains.
    Far East:
    The kingdom of Wuyue (Hangzhou) submits to the Song Chinese empire
    978-981
    British Isles:
    Anglo-Saxon England is able to vassalize Glamorgan and Deheubarth (southern wales); Gwynedd, though, resists and keeps itself free of any English presence
    Western Europe:
    Civil war rages in France as king Arnulf II comes of age and tries to gain effective rule from his maternal uncles, the Vermandois brothers. In the end Arnulf is victorious with the help of king William of Burgundy, but Aquitaine establishes complete independence under William IV (I as king) of Poitou
    Byzantine Empire:
    The empire is shaken by revolts on religious (the Bogomils in Bulgaria) or taxation (Thrace, Asia Minor) issues, furtherly worsened by the reapperance of Bardas Phokas, who sets up and independent Cappadocian state in Caesarea/Mazhak (*OTL Kayseri) with help from the local “kleisuriotes” (Slavo-Magyar border guards). Basileus Simeon, increasingly ill and isolated, cannot adequately face this multiple threat
    Middle East:
    The Fatimidis progressively maul the remaining strength of the Abbasid Caliphate in Iraq
    979
    Northern Europe:
    Mieszko I of Poland breaks free from German overlordship and again defeats the Germans and the Pomeranians at the mouth of the Oder river.
    North Africa:
    The Western Byzantine strategos of Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) John Trinacriotes rebels against emperor Theophylactus in Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis), but is quickly overrun and killed at the battle of Gavissa (*OTL Gafsa) by the Numidian Tarkhanid army, intervened with Papal approval in favor of Theophylactus.
    Caucasus:
    Foundation of the principality of Tashir-Dzoraget in the Lori region of northern Armenia, under a collateral branch of the Bagratid family
    Middle East:
    The Hamdanids slay the Turkish Guard in Samarra and assume direct protection of the Abbasid Caliph and the Waliate (*the Sunni “Papacy”) in Baghdad.
    Far East:
    The Song fail in the attempt to retake the northern Chinese provinces still held by the Khitan/Liao empire.
    979-983
    Southern Europe:
    In Milan the unpopular archbishop Landolfo II da Carcano is kicked out by an angry mob; four years after he reenters the city as the de facto master tahnks to his connections with the “capitanei” (major feudatories)
    980
    British Isles:
    The High King of Ireland Malachy II of Meath, in alliance with Brian Boru of Munster, takes Dublin and vassalizes the local Vikings
    Western Europe:
    Siegfrid of Luxemburg and Frederick of Lorraine invade France in the height of the civil war, raiding up to the walls of Paris.
    East Africa:
    Alì I ibn Husain, from the Persian Twelver Shiite Shirazi dynasty, founds the Zeng Empire on the island of Kilwa off Tanganika.
    India:
    Chatta Deva founds the later Kadamba kingdom at Banavasi (Karnataka) under Chalukya tutelage.
    SE Asia:
    The Vietnamese Le Hoan repels a Song Chinese invasion.
    ca. 980
    Northern Europe: the Danish heathen chieftain Palnatoke founds the Viking pirate commune of Jomsborg, on the western Pomeranian coast
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Mieszko I of Poland wrests Lesser Poland from Bohemia.
    North Africa:
    The anaftological heresy (denial of the personal character of the Holy Ghost) spreads in Northern Africa, diffused by bishop Anthony of Tebessa; it will be sooon condemned by both Rome and Byzantium, but it will also remain a major character of North African Christianity
    East Africa:
    The Ethiopian Jewish kingdom of Beta Yisrael is crushed after a devastating war against the remains of the Coptic Axumite empire
    980-981
    Southern Europe:
    The Western Byzantine emperor Theophylactus intervenes in the struggles in Rome, reinstalling Pope Benedict VII and killing the anti-Pope Boniface VII
    981
    Southern Europe:
    King William of Burgundy manages to get the crown of Lombardy in Pavia, but his title is purely formal. He issues a decree of felony and confiscation against Adalbert Atto of Canossa, but no one dares to confront the increasing power of the Attoni/Canossa family
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Rus’ of Kiev take Galicia/Ruthenia from Poland.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Simeon I the Bulgarian dies in Constantinople; his only male son Eustace III the Turk (from his Magyar mother) succeeds him despite objections from many, including Patriarch Nicholas II Chrysoberges. Bulgaria revolts against the new basileus, perceived as a foreigner; the rebellions is led by the Komitopouloi brothers, Samuel, David, Moses and Aaron, scions of a collateral branch of the Bulgarian dynasty and distant cousins of the basileus. They found a Bulgarian state in Ohrid, controlling “western Bulgaria” (Slavic Macedonia) and establish a local Patriarchate when Eustace III, to win the support of Patriarch Nicholas, abolishes the Patriarchate of Preslav, the Bulgarian capital. A Byzantine army marching against the rebels is defeated at Sofia; afterwards Bardas Phokas takes advantage to expand his control over most of inner Anatolia.
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids of Caliph al-Muizz conquer and sack Baghdad, killing most of its Sunni inhabitants and deleting the Abbasid Caliphate from history; Wali (*TTL’s Sunni “Pope”) Abdulmumin II manages to escape and relocates the Waliate in Mosul under Hamdanid protection. The Fatimid Caliphate sets its capital in Medina, who will become the most splendid Islamic capital in the next two centuries
    982
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Norwegian Viking Erik Thorvaldsson nicknamed the Red, convicted of murder and exiled from Iceland, sails west searching what's true in earlier seafarers’ tales and discovers Greenland.
    Western Europe:
    The Tarkhanid Numidians invade Maurian Spain but are wholly routed at Ronda (Andalusia).
    Southern Europe:
    The Corsican pirates of king Amadeus (son of Anscarius, Berengar of Ivrea’s rebel brother) plunder Luni; the city will never recover and it’ll be wholly abandoned by the 13th century
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids overrun the Byzantine possessions in the Levant, taking Jerusalem and Aleppo and starting a lethal struggle with the Hamdanids of Mosul; only Antioch and coastal enclaves in Syria and Lebanon resist the Fatimid onslaught
    Far East:
    The Islamicizes Karakhanids conquer the entirety of Eastern Turkestan, overthrowing among others the Buddhist kingdom of Khotan.
    982-989
    SE Asia:
    Dai Viet/Vietnam invades the Cham kingdom (Champa), but only manages to extort control over the Annam region
    982-1004
    Far East:
    Li Jiqian founds and consolidates in the upper Huang He valley (NW China) the independent XiXia kingdom of the Dangxiang/Tangut Tibetans
    983
    Northern Europe:
    The Wends of Billungsmark (Mecklenburg), ruled by the Billung dukes of Saxony, erupt into revolt rejecting German authority with the help of the Jomsvikings
    Middle East:
    Abu Shuja Badh bin Dostak, a poor Kurdish shepherd raised to chieftain, conquers Martyropolis/Mayyafarikin/Silvan and sets up an independent emirate along the upper Euphrates
    983-984
    Byzantine Empire:
    General Bardas Skleros defeats at Nicaea Bardas Phokas, who is afterwards betrayed and killed by his Armenian allies. Bardas Skleros is thence hailed as basileus when news arrive that his father-in-law, Eustace III the Turk, has died in Constantinople without male heirs; he thereafter enters Constantinople crushing the militias of the powerful eunuch Constantine Vannadiotes. Samuel of Ohrid starts claiming the Byzantine throne by his kinship with Eustace III
    983-988
    Western Europe:
    Margrave Hugh II of Flanders (*OTL Hugh Capet) rebels against the German crown, gaining wide autonomy for his lands
    984
    Caucasus:
    Sheka, the last Christian stronghold in Azerbaijan, is conquered by the Waliist Sunni Shirvan emirate
    985
    Northern Europe:
    Styrbjörn the Strong invades Sweden with the Jomsvikings (the heathen mercenary brotherhood based in Jomsborg, western Pomerania), claiming the throne against his uncle Erik VI the Victorious, but is killed in battle at Fyris Wolds near Uppsala
    North Africa:
    The Egyptian Omayyads thwart a Fatimid invasion at the battle of Tell el-Makhzan (Pelusium).
    Arabia:
    The coastal cities of Oman, incited by the Persian Buyids, rebel against the Fatimid Caliphate; their uprising is promptly crushed in blood.
    Central Asia:
    The Seljuks settle near Bokhara.
    India:
    In the emirate of Multan (Punjab) the Banu Sama dynasty is overthrown by a pro-Fatimid Ismaili revolution led by the Sumra/Shaibanid clan
    Far East:
    The Song fail another attempt to dislodge the Khitan/Liao from the north of China. The Tangut XiXia kingdom conquers its Uygur neighbour, Su-chou.
    986
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Vikings establish two settlements (Eastern and Western) on the southwetsern coast of Greenland under the leadership of Erik the Red, who settles in Brattahlid, the first European known hamlet in Hesperia (*OTL America). Another Icelander Viking, Bjarni Herjolfsson, during the trip for Greenland is blown astray by a storm and accidentally sights the Hesperian (*OTL American) continent before reaching his destination.
    Northern Europe:
    The king of Denmark, Harold Bluetooth, is killed during a civil war by his own son Sven Forkbeard, helped by the Jomsviking mercenaries (the pagan warrior order from Jomsborg, western Pomerania). The same Jomsvikings attack also jarl Haakon the Great in Norway, but are defeated at the battle of Hjörungavágr
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Prince Vladimir of Kiev receives baptism, selaing the official conversion of the Rus’ to Christianity; he will enforce conversion by the most unchristian methods.
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    The Bulgarians of Czar Samuel gain a most great victory over Bardas III Skleros at the Gates of Trajan and enforce their rule over the entire mainland Sklavinian (*OTL Balkan) region; they also take Larissa in Thessaly (Greece).
    Central Asia, India:
    Subaktagin of Ghazna invades northern India clashing with the Rajput ruler Jaipal/Jayapala, holding sway over Kabul, Kashmir (through dynastical ties) and parts of Punjab.
    986-988
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A late Khazar kingdom is established in Tmutarakan/Taman, but is quickly overthrown by the Kievan Rus', who liquidate it installing there as prince young Mstislav I, one of Vladimir’s sons; the Rus' fail, though, in their attempt to take Bosporon/Kerč, which remains Khazar
    987
    Southern Europe:
    In Bulgaria Samuel eliminates his surviving brothers in a brief civil war sparked by Byzantine bribery and diplomacy and finally unifies the country under his own sceptre, proclaiming himself Czar of the Bulgarians and basileus of the Romans (Greeks)
    987-990
    Western Europe:
    When King Arnulf II of France dies at 25, leaving an infant heir, Baldwin III, count Herbert III of Vermandois usurps the French crown extorting his own coronation from Archbishop Adalberon of Reims. Then William I of Burgundy, Baldwin’s cousin, steps into the scene and finally eliminates Herbert at the battle of Montbard, restoring the Baldovingian succession. Herbert’s only son, Eudes, will be raised as a monk and later bishop, extinguishing the last legitimate branch of the Carolingians.
    988
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Vladimir’s Russo-Varangians attack and conquer the Byzantine possessions in then Taurida (*OTL Crimea).
    Southern Europe:
    Czar Samuel’s Bulgarians occupy Raška/Kosovo subduing the local Serbs. Count Dado of Pombia and Milan, a distant cousin of king William, usurps the royal title in Lombardy with the support of most of the feudatories and the Milanese clergy. Ravenna rebels against papal authority in the height of a power struggle between the Papacy and the Archbishopric of Ravenna; Romagna is occupied by Lombard feudal forces headed by the almost independent rulers of Canossa
    989
    Byzantine Empire:
    Bardas III Skleros narrowly defeats Czar Samuel of Bulgaria at the battle of Serrai (Macedonia)
    990
    North Africa:
    The Ghana Empire conquers Awdaghost, the trading capital of the Zenetes of Mauretania Ultima (*OTL Mauritania)
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids crush the Hamdanids in their capital, Mosul; a few weeks earlier the Waliate (*TTL’s Sunni “Papacy”) had been relocated to safer Derbent, on the Caspian Sea. From the ashes of the Hamdanid state two boundary emirates emerge under Fatimid overlorship: Amida/Diyarbakir under the Kurdish Marwanids of Abu Alì Hassan, nephew of the founder of the dynasty, Abu Shuja Badh bin Dostak and Harran/Carrhae (NE Syria) under the Numayrids, a collateral Hamdanid branch.
    India:
    a branch of the ruling Pala clan of Bengal replaces the Salasthambhas on the throne of Kamarupa/Assam.
    ca. 990
    Southern Europe:
    Sardinia rejects Tarkhanid Numidia’s suzerainty, but has to pay tribute to the Western Byzantine emperor Theophylactus of Sicily
    SE Asia:
    Mataram and Srivijaya vie for control over western Java and and the Sunda Strait.
    991
    Southern Europe:
    King William of Burgundy crosses the Alps and restores his right to the Lombard throne by killing the usurper Dado of Pombia at the battle of Trecate. He is afterwards expelled from Milan by a revolt after his mistreating of archbishop Landolfo II da Carcano (unpopular but felt as the city’s symbol), and his power remains mostly theoretical in Lombardy. Upon the death of margrave Aleramo of Montferrat, his sons begin the chaotic feudal dissolution of the Aleramic March between southern Piedmont and Liguria
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Fatimids and their subjects raid Cilicia and Cappadocia
    991-994
    British Isles:
    Olaf Tryggvason, a scion of the royal Norwegian clan of the Ynglings (temporarily deposed by Harold Bluetooth) plunders several towns in eastern England with his powerful fleet; after an early victory at Maldon against the Anglo-Saxons, he withdraws to fight for the crown of Norway
    992
    Southern Europe:
    Count Radbod of Klettigau (Switzerland) founds in the Aargau region the castle of Habsburg, which will give name to his descendants
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Bardas III Skleros besieges Ohrid/Akriteia, Samuel’s capital, but his forces are smashed in battle; Bardas III narrowly avoids being captured and flees to Thessalonica.
    Caucasus:
    The Fatimids raid Armenia, then are repulsed by the Sunni Shirvan emirate of Azerbaijan. The Armenian Monophysite Patriarchate is relocated from Dvin to more defendable Ani.
    Arabia:
    The Fatimids entrust the local governorship of Mecca to the Musabite Sharifs.
    992-994
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Boleslaw I of Poland conquers eastern Pomerania and secures access to the Baltic Sea
    Middle East:
    Repeated Fatimid invasions of western Persia are routed by the Buyids of Fars 993
    India:
    The Cholas of SE Deccan invade Sri Lanka/Ceylon and destroy its capital, Anuradhapura
    993-1018
    Far East:
    The Khitan/Liao thrice try to invade Korea; in the end they are heavily routed by the forces of the Koryo kingdom
    994
    British Isles:
    Celtic Cumbria/Cumberland accepts a joint suzerainty under both the English and the Scottish crowns
    Byzantine Empire:
    Samuel’s forces gain a decisive victory at Trikala (Thessaly), then conquer Thessalonica and sack Adrianople in a daring raid; Bardas III entrenches himself in Constantinople
    India:
    The Chola ruler Rajaraja I subdues the Cheras and the Pandyas, unifying southern Deccan for the first time.
    SE Asia:
    Saw Shwe Lu, king of Arakan, is killed during a second Shan invasion.
    994-995
    Byzantine Empire:
    Czar Samuel of Bulgaria besieges Constantinople. When the city proves unassailable, he calls for help Vladimir’s Kievan Rus’, who rush to help him with an entire fleet and devastate Bithynia. When the Byzantine fleet is burned in a sneak attack in its base in the Golden Horn, the city’s fate is sealed. Bardas III commits suicide as suggested by Samuel to spare Constantinople a plunder, then the starved garrison surrenders. Some chroniclers write that “the last Roman emperor has died” and that the “barbarocracy” has begun (just like with Simeon...), but this will not prove true, as Samuel simply proclaims himself a legitimate basileus of the Romans and establishes on the Byzantine throne his own dynasty, the Komitopouloi. In Anatolia a rebel “Roman” empire is set up in Amorion under general Nicephorus Uranus
    995
    Northern Europe:
    Olaf Tryggvason comes back to Norway and takes the power by eliminating Haakon the Great, vassal of Denmark. King Henry II of Germany dies, succeeded by his son Henry III (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE)
    Southern Europe:
    Count Tedaldo of Canossa, to avoid excommunication, reverts back Ravenna, Bologna and Romagna to the Papacy, which in turn concedes him the town of Ferrara.
    Central-Eastern Europe, Southern Europe:
    The Duchy of Carinthia is newly separated by Bavaria and entrusted to Otto of Worms, son of the former rebel duke of Lorraine Conrad the Red; the margrave of Austria Leopold I of Babenberg gains the county of Histria with Trieste. The Bohemians take and raze the capital of the White Croatians, Libice.
    Central Asia:
    In Khorezm the Ma’munids replace the local Afrigid dynasty under Samanid overlordship.
    996
    Southern Europe:
    When Pope Benedict VII dies after 22 years of rule, the Western Byzantine emperor Theophylactus of Sicily again intervenes in Rome in support of his candidate for the Papacy and the kingship of Italy, his own confessor and spiritual adviser John Philagatus, against the German Bruno, a son of duke Otto of Carinthia, supported by the Duke of Rome Crescentius the Elder. John XIV (*OTL anti-Pope John XVI) is thus enthroned in Rome. For further safety, Theophylactus installs in Rome as governor one of his sons, Leo
    North Africa:
    The Tarkhanid Empire of Numidia collapses when the three-sided civil war between the brothers Donatus and Cyprian, heirs to the throne, and the army commander Bonus Massinissa, supporter of the Anaftologist heretics, ends with the three slain.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Samuel crosses the Bosphorus but is defeated near Cyzicon by Nicephorus Uranus; he soon comes back in Constantinople and crushes a most grave rebellion (the Great Bloodshed, the biggest carnage in the city since the Nika revolt).
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids wrench Antioch and the coastal stripe of Syria and Lebanon from Nicephorus Uranus' hands
    997
    Southern Europe:
    Margrave Arduin of Ivrea, a son of the deceased Dado of Pombia, kills the powerful bishop of Vercelli, Peter, a major supporter of king William of Burgundy, pending a struggle over feudal rights in parts of Piedmont. Arduin is excommunicated by the Church but remains in arms in his lands
    Byzantine Empire, Southern Europe:
    Basileus Samuel I concludes an alliance with Venice and her Doge Pietro II Orseolo. The Venetians obtain sweeping commercial privileges in the Byzantine empire and the lordship of Dalmatia under Byzantine-Bulgarian suzerainty; they quickly defeat the Narentan pirates and enforce their power along the eastern Adriatic coast, previously shared by Byzantium and the Croats.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus Samuel, reinforced by a powerful Russian army, again invades Anatolia; in the meantime, though, the Fatimids assault and conquer the much-coveted Melitene (*OTL Malatya), where Nicephorus Uranus finds his death in battle, ending the “legitimist” (read: anti-Bulgarian) drive against Samuel
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The lower Vistula region comes to be firmly under the sway of Poland
    997-1000
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    In Croatia a civil war rages till king Svetoslav is eliminated by his brothers Kresimir III and Goislav
    998
    British Isles:
    Ireland is carved between king Malachy II of Meath and Brian Boru; the former will rule the north, the latter the south
    Southern Europe:
    Crescentius the Younger rebels in Rome, killing the emperor's son, Leo, and forcing into exile Pope John XIV (*OTL anti-Pope John XVI); in a matter of weeks emperor Theophylactus of Sicily plunges in the Urbs Aeterna, where he captures and horribly executes Crescentius, restoring the legitimate Pope. He afterwards sets his headquarters in the city, the first Roman emperor to do so in half a millennium. King William of Burgundy crosses the Alps and forces Arduin of Ivrea into exile in Germany, conceding his lands to the Church.
    North Africa:
    The Egyptian Omayyads invade Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), overrunning much of the country and extorting tribute from the Western Byzantine empire
    Middle East:
    The Fatimid Caliph Abu 'Ali al-Mansur bestows control over northern and southern Iraq respectively upon the Banu Uqayl and Banu Asad Arab tribes: Arab paramountry is thus reestablished after the Persian hegemony uunder the Abbasids. The Fatimids wrest western Persia from Buyid hegemony
    India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna, son of Subaktagin, invades Punjab.
    999
    British Isles:
    Brian Boru trounces the Vikings and the Irish of Leinster at Glenn Màma, and plunders Dublin.
    Western Europe:
    The king of Spain Rodrigo IX defeats the Gallastrians (*inhabitants, mostly of Celtic origin, of OTL Galicia and Asturias), enforcing suzerainty upon them
    Southern Europe:
    Valais becomes an ecclesiastic county of the kingdom of Burgundy under the count-bishops of Sion.
    North Africa:
    Yoshua Lamzag crushes the Anaftologist heretics and reestablishes an independent kingdom of Lesvallia (*OTL Kabylia) in northern Numidia.
    Black Africa:
    Bagauda founds the Haussa kingdom of Kano in northern Nigeria.
    Middle East, Central Asia:
    Final collapse of the Zoroastrian Samanid Empire under the invasion of the Muslim Karakhanids of Hasan Bughra Khan: Nishapur, the Samanid capital, is taken and razed to the ground, the destroyed empire carved between the Karakhanids (Central Asia) and the rising Ghaznavids (Khorasan and eastern Persia/Iran), while Fatimids and Buyids vie for the western remnants.
    999-1000
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Boleslaw the Brave of Poland takes advantage of Bohemia's inner troubles to conquer Cracow, Silesia and Moravia; he also gets an own Polish archbishopric at Gniezno/Gnesen from the Papacy
    India:
    Rajaraja I of the Cholas takes Vengi (western Deccan coast) from the Chalukyas and conquers Kalinga (eastern Deccan).
     
    Ddmkm122 likes this.
  7. basileus Inflammable

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2004
    Location:
    Thema Kastrosibrion ton Langobardon
    1000-1100

    11th century
    British Isles:
    The English language leaks into Cumbria, Strathclyde and Scotland, mixing with local Brythonic and Gaelic dialects to form the Celto-Germanic Scots language(s).
    Western Europe:
    Western Europe sees the growth of the Communal movement; feudalism and fragmentation are rampant, as the issue of the heritability of minor fiefdoms generally resolves in favor of the feudatories. The Cluniac reform (from the monastery of Cluny, Burgundy) strengthens the Church and makes it even more powerful and capable of opposing the local rulers.
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    The Bogomil heresy reaches its heyday in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), expanding from Bulgaria to find a new stronghold in Bosnia.
    North Africa:
    Power of the southern Zenetes, still partially heathen, masters of trade in “their” desert (the Zenete Desert, *OTL Sahara).
    East Africa:
    Christian Nubia reaches its apogee under the powerful kingdom of Mukurra.
    Central Asia, Middle East, Caucasus:
    A wave of Turkoman migrations overruns Persia, Central Asia and Caucasus up to the doors of India and Anatolia. Azerbaijan is permanently Turkicized
    Far East:
    Lamaism and theocracy make their appearance in Tibet. The Taira and Minamoto clans gain much power in Japan.
    SE Asia:
    The Laos, closely related with the Thais, settle the country they will later give name to, conquering in the process some local petty Mon and Khmer Mandalas (kingdoms).
    1000
    Northern Europe:
    The king of Norway, Olaf Tryggvason, is defeated and kiled at the naval battle of Svoldeiyar by Sven Forkbeard's Danes, allied with the Swedes; Norway again falls under Danish hegemony
    Southern Europe:
    Pietro II Orseolo, Doge of Venice, newly defeats the Narentan pirates, gaining from basileus Samuel I the title of duke of Dalmatia (and entering into a major quarrel with Croatia on the issue).
    ca. 1000
    Northern Europe:
    Christianization of the Scandinavian peoples. Frisia is made a county of Germany under the Brunoningian dynasty; actually it will develop as an almost anarchic chaos of ecclesiastic possessions and free trading towns.
    British Isles:
    Galloway is made a possession of the Viking Jarls of the Orkneys.
    Western Europe:
    The Basques are finally converted to Christianity through the efforts of the kingdom of Navarra.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Fatimids raid Anatolia in depth, but can't take Caesarea/Mazhak despite a long siege
    Caucasus:
    The Khanate of Avaristan (inner Daghestan), deprived of Khazar protection and worn out by the incessant struggle with the Muslims of Derbent, is gobbled up by Alania and Iberia/Georgia.
    East Africa:
    The Hutus, of Bantu stock, settle in the Rwanda-Burundi region.
    Black Africa:
    The Igbo/Ibo reach their apogee in SE Nigeria; west of the Niger river the Yoruba kingdom of Ife arises.
    Middle East:
    In Daylam (northern Persia/Iran) the local Justanid rulers are reduced to control only the cities of Rayy and Rudbar by a related Waliist (*”Papist”, followers of the Wali of Derbent, the Sunni “Pope”) clan, the Musafirids of Tarum.
    Central Asia:
    The Islamization of the Turks in completed. In the northern steppes the Dasht-i-Kipchak Khanate arises, breaking into two separate halves the Oghuz/Ouzoi; some flee west (the Ouzoi), some south (the Turkmen/Seljuks).
    India:
    Foundation of the Haihaya dynasty in Dakshin Kosala (modern Chhattisgarh, central India).
    Far East:
    The Khitan/Liao subdue the Merkites of southern central Siberia.
    Pacific Ocean:
    The kingdom of Yap begins to impose its hegemony over Micronesia over trading and religious bases.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Toltec prophet Quetzalcoatl, in later times worshipped as the Feathered Snake, says farewell to his disciples and leaves for the Yucatàn. Since then his return will be waited for in Mexico as a major religious event
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Carib people from OTL Caribbean Sea invade the lowlands of OTL nothern Colombia, displacing the Chibchas and forcing them to take refuge in the inner plateaus
    1000-1027
    Central Asia, India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna builds an empire from the Amu Darya to the Indus river and devastates NW India; he opens India to Muslim aggression
    1001
    British Isles:
    Malachy II of Meath cedes the High Kingship over Ireland to his prominent ally Brian Boru
    Southern Europe:
    Arduin of Ivrea reenters Lombardy hailed as king by the rebellious feudatories, risen again against king William of Burgundy; he is crowned in Pavia as the recognized leader of the anti-Burgundian party; Tedaldo of Canossa, the most powerful Lombard ruler, accepts Arduin as king but catches the moment to seize Tuscany and proclaim himself margrave, furtherly increasing his own domains, now a solid block from Brescia and the Garda lake to the boundaries of Papal Latium
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Christianization of the Magyars and foundation of the kingdom of Hungary under Stephen I the Saint, winner in the succession war against the pagan Koppany; the Poles take advantage of the struggle to conquer Slovakia
    Central Asia, India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna again defeats the Hindu Jaipal, raja (king) of Kabul, Kangra (Kashmir) and Bhatinda (Punjab).
    1001-1004
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Erik the Red's son, Leif Eriksson, explores the shores of Helluland (*OTL Baffin island), Markland (*OTL Labrador) and Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland); he settles in this last island, where he meets the native and has pitched skirmishes with them, then comes back to Greenland with interesting news but little to show.
    Southern Europe:
    Arduin of Ivrea confirms his alliance with Henry III of Germany (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE). An attempt by William of Burgundy to cross the Alps to Piedmont is crushed at Mt. Pirchiriano near Turin, thus guaranteeing Lombardy's independence, at least for now.
    1002
    British Isles:
    In retaliation for the increasing violence of Norse raids against England, king Ethelred the Unready has all Danes in England massacred on St.Brice's day
    1002-1003
    Southern Europe:
    Basileus-Czar Samuel I campaigns in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) against the rebellious Serbs of Raška/Kosovo, who, despite Samuel's successes, manage to maintain their independence
    1002-1006
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Fatimids conquer Cilicia fortress by fortress, pushing the Byzantines beyond the Taurus range
    SE Asia:
    Civil war rages in the Khmer Empire: Suryavarman I dethrones Jayaviravarman
    1002-1013
    British Isles:
    Sven I Forkbeard, king of Denmark, avenges his fellow nationals massacred in England by staging no less than four fierce campaigns in England, who basically destroy the Anglo-Saxon kingdom; the vassal Welsh principalities take advantage to break free from English yoke, giving also hospitality as mercenaries to many Vikings driven from Ireland
    1003
    Western Europe:
    Lambert I of Louvain, from the Idulfingian family (descendants of Reginar Langhals and Giselbert of Lorraine and their relatives), founds the county of Brabant (central Belgium), theoretically under German overlordship.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Boleslaw of Poland becomes also duke of Bohemia, provoking the worried reaction of the Germans. King Stephen I the Saint of Hungary subdues Transylvania.
    1004
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Boleslaw of Poland liquidates near Prague Sobjeslav, the last ruler of the White Croatians of the Tatras; soon afterwards, though, Henry III of Germany (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE) ousts him from Bohemia and pursues him in Poland, gaining the renewed vassalage of that country to Germany.
    Southern Europe:
    After another popular revolt in Rome, ruthlessly repressed, emperor Theophylactus deports thousands of people to Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia). Pope John XIV (*OTL anti-Pope John XVI) withdraws Arduin of Ivrea's excommunication after the new king of Lombardy made rich gifts of lands and money to various monastic orders. The rich sea-trading town of Pisa asserts its freedom by defeating the Canossan armies at the battles of Acqualunga and Ripafratta; Tedaldo of Canossa has to concede Pisa the state of free town.
    North Africa:
    The Western Byzantine imperial fleet, led by the town fleets of Amalfi and Gaeta, crushes the Egyptian Omayyad fleet blockading Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis); Omayyad aggression is smashed also by land thanks to a series of fierce Zenete raid in the south of Ifrigia and in Tripolitania. After this utter defeat Abu Rakwa, a local Omayyad governor in Cyrenaica, rebels and establishes an independent emirate in Lybia
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Fatimids again overrun Anatolia in a large raid, touching the Aegean coast before retreating with much booty and slaves; their navy conquers Cyprus.
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids, at the apogee of their power, finally crush the Buyids at the battle of Shiraz, conquering Fars
    India:
    The Lohara dynasty ascends the throne of Kashmir.
    Far East:
    The Khitan/Liao invade northern China up to the Huang He and extort tribute from the Song empire.
    1004-1013
    Western Euope:
    Protracted three-sided conflict between Lorraine, France and Burgundy over boundary issues and opposite claims to the lands involved. No result is achieved by anyone, the only significant consequence being a growing rift between Germany and the two kingdoms of Lorraine and Luxembourg, and a strengthening of the local aristocracy, notably the powerful marquises of Champagne, second only to the king in France
    1005
    Western Europe:
    The armies of Maurian Spain attack Navarra but are defeated in the siege of Pamplona. The army commander, duke Isidore of Andalusia, is subsequently murdered by his cousin king Samuel of Spain, after which misdeed a grave civil war erupts between Samuel and his uncle Augustin the Bold.
    India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna conquers the Sindh
    1006
    Southern Europe:
    The Pisan fleet defeats the Corsican raiders off the Arno's mouth
    North Africa:
    Yoshua Lamzag dies in the battle of Mila and his attempt to reunify Numidia founders.
    SE Asia:
    Srivijayan forces destroy the capital of the Javanese Mataram kingdom, which begins its decline.
    1007
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Icelander Thorfinn Karlsefni leads a Norse settlement at Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland): Thorfinnsvìk (*not existing OTL, some 50 kms due west of OTL St.Anthony) is the first European hamlet in the New World.
    Northern Europe:
    Foundation of the prince-bishopric of Bamberg.
    Western Europe:
    The siege of Metz by king William of Burgundy marks the pivotal point of the war for Lorraine, but king Theodoric/Thierry I holds and defends his capital with help from his cousin Henry I of Luxembourg. Augustine the Bold, once eliminated his nephew Samuel, ascends the throne of Maurian Spain as Augustine I
    1007-1008
    Western Europe:
    Margrave Robert I of Flanders (*OTL Robert II the Pious of France) and count Lambert I of Brabant rise in rebellion against German overlordship. To avoid facing the wrath of king Henry III of Germany (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE), the two accept Luxemburgian suzerainty and protection, which brings along a state of undeclared war between Luxembourg (and allied Lorraine) and Germany
    1008
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    Basileus-Czar Samuel I trounces the Fatimid invaders at Dokimion near Akroinon (Anatolia): he cuts the right hands of the 10,000 captives, then sends the survivors back to Fatimid lands, gaining the nickname of Chirotomos (hand-cutter). The Fatimids will never more invade Anatolia, the Byzantine heartland; in retaliation Caliph al-Hakim destroys the shrine of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem and has thousands of Christians massacred or sold as slaves
    Caucasus:
    The king of Abasgia/Abkhasia Bagrat III Bagratuni, who inherited the crown from his wife Gurandukht, ascends also the throne of Iberia/Georgia gaining the reunification of the two Caucasian lands.
    Middle East:
    The Kurdish Kakuyids reject the Fatimid yoke in the Zagros mountains of western Persia/Iran
    India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna defeats a coalition of Rajput rajas and vassalizes the Ismaili Shiite emirate of Multan (Punjab).
    Far East:
    The Mongol tribe of the Keraites converts to Nestorian Christianity; his ruler assumes the name of Mark I.
    1009
    Southern Europe:
    Arduin of Ivrea invades Provence, blockading Marseille and Vienne and extorting from William of Burgundy the final recognition of his kingship in Lombardy; the Arduinic dynasty is thus established.
    Far East:
    Ly Thai-to, leader of the palace guards, takes power in Dai Viet (Vietnam) with a coup and sets the country's capital at Thang Long/Hanoi.
    1009-1011
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The distances and the hostility of the natives force the few Norsemen in Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland) to sail back to Greenland; Thorfinn Karlsefni immediately sets sail to Iceland, and thence to Norway, where he gathers some hundred colonists (mainly people fleeing Danish rule) who, after an epic cruise, reestablish the colony at Thorfinnsvìk on the Hesperian (*American) island
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine-Bulgarian army campaigns in the Euphrates Valley and slowly and painfully reconquers Cilicia from the Fatimids; all fallen soldiers are proclaimed to be martyrs
    1009-1021
    Southern Europe:
    Melo leads the long and ultimately victorious struggle to make Bari (Puglia) a free city, vying with Venice for supremacy in the profitable trade with the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) and Byzantium
    1010
    British Isles:
    Sven Forkbeard's campaigns in England culminate in the bloody victory gained at Ringmere (East Anglia) by his Danish-Norwegian army, supported by Jomsviking mercenaries (from Jomsborg, western Pomerania)
    ca. 1010
    Central Asia:
    The Kipchaks, put under pressure by their neighbours, the Kimaks in the north and the Khitan/Liao in the east, move west across the steppe north of the Aral lake.
    India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna overruns Gujarat, but is quickly ousted by the local Chalukya/Solanki rulers
    SE Asia:
    The eastern part of the Haripunjaya kingdom (northern Siam) is taken over by the Khmer Empire.
    1011
    Southern Europe:
    Corsican raiders sack and set on fire Pisa.
    Central Asia:
    Mahmud of Ghazna captures Balkh (northern Afghanistan)
    1011-1012
    British Isles:
    The Jomsviking heathens in the service of Denmark capture Canterbury and martyr Archbishop Alphege; they also extort huge tributes from England (the Danegeld)
    1012
    Western Europe:
    Count Reginar IV of Mons wrests Valenciennes from France, reunificating it with the county of Mons to form the march of Hainault inside the kingdom of Luxembourg
    Southern Europe:
    Tedaldo, count of Canossa and margrave of Tuscany, dies dividing his family's holdings between his two male sons, Corrado, who inherits the lands north of the Apennines up to Brescia, and Bonifacio, who becomes the new margrave of Tuscany
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus-Czar Samuel I massacres and burns at the stake hundreds of Bogomils in Bulgaria and in Constantinople
    1013
    Southern Europe:
    Pope (and king of Italy) John XIV (*OTL anti-Pope John XVI, John Philagatus) dies in Rome after a saintly reign under the patronage of his spiritual son, the Western Byzantine emperor Theophylactus of Sicily. Another Theophylactus, brother of count Alberico III of Tuscolo, a pro-imperial member of the Crescenzi family, is elected Pope and king of Italy as Benedict VIII
    1013-1014
    British Isles:
    Sven I Forkbeard, king of Denmark, conquers England taking advantage of the Anglo-Saxon internecine strife; he dies soon after, though, and Danish power is quickly overthrown. King Ethelred II of England, who had fled to Normandy, comes back to rule the country again, while the Danes sail home. Leinster and the Dublin Vikings rise in rebellion against Brian Boru's power.
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Vinlandria's (*OTL Newfoundland) few natives are almost completely exterminated by the unknown diseases brought there by the Norse settlers, whom they vainly fought off. Tales of “golden-headed giants” leak on the Hesperian (*OTL American) continent together with the new, unknown illnesses which will reduce the natives of northeastern Hesperia by a half in a few decades before a minimum immunization is reached
    1013-1024
    Central Asia:
    A separate Karakhanid khanate at Ferghana experiences a period of independence before being vassalized by the main clan branch
    1014
    British Isles:
    Brian Boru overcomes the Vikings and the rebel Irish clans at the battle of Clontarf, but falls in the battle together with his son Murrough; thus Malachy II of Meath retakes the title of High King of Ireland, but the chance for a true unification of Ireland is lost with Brian
    Southern Europe:
    King Arduin I of Lombardy, fell ill, abdicates to retire in the monastery of Fruttuaria (Piedmont) he himself founded; he is succeeded by his son Pipino I (*OTL Ottone).
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus-Czar Samuel reconquers Melitene (*OTL Malatya) from the Fatimids and campaigns up to the Caucasus, enforcing the renewed obedience of the Armenian and Georgian principalities.
    1015
    Northern Europe, British Isles:
    Olaf Haraldsson frees Norway from the Danes and becomes king, enforcing conversion to Christianity with ruthless violence. He had been previously instrumental, in England, in helping the Anglo-Saxons against Knut/Canute, younger brother of the new king of Denmark Harald II
    1015-1016
    Southern Europe:
    A group of forty Norman knights on their way back from a difficult pilgrimage to Jerusalem (where they were robbed and harassed by the Fatimids) reaches Pisa where they are entrusted the leadership of a powerful expedition against Corsica. They accomplish the destruction of the rogue Corsican state in such a brilliant way that the Pisans make the island a collection of Norman fiefdoms. The following year another group of Norman “pilgrims” led by Robert Drengot helps Melo of Bari and his rebels against emperor Theophylactus' forces before taking refuge in Byzantine Albania, thus starting the Norman influx of mercenaries towards the Mediterranean.
    British Isles:
    Prince Knut/Canute vies with the Anglo-Saxon king Edmund II Ironside for power over England; after many pitched battles the Danes gain a great victory at Assandun/Ashingdon (Essex). Knut/Canute and Edmund II decide to divide England between themselves, but the untimely death of Edmund leaves the Dane sole king of England and Edmund's relatives are slain or exiled to Hungary (!)
    1016
    British Isles:
    The powerful earldom of Northumbria is divided into two halves, one with York/Jorvik, the other centered at Bamburgh.
    Southern Europe:
    John Vladislav, Samuel's nephew, stages a successful expedition in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). He kills prince John Vladimir of Duklja/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro), replacing him with Dragimir Vojislavjević, lord of Zahumlje (*later Dukovina, *OTL Hercegovina), then turns against Raška/Kosovo crushing it and annexing also Triballia (between Raška/Kosovo and Zahumlje/Dukovina).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The last remnant of Khazar power at Bosporon/Kerč, under Khan George Tzul, is liquidated by a joint Rus'-Byzantine expedition; in exchange for the city, Samuel I regains the coastal strongholds in Taurida (*OTL Crimea) formerly occupied by the Kievans.
    SE Asia:
    A cataclysm destroys the Mataram capital at Kediri (Java)
    1017
    India:
    The Cholas complete the conquest of Sri Lanka/Ceylon with the capture of king Mahinda V; their fleet sacks the remote Srivijayan domains between the Malay peninsula and Indonesia
    1017-1033
    Central Asia:
    Mahmud of Ghazna vassalizes Khorezm, which is afterwards more and more attracted into the Seljuk sphere of influence
    1018
    Northern Europe:
    Upon the death of his elder brother, Harald II, the Viking king of England Knut/Canute the Great inherits also the throne of Denmark as Knut II, thus creating a vast Norse empire across the North Sea.
    British Isles:
    The double crown of Alba/Scotland inherits Strathclyde by dynastical right upon the death of the last native ruler, Owen IV the Bald, thus adding the Lothian region to its possessions; this land will be ruled as a crown fief, not included in either Scotland (the Scottish kingdom) or Alba (the Pictish one). Upon the extinction of its native royal house, Cornwall passes under king Evenus, brother of king Alain III of Brittany and founder of the apEven Cornish dynasty
    Western Europe:
    King Augustine I of Spain crosses the Strait of Arrodriga (*OTL Gibraltar), defeats his rivals Donatus the Indatha and Rodrigo of Tangiers and is recognized as king of Mauretania (*OTL Morocco), creating a strong empire on the shores of the Atlantic ocean. The Cathar heresy (the western European and North African version of Bogomilism) is noted for the first time in Aquitaine/Occitania, and its followers suffer immediate persecution and burning at the stake.
    Southern Europe:
    The Western Byzantine emperor, Theophylactus of Sicily, dies in Rome. His two surviving sons, Peter and John, divide the empire: Peter gains the imperial title and will rule from Rome (*which is, technically speaking, a Papal possession, part of the kingdom of Italy/Spoleto) over southern Italy, while John will have sway over Sicily and Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia) as Peter's viceroy. The rebel Melo of Bari, defeated at Bitetto by imperial forces, takes refuge in Byzantine Albania with his local Norman allies.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    By the terms of the treaty of Bautzen, king Boleslaw of Poland gains Lusatia as a crown fief. The Hungarians wrest Transcarpathic Ruthenia (Munkacs/Mukačevo) from Kievan hands.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus-Czar Samuel I the Chirotomos dies in Constantinople; his nephew John Vladislav, thanks to the loyalty of the army, enforces his appointment as co-emperor of basileus Peter (Samuel's grandson).
    India:
    The Hindu holy city of Mathura (south of Delhi) suffers a devastating pillage at the hands of Mahmud of Ghazna.
    SE Asia:
    King Khitthathong moves the capital of Wethali Arakan to Pingtsa.
    1019
    Northern Europe:
    The king of Germany Henry III (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE) defeats at Ulm the rebel duke of Carinthia, Adalbert von Eppenstein, and temporarily deprives him of the title.
    India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna destroys the city of Kanauj, fostering the final decline and extinction the Pratihara dynasty and the fragmentation of its empire into independent Rajput states; in the south the Cholas invade Kerala.
    Far East:
    Toi/Jurchen pirates from northern Korea attack the Japanese islands of Kyushu and Tsushima, but are repulsed.
    SE Asia:
    Airlingga rebuilds the Mataram/Kediri kingdom in eastern Java
    1020
    Southern Europe:
    A Byzantine army led by Belisarius Bioannes quells Croatian unrest in Dalmatia in cooperation with the Venetian fleet, then enforces Byzantine suzerainty over Croatia itself.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Kipchak/Cumans settle along the Don and Donec rivers
    India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna overruns and takes Lahore, Gwalior and Kalinjar (NW India).
    ca. 1020
    Caucasus:
    The Alans subdue the Chechens.
    India:
    The Tomar Rajput ruler Anangpal II trasfers his capital from the ruined Kanauj to the newly-founded Dhilli/Delhi
    1021
    Northern Europe:
    Olaf II “the Saint” finally enforces Christianization upon Norway when he routs at Ringsaker his five rebel heathen vassals, whom he cruelly mutilates, e ach in a different way.
    Southern Europe:
    Melo of Bari dies just after freeing his town from imperial (Western Byzantine) authority with help from the Byzantine Norman Guard of Albania; the free city of Bari pledges alliance to Constantinople.
    Byzantine Empire:
    John I Vladislav kills his brother Peter and remains the sole basileus of the Romans and Czar of Bulgaria. The Byzantine army fails an attempt to retake Antioch.
    Middle East:
    The Muwahiddin (*OTL Druze) religious sect arises between Lebanon and Palestine after the death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim, a cruel madman they believe to be an incarnation of God; the Fatimid Empire begins its slow decline.
    Central Asia:
    Mahmud of Ghazna conquers Kabul liquidating the last Hindu presence in Afghanistan: the main route to India is now open for the Muslim powers
    1021-1022
    Caucasus:
    When king Gagik I dies Byzantium annexes most of Armenia, including the kingdom of Vaspurakan, which becomes a theme (province) in the empire. After the abortive revolt led by Nikephoros Xiphias, an Armenian principality is established in Cesarea/Mazhak (*OTL Kayseri) in eastern Cappadocia, under strict Byzantine suzerainty
    1022
    British Isles:
    High King Malachy II of Meath dies and Ireland plunges into chaos as kingdoms and clans vie for supremacy.
    Western Europe:
    Navarra is obliged to accept the overlordship of the double crown of Spain and Mauretania
    Caucasus:
    The Alans subdue the ancient Caucasian tribe of the Circassians defeating their chieftain Rededya; in later times, the Alans themselves will be known as Circassians.
    India:
    Foundation of the Hoysala dynasty of Belur/Halebid (Deccan) under the tribal chief Nripa Kama. The Cholas invade Orissa (eastern India) weakening the Somvamsi rule.
    1022-1023
    Southern Europe:
    Western Byzantines, Corsican Normans backed by Pisa and Balearic pirates vie for supremacy over the judicates (local kingdoms) of Sardinia; the Balearics prevail under the leadership of their chieftain, Magonian the Black
    1023
    Middle East:
    A Byzantine-sponsored rebellion in Aleppo results in the city's rejection of Fatimid rule under Salih ibn Mirdas, founder of the local Mirdasid dynasty
    1023-1025
    Southern Europe:
    The powerful Patriarch of Aquileia Wolfgang/Poppo von Treffen wrests Grado from Venice, but the Venetians retake in in two years' space.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Enraged at Peter's murder in Constantinople, the Kievan Rus' ravage Thrace, Taurida (*OTL Crimea) and Bithynia with their naval raids, and have to be bought off with heavy tributes by basileus-Czar John I Vladislav
    1024
    Southern Europe:
    On the death of Pope (and king of Italy/Spoleto) Benedict VIII in Rome, emperor Peter agress to the appointment of his younger step-brother Romanus as Pope John XV (*OTL John XIX)
    India:
    The Cholas invade Bengal; the Hoysalas overrun Mysore upon the extinction of the ancient Western Ganga dynasty (the eastern Gangas are, on the contrary, ascendant in Orissa)
    1024-1030
    Northern Europe:
    King Henry III of Germany (*OTL emperor Henry II of the HRE) dies without heirs, extinguishing the glorious Liudolfingian house of Saxony. A fierce succession war rages for six years between the Luxemburgian pretender Frederick, nephew of the queen dowager Kunigunde, and the “national” candidate Conrad nicknamed the Salian, a powerful feudatory from Alsace; both candidates are forced to concede heritability of minor fiefdoms during the long struggle to gain support
    1025
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    A second wave of Norse settlers led by Ragnar Arnarsson reaches Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland) from Greenland. By this time the European community on the island reaches about 1000 people; the new influx of settlers makes Christians the majority of Hesperian (*American) Norsemen
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Just before dying king Boleslaw of Poland rejects subjection to Germany; thereafter his sons begin to vie for power, weakening the kingdom.
    India:
    Mahmud of Ghazna vassalizes Gujarat.
    SE Asia:
    The Chola fleet vassalizes Srivijaya, sealing its decline; the Cholas annex most of the Malay peninsula to their domains, forming an impressive sea empire across the eastern Indian Ocean.
    1026
    Northern Europe:
    In the naval battle of the Helgeå Knut/Canute the Great defeats the Swedes of Anund Jacob and their Norwegian allies led by Olaf II “the Saint”. The Danish ruler briefly dominates the heart of Sweden, but he cannot hold it for long
    Southern Europe:
    King William I of Burgundy/Provence dies, succeeded by his son Berenger I. Count Corrado of Canossa quells another anti-Papal revolt in Ravenna, then dies by malaria and his lands revert to his brother, margrave Bonifacio of Tuscany. King Pipino I of Lombardy (*OTL Ottone son of Arduin) tries a half-hearted invasion of Emilia to hamper the reunification of the Canossa domains, but is quickly repulsed; the Canossas, though not overtly rejecting Lombard suzerainty, keep on ruling their lands as sovereigns in all but word
    1027
    Northern Europe:
    Conrad the Salian narrowly wins the bloody battle of Ochsenfurt against Frederick of Luxembourg, but the German succession war still drags on
    Southern Europe:
    Romancia (*OTL eastern Switzerland plus Vorarlberg and Valtellina) detaches herself from Germany during the succession war rampaging there, and hails as king Pipino I of Lombardy, who'll hold the two crowns in dynastical union. Ariberto of Intimiano, archbishop of Milan, clashes with king Pipino I of Lombardy over the appointment of the bishop of Lodi. He thereafter tries the heretic Cathars of Monforte (Piedmont) and has them burnt at the stake in Milan, but their faith will gain a foothold in the same city with the birth of the Pataria movement. The Pechenegs, routed by the Rus' of Kiev, head south across the Danube invading the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), but are thwarted by the Byzantine general Constantine Diogenes.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The king of Hungary Stephen I the Saint conquers Slovakia from the Poles, making it an appanage duchy for the heirs to the Hungarian throne.
    Caucasus:
    A Zoroastrian uprising led by Manushir I of the Kesrani warrior clan overthrows the Yazidid dynasty in the emirate of Shirvan (Azerbaijan).
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    In Yucatàn the decline of Uxmal is followed by the ascendancy of Chichén Itzà, resettled by the Tutul Xiu after an era of abandonment; the southern Maya lands (Guatemala, highlands), once rich and populated in the heyday of Classical Maya age, are now the ghost of their former self.
    1028
    Northern Europe:
    Olaf II “the Saint” of Norway is defeated and killed by the rebels in the service of Knut/Canute the Great, whose empire now stretches from England to the Baltic and from Schleswig to the Arctic Sea.
    North Africa:
    Viceroy John of Sicily and Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia) campaigns in Numidia, subduing several local states (notably Constantina) to Western Byzantine authority.
    Central Asia:
    The Sunni Wali (*the Muslim ”Pope” in TTL) Abdullah VI relocates from Derbent to Samarkand, whence the Muslim Karakhanid rulers expel all unbelievers (Nestorians, Manichaeans, Zoroastrians, Buddhists, Jews...) to make it a “pure” Islamic city, worthy of hosting the saintly Walis. Thus Samarkand becomes one of the foremost Muslim “holy cities”
    Far East:
    The XiXia Tangut kingdom conquers the Uygur khanate of Kan-chou.
    1028-1030
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Stephen I of Hungary, allied with Frederick of Luxembourg, raids Austria and Carinthia.
    1029
    Southern Europe:
    Marquard III of Eppenstein is given the castle and town of Gurizberg (*OTL Gorizia) from his father-in-law, the Patriarch of Aquileia Wolfgang/Poppo von Treffen
    Central Asia:
    Mahmud of Ghazna takes Rayy from the last Justanids of Daylam and drives the Fatimids from central Persia/Iran; Tagh ad-Din I Nasr ibn Ahmad founds the Nasrid dyansty in Seistan as a Ghaznavid vassal.
    1030
    Northern Europe:
    Conrad the Salian is killed by treason by his former supporter, duke Ernest of Swabia, thus ending the long German succession war with the final accession to the throne of Frederick and the establishment of the Luxemburg dynasty in Germany
    Southern Europe:
    The Norman Rainulf Drengot, helped by Pisa, invades northern Sardinia, wresting the judicate (kingdom) of Torres from king Gonario, a client of Magonian the Black's Balearic pirates. Rainulf becomes the first Norman judge (king) of Sardinia, marking the start of Norman encroachments in the island
    Black Africa:
    Conversion to Islam of the Songhai kingdom under Kosoy Muslim Dam.
    Middle East:
    The Byzantine army suffers a grave defeat at the battle of Edessa (*OTL Urfa) against the Arab Fatimid-Numayrid army.
    Central Asia:
    Driven south by the raiding Kipchak/Cumans, who rule the steppes between the Don and the Irtyš rivers, the Seljuks invade and desolate Khorassan under the leadership of Chagri and Tughril Beg, two grandsons of Seljuk. After suffering defeat in battle at the hands of the Ghaznavids, the Seljuks resort to guerrilla and live off the land, migrating further west across the north of Persia.
    ca. 1030
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Norsemen of Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland) explore the coasts of northern Hesperia (*OTL America) from Helluland Sound (*OTL Baffin Bay) up to New Palestine (*OTL Massachussetts); the extent of their discoveries, though, goes completely unnoticed in Europe, where it feebly echoes as a Scandinavian saga no more credible than those on sea monsters of trolls.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Prophet Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Snake, kills himself upon a burial stake after gaining a wide following among the Mayans too with the name of Cuculcàn
    Southern Europe:
    The united fleets of the Tyrrenian sea trading towns, both Lombard and independent or imperial (Genoa, Pisa, Amalfi and Gaeta) expel the Balearic pirates from the waters of Sardinia; the islands' judicates-kingdoms accept a vague Pisan overlorship, but the real masters are the Normans in Torres and the southern native judicates, Arborea and Cagliari/Santa Igia.
    Central Asia:
    The Ghaznavids vassalize Tabaristan (which has reverted back to Shiism in the last decades).
    1031
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Polish power declines following the usurpation of Bezprym against his younger step-brother Mieczisław/Mieszko II: the resurgent Germans wrest Lusatia from Polish influence, the duke of Bohemia Břetislav the Great reconquers Moravia, prince Jaroslav I of Kiev occupies Transcarpathian Ruthenia (east of the Carpathian range), king Canute/Knut II the Great of Denmark, Norway and England seizes Pomerania.
    Southern Europe:
    Civil war erupts in southern Italy between emperor Peter and his nephew John II, ruling over Sicily and Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia), who invades Calabria, taking Reggio and Crotone; the naval battle of Capo Palinuro, though, is won by the emperor's forces led by his son, Theophylactus II. The bishop of Trient (*OTL Trento), Ulrich II, is made the first prince-bishop of the town by king Frederick I of Germany.
    1032
    Western Europe:
    Following a brief war over feudal rights, France wrests back Auvergne from Aquitainian possession. Poitou and Limoges are instead recognized to Aquitaine
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Germany anew vassalizes Poland by restoring Mieczisław/Mieszko II on the throne (actually the country is carved between the king and two of his relatives).
    Southern Europe:
    John XV (*OTL John XIX) dies in Rome, succeeded as Pope and king of Italy-Spoleto by his unworthy nephew Benedict IX, a young puppet in the hands of emperor Peter. The Western Byzantine civil war sees the involvement of mercenaries (Normans from Corsica, Sardinia, Albania and Normandy proper, Numidians from Africa) and soon reduces to low-level fighting in southern Italy. In Gaeta local power is wrested from the Docibile family, who made the error of supporting John II of Sicily and Ifrigia; the town becomes a Norman duchy, giving the French warriors their first stronghold in southern Italy. A Byzantine fleet helped by ships from Ragusa/Dubrovnik and Bari defeats the Cyrenaic pirates in the Ionian sea.
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    General George Maniaces reaffirms Byzantine authority in Syria in a brilliant campaign aginst the Fatimids and Numayrids, climaxing in the capture of Edessa (*OTL Urfa). A few weeks later basileus-Czar John I Vladislav is murdered with his heir Constantine in a plot schemed by his second son Alusian, who then forces Patriarch Alexius Studites to crown him; but Alusian's two surviving brothers, Troianos and Gabriel, manage to escape to Anatolia and swear revenge over him.
    Central Asia:
    The Karakhanid Empire fragments into a western part with Samarkand (now the capital at the expense of the “infidel” Bukhara, still majority non–Muslim and inhabited by Jews, Nestorian and Zoroastrians) and an eastern half with Kashgar, Balasaghun (the ancient Uighur capital in Mongolia), the Tarim basin, Dzungaria and parts of Mongolia
    1033
    Western Europe, Southern Europe, Middle East:
    To celebrate the millenary of Christ's crucifixion and resurrection, the Catholic Church launches “God's Truce”: the feuding knights must not fight each other from Thursday to Monday; this norm will be applied “cum grano salis”. Always in the wake of the millennial celebrations, many rulers of Christian Europe go to pilgrimage to Jerusalem with thousands of their subjects, coming into contact with the cultures of the Mediterranean and the Middle East. The wave of millenarism also causes massacres of Jews from France to Germany. Western Europe:
    Young king Frederick III of Lorraine dies at 13, leaving to rule the country her elder sister Beatrice under the patronage of her relative, king Henry II of Luxemburg. The county of Limburg is founded in eastern Belgium.
    India:
    A Ghaznavid army suffers a massive defeat in Awadh (region of Benares/Varanasi, India) at the hands of a Hindu alliance of local rulers; Muslim encroachment in India is put to an end
    1033-1034
    Western Europe:
    Count Eudes I of Champagne invades Burgundy, citing the violation of his feudal rights in border areas; his campaign, though, founders after the failed siege of Geneva, which is thereafter made a county by king Berenger I of Burgundy; Humbert Blanchemain, the loyal conestable of Burgundy, is made count of Savoy. In the end the Champagne ruler is bought off with the cession of certain commercial rights and provileges
    Southern Europe:
    the Western Byzantine civil war grinds to an effective halt with John II in control of Sicily, Ifrigia (*OTL Tunisia) and Calabria, Bari in control of much of central Puglia and the Normans in Gaeta. Emperor Peter sends his heir Theophylactus II in Naples to bolster local defenses
    Byzantine Empire:
    Fratricide war is waged between the usurper Alusian and his brothers Troianos and Gabriel, supported by most of the army under the leadership of George Maniaces and Constantine Diogenes. Alusian resists by barricading himself in Constantinople and keeping the loyalty of the fleet, till the clergy manages to stage a popular rebellion who end in the blinding and imprisonment of the usurper. Troianos and Gabriel are jointly crowned as co-emperors for Europe and Asia respectively; the Bulgarian crown, though, goes to Troianos only, as the elder heir
    1034-1041
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The last great pagan uprising happens in Poland; monasteries are burnt to ashes, the clergy massacred by the heathens. The rebellion is utterly crushed in the end, but Greater Poland is so completely devastated that the core of the Polish nation shifts south to Lesser Poland and Cracow
    1034-1060
    Central Asia:
    The western half of the Karakhanid domains falls prey to a long and chaotic civil war who opens the road for Seljuk ascendancy in Central Asia
    1035
    Northern Europe, British Isles:
    Norway anew rejects the Danish yoke under the leadership of Magnus I the Good, a stepson of Olaf II “the Saint”. At the same time Canute/Knut II the Great dies and his Norse empire is carved among his sons: England is seized by the illegitimate Harold I, Denmark and (theoretically) Norway go to Harthacanute, born by the marriage between Canute and Emma, widow of the Anglo-Saxon king Ethelred the Unready
    Western Europe:
    King Baldwin III of France dies, succeeded by his son Baldwin IV the Pilgrim (so called for his recent pilgrimage to Jerusalem)
    Southern Europe:
    The feudatories and the inhabitants of Lodi rebel against the abuses committed by the powerful archbishop of Milan, Ariberto of Intimiano; Lodisan and Milanese forces clash in the battle of Campomalo near San Colombano hill, only a few miles from king Pipino I's capital in Pavia. Then the king of Lombardy steps in to settle the affair, ensuring the hostily of the archbishop and of the Milanese at large. In the meantime the absentee marquis of Milan (a title by now devoid of any significance), Azzone II degli Obertenghi, settles down at Este (Veneto), whence his descendants will take the family name.
    1035-1040
    Southern Europe:
    Stefan Vojislav rebels against Byzantine overlordship in Duklja/Zeta/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro); at first he is defeated and exiled to Smyrna, thereafter he manages to escape and wage a successful guerrilla war in his mountains
    1036
    British Isles:
    Alfred the Ætheling, son of the former Anglo-Saxon king Ethelred the Unready, comes back to England from Hungary along with his brother Edward to restore the Cerdicingas on the English throne, but is caught and killed by the Viking ruler Harold I Harefoot; Edward saves his own life and flees to his young relative, duke William of Normandy
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Oghuz Turks (Ouzoi) invade Ukraine and push the fleeing Pechenegs towards the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). The kingdom of Tmutarakan, already ruled by a Rurikid branch, is annexed by Kiev; on the contrary Volhynia splits from Kiev under Svjatoslav I, a nephew of its former ruler Vsevolod I
    Far East:
    The Tangut XiXia kingdom finally defeats the Uygurs; it gets control over the Gansu corridor between China and eastern Turkestan.
    1036-1042
    Central-Eastern Europe, Caucasus:
    The Ingvar Expedition against Persia, made by Swedish Varangians led by Ingvar the Far-Travelled, aborts ending up entangled in the local civil wars of Iberia/Georgia.
    1037
    Western Europe:
    Count Eudes II of Champagne tries to enforce a marriage between queen Beatrice of Lorraine and his own son, Thibaut, but dies in battle against Luxemburgian forces at Bar.
    Southern Europe:
    King Pipino I of Lombardy is rejected by the Milanese populace after his alleged offenses to the archbishop of Milan, the powerful Ariberto of Intimiano. He puts the city under siege and extorts a tax from it before leaving to his capital in Pavia.
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    The Byzantines led by George Maniaces successfully reconquer the island of Cyprus from the Fatimids
    1037-1042
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids temporarily recapture Aleppo thanks to Anushtegin's Turkic mercenaries; after a protracted struggle and repeated Byzantine campaigns the city comes back into Mirdasid hands. During this campaigns a Norwegian of royal Yngling ancestry, Harald Hardradi, proves his valor along with his Viking mercenaries
    1038
    Western Europe:
    Beatrice, queen of Lorraine, marries her distant cousin Giselbert, count of Salm and Longwy and younger brother of king Henry II of Luxemburg.
    Southern Europe:
    The unworthy Pope and king of Italy/Spoleto Benedict IX is deposed after an infamous six years-rule by a council of bishops held in Rome and replaced with the more suitable John XVI. The council was summoned by Benedict's disgusted former patron, emperor Peter. John II of Sicily and Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia) catches the moment to resume the fight in southern Italy, claiming an act of violence has been performed against the Papacy. The Normans in Gaeta in turn switch side passing with John: they defeat and kill emperor Peter's son, Theophylactus II, at the battle of Capua, thereafter extending their domain to most of Campania, except Naples, Salerno, Amalfi, Sorrento, who pledge obedience to John II.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Stephen I the Saint of Hungary dies; he is succeeded by his nephew Pietro Orseolo, son of the former Doge of Venice, Ottone
    India:
    Vajrahasta III of the Eastern Gangas becomes Lord of Trikalinga, marking the beginning of the dynasty's rule over Orissa
    Far East:
    Li Yuanhao, king of the Xixia Tanguts, proclaims himself emperor (Huangdi)and claims the lands held centuries before by the Toba/northern Wei empire.
    1038-1040
    Southern Europe:
    Civil war rages in southern Italy till emperor Peter is ousted from Rome by a revolt led by the Tuscolo family, after which John XVI is deposed and mutilated and the unworthy Benedict IX reinstated as Pope and king of Italy/Spoleto (more and more a theoretical title). Emperor Peter flees to Sardinia, where he abdicates and retire to a monastery. His nephew John II, though taking for himself the Roman (Western Byzantine) imperial title, will never try to enter Rome due to his distrust of the Normans controlling the best lands of of southwestern Italy, and Rome's domination by the now anti-imperial Tuscolo family.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The duke of Bohemia, Břetislav the Great, conquers Silesia, Cracow and, taking advantage of the rampaging chaos, the entirety of Poland
    1039
    Southern Europe:
    The Western Byzantine emperor John II crushes the revolt of Amalfi against his trade taxes; for the Campanian sea-trading powerhouse this marks the beginning of decline
    1039-1041
    British Isles:
    Siward Bjornsson reunifies all of Northumbria under his rule
    1040
    British Isles:
    Harthacanute lands in England just weeks afetr the death of his rival step-brother, Harold I, and gets the English crown in addition to the Danish one
    Southern Europe:
    Lombardy: king Pipino I makes peace with the Archbishop of Milan, Ariberto of Intimiano. He also concedes the heritability of minor fiefs to counter the power of the Lombard magnates (“capitanei”) and of the Milanese Church. The king of Germany, Frederick I, makes Histria a margraviate splitting it from Carinthia.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus-Czar Troianos suddenly dies, leaving his brother Gabriel as the only heir to both Byzantium and Bulgaria.
    Central Asia:
    Massud, son and heir of the great Mahmud of Ghazna, is heavily defeated at the hands of the Seljuk Turks in the battle of Dandanqan and has to withdraw behind the Hindu Kush range; the Seljuks now master northern Persia/Iran and Khorassan, having also gained obedience from Tabaristan.
    Arabia:
    Aden (Yemen) secedes from the Fatimid Empire under Alì ibn Muhammad al-Sulayhi
    ca. 1040
    Southern Europe:
    The (nominal) marquis of Milan, Azzone II degli Obertenghi, marries Kunigunde, sister of the duke of Carinthia Welf III; their descendants will form the Welf dynasty, destined to gain influence in Germany
    1040-1042
    British Isles:
    Harthacanute rules England with an iron fist and heavy taxation. Lady Godiva, wife of the earl of Mercia Leofric, rides naked through the streets of Coventry to protest against the taxes, gaining a tax cut for her people
    Southern Europe:
    When the new basileus-Czar, Gabriel, yields to pressures from the Patriarch of Constantinople, Alexius Studites, and abolishes the autonomous Bulgarian Patriarchate of Ohrid, a huge revolt explodes throughout the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). The rebels, both Orthodox Christians and heretic Bogomils, come to be led by a distant relative of the Byzantine ruler, Demetrius Sclavenus. Despite the rapid fall of Ohrid and the atrocities inflicted upon the Bulgarian rebels by general George Maniaces, succeeded at the head of the Byzantine counteroffensive to Constantine Diogenes, and by his Norman-Albanian allies, the rebellion cannot be crushed easily and the insurgents manage to hold north of the Vlakorai (*OTL Balkan range proper) building a viable independent State along the lower Danube, where Demetrius proclaims himself the only true Czar of the Bulgarians.
    1041
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The king of Germany, Frederick I, invades Bohemia, now become too strong a neighbour for his tastes, but his campaign soon founders due to the felony of most German dukes who withdraw their armies. Břetislav the Great, duke of Bohemia, can thus solidify his hold on Poland and prooclaim himself king of both countries. His main ally are the still heathen Pomeranian Slavs
    Central Asia:
    The eastern branch of the Oghuz/Ouzoi Turks, the Turkmens, conquer Khorezm, which undergoes a deep Turkicization; the Seljuks prop up a client kingdom in Kerman (Persia/Iran).
    1041-1044
    Norhern Europe:
    a new useless war is fought in Germany between Frederick I and his disloyal vassals; despite the intervention of Luxemburgian and Lorrainese forces the final settlement leaves the situation unchanged, and Frederick's power jeopardized
    Southern Europe:
    A harsh civil war, punctuated by brief truces brokered by the king of Lombardy, Pipino, divides the people and the higher feudatories of Milan and its neighbourhood; the final peace settlement brings along the birth of the Milanese Comune, leaving the local Archbishop, Ariberto of Intimiano, ousted from the city in the early phase of the war, as the only true loser.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A last pagan reaction rages also in Hungary: Sàmuel Aba, brother-in-law of the deceased king Stephen I the Saint, takes the power but is later murdered, and Pietro Orseolo regains the Hungarian throne
    1042
    British Isles, Northern Europe:
    Harthacanute dies, leaving the English throne to his half-brother Edward the Confessor (they shared the same mother, queen Emma of England). Viking power is thus curtailed in England, where the Anglo-Saxon Cerdicingas dynasty comes back to power. Denmark, instead, passes under the power of the king of Norway, Magnus I the Good.
    Southern Europe:
    George Maniaces ravages Macedonia and Raška/Kosovo with his Viking and Norman mercenaries, then his army suffers a serious setback at the battle of Tudjemili against prince Stefan Vojislav, who gains full independence from Byzantium for Duklja/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro). The army of the Aquileia Patriarchate sacks nearby Grado, sealing its final decline as a Venetian outpost.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Casimir I, the Piast heir to the Polish throne (now held by the Bohemian Břetislav the Great), regains control of estern Poland minus Cracow with help from his Kievan Rus' allies
    Caucasus:
    Liparit IV Baghvashi, the rebel eristavi (duke) of Kldekari, a small but powerful duchy, defeats king Bagrat IV of Iberia/Georgia and his Varangian allies from Sweden at the battle of Sasireti, asserting de facto independence
    Central Asia:
    The Seljuks conquer Rayy (central Persia/Iran).
    SE Asia:
    Upon his death, king Airlingga of Mataram/Kediri divides his kingdom between his two sons Rakai Halu and Anak Wungsu; the two branches of the family will fight long internecine wars
    1043
    Northern Europe:
    King Magnus I of Denmark and Norway trounces once and for all the heathen Viking-Slavic pirate brotherhood of Wollin/Jomsborg (western Pomerania) iby destoying its base, then annihilates a Wendic (Slavic) invading horde at Lyrskov Hede (Jutland)
    Byzantine Empire:
    George Maniaces, recalled from the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), fearing for his life rebels against basileus-Czar Gabriel, defeating imperial forces and killing their leader, the Armenian general Leo Tornikios. He then sets up for a long siege of Constantinople, posing as a champion and restorer of the “Roman” (Greek) character of the empire against the “Bulgarian” Komitopouloi.
    1044
    Northern Europe:
    The principality of Greater Wendia is established by Gottschalk at Branibor/Brandenburg federating the rebel Slavic tribes of the Wends and Sorbs in eastern Germany
    Southern Europe:
    Upon the death of Alberico III, strongmen of the counts of Tuscolo in Rome, his rival relatives of the Crescenzi family depose and murder Alberico's son, the infamous Pope-king Benedict IX, replacing him with John XVII (*OTL Silvester III). In response, the Normans of southern Italy, now led by William “Iron Arm” of Hauteville and his brothers, carve the principality of Boiano out of chaos-ridden Molise and Papal Abruzzo.
    Byzantine Empire:
    George Maniaces, with his Viking, Norman, Albanian and Pecheneg troops massacres a loyalist army reinforced by Russians and Ouzoi at the great battle of Megalosfakion; his partisans then set up a revolt in Constantinople which topples the defeated basileus Gabriel, who is killed by the populace along with his heirs. Thus ends in blood the Komitopouloi dynasty, after only 49 years.
    SE Asia:
    The Dai Viet/Vietnamese fleet defeats the Chams and plunders the Champa kingdom, killing its ruler Jaya Sinhavarman II
    1045
    Northern Europe:
    Harald Hardradi, come back after his famous Byzantine feats of arms, becomes the de facto ruler of Norway on behalf of king Magnus I the Good
    Western Europe:
    Gallastria (*OTL Galicia and Asturias), ruled by the strong Pedro I the Great, breaks free from Maurian Spain's suzerainty
    North Africa:
    Tripolitania secedes from the Cyrenaic emirate under the local paramount tribe, the Beni Khazran.
    Byzantine Empire:
    George I Maniaces proclaims the annexation of Bulgaria into the empire; this only serves to further extend rebel activity in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans)
    SE Asia:
    Srivijaya regains control over Malaya.
    1046
    Northern Europe:
    The Duchy of “Slavia” (Schlawe, western Pomerania/Mecklemburg) is first named in historical records as a disloyal subject of Germany, a nest of paganism and a close ally of Bohemia: this reference is certainly linked to Greater Wendia.
    Southern Europe:
    Count Guido I of Pombia and Biandrate, a distant cousin of king Pipino I of Lombardy, marries Adelaide, countess of Turin and marquess of Susa, thus sealing the paramountry of the Biandrate clan north of the Po and west of the Ticino river; the king's domains consist instead of the ancestral lands of Canavese (Ivrea) and many holdings along the middle Po, from the boundaries of Montferrat to Cremona
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Arpadid male line regains the throne of Hungary with Àndras I the Catholic.
    Caucasus:
    King Gagik II of Armenia is jailed by treason in Constantinople and Byzantium gets the strategic fortress and capital of Armenia, Ani.
    India:
    The Thakuri dynasty succeeds to the Raghavadevas on the throne of Nepal
    1046-1049
    Southern Europe:
    George I Maniaces wages a merciless campaign which uproots the Bulgarian rebellion up to the Danube, earning the nickname “the Bloody”. The last stages of the campaign see the Pechenegs stage fierce raids against the Bulgarian rebels and raze their capital, Preslav. Bulgaria is tamed and made into separate themes of the Byzantine empire, but at a very high cost in lives; the Bogomil heretics flee to Serbia and thence to Bosnia in the thousands
    1047
    Northern Europe:
    Harald Hardradi becomes king of Norway upon the death of Magnus I the Good, whereas Denmark comes to be ruled by Sven II, a nephew of Canute/Knut II the Great
    Western Europe:
    Upon the death of king Henry II of Luxemburg the county is de facto merged with Lorraine, where Henry's younger brother and heir Giselbert reigns with his wife and cousin, Beatrice
    1047-1048
    Southern Europe:
    Emperor John II wages war against the Normans for control over Campania and Sardinia, and allegedly to give back Abruzzo to the Papal kingdom of Italy/Spoleto. The outcome is almost nil in southern Italy, with the emperor recovering parts of inner Campania, and negative in Sardinia, where the local Normans vassalize the Sardinian judicates.
    1048
    Caucasus:
    The Byzantine and Georgian armies thwart a first Seljuk raid into the Caucasus at the battle of Stragna.
    Central Asia:
    The Seljuks gain suzerainty over Nasrid Seistan.
    1049
    Byzantine Empire:
    George I Maniaces breaks his tactical alliance with the Pechenegs and defeats them heavily at Stara Zagora.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Casimir I the Restorer frees western Poland and Cracow from the Bohemian yoke, thus reunifying the country; he is afterwards soundly defeated in Silesia, which remains a Bohemian holding
    1049-1050
    North Africa:
    The Banu Suleiman and the Banu Hilal, savage Bedouin tribes from the Arabian desert, devastate Egypt opening the road for the swift Fatimid conquest of the already decayed Omayyad Caliphate. The two tribes then go on to overthrow the emirates of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania respectively, settling there as the new local masters of Mediterranean Lybia, which is fully Arabicized
    1050
    Northern Europe:
    Harald Hardradi sacks and burns the Danish sea-trading town on the Baltic coast of Scleswig, Hedeby
    Southern Europe:
    The Patriarchate of Aquileia, from its see in Zividal (*OTL Cividale), has its paramountry over Friul officially sanctioned by king Frederick I of Germany, who also makes Gurizberg (*OTL Gorizia) a county
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    Basileus George I Maniaces finally recaptures Antioch from the Fatimids
    ca. 1050
    British Isles:
    In central Ireland the kingdom of O’Failghe/Offaly is established under the O’Connor clan, while the Viking stronghold of Waterford is conquered by Leinster
    Western Europe:
    Throughout continental Europe Roman law is restored over Germanic (Frankish, Lombard etc.) laws, marking the true end of the Dark Ages.
    Southern Europe:
    Albert I founds the dynasty of the counts of Tyrol (from his castle above Meran). In Dalmatia Zara emerges as the most powerful coastal town, often in revolt against Venetian suzerainty. In Sardinia the Norman judge (king) Robert I of Torres, is proclaimed overlord for the entire island, receiving the feudal homage of the Norman feudatories and the other three Sardinian judge-kings of Gallura, Arborea and Santa Igiof the islesa/Cagliari.
    North Africa:
    Islamization of the Zaghawa Berbers, dwelling between Lybia and Chad, in the heart of the Zenete Desert (*OTL Sahara); they are converted to Sunnism of the Caliphist (*maintaining there has to be a Caliph, not the Wali/”Pope” of Samarkand) branch.
    Caucasus:
    The Alans drive the Georgians from Avaristan (inner Daghestan).
    Black Africa:
    The kingdom of Takrur (Senegal) converts to Christianity under king War Jabi thanks to missionary efforts from Ghana; black African Christian doctrine, though, is quite distant from standard Catholicism and quite influenced by Judaism and local traditional beliefs. Baramanda founds the kingdom of Mali
    Southern Africa:
    The century-long wave of Bantu migrations reaches South Africa, where Bantoid peoples establish several kingdoms among the local Khoisan/Bushmen natives.
    India:
    The philosopher-king Bhoja I brings the kingdom of Malwa (India central) to its political and cultural heyday.
    SE Asia:
    King Anawratha of Pagan makes his city the main powerhouse of Burma by conquering the narby kingdom of Pegu.
    Far East:
    In China the navigational compass is developed; its use will quickly spread, through the Indian, Persian and Arab world, to the Mediterranean and Europe.
    1050-1054
    Black Africa:
    The Zenetes retake the trading town of Awdaghost, now a rival of the Ghanaian capital Kumbi; a close struggle begins between the Berber Zenetes and the Soninke Ghana empire
    1051
    Central Asia:
    Isfahan is taken by the Seljuks, who seize control over all of western Persia/Iran
    1052
    British isles:
    Viking Dublin is conquered by the Irish of Leinster, virtually ending Viking power over the Emerald Island
    Southern Europe:
    Bonifacio of Canossa is murdered in an ambush; Canossa extensive holdings are divided among Bonifacio's five surviving heirs, three males and two females (one of whom will retire as a nun). Amalfi again rebels against the Western emperor John II, this time gaining effective independence thanks to its Norman allies; this again reopens the conflict in southern Italy.
    1053
    India:
    Sindh regains independence under Bhungar I of the Rajput Sumra dynasty
    1053-1054
    Southern Europe:
    Southern Italy suffers a chaotic conflict which sees emperor John II and the Papacy on one side, the Normans and the free towns of Bari and Amalfi on the other. Papal forces in Abruzzo are smashed by the Normans at Fara. The imperial army temporarily subdues Bari with the help of the Venetian fleet, then is heavily defeated by the Normans at Canne, where is first noted a cunning leader, Robert the Guiscard, one of the Hauteville brothers.
    1054
    Western Europe, North Africa:
    The Maurian Empire in Spain and Mauretania crumbles at once when Augustine II dies without heirs, extinguishing the Later (or Maurian) Rodriguez dynasty. Maurian Spain splinters into some twenty states ruled by Mauro-Spanish and Jewish generals or by local feudatories; Sevilla and Valencia prove the most viable of these. Also Navarra and Languedoc free themselves, with the latter being made a kingdom of Septimania under the former count of Toulouse Pons William I. In Mauretania (*OTL Morocco) the lords and the tribes agree to acknowledge as a largely ceremonial king the Archbishop of Ulili (*OTL Volubilis), Peter Thaddeus.
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    The Great Schism divides the Catholic Roman Church from the Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople. The schism is the consequence of the reciprocate excommunication between Patriarch Michael Cerularius, firmly supported by basileus George I, and the Papal legates Umberto da Selvacandida and Pietro d'Amalfi. The quarrel arose over differences in rites developed in the centuries, Constantinopolitan rejection of the double Papal role (spiritual and temporal as king of Italy/Spoleto); most of all, the cause were disputes over church jurisdiction in Dalmatia, Croatia, Serbia and Duklja/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro).
    North Africa:
    The principality of Constantina enforces the Foedus Africae (a kind of city-states federation) against the rising power of the local version of feudalism in Numidia.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Poles recapture Silesia from the Bohemians in alliance with Hungary, who raids Moravia. A joint Polish-Hungarian army then invades Bohemia proper but is decisively routed at Loučeň by Břetislav the Great. Upon the death of Jaroslav I of Kiev Svjatoslav II follows on the throne of Rus', leaving Volhynia to his own younger brother Igor. Kievan power begins to dwindle, and the increasingly distant branches of the Rurikid dynasty start vying for power over Russia and Ukraine, now fragmenting in a number of local principalities.
    India:
    The Chola ruler Rajadhiraja I is killed in the battle of Koppam against the Chalukya raja of Kalyani Somesvara I.
    Arabia:
    The Shi'a Ismaili emirate of Al-Hasa, centered at Bahrain, secedes from the Fatimid empire, whose power now wanes from all of eastern and southern Arabia as the Fatimids are intent in consolidating their new rich domain in Egypt
    1055
    British Isles:
    Gruffydd ap Llewellyn is acknowledged as prince of Wales by the king of England, Edward the Confessor; he dominates the whole country, finally reunified under the Griffith house. The powerful earl of Northumbria, Siward Bjornsson, dies and is replaced by Tostig Godwinson, from the earls of Wessex cadet branch of the royal English family, the Cerdicingas.
    Western Europe:
    Robert, son and heir of marquis Henry I of Flanders, marries Richilde, the last heir of the marquises of Hainault, thus unifying the two marches and reaffirming the Robertingians (*OTL Capetingians) as one of the most powerful feudatories inside the kingdom of Luxemburg.
    Southern Europe:
    Basileus George I Maniaces campaigns against the Hungarians and the Pechenegs up to the Danube and reaffirms suzerainty over Croatia and Dalmatia (this last shared with Venice), though Duklja/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro) still keeps its full independence. In Puglia Western imperial forces recapture Siponto and narrowly defeat the Normans at Ascoli Satriano.
    Middle East:
    The Seljuk chieftain Toghril Beg invades Iraq but is defeated by the Fatimid army under the walls of Baghdad; however, for his valor against the Shiite “heretics”, Wali (*the Sunni “Pope” of TTL, with his see in Samarkand) Saifullah II concedes him the title of Sultan.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The king of Bohemia, Břetislav the Great, dies, leaving the reign to his son Spytihnēv II
    ca. 1055
    Southern Europe:
    The castle of Habsburg in Aargau is made a county of the kingdom of Burgundy under count Werner I
    1056
    Southern Europe:
    In Milan the Pataria movement gains support, condemning the Church's corruption and worldliness; its challenge will be reinforced by the ongoing so-called Cluniac reform (from the powerful abbey of Cluny, Burgundy).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The march of Styria is established as a German major fief under the Ottokar dynasty
    North Africa:
    After heavy struggles against the Ghana Empire, the Christianized Berber tribes of Mauretania Ultima (*OTL Mauritania) establish the Zenete Compact under the leadership of Tertullian Tezerke, and unleash a fanatical “holy war” to Christianize the tribes who are still pagan or Jewish.
    1057
    British isles:
    King Drust XII of Alba/Scotland wrests Galloway from the Jarls of the Orkneys.
    Southern Europe:
    Seeing the chaos in Italy as a unique opportunity of restoring the country to the Roman (read: Byzantine) empire, George I Maniaces land in Puglia with a 25,000 strong army, then heads straight to Rome. The Normans at first hail him as an ally, then realize the mistake, but it's too late and they are soundly defeated at the Sangro river where most of their leadership falls (with the notable exception of Robert the Guiscard, who surrenders and is later recognized duke of Boiano under Byzantine suzerainty). George I the reaches Rome where he massacres hundreds of citizens and most of the petty local aristocracy, involuntarily rendering an invaluable service to the Catholic Church. Pope John XVII remains to wait and is deported to Constantinople, where he is to suffer humiliation at the hands of the Byzantines, earning the surname “the Confessor”.
    SE Asia:
    Anawratha of Pagan (Burma) conquers the Mon kingdom of Thaton
    1057-1060
    Southern Europe:
    A “holy war” to expel the Byzantines from Rome and force them back into the communion of Roman Catholicism is proclaimed by the Archbishop of Milan Guido da Velate and by the king of Lombardy, Pipino I: the former seeks to find an outward vent for the Patarini religious zeal, the latter to encroach upon the now divided and weakened Canossa holdings. A number of Lombard and Burgundian nobles, mainly of cadet families, rushes across the Apennines, looting and enforcing lordship here and there; by the time the “benedicti a Domino” reach the vicinity of Rome, the Byzantines have already withdrawn from Italy
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids again capture Aleppo, and again the Byzantine and their Mirdasid clients retake the city
    1058
    Caucasus:
    The Seljuks ally themselves with the Sultan of Derbent, al-Mansur II, and overthrow the Zoroastrian Kesranis of Azerbaijan, who in turn had previously taken Tabriz and the Fars from the Fatimid Caliphate.
    The Armenian Monophysite Patriarchate is expelled from Ani by the Byzantine authorities and begins a long era of peregrinations between different sees.
    King Bagrat VI of Iberia/Georgia manages to exile his sworn enemy, Liparit IV Baghvashi eristavi (duke) of Kldekari, who in previous years had almost usurped his throne
    Southern Europe:
    Quoting distant kinship by marriage with the extinct Komitopouloi dynasty, the Western emperor John II moves against George I Maniaces after striking a shrewd deal with Robert the Guiscard, Venice and a sizable part of the Norman Guard of Albania, which revolts citing retarded payment of their military services. Such is the chaos that George I at once abandons Rome – not before torching a sizable part of the Urbs and slaying another thousand Romans. After vainly searching for the Guiscard and razing his abandoned castle in Boiano, George I makes it to Bari. The subsequent clash with John II's forces at Gravina is just as bloody as indecisive and both armies are badly mauled. In exchange for service in the Western Imperial army Norman domination of Terra di Lavoro (Campania north of Naples) is acknowledged by emperor John II
    1059
    Southern Europe:
    Pisa enforces its overlordship over the Norman fiefdoms of Corsica, which brings to a naval clash with the Western Imperial fleet and its Norman allies, who are thoroughly defeated at the battle of Bonifacio and then finished off by a terrible gale. The battle marks an important turning point in sea power in the Western Med basin. Meantime basileus George I is stuck in Bari with the tottering remains of his army, fending off Norman raids while the Venetians besiege the ports of Puglia and defeat the Byzantine fleet off Dyrrachion. Then George dies suddenly in Bari, heirless, and his surviving army commanders buy their escape from Italy at the cost of ceding all of Dalamtia to Venice, while confirming her commercial privileges in the Byzantine Empire.
    North Africa:
    The Zenete Compact takes and razes Sijilmasa, violently ending its three-century old Judeo-Berber state
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Constantinople the Senate, usually only a ceremonial tool, upon the death of George I appoints an old senator, Constantine of Cappadocia (*not the historical Constantine IX Monomachos, already dead), as the new basileus with the approval of the new Patriarch, Constantine Leichudes. The survivors of the Italian expedition are sent to reduce the rebel Norman Guard of Albania, which they fail miserably.
    1059-1064
    Western Europe:
    When king Giselbert I of Luxemburg and Lorraine dies, the former crown goes to his firstborn, Otto (*OTL Conrad I of Luxemburg), whereas the latter is bestowed upon to his second son, Adalberon, under the tutelage of queen mother Beatrice. When Adalberon dies at a young age, Lorraine is incorporated into the kingdom of Luxemburg
    Byzantine Empire, Southern Europe:
    The reign of Constantine IX (*see note above) is marked by repeated military insurrections in the European themes, where no less than five commanders sent against the Albanian Normans are invariably first defeated and then turned to would-be usurpers, unable though to advance past Tessalonica and the Vardar river. Byzantine influence rapidly crumbles in Dalmatia and Croatia, and the Serbs stage unsuccessful revolts, fanned by the diffusion of Bogomilism
    1060
    British isles:
    Cornwall accepts English suzerainty
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Tmutarakan (with Bosporon/Kerč too) regains its independence from Kiev under a Rurikid prince, Gleb.
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Pope John XVII dies in exile in the Taurida (*OTL Crimea). While the Byzantines try to keep the news secret, somehow it leaks to Rome, where the prelates, now relatively free from aristocratic pressure, elect as the new Pope and King of Italy/Spoleto the Burgundian Gerard, who takes the name of Nicholas II. He officially sanctions the election of Popes by the College of Cardinals, representing the whole of the Catholic world, and invests William of Hauteville, brother of Robert the Guiscard, with the title of count of Puglia (though the Normans actually control only the northern part of that region).
    ca. 1060
    Southern Europe:
    Azzone II of the Obertenghi is widowed and remarries with the French countess Garsenda of Anjou; this marriage will give rise to the Este dynasty.
    North Africa:
    The Fatimid army crushes a Sunni revolt in Egypt executing the self-proclaimed Caliph, Abdullah, and slaying or selling as slaves his peasant followers. The dukes of Thermeli (*OTL Hammamet) become the most influent feudatories of Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia)
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Kipchaks/Cumans invade Ukraine pushing ahead the Ouzoi/Oghuz. The Rus' will call the Cumans with the name of Polovtsy.
    SE Asia:
    The Chams free themselves of Khmer ascendancy: they sack and raze the city of Sambor in the Khmer kingdom. King Anawratha of Pagan (Burma) conquers the kingdom of Haripunjaya (northern Siam )
    1060-1062
    Northern Europe:
    King Frederick I of Germany dies without male issue. His appointed heir is his nephew Hermann, second son of the king of Luxemburg Giselbert I, but again the German dukes have other ideas and support one of their own, the ambitious Rudolf von Rheinfelden. After two years of infighting, treasons and small indecisive battles, a most important agreement is reached by papal mediation at the Diet of Lüneburg, where the electoral character of the German crown is officially sanctioned. The dukes of Saxony (which is now ruled by almost a century by the Billung family), Bavaria, Thuringia, Franconia (now Hermann himself), Swabia, the Patriarch of Aquileia and the archbishops of Trier, Mainz, Cologne and Salzburg will choose the German king, with the last word to be left to the Pope in the case of a tie in the votes. The Electors appoint Hermann I as king, thus keeping the Luxemburg family in the throne; Rudolf marries Gisela, one of Hermann's sisters, and is made duke of Swabia (which hadn't a ruler in the last years).
    1061
    Southern Europe:
    Pope-king Nicholas II dies after a brief but fruitful pontificate to be succeeded by John XVIII (*OTL Alexander II, the Milanese Anselmo da Baggio). Also king Pipino I of Lombardy dies of old age and is succeeded on the throne at Pavia by his nephew, Arduino II. Bari heroically resists a Venetian-Norman siege till Western imperial forces break the siege by land; the free trading city is now recognized as an independent, if nominally imperial, republic, and the Venetians are bought off by emperor John II.
    1061-1063
    Southern Europe:
    A serious civil war rages in Lombardy, where Milan starts vying with Pavia to host the capital of the kingdom, and allies with Guido, count of Pombia and Biandrate. Guido, a distant cousin of king Arduino II, self-proclaims king and occupies Ivrea. After two years of pitched battles and ecclesiastical strife (with the bishop of Pavia self-styling archbishop), the Milanese army prevails at the battle of Campomorto, but Guido dies on the battlefield. Arduino II is finally accepted as king, but has to be king-crowned in Milan by the Milanese Archbishop Guido da Velate
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Boleslaw II of Poland retakes upper Slovakia from Hungary.
    1062
    Central Asia, Middle East:
    Fars (southern Persia) is taken over by the Kurdish Shabankarai clan, which will prove able to successfully resist later Seljuk comebacks.
    North Africa:
    The Zenete Compact invades Mauretania (*OTL Morocco): in the southern reaches of the country they found Murnathya (*OTL Marrakech) as their capital. Banu Hilal raiders from Tripoli (Libia) fiercely sack southern Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia) and recapture Djirva (*OTL Djerba) from Christian hands, making it again a nest of Muslim piracy
    1062-1063
    Southern Europe:
    An anti-Pope, Honorius II, is appointed by the supporters of king Arduino II and marches to Rome, briefly expelling the legitimate John XVIII (*OTL Alexander II). He is driven from the city by a revolt and later forced to renounce his claim as a synod in Mantua recognizes John the sole true Pope
    1062-1066
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    A tiny Norse colony established in what will be later called New Palestine (*OTL Massachussetts) is overwhelmed and destroyed by the local Skraelings (Hesperindian [*Amerindian] natives)
    1063
    Northern Europe:
    Berchtold von Zähringen is made the first margrave of Baden (SW Germany, a part of Swabia).
    Southern Europe:
    Western imperial forces resume the war against the encroaching Norman, but these, led by the Hauteville brothers, gain the upper hand and score a major victory at the battle of the Torano (upper Campania)
    1063-1065
    British isles:
    Harold Godwinson, earl of Wessex, invades Wales clashing with the fierce resistance of Gruffydd ap Llewellyn's forces
    1064
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Ouzoi/Oghuz swarm through the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) up to Greece, pillaging and massacring, till they are mostly finished off by epidemics, Byzantine generals and local Slavic clans. In the meantime basileus Constantine IX (*not OTL's one) dies of old age in Constantinople and is succeeded by his son-in-law, Michael I, a high civil servant
    Caucasus, Middle East:
    The Seljuk Turks invade Armenia crushing the last indepedent Armenian state in Vannadopolis/Kars and take Ani. The Marwanids of Amida/Diyarbakir (Kurdistan) ally with the new invaders to oust the Byzantines from Edessa (*OTL Urfa); Aleppo's Byzantine-Mirdasid garrison instead holds against a Seljuk raid.
    Central Asia:
    Alp Arslan crushes his rivals in the battle of Rayy (Persia/Iran) and becomes the only sultan of the rapidly expanding Seljuk empire.
    1065
    British isles:
    Morcar, son of earl Alfgar of Mercia, overthrows earl Tostig Godwinson of Northumbria on orders from Tostig's own brother, Harold of Wessex. Tostig takes refuge in Norway at Harald Hardradi's court. Exploiting the English internecine strife, Gruffydd ap Llewellyn is able to soundly defeat the Anglo-Saxons at Ludlow and the Welsh border is anew set along the Severn river. The Jarls of the Orkneys lose control over the Isle of Man and the Hebrides. Westminster Abbey is consecrated
    Western Europe:
    France and Burgundy jointly invade Lorraine to wrest it for good from Luxemburgian hands, but the war soon bogs down in a number of petty skirmishes, owing also the disloyal conduct of many French and Burgundian feudatories who are easily bought off with small land grants and money
    Southern Europe:
    The Peace of Naples recognizes the Norman principalities of Gaeta, Capua and Boiano and the county of Puglia (actually only Capitanata, northern Puglia) as fully sovereign states. The shrewd Hauteville brothers, the formemost Norman leaders, give back some land in Abruzzo to the Papal kingdom of Italy/Spoleto to ensure its future friendly attitude in case of further conflicts.
    Middle East:
    Arab raiders exterminate a 7000-strong column of German Christian pilgrims near Caesarea (Palestine), including several high prelates. Such is the end of the greatest European mass pilgrimage to the Holy Land since centuries, causing great outrage in the Catholic world
    1066
    Northern Europe:
    The Slavic Wends burn and raze Hedeby, which is abandoned in favor of nearby Schleswig/Slesvig
    British isles, Western Europe:
    King Edward the Confessor dies without sons. The Witan (crown council) swiftly elects king of England Harold II Godwinson, earl of Wessex, from a cadet branch of the royal House of Cerdic, instead of Edward's appointed heir, the young Edgar Ætheling, also to counter the claim by William, duke of Normandy and distant relative of the deceased king. After a few months Harald Hardradi and Tostig Godwinson land in Northumbria with a Norwegian army: Harold II marches north to oust them but is caught and killed in an ambush by Welsh raiders near Leicester and his army soon falls apart. Edgar Ætheling is crowned in Winchester as the new king (Edgar II), but soon Tostig Godwinson, supported by the Norwegians, kills him and usurps the English throne. Meantime, on the continent, William of Normandy abandons the French expedition to Lorraine with his army and crosses the Channel to England. The Anglo-Saxons split in two rival factions, the “Norman” one supporting William and the “Norwegian” one supporting Tostig. After the easy capture of London and his forceful coronation as William I of England, the Norman conqueror marches northwards to Northumbria, but the subsequent battle of the Dee against Tostig and Harald Hardradi's forces is a narrow defeat and leaves England in shambles, with the south firmly in the hands of William and the north held by the Anglo-Norwegians.
    Southern Europe:
    To bolster defences against Byzantine attempts to reconquest, the Norman fiefs in Albania are unified to form the principality of Dyrrachion (*OTL Dūrres). The prince has to be elected for life by his peer landlords, and local noblemen can be co-opted with full rights provided they declare loyal to the Papacy rather than to the Patriarchate of Constantinople in religious matters
    1066-1077
    Caucasus:
    the Byzantine seal a tactical alliance with the sultanate of Derbent to keep the Seljuk menace at bay. The Seljuk hordes repeatedly invade Derbent, but this proves a tough nut to crack and the final subjugation of the sultanate proves long and difficult. This will bring along, though, the Turkicization of Azerbaijan
    1067
    Western Europe, British isles:
    In France king Baldwin IV the Pilgrim dies, and his son and heir Baldwin V seizes William's domains in Normandy citing the duke's felony at abandoning him during the war for Lorraine and invading England without his royal consent. William the Conqueror is thus stuck in England where, after a new inconclusive battle with Tostig's Anglo-Norwegian forces at Chesterfield, even Mercia rebels under its Anglo-Saxon earl, Eastmond.
    Southern Europe:
    The Western emperor, John II, dies in Palermo and is succeeded by his nephew, who takes the name of Theophylactus II (*not to be confused with his uncle's long deceased cousin, who bore the same name and number but never actually reigned). The new ruler formally decides in favor of Rome king: the Great Schism with Constantinople
    Byzantine Empire:
    A Seljuk raid sets on fire Caesarea/Mazhak, the main town of Cappadocia
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Kievan forces defeat the rulers of Polotsk at the Niamiha river, near Minsk.
    1067-1083
    Western Europe:
    Upon the extinction of the main branch of the Comminges family the county of Barcelona inherits by matrimonial rights Septimania proper (only a part of the kingdom bearing the same name), Béziers, Carcassonne and the Razès/Rennes-le-Chateau. Most of these lands are quickly seized by king William I of Septimania/Toulouse and later trasferred to the Trencavel viscounts of Nimês and Albi. The cadet branch of the Comminges will become the Foix family, with domain over that town plus Couserans and Bigorre, under Navarrese suzerainty
    1068
    India:
    Emperor Vira Rajendra of the Cholas, already victorious against the Chalukyas over Vengi, wrests Kedah (Malaya) from Srivijayan hands.
    1068-1069
    British isles, Western Europe:
    the situation in England remains utterly chaotic. Even if Harald Hardradi had to go back to Norway to quell (in blood, obviously) some internal disturbances, Tostig holds his own in Northumbria, and Mercia is ruthlessly crushed by Northumbrian and Welsh raids and by William's superior military, who lays waste to the land (the Harrowing of Mercia) causing a half-genocide to tame the Anglo-Saxons. William also allies with king Otto (*OTL count Conrad I) of Luxemburg against France
    Byzantine Empire:
    General Romanus Diogenes wages successful campaigns against the encroaching Seljuks in Anatolia, repulsing them from major fortresses and routes
    1069
    Western Europe:
    The county of Castile is formed around the town of Burgos with the fusion of some minor petty states under count Galindo Bravo Perez
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Boleslaw II of Poland marches on Kiev and restores on the Kievan throne his relative Izyaslav I of Turov against the usurper Vseslav the Werewolf.
    Arabia:
    Abu Hashim Mohammed establishes the Hashemite clan (claiming direct descendance from the Prophet itself, and one of whose main branches had generated the Sh’ia Imams) as the wardens of Mecca, overthrowing the Musabite Sharifs of Hijaz with the support of the Fatimid Caliph al-Mustansir
    SE Asia:
    King Ly Thanh Tong's Vietnamese army sacks the capital of Champa, Vijaya, and captures the Cham ruler, Rudravarman III, extorting from him several border provinces in the Annam.
    1069-1086
    Far East:
    Prime minister Wang Anshi implements wide-reaching, radical and effective reforms in Song China under the rule of emperor Shenzong/Zhao Xu, thus strengthening the economic, military and social bases of the State, which is by now the most advanced in technology and administration in the world
    1070
    British isles:
    William the Conqueror again invades Northumbria. Tostig's reign anew is saved by its Norwegian allies led by Olaf III the Brave, son and heir of Harald Hardradi and recent founder of the trade port of Bergen; the Normans are repulsed under the walls of York/Jorvik
    Western Europe:
    King Baldwin V the Rash of France dies in the battle of Metz against German and Luxemburgian forces, leaving 15 years old Pipin I as only heir to the French crown.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Duke Welf IV of Carinthia, son of Azzone II degli Obertenghi, becomes duke of Bavaria as Welf I; Carinthia is instead entrusted to the powerful Swabian feudatory Berchtold von Zähringen.
    North Africa:
    The Zenete Compact completes its violent conquest of Mauretania by storming the ancient capital, Ulili (*OTL Roman ruins of Volubilis); the seaports along the Strait of Arrodriga (*OTL Gibraltar), Tangiers and Sefta/Ceuta, hand themselves over to the kingdom of Elbira (*OTL Granada) to avoid the new conquerors from the south.
    India:
    Kulothunga I inherits both the Chola empire and the Chalukya kingdom of Vengi. Vijayabahu I frees Sri Lanka/Ceylon from Chola domination
    1071
    Western Europe:
    Robert, heir to the county of Blois, murders his cousin Pipin I and usurps the French throne, reigning as Robert II jointly with his father Robert I, then strikes a peace with Lorraine by paying a small sum, soon followed by the reluctant king William II of Burgundy
    Southern Europe:
    War resumes again between the Normans and the Western empire, with the former invading most of Puglia and vainly besieging Naples; as the Papacy shows no sign of condemning this, the enraged emperor Theophylactus II appoints an anti-Pope, John XIX and is excommunicated by Pope John XVIII (*OTL Alexander II). In Lombardy the Milanese Patarene zealots besiege the new archbishop, Goffredo da Castiglione, in his power base in Castiglione Olona, but are wiped back by the count of Seprio, Rodolfo III.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Kipchak/Cumans replace the Pechenegs in the domination of inner Taurida (*OTL Crimea).
    Byzantine Empire:
    General Romanus Diogenes clashes with the Seljuk army of sultan Alp Arslan in the first battle of Manzikert; despite the treason on the battlefield by a thousand Ouzoi Turk mercenaries, the Anglo-Rus' Varangian Guard holds and the battle is a close, bloody tie; a compromise peace on a status-quo basis is then negotiated on the spot, and Alp Arslan even secretly pledges help to Romanus in case he should rise against basileus Michael and his court, now openly envious of his popularity and power.
    Middle East:
    Atsiz' Turkoman horde (a semi-independent splinter of the Seljuks) pillages Syria weakening Fatimid influence
    1071-1074
    Western Europe:
    The War of Gascony pits Navarre, Aquitaine and Septimania/Tolosa one against the other; the Aquitanians prevail in the end and acquire Gascony.
    Southern Europe:
    Bulgarian and the Macedonian Slavs revolt under the leadership of George Voitech. The rebels are aided by the Serbian prince Constantine Bodin, brother of the prince of Duklja/Zeta/Melanoria (*OTL Montenegro), Mihailo, and by Bogomil insurgents. Constantine is hailed as the new Czar of Bulgaria with the name of Peter, but the Byzantines painfully manage to suppress the rebellion
    1072
    British isles, Western Europe:
    William the Conqueror makes peace with Tostig, recognizing him as king of Northumbria and being in turn acknowledged as king of England within the terms of the Treaty of Lincoln, brokered by the English Church. Then, in a daring move, William king-crosses the Channel to France, where Normandy rises against the crown and he crushes the royal army at the battle of Lisieux. Robert II of France is murdered by a vassal in the flight and William reaches Paris, deposing and jailing Robert I of Blois and making himself king of both England and France: this marks the end of the Baldovingian dynasty and the foundation of the Norman empire on both sides of the Channel
    Southern Europe:
    Robert the Guiscard, count of Puglia, vassalizes Bari and defeats a Western imperial army at the battle of Acerenza; the coastal cities of Campania, though, prove impregnable for the Italo-Normans.
    Byzantine Empire:
    basileus Michael I dies with no male heirs and a court struggle ensues between different relatives over the throne. Romanus Diogenes quickly marches on Constantinople and is crowned Romanus II in St. Sophia by Patriarch John Xiphilinos. A subsequent attempt to poison him is narrowly foiled, and the new basileus has the schemer Michael Psellus and the entire male kin of his deceased predecessor blinded and exiled in remote monasteries. Romanus II ensures peace from the Seljuks by paying a tribute in exchange for mercenaries – which are made into the Tourkospatharioi, among the most reliable imperial guards, being themselves Muslims and thus not eligible to the throne of the Equal to the Apostles.
    Central Asia:
    The Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan is murdered in Khorezm during the successful campaign to vassalize the western Karakhanid ruler of Samarkand, Nasr I Abu'l Hasan Shams al-Mulk, and his vassal Abd al-Aziz Burkhan in Bukhara. The campaign had the aim of gaining control over the Waliate (*the Sunny “Papacy” of TTL) and was made on invitation from Wali (*”Pope”) Abu'l Fath I, worried by the rampaging chaos of Muslim Central Asia and held in golden captivity by his Karakhanid patron.
    1072-1075
    British isles:
    The Dublin Vikings reassert their independence with little Norwegian help, then are again overrun by Leinster
    Middle East:
    Emir Atsiz fiercely raids Iraq and Syria taking Mosul; Fatimid Baghdad successfully resists a one year-long siege.
    1073
    Western Europe:
    King William II of Burgundy, as a relative of the deposed Baldovingians by way of manifold marriages, contests William the Conqueror's rights over France and invades, being thoroughly routed at the battle of Chateau-Lunain (*not existing OTL) by his Norman rival, who thereafter gets rid of vassals deemed unreliable. The count of Portugal, Pedro III Manuel, defeats a Gallastrian invasion in the battle of the Tamega river, where his father-in-law king Pedro II of Gallastria (*OTL Galicia and Asturias) is killed.
    Southern Europe:
    Pope John XVIII (*OTL Alexander II) dies in Rome and is succeeded by Ildebrando da Sovana, the main architect of the reassertion of Papal power and prestige, who styles himself Leo VIII (*in OTL he choose Gregory VII, here there wasn't a Gregory VI to influence him). The Normans enter Bari, at first as allies, soon becoming the effective overlords of the prosperous sea-trading republic.
    1074
    Southern Europe:
    Matrimonial and military alliance between the Western empire and Venice, whose Doge Domenico Silvo is afraid of ending with the Normans on both sides of the Otranto straits; Pope Leo VIII (*OTL Gregory VII) launches an excommunication also against Venice and his Doge, and soon revolts spark in the Venetian domains in coastal Histria and Dalmatia. In southern Italy now only the coast of Campania, Calabria and Salento remain in imperial possession
    1075
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Leo VIII (*OTL Gregory VII) writes the” Dictatus Papae”, by which reclaims absolute Papal authority king: the appointment of bishops over any temporal (civilian) authority; thus begins the so called Investiture Controversy. The occasion for the move was the contested appointment of Tedaldo da Castiglione to the archbishopric of Milan, made with the consent of king Arduino II of Lombardy. The Doge of Venice, Domenico Silvo, goes to pilgrimage to Rome to have his excommunication relieved, which he gets by granting generous land concessions to the Church and assuring his pro-Roman stance in Dalmatia against the pro-Byzantine Slavs. A few months later the pro-Roman faction wins the civil war in Croatia with Venetian and Hungarian help; Zvonimir Suronja becomes king.
    North Africa:
    General Nicephorus Calavritanus, with his allies from the Numidian principality of Constantina, routs a Banu Hilal invasion at the battle of Tebessa, then is hailed as emperor by his troops and holds Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia) against the legitimate emperor Theophylactus II, who has transferred his capital in Palermo. The rising Comune of Genoa acquires a small bay on the central Numidian coast, founding their first commercial colony, St. James of Ikhuzi (*OTL Algiers).
    Caucasus:
    Malik Danishmend founds the Danishmendiyya sultanate of Ahlat (Armenia) centered in Ani as a Seljuk vassal. The Seljuks conquer Ganja (Azerbaijan) overthrowing the local pro-Fatimid Shi'a kingdom of Arran.
    Middle East:
    An anti-Byzantine revolt happens in Aleppo, where the local Mirdasid rulers accept Seljuk suzerainty, angering basileus Romanus II Diogenes
    Central Asia:
    The Ghaznavids are vassalized by the new Seljuk sultan, Malik Shah, who moves his capital from Rayy to Isfahan and declares Samarkand a perpetual holding of the Walis (*Sunni “Popes” of TTL) where “no mortal can reign, only the all-merciful Allah”.
    ca. 1075
    Southern Europe:
    Throughout Lombardy (*northern Italy) and Veneto local town councils begin to shake the power of bishops and royal gastalds, expressing the rising power of the Comuni
    Caucasus, Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    Due to the harsh Turkish domination of Ahlat (central-eastern Armenia), a huge number of Armenians flee west into Cappadocia, Pontus, Cilicia and Syria: their diaspora will form prosperous commercial colonies from the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) to the Levant. The century-old theme system of the Byzantine empire enters its final agony, being replaced by a collection of civilian and military provinces (catepanates, strategarchies ), sometimes on hereditary bases (duchies)
    1076
    British isles:
    Norwegian invasion of Ireland led by king Olaf III the Brave; the Norwegians easily gain the allegiance of several clans against the High King, Turlough I of the O'Brian clan, who is forced to pay tribute and recognize Norwegian overlordship over the whole of Ireland after losing the bloody battle of the Fence.
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Leo VIII (*OTL Gregory VII) excommunicates king Arduino II of Lombardy and the Lombard bishops who support him in the Investiture Controversy. Count Frederick reassembles the Canossa holdings by enforcing a family compact upon his nephews to face the royal Lombard army, the powerful bishops and the growing Communal movement of the main towns
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Adam dethrones his cousin Akhad Moskha usurping the title of Khan of the Volga Bulgars and moves the capital from Bolgar to Bilyar.
    Middle East, Byzantine Empire:
    Atsiz's Turkmen rebel against the Seljuk sultanate and besiege Antioch, then withdraw under the threat of the Byzantine army led by basileus Romanus II Diogenes. Then the two armies clash in the battle of Arousion (*OTL Kheurbet al-Aarous), where the Byzantines suffer a massive defeat; basileus Romanus is severely wounded and dies a few days later in Antioch. His infant son Leo VI is enthroned in Constantinople under the tutelage of Patriarch Cosmas I, but the Byzantine generals soon begin to vie for power
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    A third wave of Norse colonists from Norway, Iceland and Greenland reaches Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland), where by now some 1,500 Europeans live in several settlements in the north of the island on fishing, timber and petty trades with the Skraelings (*Native Americans)
    1076-1077
    Far East:
    The Song Chinese clash again with Dai Viet (*north Vietnam), then reach an agreement on borders
    1077
    Southern Europe:
    Arduino II of Lombardy, excommunicated, obtains the pardon of Pope Leo VIII (*OTL Gregory VII) by making a harsh pilgrimage to Rome, where he subsequently dies of an illness after taking monastic vows. He is succeeded on the throne of Pavia and in Romancia (*OTL eastern Switzerland plus Vorarlberg and Valtellina) by his younger brother, Pipino II. Failed revolt against Pisan overlordship among the Norman lords in Corsica; the main rebel chiefs are slain or handed over to the Pisans by the native Corsicans, tired of the stern feudal regime; the remaining Norman eventually pledge loyalty to Pisa. Robert the Guiscard conquers Taranto from the Western empire; a Norman fleet from Gaeta sacks Trapani (Sicily). Prince Mihailo of Duklja/Zeta (Melanoria, *OTL Montenegro) is crowned king by a Papal envoy; for some time, also to stem Norman aggression from nearby Albania, Mihailo will pledge allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Seljuk sultan Malik Shah, feeling himself no more bound by the personal treaty his father Alp Arslan reached with the deceased basileus, unleashes the most unruly Turkmen tribes against the Byzantine possessions in Anatolia. The Byzantine provincial governor of Commagene, Vahram, sets up an independent State in Germanicea/Marash, comprising also Antioch
    Middle East:
    Atsiz's Turkmen take Damascus and establish there a Turkic Syrian emirate.
    Central Asia:
    The Seljuks finally subdue all of Khorezm
    1077-1078
    North Africa:
    the Western emperor Theophylactus II invades Ifrigia (later Punia, *OTL Tunisia) but is repulsed by the local usurper, Nicephorus Calavritanus, and forced to sail back to Sicily
    Byzantine Empire:
    The rebel Byzantine general Nicephorus Briennius holds Macedonia, finding sanctuary and support in Norman Albania, and threatens Constantinople till his army collapses, bribed by a young loyalist general, Alexius Comnenus.
    Caucasus:
    The Seljuks conquer Derbent, “the key of the Caspian”, then invade Alania but are defeated in battle on the Terek river.
    1077-1080
    Western Europe:
    Robert the Courthose, first son of William the Conqueror, rebels against his father and brothers and fights a protracted civil war till he is forced into exile in Aquitaine
    Western Europe, Southern Europe:
    King Hermann I of Germany adds the margraviates of Histria and Krain/Carniola (Slovenia) to the overlordship of the Patriarch of Aquileia, Sigeard, who receives the title of count of Friul, officially founding the Patriarchal state. This brings along a sharp conflict with the duke of Carinthia, Berchtold von Zähringen. When Berchtold dies, king Hermann entrusts Carinthia and Histria to a nominal subjects of Patriarch-count Sigeard, Marquard III von Eppenstein, count of Gurizberg (*OTL Gorizia), disowning the Zähringen heir, Berchtold II. This last rebels in his family's holdings in Swabia, being finally driven out of Germany and establishing himself as a powerful feudatory south of the Rhine, in the Burgundian Swiss lands where he sought refuge.
    1078
    British Isles:
    Maredudd ap Gruffydd quells a Norman-sponsored revolt in southern Wales, then, when a Norman army invades, he thwarts it at the battle of Dinmore Manor
    Southern Europe:
    Norman sack of Rossano, the foremost city of northern Calabria; a Norman fleet menaces Palermo, the Western imperial capital, but is defeated
    1078-1079
    Byzantine Empire:
    General Nicephorus Basilakes again raises the flag of rebellion in Thessaly and central Greece, but is quickly defeated and eliminated
    1078-1081
    Byzantine Empire:
    Dangerous revolt in Asia Minor by general Nicephorus Melissenos, a powerful aristocrat. The insurgence is eventually crushed by Alexius Comnenus at the battle of Daskyleion; Alexius becomes the “strong man” behind the imperial throne of Byzantium. The Seljuk Turks, taking advantage of the chaos, start settling themselves in inner Asia Minor; some of them still offer themselves as mercenaries and are recruited in the Byzantine Tourkospatharioi units (for service in Europe only, though)
    1079
    British Isles:
    Foundation of the Norse-Celtic kingdom of the Isle of Man under Godred I of the Crovan dynasty, a vassal to the Norwegian crown noted for his bravery in the Irish campaign.
    Southern Europe:
    The Western emperor Theophylactus II, in order to recover his shattered empire, agrees to abandon his anti-Pope John XIX in favor of the legitimate Roman Pope, Leo VIII (*OTL Gregory VII) and accepts a peace treaty with the Normans. By this, he renounces to all of Puglia and parts of Lucania/Basilicata, where a principality of Taranto and a county of Melfi are established respectively under Bohemund and Roger I Borsa, sons of the count of Puglia Robert the Guiscard. In Otranto a neutral duchy is formed under a Venetian noble, Michele Orseolo, to ensure protection of Venetian interests in the sea outlet to the Levant
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    In Poland king Boleslaw II kills St. Stanislaus, bishop of Cracow, and is deposed and exiled in favor of his brother Wladislaw I Herman.
    Middle East:
    Tutush, brother of the Seljuk sultan Malik Shah, crushes Atsiz's independent emirate in Syria as an envoy of the sultan, than he himself begins to rule Syria as a private power base, even striking a peace deal with the Fatimids.
    1079-1081
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Short Kievan occupation of Bosporon/Kerč, Tmutarakan and Azov: the first two cities later free themselves again under their prince David, whereas Azov falls to the Kipchak/Cumans
    1079-1085
    Middle East:
    The Arab Banu Uqayl tribesmen retake power in Mosul after Atsiz's liquidation, then destroy the Mirdasid emirate in Aleppo, sacking the city; they are later beaten and chased back by Tutush, who keeps them as a buffer between himself and his own brother Malik Shah, the Seljuk sultan
    1080
    British Isles:
    Olaf III the Brave of Norway crushes the Briton kingdom of Cumbria/Cumberland and annexes it to his domains; he also ensures obedience from the Norse Jarls of the Orkneys. These moves provoke a harsh struggle with the double crown of Alba/Scotland, which feels encircled by the Norwegians and their Northumbrian allies.
    Southern Europe:
    Count Frederick of Canossa is defeated at the battle of Bussolengo by German forces after having swiflty wrested German Bernmark (the March of Verona) from their Zähringen ruler. Pipino II, king of Lombardy, is excommunicated by Pope Leo VIII (*OTL Gregory VII), having supported the forcible reinstatement of Tedaldo da Castiglione as archbishop of Milan.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Seljuks capture Caesarea/Mazhak, the provincial capital of Byzantine Cappadocia; Suleiman I, a distant cousin of the Seljuk sultan Malik Shah, founds there the sultanate of ar-Rum (the “Roman” land). The Armenian prince Rupen carves an own kingdom in Cilicia, which will be known as Armenia Minor, and manages to keep himself independent from both Constantinople and the Seljuks.
    Caucasus:
    The Seljuks vassalize Iberia/Georgia
    SE Asia:
    A provincial governor overthrows the ruling dynasty of the Khmer Empire and ascends the throne in assuming the name of Jayavarman VI.
    1081
    British Isles:
    Death of Tostig Godwinson. With help from Olaf III of Norway Tostig's first son Skuli the Ruthless liquidates his three rival cousins, Godwin, Edmund and Magnus, the sons of Harold II, who were secretly supported by William the Conqueror, and secures the throne of Northumbria.
    Southern Europe:
    Ragusa/Dubrovnik escapes both Byzantine tutelage and Venetian influence and is set up as another independent sea-trading republic.
    North Africa:
    Theophylactus II is able to recover Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) when the usurper Nicephorus Calavritanus dies and his Berber armies dissolve; Nicephorus' only son, Maximus, flees to Numidia.
    Black Africa:
    The Zenete Compact attacks and plunders Kumbi, the capital of the ancient Ghana empire. This marks the sunset of the fabled empire, whose riches in gold, salt and spices were known also into distant Europe. The Zenetes strengthen their hold on the slave trade, whereas the gold routes move east, benefiting Muslim trade from Lybia and Egypt and fostering the penetration of Islam. The Sosso kingdom is established in western Mali on parts of the weakened Ghana empire.
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    The Kurdish Marwanids of Amida/Diyarbakir conquer Melitene (*OTL Malatya) from the Rum-Seljuks, thus separating them from the remaining Turkic holdings, and crush the Hamdanid-Numayrid emirate of Harran/Carrhae
    Middle East:
    Baghdad finally falls to the Seljuks; their empire now stretches from eastern Anatolia and central Iraq to Central Asia and SW Persia.
    1081-1084
    Byzantine Empire:
    General Alexius Comnenus marries Romanus II's widow and is crowned as co-emperor for the 13-year old Leo VI. The last major wannabe basileus, general Bardas Botaniates (*OTL Nicephorus III), rebels in Asia Minor just a few months after the defeat of Nicephorus Melissenos, allying himself with the encroaching Rum-Seljuks. In the end Bardas dies on drinking and feasting and Alexius is able to assert his own power, but the Turks have gobbled up more than half of Anatolia
    North Africa:
    Pisan and Western Imperial fleets vainly attack the Muslim pirate nest at Djirva (*OTL Djerba), whence devastating raids on coastal town and sea trade are made
    1081-1086
    Middle East:
    Tutush's Turks from Syria conquer piecemeal Lebanon from the Fatimids, also thanks to the help of the local Maronite Christians from the Marada states
    1082
    British Isles:
    Northumbria is invaded by Picto-Scottish forces, who ravage the land but can't take York/Jorvik. King Olaf III of Norway and his Northumbrians vassals crush them at Durham, while Norman forces are withheld by the Welsh, who harass Mercia, having signed a stable alliance with Northumbria
    1082-1083
    Southern Europe:
    Lombard forces loyal to the excommunicated king Pipino II invade the Canossa domains in Emilia and Tuscany, trying to march on Rome, but are routed in the battle of the Magra, where a miracle appearance of St.Peter is said to happen atop a hill, halting the bloodshed. The Serbian principality of Raška/Kosovo is revived under the great župan (prince) Vukan Vukanović and his brother Mirko, freeing itself from the Byzantine yoke
    1083
    Southern Europe:
    Bosnia is mostly conquered by Duklja/Zeta (Melanoria, *OTL Montenegro). The Normans from the principality of Dyrrachion (Albania) invade Byzantine territories and sack Arta (Epirus)
    India:
    Foundation of the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal under Prola II, who secedes from the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani
    1084
    British Isles:
    Olaf III of Norway enforces vassalage on the double crown of Alba and Scotland by supporting the winning candidate to the throne, Constantine III, in a civil war between related members of the royal McFergus clan.
    Western Europe, British Isles:
    King William I the Conqueror of France and England vassalizes both Brittany and Cornwall, then dies, worn out by years of incessant campaigning and voyages. Just before passing out, he imposes a strict one-man system for the inheritance of his domains, making Normandy the appanage of the heir apparent to the thrones of France and England, which are to be run separately. William II, the Conqueror's second surviving son, is twice crowned as king of France in Reims as and king of England in Westminster Abbey; his older brother Robert the Courthose tries to assert his primogeniture rights from his place of exile in Aquitaine but is captured and killed in Blois
    Southern Europe:
    King Pipino II of Lombardy and Romancia (*OTL eastern Switzerland plus Vorarlberg and Valtellina) is murdered and replaced by his cousin Azzone I, who deposes archbishop Tedaldo of Milan and settles, at least for the moment, the investiture controversy with Rome. The new king also enforces a thorough purge against the Patarene heretics, who are slain in the hundreds even in their stronghold at Milan. A German army wrests back Romancia from the Lombard crown.
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    Emir Tutush of Syria conquers Antioch from local Armenian rulers; the Rum-Seljuks conquer Iconium in the heart of Anatolia.
    India:
    The Chalukya ruler of Kalyani, Vikramaditya VI, recovers Vengi from the Cholas and sacks Kanchi
    1084-1087
    Northern Europe:
    Inge Stenkilsson, king of Sweden, is deposed by the pagan party (still strong in Svealand), then comes back, kills his brother-in-law Blot-Sven, last pagan ruler of the country, and destroys the Temple of Uppsala, marking a turning point in the conflict between Christians and worshippers of the Norse Æsir gods
    1085
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Leo VIII (*OTL Gregory VII) dies. The French Odon de Lagéry is elected Pope-king as Urban II, and will prove to be another pillar of the Papacy. Also the count of Puglia Robert the Guiscard, senior member of the paramount Hauteville/Altavilla Norman family of southern Italy, dies, leaving his duchy to his youngest brother, Roger I (not to confuse with Robert's son Roger Borsa, count of Melfi).
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    The Venetian fleet seizes the island of Corfu off southern Albania. The Normans of Albania, led by prince Robert the Bold, advance into Macedonia in a self-proclaimed attempt to “restore the Greeks to the only Holy Church” and stage a terrible sack in Thessalonica, then advance towards Constantinople but are routed by Alexius I Comnenus at Adrianople. The Rum-Seljuks conquer the major Byzantine fortress of Angora.
    Black Africa:
    The Muslim Berber Hummay (likely a Zaghawa from the north) founds the Sefuwa/Saifawa dynasty of the Kanem kingdom and introduces Sunni Caliphist Islam (*maintaining there has to be no Wali or "Sunni Pope", only a Caliph concentrating both political and religious authority) there.
    ca. 1085
    British Isles, Western Europe:
    king William II of England and France begins an exchange of loyal noble families between the two kingdoms: French barons are settled in the hundreds in England, mainly in depopulated Mercia, and English lord are given feudal holdings in France.
    1086
    Northern Europe:
    In Denmark Knut/Canute IV, a tyrant bound hands and feet to the Roman Church, is killed by rebel pesants and succeeded by his brother Olaf I, another of the many sons of Sven II
    British Isles:
    An Irish rebellion against Norway is crushed in blood: Olaf III of Norway assumes the High Kingship, first non-Irish to rule the island
    British Isles, Western Europe:
    The Domesday Book of England and France, compiled by the will of the deceased William the Conqueror, is the first thorough census and land register in Europe since Roman times.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Pope Urban II concedes to Vratislav II the hereditary title of king of Bohemia in exchange for extensive land grants to the Church, frustrating German ambitions for hegemony on that land.
    Middle East, Byzantine Empire:
    The (Greater) Seljuks crush and annex the Kurdish Marwanid emirate with its main strongholds in Melitene (*OTL Malatya) and Amida/Diyarbakir (Kurdistan). Suleiman, sultan of the Rum-Seljuks, is captured along with his son Kilij Arslan; he soon dies, and his domains are swallowed by the main Seljuk empire of Malik Shah
    1087
    Southern Europe:
    King Azzone I of Lombardy, after being held out the city for two years by the rebellious Milanese, is finally crowned in St.Ambrogio church by a papal legate, but has to officially sanction the existence and sovereign rights of the Comune of Milan as a component of the Lombard kingdom with the Edictus Ambrosianus. This marks the beginning of the Communal Era. A new major Bogomil rebellion against Byzantine rule rocks the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans): co-basileus Alexius I is defeated at Drystra/Silistra on the Danube by the rebels and their Pecheneg allies.
    North Africa:
    A Pisan-Norman-Sardinian fleet sacks Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis) extorting tribute from emperor Theophylactus II; the Sicily-based Western empire seeks alliance with the rising Comune of Genoa against the sea power of Pisa.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Foundation of the Rurikid principality of Galicia under Semjon I (*OTL Vasilko I)
    1087-1088
    Middle East:
    The Jacobite (Syrian Monophysite) revolt of Edessa (*OTL Urfa) is crushed by the Seljuks. Sultan Malik Shah then proceeds to wrest all of Syria from his brother Tutush, who finds refuge in Armenia Minor and trades Antioch to his host, prince Rupen I.
    1088
    Northern Europe:
    Following the death of Hermann I of Germany, his son Hermann II is elected king with the full agreement of the Electors, despite the rival candidature of the duke of Swabia, Rudolf von Rheinfelden
    Southern Europe:
    The murder of king Zvonimir of Croatia starts an epoch of dynastical struggle in the country
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    the deposed Khan of the Volga Bulgars, Akhad Moskha, founds Moscow in the lands of the Finno-Slavic Viatiches, who are absorbing the local Merya Finns.
    SE Asia:
    The Malay kingdom of Melayu (Jambi) vassalizes Srivijaya.
    1089
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Ladislaus/Laszlo I the Saint defeats Cuman/Kipchak raids into Hungary
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Turkmen tribes swarm through Anatolia into Asia Minor and reach the Aeagean Sea in devastating raids. Most Byzantine towns and fortresses, though, manage to hold. In the meantime, Alexius I is locked in a deadly struggle with the Normans of Albania, the Pechenegs and the Bogomil insurgents of Macedonia and Bulgaria, while his step-son and co-emperor Leo VI in Constantinople plots a strategic alliance with Venice and the Kipchak/Cumans
    1089-1093
    Southern Europe:
    The Norman captivity: Pope Urban II is kidnapped by the Norman count of Benevento, Roderic the Nasty, while on a visit to the Abbey of Monte Cassino. By holding his important prisoner in golden captivity in his castle, Roderic manages to extort privileges and land grants from the Church. In the end the infamous count is defeated and killed by the count of Melfi Roger I Borsa, who frees the Pope and is made a prince on par with his brother Bohemund of Taranto
    1090
    Northern Europe:
    The free Icelanders are made vassals by a Norwegian fleet
    British isles:
    A Norman army wrests Glamorgan (SW Wales) from the Welsh kingdom.
    Southern Europe:
    The duke of Swabia, Rudolf von Rheinfelden, dies and is succeeded by the brother-in-law of king Hermann II of Germany, Frederick I von Staufen, founder of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. The margraviate of Histria is bestowed upon Engelbert I of Sponheim-Ortenburg. A Pisan fleet with an army of Normans from Corsica and Sardinia conquers the Balearic Islands, wiping off the local petty lords, descendants of the once powerful Berber pirates who settled there a century before
    Byzantine Empire, Southern Europe:
    Sailors from Bari bring back to their town the holy relics of St. Nicholas from Myra (Asia Minor) just before this Byzantine port is taken by the Muslim Seljuks. The king of Duklja/Zeta (Melanoria, *OTL Montenegro), Costantine Bodin, allies with Byzantium against the Norman principality of Dyrrachion (Albania) and conquers Scutari/Shkodēr
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Seljuk army pushes far into Asia Minor but a rising in Georgia combined with Alan and Kipchak/Cuman raids across the Caucasus force the Seljuk generals to divide their forces. Alexius I Comnenus is thus able to achieve bright victories over the Seljuks at Nicaea and Bithynion (*OTL Bolu).
    Middle East, Central Asia:
    Hasan-i-Sabbah, supporter of the defeated Nizar in the last succession struggle for the Fatimid Caliphal throne in Medina, founds the Ismaili Shi'a sect of the Nizaris, best known as the Assassins (who recognize Nizar as the legitimate Imam of believers). The sect establishes two main strongholds in the mountains fortress of Alamut in the Elburz range (northern Persia/Iran) and in the inner Lebanon range: it will terrorize (and sometimes serve) the most powerful figures of Islam for a long time. The Seljuks crush the Banu Uqayl tribal state in Mosul and northern Iraq
    Central Asia:
    The Seljuk sultan, Malik Shah, crushes a new Karakhanid revolt in the Samarkand area.
    ca. 1090
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    A last influx of Norsemen from Iceland reaches Greenland
    Northern Europe:
    A Norwegian expedition led by Haakon, son of king Olaf III of Norway, reaches Bjarmaland (the Archangelsk area) and extorts tribute from the local Finns
    Byzantine Empire:
    Melitene (*OTL Malatya) is made an Armenian principality vassal to the Seljuks under prince Gabriel.
    1090-1091
    Western Europe, British isles:
    The rebellious feudatories of France defeat king William II and force him to sign the Charte de la Noblesse, which recognizes the feudal right of the landed nobility over the interests of the French crown. An uprising in England to gain a similar privilege, though, is brutally suppressed
    1091
    Western Europe:
    The Zenete Compact's army led by king Augustine Tezerke invades the Iberian peninsula and conquers its southern half, subduing the local Mauro-Hispanic petty states. Castile exploits the power void to seize Toledo and make it its southern stronghold.
    Southern Europe:
    King Azzone I of Lombardy ravages the countryside of Emilia “in support” of the Emilian towns who refuse to pay taxes to the Canossa ruler, marquis Frederick. Adelaide, marquess of Susa and countess of Turin, dies; her domains are unified with those of her son, Amedeo, already count of Biandrate and Pombia; a clash in perspective with the Lombard crown seems unavoidable. Emperor Theophylactus II entrusts Malta to Genoa as a pledge of alliance. The Genoese also receive sweeping commercial privileges in Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis). The Hungarians of king Ladislas/Laszlo I conquer Croatia dethroning its rulers Stephen II and Helena; they keep on the throne the surviving members of the Croatian Suronja dynasty as vassals, while the nephew of the Hungarian ruler, prince Álmos, is made sub-king of Slavonia (eastern Croatia). The king of Duklja/Zeta (Melanoria, *OTL Montenegro), Costantine Bodin, excommunicated by pope Urban II, turns again to the Orthodox faith, though tolerating the Bogomils, especially strong in Bosnia
    Byzantine Empire:
    Alexius Comnenus and his new allies, the Kipchak/Cumans, trounce the Pechenegs at Levounion (Thrace); Pecheneg power is severely curtailed. The Seljuks conquer Sardis, but their siege of Smyrna ends in defeat.
    Middle East, Arabia:
    A Seljuk army takes Acre (Palestine), then decisively routs the Fatimid army in the battle of Megiddo. Malik Shah's army then proceeds towards Medina: the Fatimid Caliph al-Mustansir flees to al-Fustat (*OTL Cairo, Egypt) and Hijaz is made a vassal of the Seljuk Empire under the Hashemite Sharifs of Mecca, more than happy to revert to Waliism (*Sunni ”Papism”, recognizing the current Wali of Samarkand as supreme religious authority).
    Arabia:
    The Ibadi-Khariji tribes of Oman are made tributary of the Kerman (SE Persian) branch of the Seljuks
    1092
    Southern Europe:
    Frederick of Canossa takes advantage of the chaos and of the animosity between the Emilian Communal militias and the Lombards to defeat them both and restore his authority
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East, Central Asia:
    The Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah dies after bringing his empire to the apogee. His able vizir Nizam al-Mulk is murdered by the Nizari/Assassin Ismaili sect and the mighty Seljuk Empire begins to fragment in succession struggles. The sultanate of Rum is revived in Iconium (Anatolia) by Kilij Arslan I, set free after the sultan's death, while the bulk of the empire is inherited by Mahmud I, brother of Malik Shah; Tutush, another of Malik Shah's brothers, retakes power in Damascus holding sway over Syria, Lebanon and Palestine and ultimate suzerainty over Hijaz
    1092-1098
    Byzantine Empire, Caucasus:
    In the wake of the growing Armenian diaspora to Cilicia, and taking advantage of Seljuk troubles, ephemeral Muslim or Christian statelets arise between the Euphrates and Commagene at Blekiokastron (*OTL Birecik), Gergerai, Khoros and Raban and Kaisun
    1093
    British Isles:
    The Normans of England conquer Deheubarth (southern Wales) and extort tribute and vassalage from Wales.
    Southern Europe:
    Full civil war breaks out in Lombardy as king Azzone I moves his forces against Amedeo, count of Torino, Biandrate and Pombia and marquis of Susa. The Comuni of Milan, Lodi, Piacenza and Cremona ally themselves with Frederick of Canossa, who in turn makes his bid for kingship.
    1093-1094
    British isles:
    Brief Norwegian domination over Anglesey/Mona, quickly retaken by Wales
    British isles, Northern Europe:
    Olaf III of Norway dies, leaving his mighty Northern empire to his sons Haakon and Magnus II Barefoot; Haakon soon dies, leaving Magnus the only ruler.
    1094
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Kipchak/Cumans turn against Alexius I Comnenus, who decisively defeats them and the Bulgarian rebels at the battle of Taurocomon. Co-emperor Leo VI Diogenes fathers a male heir, Constantine; Alexius I ensures he will reign alongside his own son, John.
    Southern Europe:
    The Biandrate-Susa family, itself a branch of the Anscarid family of Lombardy and Burgundy, asserts herself on the throne of Pavia after the bloody battle of Ghemme near Novara. King Azzone I, his son Berengario and count-marquis Amedeo of Susa, Torino, Pombia and Biandrate fall on the battlefield: Amedeo's son, Umberto, is crowned in Pavia as the new king of Lombardy, taking a solemn oath to respect the rights of the Comuni.
    Middle East:
    The Fatimids retake Gaza and Jerusalem from the Seljuks; Caliph al-Mustansir retires to die in Jerusalem and his successor al Musta'li begins a policy of religious tolerance towards Jews, Christians and non-Ismaili Muslims (on the whole, the 80% of Egyptian population). Edessa (*OTL Urfa) rejects the Sejuk yoke under an Armenian prince, Thoros.
    1095
    Western Europe:
    After receiving a request for military help to fight back the Muslims in Anatolia and recover the Holy Lands from Alexius I Comnenus and Leo VI Diogenes, and with the inviting prospect of an ecumenical council to be held in Nicaea to reunify the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, Pope Urban II calls for a “holy war” to free Jerusalem at the council of Clermont (France). The reaction of the nobility of Western Europe, especially in France and Luxemburg, is enthusiastic. Thousands of peasants, led by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless, depart a few months later from Lorraine and Champagne, beginning what will be known as the First Crusade.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Ladislaus/Laszlo I the Saint of Hungary dies. Contrary to his will, the throne is seized by his elder son, Coloman, who deposes his younger brother (and the designed heir to the Hungarian throne) Álmos from his sub-kingdom in Slavonia and makes him duke of Nitra/Slovakia
    Byzantine Empire:
    Alexius I Comnenus completets his staggering recovery of the empire's might in the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans) by crushing the Normans of Albania at the battle of Koritsa, after which the prince of Dyrrachion, Robert the Bold, is dragged to Constantinople, tortured and burnt on the stake as traitor. As a reward for alliance and payment of war debts, Venice is handed over Dyrrachion (*OTL Dūrres) itself.
    Middle East:
    Emir Tutush of Syria dies in Damascus; he leaves the kingdom to his younger son Duqaq, but the elder brother, Radwan, revolts taking power in northern Syria at Aleppo.
    1095-1097
    Western Europe, British isles:
    During the Council of Clermont king William II of France and England, a passionate enemy of ecclesiastic power, is excommunicated for exiling the Archbishop of Canterbury, the noted scholar Anselm of Bec, and taking for himself the rich revenues of the archbishoprich. William is later pardoned after a humiliating pilgrimage to Rome, lavish gifts to the Roman Church and the promise to take part in the First Crusade
    1096
    Northern Europe:
    Cruel massacres of Jews and robberies of their wealth at the hands of some petty nobles and their fanatic armies (the so called “German Crusade”) mark the beginning of the crusade in the Rhineland. Most of the German Jews flee in the thousands to Bohemia and Poland, where they set up burgeoning communities. The perpetrators of the carnage to do not go very far, being afterwards mostly massacred by the enraged Hungarians while crossing that country. Foundation of the hereditary county of Gelderland (eastern Netherlands) under Gerard IV of Wassenburg.
    Western Europe:
    The count of Portugal, Pedro III Manuel the Strong, routs an invading Zenete army and conquers Coimbra, establishing Portugal as a power to be reckoned in the Iberian peninsula
    Central-Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    The first peasant wave of crusaders, some 30,000 strong, devastates Hungary on its way, being retaliated in kind, and pillages the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans); only three-quartes of them makes it to Constantinople where the astonished Byzantines promptly ferry them across the Bosporus and push them ahead. Almost all of the improvised and mostly unarmed mob is exterminated by the Rum-Seljuks in inner Anatolia or captured and sold as slaves on the Persian and Arab markets. Of its leaders, Peter the Hermit survives to join the “regular” Crusade, while Walter the Penniless is killed by the Turks
    India:
    The Cholas quell a rebellion in Kalinga (eastern Deccan)
    1096-1099
    Middle east, Arabia:
    Fatimids, Syrian Seljuks and Greater (Persian-based) Seljuks dispute over the Holy Cities of Hijaz (Mecca and Medina), fighting a proxy war through bedouin Arab tribes till the Crusaders divide the contenders
    1097
    Western Europe:
    Anscarius, cousin of king Adalbert II of Burgundy, marries Totana, daughter of count Ferdinand I of Castile, and is made marquis of Toledo, founding the local Besoncés (from Latin Vesontio, Besançon, whence Anscarius came) dynasty. Count Ferdinand proclaims Castile a Grand Duchy
    Southern Europe:
    The Western Emperor Theophylactus II dies and is succeeded on the throne in Palermo by his first son, John III. The nominal absentee marquis of Milan, Azzone II degli Obertenghi, ancestor to both the Welf and the Este dynasties, dies at 101 (!). The last native king of Croatia from the Suronja dynasty, Peter, dies in the battle of Gvozd Mountain against the Hungarians. Ragusa/Dubrovnik has to pay tribute to Duklja/Zeta (Melanoria, *OTL Montenegro)
    Byzantine Empire:
    Partly by sea, mostly by land, a powerful feudal army assembles near Constantinople. Its leaders are among the creme of the European nobility, with the noted presence of king Raymond I of Septimania (*OTL count Raymond IV of Toulouse), prince Bohemund of Taranto, marquis Robert II of Flanders and Hainault and marquis Frederick of Canossa. After weeks of cold relations, the Crusaders are ferried to Asia Minor and advance against the Rum-Seljuks together with the Byzantines, crushing the Turks on their way. The resounding victories of Dorylaeum, Angora and Iconium mark the advance of the joint Byzantine-Crusader army. The Rum-Seljuks are pushed south and east and sultan Kilij Arslan I is forced to recognize Byzantium as its overlord and give back most of his domains. In the meantime the Ecumenical Council summoned in Nicaea is a failure: though the Church of Constantinople seems ready to accept a theoretical Papal supremacy, controversies over rites and most of all, spheres of influence, prove an unsurmountable obstacle on the path to reconciliation and the Great Schism persists. So, when the Crusader army reaches Caesarea/Mazhak, it rejects the oath of allegiance to the co-emperors Alexius I and Leo VI and Byzantine general Tatikios, a brotherly friend of Alexius, narrowly escapes with his life while his men are slain. The crusaders then install in the conquered Cappadocian city a march to guard their rear under marquis Bertrand, a cousin of Raymond I of Septimania; they later proceed to conquer the Euphrates valley for themselves, opening their way through not-so-friendly Armenia Minor and smashing local Turkic or Armenian lordships. By the end of the year, the Crusaders, now slit into two main forces, are under the walls of Aleppo and Antioch
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Kipchak/Cumans conquer the kingdom of Tmutarakan and seize the strait of Bosporon/Kerč.
    Middle East:
    The Turkmen Sökmen and Ilghazi, sons of general Ortoq, a local governor in northern Syria, found the Ortoqid emirate of Marida/Mardin (Kurdistan) rejecting Greater Seljuk authority
    1098
    British isles:
    King Magnus II Barefoot of Norway enforces direct Norwegian rule over the Orkneys, the Isle of Man and the Hebrides.
    North Africa:
    A 25,000 strong crusader army formed with Zenete Compact, Spanish, Numidian and Western Imperial forces is annihilated by the Banu Hilal cavalry in the battle of Nalut (Tripolitania), ending the First Crusade on African soil. Two brothers of king Augustine Tezerke of the Zenete Compact are killed on the battlefield. The Genoese navy captures Djirva (*OTL Djerba) from the Muslim pirates
    Byzantine Army:
    Co-basileus Leo VI Diogenes dies at 30, allegedly poisoned; his infant first son, Romanus III, is made co-emperor of grandpa Alexius I Comnenus. Nicephorus, younger brother of the deceased Leo, tries a revolt to gain the throne but is captured, blinded and exiled
    Middle East:
    Aleppo falls to the eastern Crusader force (mainly German and Lombard in composition) and is subject to a merciless massacre and pillage. The Crusader eastern army is then surrounded in the ruined city by Kerbogha, the Seljuk atabeg (governor) of Mosul, who starves it to death: the survivors are then beheaded in a defeat of most grave proportions. Antioch's Armenian garrison, instead, strengthened by some Byzantine and Rum-Seljuks sent by sea by Alexius I, resists the western Crusader army till the summer, when the city falls after the arrival of powerful French, English and Burgundian reinforces with king William II of France and England. Conquered Antioch is made a county under Bohemund of Taranto. This time Kerbogha arrives too late, hampered by his rival, emir Duqaq of Damascus; he manages, however, to crush the Armenian principality of Edessa on its way before being driven back by the Crusaders.
    1098-1111
    Southern Europe:
    The prince of Melfi Roger I Borsa proceeds, with discreet Papal support, to slowly swallow the other Norman principalities of Capua and Gaeta, bringing all of the Norman holdings in continental Italian under the dominion of the Hauteville family
    1098-1115
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Ongoing conflict between the Arpadid royal brothers, king Coloman I and prince Álmos of Nitra/Slovakia, troubles Hungary. In the end the latter is jailed with his son Béla and both are blinded to prevent their accession to the throne
    1099
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Kipchak/Cumans of Khan Bonyak defeat the Hungarians at the battle of Przemyśl (Poland) and extort tributes from Poland, Kiev and the Galician Rurikid principalities.
    Middle East:
    The Crusaders advance along the Mediterranean coast, supplied by the navies of the Italian sea-trading republics (Venice, Pisa, Genoa, Bari, Amalfi), finding little resistance as local Muslim rulers mostly buy the invaders off with money and food. The weakened army, ridden with disease, thirst and starvation, then reaches Palestine and conquers Acre from the Turks of Syria after a harsh siege: a horrible massacre of the inhabitants ensues to avenge the extermination of 7,000 German pilgrims (the Pilgrim Martyrs, now worshipped by the Roman Church) at the hands of Arab raiders in 1065. When the army tries to march on Jerusalem a powerful Fatimid force confronts it under the leadership of al-Fustat's (*OTL Cairo) strongman, Malik el-Afdal. The battle of Husfa is a disaster for the 30,000 strong Crusader Army, which is literally halved by the Arab light cavalry and the mercenary Turkic archers. King Raymond I of Septimania (*OTL count Raymond IV of Toulouse) and marquis Robert II of Flanders and Hainault die on the battlefield, many others flee to the safety of Acre, well defended by strong walls and by the Italian fleets. The subsequent Fatimid siege of the town proves futile.
    Far East:
    The Nestorian Keraites defeat the Tartars in northern Mongolia
    1099-1100
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Urban II dies in Rome by a stroke when news of the Crusader's defeat reach Italy. The new elected Pope is Paschal II (the Latium-born Ranieri da Blera), another strong supporter of the Cluniac reform of the Church. An anti-Cluniac anti-Pope is named in the person of Guiberto, archbishop of Ravenna and member of the Canossa clan, who soon dies concluding the brief struggle for the Papal throne.
     
    Ddmkm122 likes this.
  8. basileus Inflammable

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2004
    Location:
    Thema Kastrosibrion ton Langobardon
    XIIth century
    North Africa:
    Catharism roots in North Africa, especially in Mauretania (*OTL Morocco)
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Chichimecs (“barbarians”) began their raids in central Mexico, weakening the Toltec empire. The Arawaks start their conquest of the Caribbeans.
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The people later known as the Incas establishes its capital in Cuzco
    1100
    Western Europe:
    William II of France and England comes back to Europe to raise reinforcements for the Crusades; in his brief stay in France he crushes yet another rebellion of his unruly barons. The news of the Crusaders' defeat in the Holy Land makes great impression throughout Christian Europe and North Africa
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Rum-Seljuks, now recalcitrant vassals of Byzantium, establish their capital in the mountain stronghold of Basiliokastron (*not existing in OTL) in the western Taurus range; they control the Anatolian southern coast and parts of the interior with Iconium. Malik Ghazi, the Danishmendid sultan of Ahlat (Armenia), routs Crusader and Armenian forces at the battle of Harput and conquers Melitene (*OTL Malatya)
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Kipchak/Cumans wrest the Tauridan (*Crimean) fortress of Soldaia/Sudak from the Byzantines.
    Middle East:
    The Ismaili sect of the Nizari Assassins, now a political faction of its own in the Levant, gains control over Aleppo and parts of northern Syria in an unholy – and merely temporary - alliance with the Crusaders of Antioch and the Euphrates valley.
    ca. 1100
    Northern Europe:
    The Norwegians discover the Svalbard/Spitsbergen archipelago. German traders found the emporium town of Visby on Gotland island; German trade gains supremacy in the Baltic, laying the foudations for the later Hanseatic League.
    Western Europe, Southern Europe, North Africa:
    The use of the navigational compass, having been brought west by the Arab traders in the years, finally becomes a “must” in the Mediterranean and throughout Europe.
    Western Europe:
    In Gallastria (*OTL Galicia and Asturias) the last traces of Celtic languages die off, leaving place to the Celto-Latin Gallastrian language
    Black Africa:
    Christianized southern Zenete tribes found the trading town of Timbuktu on the site of a former seasonal camp atop the Niger bend; the city will become rich and fabled on transdesertic trade. Pagan Hausa populations found the kingdom of Gobir (Niger, Maradi area). The Bantu kingdom of Katanga is founded in the heart of central Africa.
    Middle East:
    The Turkic chieftain Ibrahim ibn Inal gains lordship over Amida/Diyarbakir and western Kurdistan, founding there the Inalid emirate.
    Middle East, Central Asia:
    The Musafirids, rulers of Daylam/Gilan and vassals of the Greater Seljuks, are overthrown and exterminated by the local Ismaili Nizari Assassins of Alamut
    East Africa:
    Arab traders found Mombasa (Kenya). Bantu migrations into Nilotic lands bring along the formation of a number of small kingdoms in Uganda.
    India:
    The eastern Gangas of Kalinga (eastern India) reach their apogee under Anantavarman Chodaganga, who holds sway from the lower Ganges to the Godavari river becoming a serious rival of his southern neighbour, the Chola empire.
    Far East:
    The Mongol tribal confederation of the Jadirat is formed under the patronage of the Christianized Nestorian Keraite tribe. The Merkites of southern Siberia reject their status as vassals of the Manchurian Khitan/Liao empire.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Itzàs found the city of Mayapàn, a future power in the Yucatan peninsula.
    Southern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    After centuries of domination, Tiahuanaco/Tiwanaku begins its final decline as the paramount power of the Andean plateau
    1100-1103
    Middle East:
    Prince Bohemund of Taranto and Antioch is captured and kept in prisony by the Ortoqid Turks with his illegitimate son Bohemund II (*not the historical one); Tancredi, Bohemund I's nephew, acts as regent in Antioch. Afterwards Bohemund I is freed, but his son is kept in honorable custody as a hostage
    1101
    Northern Europe:
    The German county of western Frisia or Kennemerland changes name into Holland.
    Central-Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    A disorganized second wave of Crusaders, mostly German, tries to reach Constantinople by land, but mostly remains entangled in the Hungarian internecine strives. A minority passes through war-torn Croatia and makes it to the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans), where it is mostly captured by the Byzantines and made into mercenaries or carves own lordships among the Serbs. Very few make it to Constantinople and beyond, and only a handful arrives to bolster the already ailing Crusader principality of Caesarea/Mazhak
    Middle East:
    The “real” second wave of the first crusade, ferried to the Levant with a great logistical effort by the Italian Communal and Western imperial navies bypassing the untrustful Byzantines, lands at Acre some 25,000 European warriors who are soon able to break the weak encirclement of the town and march to Jerusalem. The Holy City falls after a brief brutal siege and is subjected to a fierce slaughter of a half of its population, after which William II of France and England is recognized as “protector of the Holy Sepulchre”, gaining immense prestige for the House of Normandy. A subsequent Fatimid attempt to recapture the city is crushed in blood at the battle of Emmaus, and the Crusaders go on conquering most of Lebanon and Palestine in short order. A principality of Galilee is formed under Tancredi of Antioch, nephew of the still-prisoner Bohemund of Taranto and Antioch. Tripoli (Lebanon) is instead captured by Crusaders led by count Rambert of Barcelona, and made itself a county; also Arsuf and Caesarea of Palestine are taken by crusaders and made the Levant March under marquis Alberto of Biandrate, cousin of king Umberto I of Lombardy, while Jaffa is taken by the Genoese navy.
    1102
    Southern Europe:
    The Triple Crown of Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia is bestowed upon king Coloman I of Hungary with the recognition of the Croatian nobility (the so-called Pacta Conventa); Venice once again enforces its tutelage over all of Dalmatia. The Comune of Florence is recognized by the Canossa rulers after defeating marquis Frederick, back from the Holy Land. The Abbey of Monte Cassino is made an ecclesiastical principality with domain over a strategic passage of the main Rome-Naples route
    Middle East:
    William II of France, England and Jerusalem is defeated at Ramla by a powerful Fatimid army, who soon besieges the Holy City, but a Franco-English relieve force routes back the Muslims, who entrench in the fortress of Gaza.
    The Ortoqid Sökmen conquers Hisn Kayfa (upper Tigris, Kurdistan).
    India:
    The second Chera kingdom of Kerala (SW Deccan, India) comes to an end, overrun by the neighbouring Chola Empire of Kulothunga I.
    1103
    Northern Europe, British isles:
    King Magnus II Barefoot of Norway dies in battle against the Irish in Ulster, which marks the effective end of the Viking Era and the start of the decline of Norway. His three sons, the step-brothers Eystein, Sigurd and Olaf IV, rule together the Norwegian domains, but the kingdom is weakened: the Orkneys again break free as a Norse jarldom, keeping the Hebrides, and the Crovan dynasty regains power on the Isle of Man with Olaf the Red
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Kipchak/Cumans are defeated on the Suten/Moločnaja river by the Kievan Rus' led by prince Svjatopolk II Izjaslavič and his cousin Vladimir II the Great (*OTL Vladimir Monomakh) of Pereyaslavl. Their cohesion is disrupted, and part of them abandons the Bug region (Ukraine sudwestern) to migrate back eastwards.
    Middle East:
    King William II of France, England and Jerusalem dies in Jaffa while on his way back to Europe. He, being homosexual, had no sons and appointed no regent for the kingdom of Jerusalem. So, though ultimate sovereignity rests in the hands of Henry I Beauclerc, William's brother and the new ruler of the Norman empire across the Channel, the cavaliers elect as “defensor Sancti Sepulchri” and viceroy the valiant Lombard Arrigo (Henry), brother of marquis William of Montferrat.
    SE Asia:
    A Burmese army from Pagan assists prince Letya-Mong-Nan in recovering the Arakanese throne, stolen from his murdered father in 25 years before. The new rulker establishes a new capital in Parin.
    1103-1106
    Western Europe:
    Count Henry I of Limburg and Arlon usurps the marches of Flanders and Hainault upon the sudden death of marquis-regent John I and the minority of Robert III. King William I of Luxemburg and Lorraine fights back: in the end the legitimate Robertingians (*OTL Capetingians) are restored, but the usurper manages to have himself recognized as count of Brabant in addiction to his family holdings. In the meantime Constance of Aberdeen, the Pictish-born widow of John I of Flanders and Hainault, marries Dietrich, younger brother of king Hermann II of Germany
    1104
    Byzantine Empire:
    Caesarea/Mazhak, after suffering two attempted sieges at the hands of the Danishmendiyya Turks, again recognizes Byzantine overlordship and is acknowledged as a hereditary Duchy under king Bertrand of Septimania, receiving reinforcements from Constantinople. Sultan Kilij Arslan of the Rum-Seljuks rebels and seizes Iconium from the Byzantines, raiding inner Anatolia, but is defeated in Heraclea.
    Middle East:
    The Crusaders of Jerusalem conquer Haifa with the help of the Pisan fleet and occupy the al-Karak region (Krak des Moabites) east of the Dead Sea. A Crusader-Armenian army suffers a disastrous defeat in the battle of Edessa (*OTL Urfa) against the Ortoqid Turks
    1105
    British isles:
    Henry I Beauclerc issues the Charter of Liberties for England, which replicates, ona lesser scale, the privileges already gained by the French nobility
    Western Europe:
    The Navarrese of king Sancho III the Great besiege and conquer Burgos from Castile, which has to transfer its capital in Toledo and concede tributes
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Rum-Seljuks are again defeated at Iconium by John, the young and brilliant son of Alexius I Comnenus and Sophia, Romanus II Diogenes' widow. They withdraw in their mountain nests in the Taurus, where any attempt to dislodge them proves futile; sultan Kilij Arslan strikes an alliance with the Danishmendiyyas of Ahlat/Armenia.
    Caucasus:
    David IV the Builder, king of Iberia/Georgia, defeats the Danishmendiyya Turks at the battle of Ertsukhi, annexes Khakheti (eastern Georgia) and frees most of the country from Turkic rule.
    Middle East:
    A last Fatimid attack in force to recapture Jerusalem is thwarted by the Crusaders at the second battle of Ramla. Prince Bohemund I of Antioch and Taranto is murdered by the Ismaili Nizari Assassins of Aleppo, now close allies of atabeg Toghtegin, the new Turkic regent and strongmen of Damascus. Bohemund holds the dubious honor of being their first and foremost Christian victim.
    Central Asia:
    Sultan Mahmud I of the Seljuk Empire attacks his young and powerful nephew, Sanjar, who dominates Khorassan and Central Asia; he cannot obtain more than a purely formal submission
    1106
    British Isles:
    The count of Mona/Anglesey, Gruffydd ap Cynan, leads the Welsh armies to victory against Norman encroachment in the battles of Corwen and Talgarth. King Skuli the Ruthless of Northumbria receives Cumbria from Norway as a dowry for the marriage of his heir apparent, Asulf/Hastwolf, to princess Ragnhilde, sister to the royal brothers of Norway
    Northern Europe:
    When duke Magnus of Saxony dies and the Billung family, related to the late Liudolfingians of Otto I the Great, is extinct, the duchy is bestowed upon Magnus' son-in-law, count Otto I der Reiche of Ballenstedt, founder of the Aschersleben/Ascanian House of Saxony. Also Henry the Black, brother of Welf II Duke of Bavaria, is son-in-law of Magnus, and his exclusion opens a rift between the Welfs and the German throne. The Issue of Saxony will be for a long time a thorn in the side of king Hermann II
    North Africa:
    Tripoli of Libya is taken by the Genoese navy after a long and hard-fought siege. Most of Tripolitania, however, remains firmly in the hands of the Banu Hilal clans
    1107
    Northern Europe:
    The Polish-Kashubian Duchy of Pomerelia (eastern Pomerania) is formed under duke Wartislaw I with capital in Danzig.
    Western Europe:
    The Zenete Compact army besieges Toledo and enforces overlordship over a weakened Castile. Nearby Leòn, backed by Gallastrian forces, proves unassailable
    Southern Europe:
    Open hostilities erupt around the issue of Dalmatia as the Croato-Hungarians seize it, gaining the obedience of its major cities - Zara, Spalato/Split – at the expense of Venice. Help from the Norman-backed fleet of Bari is instrumental in this curtailing of Venetian power.
    Middle East:
    Bohemund II of Taranto is freed from his golden prisony among the Ortoqid Turks and tries to regain Antioch from his cousin Tancredi, but fails. He soon takes refuge in Armenia Minor, then heads to Taranto to regain possession of his princely throne there, quietly accepting Tancredi's usurpation in the Levantine Crusader states of Antioch and Galilee.
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Iceland-born Thorstein Sigurdsson the One-Eyed, with some dozens of companions from Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland), establishes a stable Norse colony at Thorsteinsflo (*OTL Dingwall bay) in Marksey (*OTL Cape Breton island). They soon enter into contact, and sometimes conflict, with the local Mikkmakk natives
    1107-1111
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    Sigurd I Jorsalfar, co-king of Norway, Ireland etc., takes part with his Norse-Anglo-Saxon army to the final destruction of the Rum-Seljuk sultanate in southern Anatolia, gaining the Duchy of Pamphilia as a personal appanage, and also proves instrumental in the crusader capture of Saida/Sidon. He de facto renounces his royal rights over the Norwegian lands to live the rest of his life in the Mediterranean. Most Turks in the reduced area are converted to the Orthodox faith, many others flee east to the Danishmendiyyas of Ahlat/Armenia
    1108
    Byzantine Empire:
    Prince Tancredi of Antioch and Galilee is forced to pay tribute to Byzantium after being defeated and captured in an attempt to overthrow Armenia Minor, which also recognizes Byzantine suzerainty. The prestige of the Eastern Roman Empire is thus restored, though Byzantine-Crusader relations sour again.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Electoral Patriarchate of Aquileia finally gains suzerainty over Carniola/Slovenia. Hungary directly annexes Slovakia, abolishing its state of appanage duchy, during a brief but illusory truce of the incessant civil war between king Coloman I and his brother, prince Álmos of Nitra. The Rurikid Knyaz (prince) Vladimir II the Great (*OTL Vladimir Monomakh), one of the most powerful rulers of Russia, founds the town-fortress of Vladimir in the central northern part of the country, which is slowly Slavicizing
    1108-1110
    Northern Europe, Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Hermann II of Germany fights back all of his eastern neighbours (Wends/Pomeranians, Bohemians/Czechs, Poles and Hungarians) with mixed success, extorting tribute from Bohemia.
    1109
    Northern Europe:
    The Polish army of king Boleslaw III defeat the Pomeranians at the battle of Naklo; the Germans are later also overcome at Hundsfeld (Silesia).
    Middle East:
    The noble Genoese family Embriaco, already ruling Jaffa after their invaluable services to the Crusaders, gains the lordship of Byblos/Jubayl, on the coast of Lebanon.
    1109-1113
    Western Europe:
    After the death of Adalbert II civil war tears apart Burgundy between the defunct king's twin sons, Baldwin the Blond, duke of Dijon, and Berenger Iron Mask, duke of Provence. Under the regency of their sister Mathilda the country is bled white, not without Norman and Lombard encroachments, till Baldwin is killed in a skirmish in the Cevennes mountains and Berenger ascends the throne in Vienne. Having no sons and being disfigured due to leper, the winner is however forced to adopt as heir Berenger's infant orphan, Adalbert
    1109-1116
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Russian Rurikid princes, during a rare lull of their almost perpetual civil wars, attack the Kipchak/Cumans from the Dniepr to the Don, inflicting serious defeats to the eastern hordes. In the end many Cuman chieftains ally to the warring Russian principalities, offering their services as mercenaries
    1110
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Danishmendiyya Turks of Ahlat/Armenia invade Anatolia, besieging Caesarea/Mazhak, and conquer Trabzon from the Byzantines, gaining an important outlet on the Black Sea.
    Middle East:
    The Crusaders conquer Beirut and Sidon, which are added to the county of Tripoli; the local Maronite Christian church, after centuries of Muslim subjugation, accepts the supremacy of the Roman Popes. Tancredi of Antioch and Galilee with some auxiliary Byzantine troops conquers the strategic fortress of Krak des Chevaliers (Syria).
    India:
    The Chola armies again devastate Kalinga, but cannot unseat the powerful eastern Gangas of Orissa
    ca. 1110
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Rauthljudar (Red Screamers, *OTL Beothuks) natives of Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland), much reduced in numbers by European-imported illnesses, are unified under the leadership of the mixed-blood half-Norse Leif Strong-Axe, who enforces Christianization upon them and asks for a bishop from Iceland or Scandinavia
    India:
    Kamarupa (Assam) frees itself from the occupation of nearby Gauda, but the local Bhauma-Pala dynasty is fatally weakened and the state declines in the face of rising tribal power.
    1110-1112
    Northern Europe:
    A first civil war is fought in Saxony as the powerful feudatory Lothar of Supplinburg acts as a representant of Henry the Black of the Welfs of Bavaria (their mutual sons are married). With minimal royal intervention duke Otto I of Ballenstedt manages to keep the throne, but Lothar is able to preserve his own domains, significantly weakening Ascanian authority
    ca. 1110-1135
    India:
    The venerated Tibetan yogi and poet Milarepa relaunches Buddhism of the Kagyu philosophical school in NE India (Bengal, Orissa, Kamarupa/Assam) through his preaching
    1111
    British isles:
    The Synod of Rathbreasail completes the transition of the Irish Church from the purely monastical character of its most glorious days, when it spread faith and culture in Dark Ages Europe, to a diocesan and parish-based institution, modeled after most of the Catholic world.
    Southern Europe:
    Roger I Borsa, prince of Melfi, dies after eliminating all of the non-Hauteville major states from Norman southern Italy. Soon a three-sided struggle ensues between count Roger II of Puglia and Boiano, prince William of Melfi and Bohemund II of Taranto. The Welfs of Bavaria wrest Bernmark (the march of Verona, in German possession since 948) from margrave Fredegar of Brischna (*OTL Bressanone/Brixen), son-in-law of king Hermann II. The German ruler is forced to play down the issue, at least for now, and host the exiled relative
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantine army is defeated by the Danishmendiyyas at the siege of Sebastea (*OTL Sivas). Alexius I Comnenus grants important commercial rights to Pisa to counterbalance the growing Venetian stranglehold on Byzantine foreign trade; the Pisans hadn't gained from the Crusade as much as they expected.
    Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Aztecs, also known as Mexicas, leave the Pacific coast in Aztlàn moving towards central Mexico together with many other Chichimec (“barbarian”) peoples; they settle for the moment in Chicomoztoc (The Seven Caves)
    1112
    Western Europe:
    King William I of Luxemburg and Lorraine crushes with cruelty the revolt of the inhabitants of Laon, who had slain their oppressive bishop and burnt their own cathedral, by burning hundreds of them on the stake (the so-called Laon Barbecue)
    Southern Europe:
    King Umberto I of Lombardy dies, leaving his reign diveded on the issue of succession between his sons Amedeo II (who takes over) and Guidone (who seizes western Piedmont with Turin, Susa, Ivrea, controlling the way for western pilgrims to Rome, the Via Francigena, and its rich revenues). The subsequent struggle between the Amadei and Guidoni branches of the Susa-Biandrate clan will remain a constant of Lombard politics for much time, intertwining with Communal politics and seriously undermining royal authority
    Middle East:
    Tancredi of Hauteville, the usurping prince of Antioch and Galilee, dies without issue. The principality of Galilee is swallowed by the kingdom of Jerusalem, while in Antioch Byzantine and Cilician/Armenian troops establish a joint sovreignity of the basileus and Armenia Minor. From Taranto, Bohemund II cries to the “heretic traitors and usurpers” and swears revenge.
    1113
    British isles:
    Extinction of the main branch of the ruling McFergus dynasty in Alba/Scotland; the king of Man Olaf I Godredson the Red (also known as Olaf Bitling or Olaus the Swarthy) defeats his rival Fergus the Black, a distant cousin of the last McFergus ruler, Talorcan IX, and receives the Double Crown of Alba and Scotland on the sacred stone of Scone, establishing the Crovan dynasty in the two countries. This also finally thaws Picto-Scottish relations, being the new king neither a Pict nor a Scotsman.
    Southern Europe:
    With the first Genoese expansion towards the eastern Riviera, the first open clashes between Genoa and Pisa begin, opening a bitter struggle for supremacy both at home and throughout the Mediterranean. The Pisan fleet crushes the Western imperial one at Favignana, ensuring free access at least through the Sicily Channel. The Strait of Messina, instead, remains off-limits for Pisan shipping.
    Middle East:
    The Nizari Ismaili Assassins are ousted from Aleppo by the Ortoqid Turks and take refuge near Damascus where they find protection under the new emir, Toghtegin, founder of the Burid dynasty; they will soon begin a violent struggle with the Muwahiddins (*OTL Druzes) nested between Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The Knights Hospitalier of Saint John of Jerusalem, in the service of the Crusader cause, are recognized by pope Paschal II as the first military monastic order of Christianity
    SE Asia:
    Suryavarman II takes power in the Khmer Empire.
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    The Norse bishop Eirik leads a party of Vinlandrians, both Norsemen and Red Screamers (*OTL Beothuks) to found the first successful European settlement on the Hesperian mainland, Eiriksnes (*on OTL Cape George Point) in Skraelingarland (*OTL Acadia).
    1114
    Byzantine Empire:
    General Constantine Gabras, helped by Russian and Pisan naval forces, retakes Trabzon from the Danishmendiyyas, sealing them off the Black Sea; the town is made into an unofficial Pisan colony and outlet for Russian trade, enjoying propserity as an almost tax-free port.
    North Africa:
    A Pisan naval crusade against Cyrenaica and the Egyptian ports proves an utter failure, with a fleet being destroyed by the Fatimids near Alexandria. The hundreds of captives are ransomed only with a lavish tribute and the solemn promise by viceroy Arrigo/Henry of Jerusalem not to harass Muslim pilgrims any more.
    Middle East:
    Bohemund II of Taranto sails back to the Levant with a Pisan fleet, leaving his wife Serena to act as princess regent, and recaptures Antioch from the astonished Armenians and Byzantines.
    1114-1115
    Northern Europe:
    Another burst of civil war sparks out in Germany, with the Welf-Supplinburg axis openly attacking king Hermann II and the royal family; this time Lothar of Supplinburg is defeated and forced to flee to Branibor/Brandenburg, seat of the Slavic principality of Greater Wendia, now also rebel to German suzerainty. The Welfs now rule practically as independent sovereigns over Bavaria and Bernmark (*Verona), being the paramount lords of southern Germany, while lesser feudatories support king Hermann II
    British Isles:
    In a swift, brutal civil war, the count of Mona/Anglesey Gruffydd ap Cynan overthrows king Owain ap Maredudd and establishes the Second House of Griffith as king Gruffydd II of Wales
    Far East:
    The Jurchens, ancestors to the later Manchus, defeat the Khitan/Liao in Manchuria; their chieftain, Wangyan Aguda, proclaims himself emperor Chinese-style (Huangdi) establishing the Jin (Golden) dynasty as a rival to the Khitan/Liao just north of China
    1115
    Northern Europe:
    Knut Lavard, nephew of king Niels of Denmark, is made king of southern Jutland
    Southern Europe:
    Anselm deposes his aged father Frederick of Canossa and closes him in the monastery of Camaldoli (Tuscany), starting a civil war with his mature brothers, Sigembert and Roland, and their young sons. The town of Brescia rebels against Canossa authority and establishes a free Comune, defeating the Canossa armies at Volta Mantovana.
    Middle East:
    Arnulf Malecorne, the Latin patriarch of Jerusalem, is deposed by Pope Paschal II after accusation of a sexual relation with a Muslim woman, and having kept very bad relations with non-Catholic Christians in the Holy City, turning them into pro-Muslims. Bohemund II of Antioch and Taranto invades Armenia Minor (Cilicia) but is repulsed; however king Thoros I, the Armenian ruler, has to acknowledge Bohemund's “legitimate” claims on Antioch.
    1115-1116
    Southern Europe:
    Dalmatia rises against the new Hungarian rulers and newly accepts Venetian overlordship, ending a most delicate juncture for the Most Serene Republic
    1115-1131
    British isles:
    Tairrdelbach mac Ruaidri Ua Conchobair, better known as king Turlough O’Connor of Connacht (western Ireland), revolts against Norwegian overlordship, breaks and conquers nearby Munster (SW Ireland), but the Emerald Island remains divided between warring factions
    1116
    Southern Europe:
    Brescia recognizes the authority of the king of Lombardy, Amedeo II. The Lombard royal army and the Brescian communal militia again defeat Canossa forces at Ghedi and come to besiege Mantua, extorting the acknowledgment of Brescia as a Lombard Comune. Anselm of Canossa is later murdered at Modena on instigation of the local Church (!), and Sigembert takes over the Canossa clan as the senior member of the family
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Danishmendiyyas try a massive invasion of Anatolia combined with a revolt of the former Rum-Seljuks (thence on known as Batitourkoi or Western Turks): John, son and heir of the aged Alexius I Comnenus, routs the Batiturk rebels at the battle of Philomelion, then defeats the Danishmendiyyas at Sebastopolis (*OTL Sulusaray), where the last credible claimant to the Rum-Seljuk throne, Malik Shah I, dies in battle. A peace accord is subsequently signed between Byzantium and Danishmendiyya Ahlat/Armenia; the Crusader Duchy of Caesarea/Mazhak is recognized as an independent buffer, paying tribute to both. The Ortoqid Turks exploit the chaos to conquer or gobble up the Crusader or Armenian statelets along the upper Euphrates.
    1117
    Southern Europe:
    The Milanese militia besieges Lodi, but king Amedeo II of Lombardy intervenes in favor of the weaker side from his capital in Pavia, imposing a truce. His brother Guidone of Susa-Ivrea establishes a matrimonial alliance with the Canossas by marrying his sister-in-law into that family. Emperor John III of the Western “Roman” Empire dies in Palermo, succeeded by his younger brother Augustin I. The empire is further weakened as local curiones (*barons, from Greek kyrios, lord) take over most local power on both sides of the Sicily and Messina straits, while the Italian sea-trading republics assume de facto domination of the navy
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A sizable part of the Kipchak/Cumans, under the leadership of Khan Otrok, resettles between the Volga and Don rivers, destroying the Alan fortress of Sarkel at the Don's mouth
    1118
    British isles:
    The Irish kingdom of Munster, under Connacht aggression, splinters into the two realms of Desmond (southern) and Thomond (northern), under an increasingly weaker Norwegian suzerainty
    Southern Europe:
    Paschal II, Pope and king of Italy/Spoleto, dies, succeeded by Gelasius II (Giovanni Coniulo), his chancellor.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Alexius I Comnenus dies of old age, revered almost as a saint by the populace. His son John II takes over, and soon quietly puts apart his theoretical and never crowned co-basileus, 21-year-old Belisarius Diogenes (second son of the late Leo VI), who is made instead duke of Morea/Peloponnesus. Thus the Comnenoi come to rule alone the Byzantine Empire
    Central-Eastern Europe, Caucasus:
    Peace is made between the Alans and the eastern Kipchak/Cumans of Otrok Khan. The latter ally himself to king David the Builder of Iberia/Georgia (in turn, already bond by crossed marriages and distant kinship to the Alan ruler Aton Bagratuni) and help him wrest part the Luristan (*OTL northern Armenia) from the war-weary Danishmendiyyas, making it into the border pricipality of Matznaberd.
    North Africa:
    A small Crusader army marches through the Sinai up to the eastern reaches of the Nile delta, finding little opposition from the Fatimids, but being forced back by an epidemic among its men.
    Middle East:
    Hughes de Payns and other eight French-speaking knights from France and Luxemburg found in Jerusalem the military-monastic order of the Knights Templar to defend Christian pilgrims, gaining immediate recognition from king Arrigo. Vain Crusader siege of Aleppo.
    Middle East, Central Asia:
    Upon the death of sultan Ghiyas ud-Din Mahmud I Tapar, the still mighty Seljuk Empire is divided into two halves. Iraq, western Persia/Iran and Azerbaijan are inherited by the young Mahmud II, which moves his capital in Baghdad, while central and eastern Persia/Iran and part of Central Asia remain under the sway of his powerful relative Mu'izz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar, ruling from Merv (Khorassan).
    1118-1128
    Middle East:
    Aleppo is de facto in the hands of the local Ortoqid-appointed governor, ibn Khashshab
    1119
    Western Europe:
    Henry I of France and England is murdered in Rouen by his illegitimate daughter Juliane for allowing the blinding and mutilation of her two daughters following a feud between rival lords in Normandy. He is succeeded by his only legitimate son, William III le Adelin (*French corruption for “Atheling”, an Anglo-Saxon title for the heir to the English throne).
    Southern Europe:
    Princess regent Serena of Taranto liquidates the nearby Venetian-backed duchy of Otranto by having her cousin, duke Domenico, murdered, and his domains taken over by loyal troops. Otranto Castle falls after a protracted siege as the Venetian navy cannot break the Pisan naval blockade.
    Middle East:
    The Crusader forces of Antioch are routed by the Ortoqid Turks at the battle of Ager Sanguinis at Sarmada (northern Syria), an utter disaster in which Bohemund II is killed (his head will be later shown on a pike in Aleppo). Roger the Black, a distant cousin of the deceased prince, takes over the Antiochene State as regent de iure and ruler de facto
    1119-1121
    British isles:
    The Norwegians try a last ditch effort to preserve their control over Ireland, but are finally ousted with the fall of Dublin to Turlough I of Connacht, who claims for himself the High Kingship as Turlough II. The Norwegian empire created by Olaf III the Brave and Magnus II Barefoot comes to a miserable end
    1119-1123
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Poles subdue Pomerania widening their access to the Baltic
    1120
    Byzantine Empire:
    John II Comnenus, together with duke Sigurd of Pamphilia, liquidates the die-hard faction of the Batiturks; they are deported to Europe in the thousands, where they will form the Vardariote warrior caste
    ca. 1120
    Western Europe:
    Welcher of Malvern, after studying geography in the Levant on ancient Greek and Arab texts, establishes the latitude-longitude system for measuring the Earth, which will be gradually accepted in the centuries
    Caucasus:
    The Seljuks conquer Avaristan (inner Daghestan) from Alania.
    SE Asia:
    The Khmer ruler Suryavarman II again vassalizes the Champa kingdom (*OTL present southern Vietnam).
    1120-1122
    Western Europe:
    The noted French philosopher Pierre Abélard is first castrated by the furious uncle of her lover, young Héloïse; he is later burnt at the stake for heresy by his enemies even before the Pope and king William III can intervene on his behalf
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Gelasius II dies, and for the first time since long a bitter struggle ensues re: the election of the new Pope and king of Italy/Spoleto. The rival candidates are Lamberto da Fiagnano and the Patriarch of Aquileia, Gerard. The powerful Frangipane family, descending from the ancient Anicia gens and having its main fortress in the Coliseum (!), sides with the Aquileian candidate at first, forcing his election as Paschal III, then switches side after a popular revolt, fostering the deposition of the Aquileian Pope-king and the enthronement of Lamberto, the learned son of humble peasants of Romagna, who takes the name of Honorius II. This marks a comeback of the nobility on the Roman scene after decades of low-profile attitude following the massacre of most of the Roman aristocrats at the hand of George Maniaces.
    ca. 1120-1130
    Northern Europe:
    The provinces of Östergötland and Västergötland secede from Sweden till Sverker I Kolsson, son of the ruler of the former land, reunifies the kingdom
    1121
    Northern Hesperia (*OTL America):
    Bishop Eirik of Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland) is killed while trying to convert (Gospel in the hand, battleaxe in the other...) the native Mikkmakks of Skraelingarland (*OTL Acadia). He will be later sanctified and made into St. Erik, Protomartyr of the Hesperias.
    Caucasus:
    King David IV the Builder, with his Alan and Kipchak/Cuman allies and some hundred crusading French knights, marks a most great Iberian/Georgian victory against the Seljuks and their Danishmendiyya clients in the huge battle of Didgori, liberating the Muslim held fortress of Tbilisi
    North Africa:
    The able Vizier al-Afdal, a just ruler, is murdered on orders from his lord, the Fatimid Caliph of Egypt al-Amir, who falsely blames the Nizari Assassins for the fact. Such is the scandal that the Mameluk slave-soldiers revolt and kill the Caliph, replacing him with his cousin, al-Hafiz, who'll prove little more than a puppet in the hands of powerful generals
    1122
    Western Europe:
    The Navarrese conquer Saragossa from the local margrave of Aragon, Godofrey, a vassal of the Zenete Compact; the king of Navarra, Sancho III the Great, is now the foremost ruler in Spain
    Southern Europe:
    Henry II of Eppenstein dies, leaving the county of Gurizberg (*OTL Gorizia) to his relative Meinhard I of Lurngau-Heimöfls, count of Pustertal (South Tyrol), and Carinthia to Henry III of Sponheim.
    Byzantine Empire:
    John II Comnenus trounces once and for all the Pechenegs at Strumitza; they simply disappear from history, assimilated into the western Cuman hordes or the pastoral nomadic Vlach communities of the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). Also the western Cuman hordes are kept at bay and beaten back at Drystra/Silistra on the lower Danube.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Moldavia/Bessarabia becomes a point of contention between the Russian Rurikid principalities and the western Cumans, who are put under pressure. Foundation of Astrakhan (= As-Tarkhan, “Alan leader”) by Alans and eastern Kipchak/Cumans near the ruins of Itil, the late Khazar capital.
    India:
    The Chauhan Rajput ruler Prithvi Raj I conquers Delhi from the Tomars.
    Far East:
    The Jurchens/Jin defeat and the Khitan/Liao and Tangut/XiXia empire and extort tribute from them.
    Central Hesperia:
    The Chichimec (“barbarian”) invasion overthrows the Toltec Empire in the central Mexican plateau. The Toltecs will remain for centuries an admired model for civilization and religion, like the Romans in Europe.
    1122-1126
    Byzantine Empire:
    War erupts between Venice and the Byzantines over the renewal of commercial rights, as basileus John II seeks the alliance of Pisa, who makes lesser demands. The Venetians first soundly defeat the Pisans at Saseno island (Albania), then proceed to conquer all of the Ionian islands and devastate the Aegean. The basileus, lacking a strong navy of its own, is forced to concede defeat and acknowledge Venetian domination over the empire's Mediterranean trade.
    1123
    Northern Europe:
    The Duke of Saxony Otto I von Ballenstedt-Aschersleben dies. Again civil war flames up for the Saxon ducal throne, with the undaunted Lothar of Supplinburg to make once again his bid for hegemony, supported by the Wends and his Welf allies. Fredegar of Brischna (*OTL Bressanone/Brixen), king Hermann II's champion, is defeated and killed by the Welfs of Bavaria and their Bohemian allies at the battle of Regensburg. On the contrary Albert the Bear, son of Otto I, holds his own in Saxony showing great prowess and routing a Wendic invasion at Salzwedel, where the ruler of Greater Wendia, Pribislav Henry I from the Havolan tribe, dies in battle. King Eystein of Norway dies, and his brother Sigurd Jorsàlfar, the increasingly insane duke of Byzantine Pamphilia, should be the heir to the trone. But Norway is seized by Harald IV Gille, a Norsemen from Ireland who claims – with good reasons – to be another illegitimate son of the late Magnus II. Iceland rejects any tie with Norway, soon followed by the jarldom of the Orkneys, who acknowledges Alban/Scottish suzerainty. Harald's “usurpation” marks the beginning of a period of factional struggles in the country.
    Southern Europe:
    The Hungarians, allying themselves with Byzantium and Pisa against Venice, reinvade Dalmatia and retake Spalato/Split. Final Norman crackdown on Bari's remaining town liberty: the free republic, by now reduced to pure fiction, is abolished and the town severely punished by Roger II of Puglia and Boiano after a revolt against trade taxes.
    Middle East:
    A new Crusader siege of Aleppo proves a failure; viceroy Arrigo/Henry I of Jerusalem dies of fever during the campaign, and the Crusaders hail his son Walram (Aleramo, from the name of the founder of the Montferrat family) as the new protector of the Holy Sepulchre. While campaigning against Byzantium the Doge of Venice, Vitale Michiel, leads his men to help the Crusaders in Syria. Some of them will later settle in Byzantine Cyprus.
    Middle east, Central Asia:
    Death of Farhad Khayyam (*OTL Omar Khayyam), a most famous Persian Zoroastrian (*OTL he was a Muslim) scientist and philosopher, noted for his astronomical skills and skeptical approach to religions.
    1124
    Southern Europe:
    The Synod of San Gall (*OTL Sankt Gallen) defines the respective rights of the Papacy and the temporal sovereigns in the field of the bishops' investitures, especially when bishops hold also temporal authority. This, of course, does not apply in the kingdom of Italy/Spoleto, where the Pope is also king. Emperor John IV institutes the Strait Levy to allow passage of the Messina Strait; only Western imperial and Genoese ships are exempted. The Hungarians, bribed by Venice, change side in the Venetian-Byzantine war and raze the border fortress of Belgrade, enforcing their domination over the Mačva region (northern Serbia).
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Venetians conquer the Byzantine islands of Chios and Samos (Aegean Sea).
    Caucasus:
    The Iberians/Georgians take the capital of Danishmendiyya Ahlat/Armenia, Ani; the Danishmendid emir, Gumushtegin, moves his capital in Melitene (*OTL Malatya) and pays tribute, detaching his state from the Seljuks.
    Middle East:
    The Crusaders, in alliance with the local Maronite Christians and Muwahiddin (*OTL Druzes), conquer Tyre and the Bekaa Valley (inner Lebanon), who are given to the county of Tripoli, and the Golan region east of the Sea of Galilee, which instead goes to the kingdom of Jerusalem. After the death of emir Balak the Ortoqid state is divided in two halves, at Marida/Mardin and Hisn Kayfa
    Far East:
    The western part of the weakened Khitan/Liao Empire secedes, forming the powerful Karakhitai (Black Khitan) khanate between Mongolia and Pamir, with capital in Balasagun (*in OTL Kirghizistan)
    1124-1127
    Northern Europe:
    Hermann II of Germany dies as the country is still rocked by civil war. The electoral mechanism to appoint a new king fails to materialize due to the war, and Hermann III rules de facto, without official sanction. King William I of Luxemburg runs in help of his relative in Germany, but is killed in the battle of Schweinfurt along with Hermann III and his brother Henry; the remaining members of the Luxemburgians of Germany take refuge in Luxemburg proper. The timely death of Henry the Black, duke of Bavaria, and the young age of his sons, save duke Albert the Bear of Saxony and another noted ally of the former king, duke Frederick II of Swabia, weakening the winning side. In the end Papal mediation manages to assemble all the Electors in Frankfurt to choose a king. The Electors put aside the young Henry the Proud of Bavaria, who is 18, and elect by a large majority the exiled Lothar of Supplinburg, who has no sons, as the new king of Germany. The electoral duchy of Franconia, till then in personal union with the German crown, is entrusted to Lothar as a repayment for the continued rule of Albert in Saxony.
    1124-1138
    North Africa:
    Zenete Mauretania (*OTL Morocco) is rocked by the Cathar War launched by the followers of the Heresiarch Stephen of Gadir (*OTL Agadir), the Gadirotes. Despite cruel persecutions and Papal excommunication, The Gadirote Cathar insurgents gradually manage to gain control of most of the country during a most violent religious war
    1125
    British isles, Western Europe:
    William III Adelin is crowned in Rouen as Catholic Emperor of Greater Normandy (Magna Normannia) by Pope Honorius II, who also makes him the ultimate feudal suzerain of all Crusader lands in the Levant. In exchange, further riches and privileges are granted to the Roman Church.
    Southern Europe:
    Coming back from France, Pope Honorius II crowns the senior member of the Canossas, Roland, with the title of king of Tuscany and Transbardonia (*Emilia, north of Monte Bardone, that is Cisa Pass along the pilgrims' way to Rome). It is established that future kings will be elected insiede the Canossa family with a facultative approval from the Church and the Communal authorities of major towns – Mantua, Reggio Emilia, Parma, Modena, Bologna, Florence. The move is not well received in Lombardy, but it is also felt as long due. The Milanese Communal militia, once again harassing their neighbours, is defeated by the count of Seprio, Vilfredo, and his allies from Como, at the battle of Lomazzo. Guidone, rival brother of king Amedeo II, usurps the family holdings of the Biandrate county, then is countered and beaten back at Valenza by marquis Ranieri II of Montferrat, allied to the Lombard king.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Venetians conquer the port of Modone/Methoni (Morea/Peloponnesus).
    Middle East:
    The Crusaders regain momentum by soundly defeating the Ortoqid forces in the battle of Azaz, after which they retake part of the Euphrates valley; Aleppo again resists Crusader pressure.
    Far East:
    The Jurchens/Jin conquer Beijing, ending the Khitan/Liao dynastical rule in the north of China, and vassalize Korea. Soon after giving back most of northern China to their Song allies the Jurchens/Jin reinvade the country arriving to the walls of the Song capital, Kaifeng.
    ca. 1125
    Southern Europe:
    Dalmatia is de facto divided into three spheres of influence. In the north the Venetian are suzerains of Zara/Zadar, descending south Hungary holds Spalato/Split and Duklja/Zeta (later Melanoria, *OTL Montenegrin) exacts tributes from Ragusa/Dubrovnik
    1125-1130
    Northern Europe:
    Magnus Nilsson nicknamed the Strong is elected king by the Geats, but refused by all other Swedes. In the end he is driven out of the country by king Sverker I of Sweden.
    ca. 1125-1150
    Northern Hesperia:
    The native peoples of NE northern Hesperia (*OTL America) are halved in numbers by fierce epidemics brought in by Norse and Red Screamers (*OTL Beothuks) colonists and tradesmen from Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoundland) and Skraelingarland (*OTL Acadia). Some of the native Maliseeths, Abenakis and Mikkmakks absorb the tenets of Christianity together with crypto-pagan Norse customs. Writing is introduced among the natives through rune-carving, and rapidly adapted to their Algonquian languages; the use of iron and metals also spreads.
    1126
    Western Europe:
    King William VI (*OTL duke William IX) of Aquitaine/Occitania dies, one the foremost poets of his age and patron of the great Trobadoric literary school of the Occitanian-speaking lands
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Peace of the Blachernae brings Venice to great power status. Basileus John II concedes defeat, giving back the Venetians their former commercial privileges. Venice gives back the Ionian islands save Corfu, but gains full possession of the port of Modone/Methoni in the Morea/Peloponnesus and of the Aegean islands of Chios and Samos. Besides that, the Duchy of Morea is made fully independent from Constantinople under Belisarius Diogenes, now a useful pawn for further meddling, just in case.
    Far East:
    The Tanguts of the XiXia Empire wrench Xijian (*OTL Lanzhou, Gansu, NW China) from Tibetan hands. The Karakhitais subdue Turfan (eastern Turkestan).
    1126-1133
    British isles:
    Leinster (eastern Ireland) is wrecked by the war between the High King, Turlough II O'Connor of Connacht, and the local ruler Diarmait McMurchada. Slaughter ensues, culminating in the burning of the Abbey of Kildare and the rape of its abbess by Diarmait, and pitched battles fought with abundant use of Welsh, Norman and Norwegian mercenaries. In the end Diarmait regains the throne of Leinster, and Ireland remains a divided land; in Dublin the Norseman Thorkell again imposes Scandinavian power.
    1127
    Northern Europe:
    King Lothar I of Germany arranges the marriage of his daughter Gertrude to Henry the Proud, the Welf duke of Bavaria. Though the German crown is elective, this step makes the Bavarian ruler the heir apparent to the throne. The dukes of Swabia and Saxony, Frederick II von Hohenstaufen and Albert the Bear von Ballenstedt, react by establishing a matrimonial alliance between their families to resist Welf overpower
    Southern Europe:
    Prince William of Melfi dies childless, and his lands are bitterly contested between princess Serena of Taranto and count Roger II of Puglia and Boiano; the decisive Battle of the Broken Spears gives Roger the complete domination of Norman southern Italy, as Serena, besieged in Taranto, has to flee by sea to the Antiochene court of Roger the Black, a distant relative of her defunct husband Bohemund II. Roger quickly has her and her princely pretences end in an unmarked grave.
    Far East:
    The Jin/Jurchens reinvade China, conquer its capital Kaifeng and capture the Song emperor Qinzong with his father Huizong, who abdicated a few months before. The Jin capital is moved in Beijing, while the Chinese imperial prince Gaozong, Qinzong's half-brother, establishes a southern Song court in Nanking.
    1127-1128
    Middle East:
    Imad ad-din Zengi, governor of Mosul, relative and atabeg (tutor) of the Seljuk sultan of Baghdad Mahmud II, establishes the Zengid dynasty, an offspring of the Seljuks, by conquering Aleppo from the Ortoqids.
    1128
    British Isles:
    The kingdom of Breifne is established in NW Ireland under Tigernan Mor macAeda of the O’Rourke clan.
    Western Europe:
    Count Afonso III of Portugal liquidates his rebel brother Gerardo, allied with the Zenete overlords of southern Spain, then goes on to conquer Lisbon and self-appoints himself duke.
    Southern Europe:
    Obizzo I degli Obertenghi, a distant relative of the German Welfs, assumes the title of margrave of Este (southern Veneto).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    In a botched attempt to regain a minimum of unity, the Germans try to subdue Bohemia but suffer a humiliating defeat at Pilsen. Albert the Bear, duke of Saxony, is taken prisoner, but soon freed by king Sobeslav I of Bohemia on tributes and a pledge to hamper any further attack against his lands. De facto, that means an alliance.
    Middle East:
    The Nizari Assassins of Syria, fallen out of favor after the death of emir Toghtegin of Damascus, find new strongholds in the mountains of Mediterranean Syria, due south of Antioch. Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar.
    1129
    Byzantine Empire, Southern Europe:
    The Vardariotes (*Turkic deportees from southern Anatolia) stage a revolt in Macedonia against basileus John II Comnenus, which is soon exploited by Belisarius Diogenes of Morea/Peloponnesus to claim the imperial throne of Constantinople. The basileus at first suffers defeat at the battle of Sdravitsa/Draviskos, then turns the table by falsely claiming that the fallen Vardariote leader, Adilmegistus, had been killed by an envious Belisarius. The defeated usurper has to flee in a hurry to his domains, under the protection of the Venetian fleet, who helps him build powerful fortifications through the Isthmus of Corinth. Raška/Kosovo occupies all the remaining Serbian holdings of the empire save Naissos/Niš
    Middle East:
    A Crusader army attacks Damascus but is repulsed by emir Buri
    1129-1131
    Northern Europe:
    Knut Lavard, sub-king of Danish southern Jutland (Schleswig/Slesvig), wrests Mecklemburg (western Pomerania) from Greater Wendia. He is subsequently liquidated by an unholy alliance between his uncle, king Niels of Denmark, and duke Albert the Bear of Saxony, and Danish influence on Greater Wendia wanes, replaced by German meddling
    1130
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Honorius II dies. Innocent II (Gregorio Papareschi) is hurriedly chosen as successor, then another dubious meeting of rival cardinals appoints Anacletus II (Pietro Pierleoni) as his rival. Both are Romans from influent families, which further complicates the issue, and both stay in the city, which is torn apart by factional struggles. Anacletus then leaves Rome for Naples, and when the Western “Roman” emperor, John IV, fails to acknowledge him as the legitimate Pope and king of Italy/Spoleto, he turns to the Norman Roger II de Hauteville, crowning him king of Lesser Normandy (Normannia Minor) at Benevento.
    Middle East:
    Roger I the Black of Antioch is defeated and killed in battle by the Danishmendiyya Turks of Ahlat/Armenia along the Euphrates river, and again Antioch remains without a ruler. Anacletus II, under pressure from his Norman host, Roger II of Lesser Normandy (southern Italy), makes Roger's 10-years old second son Tancredi, already in the Levant to study and practice with the Templars, the new prince of Antioch.
    India:
    Taila II of the later Kadambas of Karnataka (Tungabhadra river area) is defeated, captured and slain by Vishnuvardhana, the Hoysala ruler.
    ca. 1130
    Southern Europe:
    The Comune of Genoa begins its slow expansion towars the Western (Ponente) Riviera. The Genoese find out that Pisan ships make use of mercenaries from the Ligurian coast who can reproduce the Genoese speech to pass the Messina Strait under false flag and avoid paying the Strait Levy. They counteract by recruiting mountain dwellers from the NW Apennines who still speak ancient Ligurian (*this largely pre-Indoeuropean language did not disappear during the Roman era: that's the first PoD of this entire timeline...) and protect the language, till then considered a barbarian speech, by city statute.
    Black Africa:
    Islam, in the Caliphist creed (*maintaining there has to be no Wali or "Sunni Pope", only a Caliph concentrating both political and religious authority), begins to spread from Songhay in the Mali region, in opposition to the Christianized Zenetes who fiercely raid for slaves; the weak Christianization brought by the Ghana Empire in its last centuries proves to have shallow roots
    Far East:
    The Mongol tribal confederacy emerges in northern Mongolia, which will take name from it. The Karakhitais subdue eastern Turkestan, vassalizing the eastern Karakhanids of Kashgar.
    SE Asia:
    The Khmer king Suryavarman II builds the ceremonial complex of Angkor Wat and conquers Haripunjaya (northern Siam).
    1130-1150
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Incessant civil wars between the Russian principalities: the Kipchak/Cumans take part in droves as mercenaries
    1131
    Western Europe:
    Duke Medeiro II leaves Leòn to his son-in-law, the Gallastrian heir to the throne, John II Ramiro of the Mabinardo dynasty.
    Southern Europe:
    Roger II of Lesser Normandy (southern Italy) marches on Rome, ousting Innocent II and having Anacletus II recognized as the sole Pope and king of Italy/Spoleto. Thus begins the Norman patronage of the Papacy; a Norman guard is assigned to Anacletus for his safety. The exiled rival takes refuge in the friendly Canossa kingdom and sets up his first court in Mantua, then later in the free republic of Pisa.
    Genoa and Pisa begin an all-out war for control over Corsica, the eastern reaches of the Ligurian Riviera and the Mediterranean trades at large
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Danishmendiyya Turks of Melitene (*OTL Malatya) crush and annex the Crusader buffer state of Caesarea/Mazhak, razing the Cappadocian stronghold and prompting yet another Batiturk insurrection in southern Anatolia: the echo in Constantinople and, even more, in western Europe, is considerable
    Middle East:
    The Seljuk sultan of Baghdad, Mahmud II, dies. His successors will prove weak puppets of their generals, and will be eclipsed in time by the more powerful relative Sanjar of Khorassan.
    1131-1134
    Northern Europe:
    Following the murder of Knut Lavard, his half-brother Erik Emune rises against the king, uncle Niels. In the end the rebel is forced to flee to Scania, but when Niels and his heir, Magnus the Strong, try to finish him off, they are crushed at the battle of Fodevig bay. Magnus dies in battle, while Niels makes the fatal error of sailing back to Slesvig, where he is massacred by the populace for killing the popular Knut Lavard. Erik becomes thus the new king of Denmark
    1131-1138
    Southern Europe:
    Innocent II and Anacletus II dispute for the Papacy and the related crown of Italy/Spoleto. Anacletus reigns in Rome till his death, being only then regularly succeeded by Innocent, with Roger II's final approval. Most Christian states recognize Innocent II as the true Pope-in-exile, with the notable exception of Aquitaine/Occitania.
    1132
    Western Europe:
    The Second Crusade is announced in Dijon by the Burgundian preacher St.Bernard of Clairvaux, a supporter of Pope Innocent II in the Papal schism, and, due to Bernard's great fame, finds a wild reception even without being called by a Pope.
    Duke John III of Valencia rejects Zenete suzerainty and defeats his former overlords and their southern Spanish allies at the battle of Alt dels Sanc; eastern Spain is freed of Zenete control.
    A Genoese fleet attacks Maiorca but is eventually driven back by the Pisans and the local Norman lords.
    Byzantine Empire:
    John II Comnenus campaigns in Anatolia against the Turks with mixed success, stemming the Turkic hordes in many skirmishes
    1132-1135
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Boleslaw III of Poland campaigns against Hungary, not achieving any decisive result; Slovakia remains Hungarian
    1133
    Southern Europe:
    Innocent II, from his exile see in Pisa, detaches from the archbishopric of Milan the episcopal see of Genoa and the powerful abbey of Bobbio, which are instead put under a newly created archbishopric of Pavia (the capital of the Lombard kingdom). This in punishment for archbishop Anselmo Pusterla's support for Anacletus II; the Milanese themselves then exile the high prelate. Innocent II also settles the Genoan-Pisan struggle by dividing rebellious Corsica between the two warring cities, the western side to Genoa and the eastern one to Pisa.
    Central-Eastern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Two main Crusader armies of some 40,000 men reach Constantinople, the first led by land by duke Henry the Proud of Bavaria, and the second by sea through Lombardy and Italy by the king of Burgundy, Adalbert III the Orphaned. Both armies are received as unrequested hosts and promptly ferried across the Bosphorus. After ravaging Thrace and Asia Minor for supplies, the German army takes a beating from the Danishmendiyyas in the battle of the Salt Lakes in the very heart of Anatolia and has to withdraw to Angora, where it is later reached by the Anglo-French-Burgundian-Lombard army (the Franks, in the Byzantine nomenclature) who decide to winter before further campaigning in the barren Anatolian plateau
    North Africa:
    St.Barca from Bona preaches the Second Crusade in Numidia and Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), raising an army due for the Levant
    1134
    Western Europe:
    King Conan III the Great of Brittany crushes at Alençon the counts of Anjou, Fulk V and his son Geoffroy V, relatives of his mother, on behalf of emperor William III. The two had revolted against the emperor, as the sovereing objected to their expansionism. The defeated rulers are jailed and killed, their relatives exiled in different places inside the Norman empire and in the Levant, or forced to take monastic vows. Anjou is bestowed upon the earl of Richmond Alain the Black, Conan's son-in-law and a close friend of the Norman emperor.
    North Africa, Middle East:
    The African crusaders sail from Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis) led by the heir to the imperial “Roman” throne of the West, young Matthias Ghiffiotto, and come ashore in Genoese-held Jaffa. Thence they attack and capture the Fatimid strongholds of Ashqelon and Gaza, ousting the Muslims from Palestine. After much debate with the Genoese and the kingdom of Jerusalem, it is decided that both will be Western imperial holdings (Terra Christi Transmaritima).
    Byzantine Empire:
    In Angora a deal is reached between basileus John II and the Crusaders. A part of the latter will assist in repressing the Batiturk (*western Turks, formerly Rum-Seljuks) rebels, while part of the Byzantines will advance with the main armies to retake Caesarea/Mazhak and Melitene (*OTL Malatya); of these two cities, the first to fall will be given to the Crusaders, the other to the Byzantines. When the powerful Christian armies attack, both cities are retaken, as the Turks refrain from giving battle, resorting to guerrilla. John II leads a Byzantine force to the recapture of Sebastea/Sivas as well. The seat of the Danishmendiyya emirate is again transferred, this time to Artzingane/Erzincan
    1135
    Southern Europe:
    A Pisan fleet plunders Amalfi ending its independence as a sea-trading town: Roger II's Normans occupy it, causing a new conflict with the Sicilian-based Western “Roman” empire.
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East:
    As predictable, the Byzantines and the Crusaders soon break their temporary pacts. The imperial army led by John II drives the Crusader garrison from Caesarea/Mazhak and Cappadocia is retaken for Byzantium; Melitene remains a Crusader border march under the noble German Adalbert von Babenberg, who had renounced his rights of primogeniture to the Austrian March to depart as a crusader. Then the main Crusader force heads south, opening its way amidst grave losses till Edessa (*OTL Urfa), where they rout the Ortoqid Turks, making the city yet another Crusader county under Wido of Tarantasia, a close relative of count Peter I of Savoy. Aleppo too at last falls to the Crusaders and is ceded to the principality of Antioch. Then the remnants of the Crusader army proceed south towards Hamah but are trounced by atabeg Zengi of Mosul's cavalry at Ubaiza (al-Huwayz).
    Middle East:
    The African-Western imperial crusaders attack Damascus but fail after a long siege, being mercilessly harassed along their withdrawal route to Galilee by the Burid army led by atabeg-regent Mui'd ad-Din Unur.
    Black Africa:
    Ghana (emperor) Bawl II of the weakened Ghana Empire shakes off Zenete tutelage.
    1136
    British isles:
    The Welshmen rout a Norman army at Crug Mawr (Ceredigion/Cardigan) and recover independence from the Norman Empire; king Gruffydd II dies of old age a little later to be succeded by his sons Owain II and Cadwaladr
    Western Europe:
    King Otto II of Luxemburg and Lorraine dies prematurely, leaving the infant Otto III under the regency of uncle William, who soon usurps the throne as William II.
    Saint Denis Basilica is consecrated by emperor William III marking a turning point in architecture with the first example of the Norman (*OTL Gothic) style
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The rich trading city of Novgorod rises against its prince, Vsevolod I, driving him from power and proclaiming a free republic, which still recognizes local Rurikid princes as elected figureheads.
    1136-1138
    Western Europe:
    Innocent II, from his see in Pisa, launches an excommunication against king William VII (*OTL duke William X) of Aquitaine/Occitania, inviting emperor William III of Greater Normandy (*France and England) to invade and crush the “heretic” and “Cathar” Aquitanian ruler. The invasion proceeds, devastating the country, and when William dies, his younger brother Raymund takes over, pledging feudal submission to the emperor as a sub-king and accepting to persecute the Cathars. But this last will prove an almost impossible task, due to their great numbers. In France, instead, the movement is fiercely persecuted.
    Byzantine Empire, Middle East, Southern Europe:
    The Grand Eastern Campaign of John II Comnenus. The basileus, crushed the Batiturk rebels, recaptures Melitene (*OTL Malatya) as Adalbert of Babenberg has died at 30 leving no heirs nor last will, then invades and conquers Armenia Minor, taking back in Constantinople as a prisoner king Leo I. This moves put him again in conflict with the Crusaders, and particularly with Antioch, which implies the Lesser Normans of southern Italy and the Knights Templar, already well established in the area. Antioch is quickly brought under Byzantine suzerainty and young prince Tancredi has to bow in front of John II Comnenus and hold his horse's bridles in his triumph in the Syrian city. This outrages Roger II of Lesser Normandy, Tancredi's father, who swears war on the Byzantines. The subsequent scramble of alliances brings Venice on the side of Byzantium (to avoid having both sides of the Otranto strait in Norman hands) and the Pisans close to the Norman ruler, which is already warring with the Western “Roman” empire of Sicily and its Genoan allies for control over coastal Campania... In the meantime the battered remnants of the armies from the Second Crusade are slowly ferried back to Europe and North Africa or enlist as mercenaries in the Levant.
    1136-1139
    Northern Europe:
    Harald IV of Norway is murdered by Sigurd Slembedjakn, another bastard son of Magnus Barefoot, which further plunges the country into civil war, Harald's sons, Sigurd II and Inge I, fight the usurper, finally defeating and killing him at the battle of Hvaler.
    1136-1148
    Northern Europe:
    Albert the Bear of Saxony, gained the approval of Innocent II for a personal “crusade” against the still largely heathen Wends, begins a long campaign to subdue them. Only after years of harsh struggles the Wends will capitulate and Greater Wendia will become the March of Brandenburg.
    1137
    Northern Europe:
    When king Lothar of Supplinburg dies of old age, Germany is again in flames. The Electoral Diet convened in Frankfurt, instead of appointing Henry the Proud of Bavaria as expected, elects as the new king duke Ludwig III of Thuringia (Ludwig V as king), who also gets the nearby crown appanage duchy of Franconia. Henry the Proud doesn't accept the verdict and fights back from his holdings in Bavaria.
    Count Walram III of Limburg, Brabant and Arlon is made duke of Brabant by king William II of Luxemburg and Lorraine.
    Western Europe:
    The county of Barcelona (Catalonia) is finally vassalized by Septimania after decades of petty struggles on the issue of its status.
    Southern Europe:
    Hungary wrests Bosnia from Duklja/Zeta (Melanoria, *OTL Montenegro); the local Bogomils, though, render effective Hungarian control over it a difficult task
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    A Byzantine flotilla retakes Bosporon/Kerč from the eastern Kipchak/Cumans.
    Caucasus, Middle East:
    Shams ad-Din Eldiguz, atabeg (reggente) of the Seljuk sultan in Baghdad, creates an own independent dynasty in Azerbaijan with capital in Tabriz, and establishes suzerainty and tutelage over the Danishmendiyya emirate of Ahlat/Armenia.
    Middle East:
    Taking adavantage of the Crusader-Byzantine conflict, atabeg Zengi of Mosul quickly recaptures Aleppo.
    East Africa:
    Mara Takla Haymanot establishes the Christian Zagwe dynasty in northern Ethiopia, overthrowing Dil Na'od, the last king of Axum, and begins the slow reconstruction of the Ethiopian empire
    1137-1146
    Northern Europe:
    Erik III Haakonson Lam usurps the Danish throne succeeding his murdered uncle Erik II Emune
    1138
    Northern Europe:
    The county of Frisia, after the death of Henry II of Zutphen, is made a possession of the powerful county-bishopric of Utrecht.
    North Africa, Western Europe:
    Stephen of Gadir finally overthrows the Zenete Compact in the battle of the White Fortress and creates the Cathar Gadirote kingdom in Mauretania (*OTL Morocco). The southern Spanish states severe any relation with the defeated Zenetes (2000 of them are massacred in Seville alone in the so-called Blood Easter).
    Southern Europe:
    Death of Anacletus II, after the brief interlude of anti-Pope Anacletus III, through the brokerage of Bernard of Clairvaux the Papal throne passes to the exiled Innocent II. King Roger II of Lesser Normandy (southern Italy) makes a formal statement of regret for supporting Anacletus II, cedes Gaeta to the Papal kingdom of Italy/Spoleto and has his excommunication cancelled and his kingship acknowledged. Furthermore, his aggression of Western imperial cities of costal Campania is turned two blind eyes and his tutelage over the Papacy is de facto confirmed (having, of course, no way to displace the Norman garrison from Rome).
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Boleslaw III of Poland dies, dividing the kingdom between his four sons, Wladislaw, Boleslaw, Mieszko and Casimir. The "senioral principle" established in his testament states that the oldest living member of the Piast dynasty is to have supreme power over the rest and always control an indivisible, wide strip of land running N-S through the middle of Poland, with Cracow as the main city, besides being the overlord of (eastern) Pomerania. Thus the duchies of Lesser Poland (the “royal” one, to Wladislaw II), of Greater Poland, of Kuiavia-Mazovia, and of Silesia are born, but the Senioral principle will quickly be broken, starting a period of feudal dissolution.
    Caucasus:
    King Demetrius of Iberia/Georgia takes Ganja (Azerbaijan) from the local Seljuks
    Far East:
    The southern Song court of imperial free China is set in Hangzhou.
    1139
    Northern Europe:
    Duke Henry the Proud of Bavaria dies a premature death after being captured and delivered to king Ludwig by the margrave of Austria, Leopold IV von Babenberg. Henry's young son, also called Henry, remains in Bavaria under the regency of uncle Welf, margrave of Bernmark (Verona), who recognizes Ludwig III of Thuringia (Ludwig V as German king) as the duly elected sovereign to avoid further damage for the Welf household.
    Southern Europe:
    The Lateran Council (*OTL Second Lateran Council) summoned by pope Innocent II to heal the wounds of the recent Papal schism grants extensive privileges to the the Templars, making them literally an armed militia of the Roman Church in the Levant and an economic powerhouse. The use of the crossbow is “prohibited” between Christians (no one will ever respect this); anathema is launched against Cathar Mauretania (*OTL Morocco) and its king, Stephen of Gadir, the “heresiarch”, but the Numidian states prove too weak and divided to move. Roger II de Hauteville, whose troops guard Rome itself, is duly pardoned and acknowledged as king of Lesser Normandy (southern Italy). His army, aided by the Pisan fleet, takes Naples by famine from Western imperial hands after a two-year-long siege.
    Middle East:
    Atabeg Zengi of Mosul and Aleppo enforces suzerainty upon Damascus and becomes the most powerful Muslim ruler in Syria.
    1139-1141
    Northern Europe:
    As Greater Wendia (Brandenburg plus Mecklemburg) is under heavy pressure from duke Albert the Bear of Saxony, the Bohemians subdue Lusatia. They also wrest from Germany the border march of Misnia (Meissen), whose ruler Conrad I von Wettin pledges obedience to king Vladislav II of Bohemia.
    Erik III Lam of Denmark fights and kills his rebel cousin Olaf II, who held Scania as his power base
    Southern Europe:
    A complicated war is fought over Sardinia, whose High King Robert III of Torres is allied with Roger II of Lesser Normandy and Pisa against Genoa, the Western empire of Sicily and the rebellious Sardinian judicates of Arborea, Gallura and Cagliari/Santa Igia. Pope Innocent II tries to assert Papal rights over the island quoting a fabricated document, Pepin's Diploma, who allegedly assigned the island to the Papal domains. All warring factions falsely swear to recognize this to gain Papal favor, but the war continues unabated as the island plunges into anarchy.
    1140
    Northern Europe:
    Ludwig V of Germany dies and a new Electoral Diet has to be convened. Only after considerable debate, and having narrowly rejected a staggering offer from the Luxemburgian usurper William II to accept as king of Germany his dethroned young nephew, Otto, the ten Electors appoint Ludwig VI, son of the deceased Ludwig V. The new king at once detaches the traditional lands of the Count Palatines of Rhine (west of the river) from the royal duchy of Franconia to form an independent march of the Palatinate as a defense against Luxemburg, entrusting it to Henry Jasomirgott, brother and successor of Leopold IV of Austria.
    Western Europe:
    Eleanor, niece of king Raymond of Aquitaine/Occitania, marries Henry, heir to the Greater Norman Empire of France and England.
    1140-1148
    British isles:
    Somerled, the Viking/Pictish son-in-law of the king of Alba and Scotland, Olaf I Bitling the Red, leads a rebellion in the Alban Islands (*TTL collective name for Shetlands, Orkneys, Hebrides) and Argyll, which is tamed in the end but at a price: the so-called Lordship of the Isles will remain hereditary under Somerled and his descendants. The Norse jarls of the Orkneys, instead, are even more firmly put under Alban-Scottish vassalage despite Norwegian and Northumbrian raids on their behalf
    1141
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Innocent II calls for a “Crusade” against “schismatic” and “Saracen-friendly” Byzantium, and launches an interdict against Venice, at present an ally of the basileus against the Normans of southern Italy. A Norman fleet conquers Corfu from the Venetians, then is crushed at the naval battle of Zante/Zacynthos by a joint Venetian-Byzantine-Sicilian fleet led by the Ifrigian (*Tunisian) admiral John Lafadi. The Norman capture of Salerno ends Western imperial presence in Campania; the Normans also raid Calabria, sacking Rossano and Catanzaro.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Unification of the principality of Galicia/Halicz (save Volhynia) at the hands of the Rurikid prince Vladimirko.
    Central Asia:
    The Karakhitais of Yelü Dashi Gur-Khan defat and subdue the western Karakhanids of Samarkandan Turkestan and the Burhanids of Bukhara, then crush the Seljuk forces of Sanjar of Khorassan at Qatwan, conquering all of central Asia except for Khorezm/Turkmenistan. Yelü Dashi is a pagan, sympathizing with both Nestorian Christianity and Mahayana Buddhism; not wanting to live under infidel domination, the current Wali (*Sunni “Pope”) of Samarkand, Salah ad-Din II, relocates to the safer town of Ghazni (Afghanistan) under the proctection of the local Ghaznavid rulers.
    Far East:
    The Treaty of Shaoxin sets the boundary between Song southern China and Jurchen/Jin norhtern China at the river Huai. The valiant Chinese general Yue Fei is recalled in Hangzhou and executed for alleged treason; Song China pays tribute to the northern invaders.
    1142
    Northern Europe:
    When the German army assembled for the “Crusade” against Byzantium (an invitation mostly rejected west of the Rhine) is hijacked against Bohemia by king Ludwig VI, Albert the Bear of Saxony, true to his oath to the late Bohemian ruler, Sobeslav I, refuses to march and abandons the royal camp. He is soon stripped of Saxony, given instead to young Frederick III von Hohenstaufen (*OTL Barbarossa), first son of duke Frederick II of Swabia. This also angers the Welfs of Bavaria, who had been claiming Saxony for many years. As Albert the Bear openly resists the Swabians, and also sacks the king's possessions in Thuringia and Franconia, while the Welfs fight anyone else, Germany again plunges into chaos.
    In Norway Eystein II, another son of the late Harald IV Gille coming from Ireland, is associated to the throne by his half-brothers, Sigurd II and Inge I Haraldsson
    British isles:
    The Picto-Scots of king Olaf I Bitling the Red invade and conquer a sizable part of Northumbria as Norman forces advance from the south till the very walls of Yorwich (*OTL York). King Godwin I is deposed in favor of his son, Wulfstan, who reaches Winchester to pay feudal homage and tribute to emperor William III of Greater Normandy (*France plus England). Alba/Scotland is ceded Cumbria/Cumberland, which is made a duchy outside the two realms of Alba and Scotland, a personal appanage of heir to the Double Crown. Papal wrath over alleged thefts to the vast possessions of the Archbishopric of York leads to an interdict by Innocent II also against Greater Normandy and Alba/Scotland. Southern Europe:
    Quickly a front forms against the ungrateful and arrogant Innocent II, and an anti-Pope is elected in Venice, the venerable bishop of St. James of Ikhuzi (*OTL Algiers), St. Cyriacus, who takes the name of Augustine II.
    Due to the civil war in Germany only a few thousand men depart from Regensburg for the “Crusade” against Byzantium, reaching Hungary whence an attack on Byzantium is made through the Sklaviniai (*OTL Balkans). The German-Hungarian army is however harassed by Serbs and Vlachs, repulsed under the walls of Naissos/Niš and finally annihilated by the Byzantine Vardariote (*deported Turk from Anatolia) general Anatolius Albaides at the gorges of Pirot.
    Enrico I il Guercio marquis of Carretto, direct descendant of Aleramo of Montferrat and a son of the late marquis of Savona Boniface del Vasto, inherits the town of Finale (Western Riviera) in the chaotic feudal dissolution of most of the former Aleramic March and establishes the Del Carretto dynasty.
    Middle East:
    Count Mirò I Salomon of Tripoli grants the important fortress of Krak des Chevaliers to the Knights Hospitalier of Saint John.
    1143
    Northern Europe:
    The count of Holstein, Adolf II von Schauenburg, founds Lübeck on the site of the destroyed Wendic town of Liubice; this will rapidly become the chief German port in the Baltic, and a trading powerhouse.
    British isles:
    Olaf I Bitling the Red, the founder of the Crovan dynasty of Alba and Scotland, is murdered by his nephews but is avenged by his legitimate heir Godfrey I the Black, who takes over.
    Western Europe:
    Gallastria (*OTL Galicia and Asturias) is forced to recognize Portugal after losing the battle of Orense. John II Ramiro of Gallastria acknowledges Afonso III the Great of Portugal as a full king on par with himself. He also gives his last daughter, Reyllana, to Afonso's heir, Diogo.
    The usurper William II of Luxemburg and Lorraine earns the reputation of a hyena by blinding and confining in a monasteryhis young nephew Otto III, the legitimate ruler.
    1143-1144
    Northern Europe, Central-Eastern Europe:
    Albert the Bear is forced out of Saxony by royal and Swabian-Hohenstaufen forces; he takes refuge with thousands of his best men in Bohemia, whence he continues his sistematical conquest of Greater Wendia. The Bohemians raid Germany and Austria, torching Nuremberg and Passau
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Innocent II dies, to much rejoycing of his many enemies inside and outside Rome. Again rival Roman factions elect two rival Popes, Guido da Castello and Gherardo Caccianemici, but this time no one recognizes either “Pope”. A bishops' council in Milan elects instead the former anti-Pope Augustine II as the new Pope. The saintly Numidian bishop, though, dies of old age in Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis) on his way to Rome, not before cancelling any interdict or excommunication except the one against the Cathars. In the end a new council summoned in Sutri elects no less man than Bernard of Clairvaux, Innocent's former supporter, who takes the name of Dominic I.
    Middle East:
    Walram/Aleramo I, viceroy of Jerusalem (*the titular king is the emperor of Greater Normandy, currently William III), dies and is succeded by his younger brother William I.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Manuel, favorite son of basileus John II Comnenus, marries Lucia, daughter of the Western Roman emperor John IV of Sicily, sealing a renewed alliance between the two halves of the Roman empire.
    1144
    Northern Europe:
    King Sverker I of Sweden leads a failed “crusade” in Estonia
    Western Europe:
    As powerful Norman and Burgundian armies mobilize against William II of Luxemburg-Lorraine, he is murdered by duke Henry II of Limburg-Brabant-Arlon, who restores the legitimate Otto III the Blind, a broken boy. The subsequent Norman-Burgundian invasion (both parts pretending to ignore what's happened) finds almost no resistance and Henry, now the actual ruler of Luxemburg, recognizes Greater Normandy as feudal overlord; Valenciennes is ceded to France, while Burgundy crowns its ancient dream of annexing Lorraine, though at the price of making the rival Norman Empire even stronger.
    Southern Europe:
    In a most grave violation of the royal truce between rival Comuni, Milan razes Como to the ground; Amedeo II of Lombardy, entangled in incessant petty struggles with his brother Guidone in Piedmont, is taken by surprise and declares Milan an outlaw city.
    Roger II of Lesser Normandy (southern Italy) crushes the last revolt of Amalfi against the new conquerors.
    North Africa:
    The Cathar Gadirotes of Mauretania (*OTL Morocco) led by general Julian the Andalusian crush the invading Numidian forces of the Foedus Africae at the battle of the M'luvi river (*OTL Moulouya). The weakened Numidian city-state league begins to crumble, leaving again free way for the rise of tribal and feudal power in the provinces.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Armenian prince Thoros II escapes from prisony in Constantinople and flees to Cilicia, where the Armenians rise and refound the kingdom of Armenia Minor with Crusader help.
    A Pisan fleet conquers Cyprus, handing it over to count Bonifacio of Novellara, a Crusading scion of a secondary branch of the Canossa family, who proclaims himself duke of the island.
    Middle East:
    Atabeg Zengi of Mosul and Aleppo vassalizes the Ortoqid emirates of Marida/Mardin and Hisn Kayfa after bloody struggles, then destroys the Crusader fortress of Edessa (*OTL Urfa); its count, Wido, resists in the stronghold of Turbessel but loses all lands beyond the Euphrates.
    Fatimid Egypt wrests supremacy over the Negev desert and parts of Jordan from the Crusaders of Jerusalem.
    1144-1146
    Southern Europe:
    Factional struggles in Rome end in the formation of the Roman Republic, inspired by the Lombard preacher Arnaldo of Brescia. The Romans reject the Papal monarchy in favor of a popular government like that of other Comuni. After two years of difficult cohabitation, Pope-king Dominicus I (Bernard of Clairvaux) leaves Rome for Benevento, asking for help from Roger II de Hauteville, the king of Lesser Normandy (southern Italy). The Norman army then assaults and crushes the Roman Republic in a dreadful bloodbath; Arnaldo is burnt at the stake for heresy, but his ideas will live long, creating the Arnaldist movement, anti-establishment in both religious and lay matters, often interconnected with the growing Cathar presence leaking in northern Italy from Provence and from Bogomil Bosnia (in Italy Cathars will be called “Bulgars”).
    1145
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Dominic I preaches the Third Crusade at the synod of Spoleto to repeal Muslim aggression of the Crusader holdings in the Levant; the Cathar heretics of Mauretania (*Morocco) and the still heathen Slavic, Finnic and Baltic peoples of northern Europe are also marked as legitimate targets for Crusading.
    The armies of the Guidoni (Piedmontese) and Amedei (Royalist, Lombard proper) branches of the royal Lombard family and their respective allies clash at Lomello, with no clear winner despite a dire death toll. The royal capital of Pavia is briefly besieged and partly torched by the rebel Milanese.
    Venice reduces Pola and Capodistria (Histria), despite the rival interventions of the count of Gurizberg (*OTL Gorizia) Henry II of Lurngau and of the margrave of Histria, Engelbert III of Sponheim-Ortenburg.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus John II Comnenus confiscates all Pisan property in the empire, after Pisan support for the Normans. Pisa is forced to concentrate its trade with Spain and Egypt as a consequence.
    Middle East:
    A new wave of Crusaders from Greater Normandy, Aquitaine, Burgundy and southern Italy/Lesser Normandy (some 15,000 men) reaches the Levant by sea, being the German route blocked by war and Byzantium locked for hostile Crusader transit. The army, led by count Theophylact of Valence, a relative of the Burgundian ruler Adalbert III, tries at first an invasion of Egypt but is decimated by malaria while ravaging the eastern Nile delta. Then they turn against Damascus again, only to be repulsed by the local regent Unur, a recalcitrant vassal of Zengi.
    1145-1147
    SE Asia:
    The Khmer ruler Suryavarman II annexes the Champa kingdom, which refused to help in the invasion of Annam; soon the Chams rebel and regain their independence.
    1146
    Western Europe:
    Unification of Leòn and Gallastria under John II Ramiro of the Gallastrian Mabinardo dynasty.
    Western Europe, North Africa:
    A 20,000 strong Crusader army of Greater Norman, Aquitanian, Septimanian and Spanish warriors descends Spain and is later ferried by the navies of Pisa, Marseille, Barcelona and Valencia to Mauretania (*OTL Morocco). The northern coastal cities are quickly taken, their inhabitants often exterminated at swordpoint or in mass burnings at the stake as heretics. As the Maurian Catholic party rises against Gadirote (*Cathar) domination, the tribal Maurians of the Rawel (*OTL Rif) mountains inflict heavy casualties upon the anti-Cathar Crusaders. The aged Stephen of Gadir, the Maurian “heresiarch” and king, retires to the Atlas mountains as the Crusaders desolate coastal Mauretania; a new harsh epoch of guerrilla begins. Inside the very Crusader army many peasant soldiers from Aquitaine and Septimania reveal themselves Cathars, passing to the Gadirotes.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    King Wladislaw II of Poland is exiled by his brothers and replace by Boleslaw IV the Curly.
    Middle East:
    Zengi of Mosul and Aleppo is murdered by an eunuch of Frankish origin, Yaranqash; the news is greeted with enthusiasm by the Crusaders, whose remaining forces manage to recapture a desolate Edessa. Zengi's domains are divided between his sons, Saif ad-Din Ghazi I inheriting Mosul and the northern Iraqi holdings, Nur ad-Din northern Syria and overlordship over Damascus.
    Central Asia:
    Malik Qutbuddin, the exiled ruler of Ghor (a province of central Afghanistan), is poisioned by his host, the Ghaznavid sultan Bahram Shah. Qutbuddin brothers, who had forced him to flee, now take the offense as an excuse to wage war on their Ghaznavid overlords.
    1146-1151
    Northern Europe:
    Erik II Lam, king of Denmark, abdicates and retires to die as a monk. A civil war explodes between the distant cousins Sven III (son of the late Erik II) and Knut/Canute V (a grandson of the late king Niels through Magnus the Strong), who control respectively the islands and Jutland. A third claimant to the throne, young Valdemar I, the last son of the late Knut Lavard, controls southern Jutland/Schleswig
    1147
    Northern Europe:
    Danish “Crusaders” raid western Pomerania (Mecklenburg); Albert the Bear with his Bohemian allies grinds Greater Wendia into destruction, burning its main center, Branibor/Brandenburg.
    Conrad von Hohenstaufen, younger brother of duke Frederick of Saxony (*OTL Barbarossa), inherits the duchy of Swabia from their father Frederick II.
    Southern Europe:
    Seeing civil war ripping apart both Germany and Lombardy, their traditional candidates for overlordship, the Romancians (*inhabitants of OTL eastern Switzerland plus Valtellina and Vorarlberg) declare independence, their lands divided between the bishopric of Coira in the south and the powerful Abbey of St. Gall (*OTL St. Gallen) in the north.
    Amedeo II of Lombardy dies, leving the throne to his third son, Arrigo/Enrico I, who is obviously refused coronation in Milan. The new king imposes a blockade of the Lombard city, while his rival cousin Umberto, son of Guidone of Turin, Susa and Ivrea, vainly tries to counter his moves from Piedmont.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Helped by the powerful Pisan navy, the Normans of southern Italy sack Thebes, Corinth and Euboea; the Pisans conquer Rhodes, the Normans the Ionian islands, wresting also Corfu from Venice. They also try to set up again Belisarius Diogenes as rival emperor, but the Peloponnesian ruler, afraid of being deprived of his lands by the Venetian-Byzantine alliance, refuses.
    1148
    Northern Europe, Central-Eastern Europe:
    After enforcing the Treaty of Pilsen, Bohemia is master of Central Europe. The marches of Meissen and Austria and the brand new one of Brandenburg (formerly Greater Wendia, now under Albert the Bear von Ballenstedt) are made into semi-independent vassals of Bohemia, while Lusatia is annexed to Bohemia as a dependent duchy. Western Pomerania/Mecklemburg remains in the hands of the mostly heathen Slavic Obodrite tribe, led by their Christian duke Nicholas I of the Niklotowicz dynasty. Margrave Henry Jasomirgott of Austria is stripped of the Palatinate which is bestowed upon Welf VI of Memmingen from the Welf family, former regent of Bavaria for his young nephew Henry and current nominal margrave of Bernmark (*mainland Veneto).
    Western Europe:
    Marquis Ferdinand II and his mother-in-law, Grand Duchess Manella of Castile, defend Toledo against a Gallastrian besieging force, which is routed.
    North Africa:
    A Norman-Pisan army, officially hedead for Mauretania (*OTL Morocco) to fight the Gadirote Cathars, is instead hijacked to Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia), where an independentist revolt against the Western emperor of Sicily, John IV Ghiffiotto, has exploded. The Norman army supports the birth of an independent kingdom of Ifrigia under the rebel leader Peter IV, duke of Thermeli (*OTL Hammamet), whose imprisonment and escape had started the revolt.
    A Genoese fleet led astray by a storm while trasporting anti-Cathar Crusaders “discovers” the Canary islands (already known to the Romans, but almost forgotten in the Middle Ages and only seldom touched by European or Maurian sailors) meeting their fierce non-seafaring inhabitants, the Guanches. Despite being often tall and blond, they are found to speak a language distantly related to Maurian (*OTL Moroccan) Berber.
    1148-1156
    Western Europe:
    The king of Brittany, Conan III the Great, dies after disinheriting his only male son, Hoël III count of Nantes, for reasons of illegitimacy. Brittany should go to Eudes of Porhoët, Conan's son-in-law, but Hoël asserts his own rights to the throne. When he dies childless after escaping from an uprising, the throne of Brittany finally passes to Eudes, founder of the Rohan dynasty.
    1149
    Western Europe:
    The new duke of Valencia, Llorente I the Hardy, crushes in battle at Teruel the army of his brother-in-law, Enzacòn/Aintza Jaun (lord) of Sobrarbre, the Navarrese pretender to the ducal throne and a grandson of Sancho III the Great, despite the pretender's force was bolstered by a thousand Norman knights from France.
    Southern Europe:
    The King of Lombardy Arrigo I, the Communal militias from Cremona, Lodi and Como and the counts of Seprio raze Milan to the ground, save for the churches, after its surrender by hunger following the two-year-long siege. The king formally prohibits to dwell in the town and its immediate surroundings except for clerics and their peasant serfs, and the Milanese archbishopric is transferred in nearby Monza with most of the vanquished populace. The consuls and former consuls of the Milanese Comune (the so-called Forty Martyrs of Lombardy) are later beheaded as felons amidst the ruins of the destroyed city. Pope Dominic I (St.Bernard of Clairvaux), shocked by such violence against good Christians, excommunicates the king.
    North Africa:
    The Pisan fleet forces the capitulation of Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis) to the Norman-Ifrigian army: Peter I is enthroned as king of Ifrigia by the Primate of Africa, Gregory VI of Byzastes, with Papal approval (under Lesser Norman duress). The Pisans then conquer St. James of Ikhuzi (*OTL Algiers) from its Genoese overlords.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Byzantines, helped by Venice, expel the Normans and Pisans from the Ionian islands and the Aegean Sea; Venice recovers Corfu.
    Middle East:
    Nur ad-Din, the strong son of Zengi, crushes the Antiochene Crusaders and the Assassins of Syria at the siege of Inab, where prince Tancredi of Antioch and the Assassin leader, Alì ibn Wafa, are killed; then Nur ad-Din ceremonially rides to the shores of the Mediterranean in sign of victory. In Antioch a regency under the Norse-Byzantine princess Theodora, daughter of the late duke Sigurd of Pamphilia, manages to defend the city. Atabeg Unur of Damascus raids Palestine up to the walls of Jerusalem but is repulsed, then dies on his return in the Syrian capital.
    1149-1151
    Central Asia:
    The Shansabani rulers of Ghor (central Afghanistan), a group of brothers, raze Ghazni and wrest Kabul from the Ghaznavids, ousting them (and the Sunni Waliate) from the country. They also take Herat from the Seljuk sultan Sanjar of Khorassan, founding the Afghan Ghorid kingdom.
    1150
    Southern Europe:
    Arrigo I the City-Razer, king of Lombardy, allies with emperor William III of Greater Normandy to avoid an invasion of Lombardy by Burgundian forces through the lands of his rival, Umberto of Susa-Ivrea-Turin. He also gains the relieve from Papal excommunication by restoring the possessions of the Milanese archbishopric and allowing the archbishop to stay in St. Ambrose cathedral with his following.
    Venice quashes a Norman-sponsored revolt in western Histria.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Pisans plunder and torch Attalia, the main Byzantine port of southern Anatolia
    North Africa:
    The anti-Cathar Crusade in Mauretania (*OTL Morocco) founders after the unsuccessful battle of Gasfr Sifna (*not existing OTL).
    Middle East:
    Nur ad-Din of Syria conquers the Crusader fortress of Turbessel but is repulsed under the walls of Edessa. Later on count Wido of Tarantasia, ruler of Edessa dies without heirs leaving his endangered domain to the Knights Templar, now the real masters of Christian Syria
    SE Asia:
    The Khmer ruler Suryavarman II dies during a campaign against Annam and his empire of Kambuja weakens amidst succession struggles.
    ca. 1150
    Northern, Western, Southern Europe:
    Throughout Catholic Europe nobility begins to close to lesser social strata and to become a blood caste.
    Northern Europe:
    Marked decline of royal authority in Germany under the ineffective rule of Ludwig VI of Thuringia.
    Amidst the ensuing confusion, a migration of people from Saxony, Thuringia and the Frisian lands begins towards the Slavic lands of the western Baltic and especially Brandeburg, whose margrave Albert the Bear welcomes immigrants and continues his forced Christianization of nearby Wends/Polabians. Bohemia, Brandenburg's overlord, shows little interest in the matter.
    Southern Europe:
    Quick decay of the Canossa kingdom, rapidly falling apart in Communal revolts and succession struggles between the various branches of the ruling family.
    As Bari declines under Norman direct domination, the free Comune of Ancona becomes the most powerful Adriatic rival of Venice. The Normans are de facto masters of wide areas of the theoretically Papal kingdom of Italy/Spoleto
    Duklja/Zeta (later Melanoria, *OTL Montenegro) binds herself tightly to Byzantium by dynastical marriages to counter the menaces from Hungary, Raška/Kosovo and the Normans of southern Italy.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    Dynastical chaos is rampant in Kievan Rus', where the various pricipalities fight one another as the Kipchak/Cumans raid almost unopposed from the Dniester to the Volga. The center of Russian power slowly moves away from Kiev towards new centers in White Ruthenia/Belarus, at Novgorod and in the north-eastern principality of Vladimir-Suzdal'.
    Byzantine Empire:
    In the Byzantine Empire the pronoia system, a kind of local feudalism, takes root.
    Black Africa:
    A secession war rocks the kingdom of Kanem (Chad): some Animist clans resisting Islamization are defeated and migrate west to bolster the nearby kingdom of Bornu.
    Middle East:
    Jaffa gains wide reputation as a cross-cultural centre for studies, active in the recovery and analysis of ancient classical texts (*think of OTL's Toledo).
    Central Asia:
    The Karakhitai Empire vassalizes the Kimaks and the Kirghizes/Khakassians of southern Siberia. Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity and even Judaism flourish again in Central Asia under the Karakhitai religious toleration; Samarkand again becomes a cosmopolitan city.
    SE Asia:
    The first historical Banjar kingdom of southern Kalimantan/Borneo, Negaradipa, is founded.
    1150-1155
    India:
    Religious insurgence of the Lingayat Hindu sect, led by the preacher and social reformer Basava, against the Chalukya king Taila III. The sect, a monotheistic and egalitarian offshoot of Saivism (the cult of Shiva) strongly influenced by Zoroastrianism (*only in TTL), gains credit at the Chalukya court.
    1150-1156
    Northern Europe:
    Erik IX Jedvardsson, a lord in Uppland, is made rival king of Sweden against king Sverker I, and acquires the throne when Sverker is murdered by another pretender, Magnus Henriksson
    1151
    Northern Europe:
    Knut/Canute V is expelled from his holdings in Jutland by Sven III and takes refuge in Saxony.
    Southern Europe:
    Ancona has to accept a Norman garrison after a failed naval Byzantine-Venetian assault.
    1151-1220
    India, Middle East:
    The Long Schism divides the Waliate (*Sunni “Papacy”). After the brutal destruction of Ghazni and the subsequent death of the aged Wali Salah ad-Din II Shahid (the Martyr) at the hands of the Shansabani Ghorids – turned to Caliphism (*the main rival of Waliism in the Sunni sphere, maintaining the unity of both spiritual and temporal authoral in one Caliph) – no less than three rival Wali courts are set up by descendants of the murdered Salah ad-Din (*the Walis are NOT presumed to abstain from marrying), one in Merv (Khorassan) under the protection of the local Seljuk sultan, Sanjar; another in Multan at the reestablished Ghaznavid court in Punjab, and the third and in time most widely recognized in Mecca under Hashemite protection.
    1152
    British isles:
    A kingdom of East Breifne rises in war-torn Ireland, seceding from Breifne under Godfrey of the O’Reilly clan.
    Western Europe:
    Valencian forces besiege Saragossa but take a beating at the hands of the Navarrese army. King Afonso III the Great of Portugal, in his last great victory, defeats and captures duke Odegiso II of Transierra (*OTL Extremadura, Spain) at the fortress of Arrogadana (*OTL Badajoz); the defeated ruler is later freed to return to his capital in Mérida as a Portuguese vassal.
    Southern Europe:
    Berchtold IV von Zähringen is made duke of Alamannia (*OTL northern Switzerland) as a vassal under loose Burgundian control.
    North Africa:
    Genoa conquers Jarthousa (*OTL Bizert, Tunisia) but her fleet is crushed by Pisa at the naval battle of Sardubia (*OTL Marbella, Spain). The Pisans succesfully close the Atlantic to Genoese shipping; Pisa is undisputed master of the Western Mediterranean.
    Norman-Ifrigian forces vassalize the most powerful Numidian principality, Constantina: it's the final blow to the Foedus Africae, which ceases to exist.
    Byzantine Empire:
    In the southeast, basileus John II is forced to concede renewed freedom to Armenia Minor in exchange for an annual tribute.
    Caucasus:
    Daghestan secedes from Azerbaijan under Muzaffar, a scion of the former Hashimi rulers of Derbent.
    1153
    Northern Europe:
    A handful of Hesperian (*American) natives, captured by Icelandic traders, end up in Lübeck, where they are referred to as “Indians” and soon die of European diseases.
    Southern Europe:
    The sea-trading Comune of Savona, pressed hard by the Aleramic feudatories from lower Piedmont, is forced into a vassal alliance with Genoa.
    Hungarians and Serbs from Raška/Kosovo besiege and raze Byzantine-held Naissos/Niš.
    Central Asia:
    Great revolt of the nomad Oghuz Turks in western Central Asia: the local sultan, Sanjar, is captured, his governors slain, Seljuk power over Khorezm and Khorassan shattered.
    India:
    Conversion to Islam (in the Zaydi Shiite confession prevailing in the southern Arabic peninsula) of the Maldives, where a Muslim sultanate is established
    1153-1154
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Dominic I (St. Bernard of Clairvaux) dies, his last years marked by sincere efforts to establish peace between Christian princes. He is succeeded by the Norman-sponsored Anastasius IV (Corrado della Suburra, a Roman), then, on his death after a year, by Adrian IV, the Englishman Nicholas Breakspear
    1154
    Northern Europe:
    Knut/Canute V and Valdemar I, helped by the duke of Saxony Frederick von Hohenstaufen (*OTL Barbarossa), ally against Sven III and oust him from Denmark; the defeated ruler takes refuge in western Pomerania.
    A Swedish expedition enforces Christianization in SW coastal Finland.
    British Isles, Western Europe:
    Emperor William III of Greater Normandy (*France plus England) dies at Winchester; he is succeeded by his first son, Henry II the Courteous.
    Western Europe:
    The Besoncés dynasty, a branch of the Burgundian Anscarids, gains the throne of Castile with Ferdinand II upon the extinction of the related Galìndez family with the death of the childless Grand Duchess Manella.
    Southern Europe:
    King Arrigo I the City-Razer destroys the towns of Tortona and Asti, then together with Montferrat forces defeats his Piedmontese rival, Umberto of Susa-Torino-Ivrea, at the second battle of Pollenzo.
    King Roger II of Lesser Normandy (southern Italy) dies, succeeded by William I. The Venetians conquer the strategic coastal forts of Otranto and Leuca (Puglia).
    Bosnia becomes a semi-independent banovina (duchy) under ineffective Hungarian overlordship, its inhabitants having remained staunch Bogomils.
    Caucasus:
    The Danishmendiyya Turks of sultan Yaghi-Basan and their Azerbaijani allies of atabeg Ildeguz trounce an Iberian/Georgian-Alan army at the battle of Karakilisa (*OTL Vanadzor/Kirovakan). The usurper David V of Iberia/Georgia finds glorious death on the battlefield, his father Demetre I is restored on the throne.
    Middle East:
    Nur ad-Din, son of Zengi, reunifies inner Syria by conquering Damascus and ending Burid rule there.
    1154-1156
    North Africa:
    A mixed Byzantine-Sicilian army lands in Ifrigia (*later Punia, OTL Tunisia) trying to reassert “Roman” power, but after initial victories is finally crushed at Ziqqwana (*OTL Zaghouan) by Norman-Ifrigian forces. Genoa manages to extend his control of Ifrigian ports by conquering and holding Monastir and Tafrura (*OTL Sfax)
    1154-1158
    Northern Europe:
    Last major rebellion of the western Obodrites, who burn Lübeck but are ultimately defeated by the duke of Saxony, Frederick von Hohenstaufen (*OTL Barbarossa).
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Major rebellion of the Vlachs and Bulgarians against Byzantium, quashed with ferocity by the imperial army and the Vardariotes (*Turkish warriors settled in Macedonia by John II)
    1155
    British isles:
    Pope Adrian IV, the Englishman Nicholas Breakspeare, “entrusts” war-torn Ireland to the new emperor of Greater Normandy, Henry II the Corteous; the island however remains in the hands of the warring clans and local kings.
    King Owain II of Wales exiles his brother and co-ruler Cadwaladr, who had married Alice, a half-sister of the late Norman ruler William III; in the meantime Deheubarth (SW Wales) rebels against Norman suzerainty.
    Southern Europe:
    A Burgundian army led by count Amadeus II of Savoy invades Lombardy allying with Umberto of Piedmont. Pavia, the Lombard capital, is abandoned by king Arrigo I, plundered and burnt, as the exiled Milanese revolt in Monza. But the invaders are trounced by the joint forces of Arrigo and of marquis William V of Montferrat in the great battle of Vidigulfo near Pavia; Amadeus of Savoy is captured and ends his life in a Lombard dungeon, Monza is subject to a merciless sack and hundreds more of Milanese exiles are slain.
    Hungary and Raška/Kosovo fall apart, fighting each other and easing Byzantine counterattack.
    North Africa:
    The Pisans ally with the Banu Hilal sultan Amr II ibn Shaddad al-Naluti to wrest Tripoli of Lybia from the Genoese. They receive wide rights of commerce in the reconquered town, a flourishing market for gold, spices and slaves from Black Africa.
    Byzantine Empire:
    Byzantine forces crush the Hungarians at Skupiokastritsa (*OTL Skopje) and the Vlacho-Bulgarian insurgents at Hemochorion (*somewhere in OTL Stara Planina, Balkans proper). Genoa gains trade privileges in the Byzantine Empire in exchange for a pledge to help the basileus rebuild his navy.
    1155-1157
    Northern Europe:
    Co-king Inge I of Norway, a crippled invalid, has his brother Sigurd II murdered and civil war ravages the country. The third rival co-ruler, Eystein II, fights back, but dies two year later leaving Inge the sole ruler of a deeply divided country.
    British isles:
    The Norman imperial armies and Cadwaladr's followers mark sweeping victories in southern Wales and devastate the country, but after a sound defeat at Mona/Anglesey and a promising victory at Moeleicoel (*OTL Coleshill), they are eventually mauled in battle at Basingwerk, where the Greater Norman emperor, Henry II the Courteous, is wounded and captured. The captive ruler then signs the Peace of Bangor, recognizing the full independence of Wales under Owain II and of Deheubarth under Cadwaladr, and makes a pledge never more to invade Wales nor to help Cadwaladr should he again try to retake the Welsh throne.
    1156
    Northern Europe:
    The English-born bishop Henry of Uppsala is martyred in Finland while preaching and consolidating Swedish power in the service of king Eric IX.
    Southern Europe:
    King Arrigo of Lombardy ravages Piedmont, burning Ivrea and razing Chieri, but is repulsed when he tries to assault Turin; the Alpine passes remain firmly in the hands of the Guidoni clan and their Burgundian patrons.
    Emperor John IV of Sicily dies, succeeded by his son, Matthias I the Pilgrim, a respected veteran of the Second Crusade.
    Central-Eatern Europe:
    Mstislav II Izyaslavich, son of prince Izyaslav II of Kiev, defeats Jurij Dolgorukij at Volodymyr-Volynsky but cannot reenter his capital
    Middle East, Byzantine Empire:
    Raynald the Wolf, a scion of the same Châtillon family that produced Pope Urban II, and now powerful regent in Antioch after marrying the widowed princess Theodora, allies to the Pisans to raid Byzantine Pamphilia, claiming his wife's rights.
    1156-1157
    Central Asia:
    The Seljuk sultan of Khorassan, Sanjar, escapes from prisony aming the Oghuz Turkmen and regains a throne in Isfahan, but dies a little later, marking the final eclipse of Seljuk power in Central Asia. In Persia/Iran splintered Seljuk states survive alongside Turkmen, Kurdish or indigenous principalities.
    1156-1159
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Unsuccessful Lesser (Italian) Norman invasion of Albania and northern Greece: after initial success exploiting Byzantine weakness due to the Vlacho-Bulgarian insurgency, the Italo-Normans are beaten and forced to surrender, as the Venetian navy blockades the coasts. The humiliation of the vanquished Normans at the... hands of the Vardariotes (*Byzantine Turkish guard settled in Macedonia), a replay of the Caudine Forks, will remain in history and fan Western hate for Byzantium.
    1156-1160
    Far East:
    The Hōgen (1156) and Heiji (1159-1160) Rebellions, fought over the disputed imperial succession to the retired emperor Go-Shirakawa (*”cloistered” emperors turned to Buddhist monks retain however great power and prestige) and to gain power in the Fujiwara regent clan, establish the rising role of the samurai warrior caste in Japan, represented by the powerful Taira and Minamoto clans. The Tairas gain the upper hand and impose the first samurai-led government of Japan's history
    1157
    Northern Europe:
    A Saxon army helps Sven III make a comeback in Denmark, and the subsequent conflict ends in the tripartition of the kingdom, with Sven in possession of Scania, Knut/Canute V in Zealand (the islands) and Valdemar in control of Jutland. When later on a “reconciliation” banquet is held in Roskilde at Sven's invitation as a trap for his rivals, Knut/Canute is killed, while Valdemar escapes, afterwards defeating and killing Sven at Grathe Hede, and reunifiying Denmark.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Bohemians of king Vladislav II invade the Polish duchy of Silesia, then defeat king Boleslaw IV of Poland at the battle of Opole and make all of Poland tributary: Bohemia reaches its apogee, acquiring Silesia which is put under Wladislaw II the Exile, the deposed former king of Poland.
    Claiming old dynastical ties with the deposed Diogenes dukes of Drystra/Silistra, the Rus' of grand prince Jurij Dolgorukij of Kiev and Rostov-Vladimir-Suzdal', one of Vladimir II the Great's (*OTL Vladimir Monomakh's) many sons and the most powerful ruler of Russia, conquer the Danubian fortress from the beleaguered Byzantines. Velizarij (*OTL Vasilko), one of Jurij's sons, is enthroned there making the place a safe harbor for anti-Byzantine rebels. A few months later Yurij Dolgorukij dies and Kievan power over Russia wanes in favor of the growing duel for supremacy between the principalities of Rostov-Vladimir-Suzdal' and Polotsk.
    Middle East:
    Nur ad-Din recaptures Edessa (*OTL Urfa) from the Templars after a hard-fought siege in which Grand Master André de Montbard is killed in action.
    1157-1159
    Northern Europe, Southern Europe:
    To regain credibility Ludwig VI of Germany tries to reconquer Romancia (*OTL eastern Switzerland plus Valtellina and Vorarlberg) but is excommunicated by Pope Adrian IV, being now Romancia a purely ecclesiastical holding. He tries to keep reigning but a rebel coalition defeats him on the Sieg river and the Diet of Regensburg, at the urge of most ecclesiastical princes, deposes him. The Electors, however, fail to appoint a new king, and a new inevitable civil war begins.
    British isles, Western Europe:
    Civil war in the Norman empire after the usurpation in France and Normandy proper by Pepin the Handsome, brother of the Greater Norman emperor, Henry II, for a time believed dead in battle against the Welshmen. The emperor, once set free, enterprises a painful reconquest of England with both Church support and help from his vassal and brother-in-law Wulfstan I of Northumbria. In the battle of Higham Castle the rebel barons are crushed and England secured.
    1158
    Southern Europe:
    The Lombard king, Arrigo I the City-Razer, true to his nickname invades the Canossian kingdom and razes the town of Parma, who dared attack his lands during the Burgundian invasion; the divided Canossas don't move for help, indeed rejoicing the temporary elimination of a powerful Comune.
    Byzantine Empire:
    The Ortoqid Turks score a major victory over the Byzantine army in the battle of Perrhai (*OTL Adiyaman), paving the way for another wave of invasions into Anatolia.
    Middle East:
    William I of Montferrat-Jerusalem dies, leaving the regency of the Holy City to his son-in-law, Guido of Biandrate, marquis of the Levant (Arsuf and Caesarea of Palestine).
    1158-1164
    British isles:
    Somerled of the Isles, gained the support of most Pictish clans, ousts his brother-in-law, king Godfrey I the Black, from Alba and Scotland. The deposed king takes refuge in the isle of Man, preserving bridgeheads in Cumbria and Galloway, then on Somerled's death he is able to regain the Double Crown of Alba and Scotland with Norwegian help, despite some Northumbrian meddling in favor of the usurper's heirs.
    1159
    Southern Europe:
    Pope Adrian IV dies. The Council of Cardinals, rejecting Norman pressure, elects Orlando Bandinelli from Siena as Alexander II (*OTL Alexander III), but the Norman king of southern Italy, William I, has Honorius III (Ottavio di Montecelio, a scion of the Tuscolo clan, *OTL Victor IV), appointed as rival anti-Pope and forcibly enthroned in Rome, as Alexander flees to Spoleto.
    North Africa:
    The Grand Master of the Portuguese branch of the Templars, Dom Gualdim Pais, founds Guarda Catòlica da Moreia (*later Moreia, OTL Casablanca) as a Templar outpost against the Cathar Gadirotes.
    Central-Eastern Europe:
    The Duchy of Silesia is divided into the two smaller units of Upper and Lower Silesia under Wladislaw the Exile's sons, vassals of Bohemia.
    Middle East:
    Suspect death of the young prince of Antioch, Roger II the Child of the Hauteville family. Raynald the Wolf of Châtillon, Roger's stepfather, becomes the new prince.
    1159-1161
    Southern Europe, Byzantine Empire:
    Basileus John II Comnenus dies of old age in Constantinople, leaving the throne to his favorite and only surviving son, Manuel. The new ruler's ambitious cousin, Andronicus, after the failure of a plot, starts a bloody civil war which brings the Empire on its knees. Alongside Andronicus take part the Vardariote Turkish Guard, the always unruly Vlachs and Bulgarians, the Kievan Rus', Zeta (*later Melanoria, OTL Montenegro), the Batiturks of southern Anatolia and their Danishmendid cousins, while the legitimate basileus gains support from the Kipchak/Cumans, Hungary, Venice, the Western Empire of Sicily, Iberia/Georgia and the Ortoqid Turks. After several pitched encounters and numberless raids and skirmishes, with foreign mercenaries camping throughout the empire, the war is decided when Manuel is murdered in the besieged city of Thessalonica. In the meantime the Turks (Ortoqid and Danishmendids) have invaded Cappadocia; Melitene (*OTL Malatya) has fallen to the Danishmendids, Caesarea/Mazhak has suffered a sack at Ortoqid hands, and in Europe the Hungarians have taken Vidin and vassalized the Serbs of Raška/Kosovo.
    1159-1162
    Western Europe:
    The Pyrenean War between Navarra and Toulouse/Septimania ends without a clear winner; the lands of the counts of Foix and of the counts of Barcelona, disputed between the warring kingdoms, gain factual self-rule.
    1160
    Northern Europe:
    The self-proclaimed rival kings of Germany Frederick von Hohenstaufen (*OTL Barbarossa) duke of Saxony and Henry the Lion duke of Bavaria clash with their respective armies and allies at the battle of Schloss Gelnhausen, where Frederick wins, entering Frankfurt am Mein to be crowned as king Frederick II of Germany. Instrumental for the victory is support from the deposed Ludwig VI of Thuringia, Frederick's brother-in-law. But Henry the Lion, though wounded, entrenches in his Bavarian domains and Frederick doesn't press over, content with gaining the crown.
    The county of Nassau (NW Germany) is founded and bestowed upon the counts of Laurenburg.
    Western Europe:
    King Otto III the Blind of Luxemburg dies without heirs, extinguishing the main Ardennes/Luxemburg dynasty. Duke Henry II of Limburg-Brabant-Arlon, the regent and strongman of the kingdom and a very distant relative of the royal family, inherits the crown without opposition as king Henry III of Luxemburg.
    Southern Europe:
    Spoleto is torched by William I of Lesser Normandy (southern Italy) for hosting Alexander II (*OTL Alexander III), its legitimate and titular king, plus being the Roman Pope. Alexander takes refuge in Ravenna under Canossa and Venetian protection.
    Venice quells another Communal revolt at Zara, its main Dalmatian holding.
    Middle East:
    Raynald the Wolf of Châtillon, prince of Antioch, is captured by Nur ad-Din's Muslims near Marash (Syria); Antioch remains under the regency of princess Theodora, who later gives birth to Magnus, Raynald's only son.
    ca. 1160
    Central Asia:
    The governor of Khorezm, Il-Arslan Abu’l-Fath, rejects Seljuk authority, proclaims himself Shah and defeats a Karakhitai invasion.
    The last independent Uygur khanates of eastern Turkestan are vassalized by the Karakhitai empire.
    SE Asia:
    Muzaffar Shah I, ruler of Kedah (NW Malaya), converts to Caliphist Islam (*the Sunni faction rejecting the Walis as supreme religious authority) as the first Muslim polity in the Malay area.
     
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  9. Tyr air in space

    Joined:
    Jan 2, 2004
    Location:
    欧州
    [​IMG]

    Glossary of terms (hopefully I can add to it as I go on...hopefully)

    Magaish - New guinea
    Kahao- New Zealand's north island
    Magella- Outgrowth of the shelf containing Île Amsterdam and co.

    Duahnet- Literally 'fire walkers'. Pretty much like the OTL Australian aborignees we know.
    Oon (native name), Kanahnet (Muaishin)- Muaishin name means 'ice walkers' which is pretty much what they are: the natives of the far southern ice covered lands. Quite a varied bunch really varying from eskimo types in the far south to nomadic herders further north. It could even be said many are settled however the definition usually doesn't include these people.

    POD:

    circa 70,000BC: The Zch.Fr.A.C Frxxxx enters the Sol system and investigates its eight planets for anything of use. On the 3rd world of this solar system the decision is reached that this planet may well be suitable for terraforming.
    The crew of the Frxxxx hastily set to work preparing to transform that world into something more hospitable to their race starting off by moving that horrible ice covered continent to a more northerly latitude.
    Then however- something quite unexpected happened. The communications officer on the Frxxxx entered her race’s version of labour- and their version of giving birth must be completed in a special pool that is just not possible to copy on a starship.
    The Frxxxx’s planetary engineers quickly tied up all the loose ends on their current job making sure that the moving of the southern continent would have no horrendous effects elsewhere on the planet that would make their task more difficult upon their return.
    The Frxxxx successfully made it back to a life bearing world however whilst it was there something even more unexpected happened and the Galactic Empire descended into civil war- it turned out to be no big deal: only a few billions were killed, very little damage to habitable planets. For those in the planetary engineering business however the war was a disaster- sure there was a bit of work in restoring those planets that were damaged but no one was interested in buying new worlds anymore, the bottom had fallen out of the planet market.
    So it was that the 3rd world of the Sol system faded into obscurity and was allowed to evolve its own way. The only sign of the Frxxxx ever visiting being the massive collision of tectonic plates in the south of the planet that seemed to have just randomly occurred for no apparent reason….

    Part 1: The first Australians

    The first humans are believed to have reached Australia somewhere between 40,000 and 60,000 years ago during a period of low sea levels that caused a land bridge to connect Australia and South East Asia.
    As humans expanded all across the continent ranging from Magaish in the north to the very fringes of the south polar ice sheets in the south they gradually adapted to their new environment:
    In the north very little change happened amongst the population- the climate they found themselves in not being too dissimilar to that of their ancestors in South East Asia. There was some darkening of the skin amongst the Duahnet however these northern Australians mostly lived as their ancestors had.
    To the south though. beyond the mighty Kand mountains these early pioneers found themselves in a totally alien environment; whilst the north of the continent basked in the equatorial sun as you approach the Antarctic circle the climate sharply changes and with it the Australians gradually changed themselves: it has been scientifically proven that the Oon people are the fairest skinned race on Earth and it is amongst the Oon that you find the highest average incidences of white hair.
    As would be expected between the almost black skinned desert dwellers of the northern deserts and the ice dwelling Oon you could find almost every other possible shade of man.
    Due to having this entire vast continent to themselves for tens of thousands of years with such a wide range in climates the Australoids are probably the most diverse of all the branches of humanity.

    Part 2: The rise of civilization

    Though mankind had covered the Australian continent and diversified into a wide range of different peoples, they all continued to exist in a hunter-gatherer lifestyle for tens of thousands of years much as their cousins elsewhere in the world did. Just like most of the other main ‘cradles of civilization’ across the world it was not until the end of the last ice age that Australian civilization began to develop.
    Even today there is a lot of debate about exactly when and where an agricultural life style first developed in Australia, the earliest verifiable evidence that has been found shows agriculture and animal herding being practised by the population to the east of the sea of Hudahn at around 7,000 BC however there are competing claims of earlier permanent settlements from all around the continent- the strongest being from eastern Huleyah and Hairoyah.
    What is slightly more concrete is the development of masonry taking place around the Erano area at around 5,000BC along with Australia’s first cities.
    This advance was reasonably slow to spread around the continent however it was rapidly followed by other important developments needed to create a civilization such as primitive metalworking.
    It is also in Erano that we have the first examples of a writing system in Australia (dated to around 2,500 BC) and so it is in Erano that we have the first direct knowledge of the history of Australia and are able to move away from anthropology…

    Part 3: The Birth of the Erano Empire

    The early civilization around Erano was not a united one.
    It wasn’t as divided as the Greeks with a plethora of independent city states all competing with each other - the civilization had definite centre in Erano- and there was very little inter-city warfare.
    The main divisions within the cultural influence of Erano came from within the city itself: the early Erano people tended to divide themselves into ‘bloodlines’ or clans. Amongst the poor this did not hold much significance merely acting like a surname in most cases with only slight restrictions on whom they could and could not marry. To the rich aristocracy of the land however bloodlines were held to be vitally important (or at least were claimed to be) and so there was a milieu of constant warfare, diplomacy and espionage going on between the various bloodlines.
    As time went on in early Erano so it was that many bloodlines were destroyed- this was not always a violent process, in many occasions bloodlines could simply choose to merge with each other or they gradually faded into obscurity becoming commoners themselves and leaving bloodlines contests to the rich.
    From around 1,000 bloodlines of note at the peak of this era by 800BC there were only 7: all locked in a bitter stalemate. All 7 of the families were relatively evenly powered: there were defiantly some stronger then others however nothing to the degree that one could utterly crush another one in a few days.
    To further the deadlock, every bloodline knew if they made a move against a enemy the other 5 would be quick to set upon the both of them.
    The stalemate was eventually broken in 797BC with the uniting of the two most powerful bloodlines in the city- together they believed they were not that much weaker then the combined strength of the other 5, and with being only 2 parts (in the process of becoming 1) rather then 5 they would not have constant squabbles amongst their followers.
    It was a huge gamble and it is unknown why they dared to take it however the newly formed Puinakut bloodline struck out; the civil war lasted 4 years and was on a much bigger scale then anything that had gone before, eventually however when the dust settled only the Puinakut bloodline remained: they were now effectively rulers of the known world.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Apr 10, 2006
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  10. BlackMage Has an Archnemesis. (It's ES.)

    Joined:
    Jan 30, 2006
    Location:
    Sydney, Australia
    The Lunar Dream

    Discussion thread is here. All criticism much appreciated.

    The Lunar Dream

    Extracts from a speech by Eugene Walker, 13 July, 2018

    People are greedy. Let's take that as an assumption and work from there, OK?

    Now, I know there's a lot of people in this room who'd disagree with me on this. And that's a good thing, because the people I want here today are idealists. Today, we've got engineers, economists, bureaucrats, investors, and even a psychologist. You know the one thing that unites us? A single ideal. The idea that mankind has a destiny in space and we'd better damn well get to work on it. We share this belief for different reasons: greed, hope, patriotism, or even overdosing on Star Trek. And that's OK; some might say I've dipped too far into Spock's well myself.

    (Laughter)

    But, like I said, we're all here because we share a dream of humanity amongst the stars. I've called you all here today to make that happen.

    See, America wasn't colonized by the Pilgrims, boldly striving forth to make a new home free from religious persecution. Hell, even that's not right; they were seeking to do a bit of religious persecution themselves once they got here. But America, or at least the America we know, was founded by businessmen. The Virginia Company, with government sanction, which set up the first colony in America. Not governments. Individuals. Now that's the American way.

    Next week America will be returning to the moon in exactly the wrong way: with a NASA effort sending a whole bunch of space jocks to go kick rocks. That's not the American way. Hell, that's the French way!

    (Laughter)

    If we want humanity amongst the stars, we need to do it ourselves. So today I'm here to announce the founding of the American Lunar Company, set up to create an American colony on the moon, for civilians and by civilians. We'd be happy to take government backing, but if we do we do and if we don't we don't. And I swear this: if there aren't 5000 American men, women and hell, even children on the moon by 2030, then I'll just have to go out and move to the goddamn Islamic Iraqi Republic, because the faith I hold in my country and its way of life will have finally failed.

    We'll be opening in Wall Street tomorrow. I trust I'll see you all there. Well, ladies and gentlemen, who's up for a few bucks worth of the moon?

    Extracts from an article on The Space Review, 15 July, 2018

    For the past two days, two questions have been on people's lips all across the Net: who is Eugene Walker, and more importantly, who the hell does he think he is?

    Well, let's start with the facts. Walker is the head of SphereComm, a communications company based in, of all places, Peoria, Illinois. I mean, really. It makes President Spitzer's speeches look comparatively subtle as far as 'homegrown' goes.

    SphereComm have, in recent years, built up quite a monopoly for themselves; they produce everything from mobile phones to webcams, ensuring that Walker is, at least, quite a wealthy man. Curiously, he seems to have no real understanding of technology himself; as he said in an interview, 'I'm not an engineer, they just work for me.' A space company seems, to put it mildly, somewhat out of his reach.

    For starters, physics themselves are working against him. To put a man on the moon is, no pun intended, an astronomical feat. NASA have been working for 14 years to do it (again), and they'll only manage it next week. And yet Walker, a man with no prior space experience and with, as far as we can see, nothing but an unhealthy fixation with Star Trek on his side, wants to put 5000 PEOPLE on the moon by 2030. Aside from perhaps shooting them up en masse without spacesuits and blasting them into craters, that's clearly impossible.

    Maybe Mr Walker has spent a little too much time around cellphones. Who says they don't cause brain cancer?

    Excerpts from an article by SpaceDaily, 15 July, 2018

    'There's been a hell of a lot of nay saying over the last two days about Eugene Walker's American Lunar Company, and I'm sick of it. To coin a phrase, I'm mad as hell and I'm not going to take it anymore!

    So what if he doesn't have experience? That's precisely the problem with every space agency these days. Remember how optimistic we were about the CEV? Of course you don't; that's because we always knew they'd screw it up some way or another. Why? Because NASA, over the last 60 years, have proven themselves world experts at screwing things up. So now we're back on the moon in a wannabe Apollo, of all things, using technology that's already killed 14 astronauts. When people say 'experience', they mean 'inertia'. A tried and true track record of failure.

    All these naysayers have been proven wrong by one thing: Walker's stock has gone through the roof. You know why? Because mom and pop investors want to believe in him. They grew up on Star Wars and Stargate and even Star Trek, god rest its sorry soul. They're willing to take a gamble if it means they can touch that glowing beach above our heads just once in their lifetime.

    As for the technical argument, that's just silly. There are loads of ways for large-scale transport to the moon. NERVA, orbital assembly (we might finally get to use that silly white elephant they mockingly called the 'International' Space Station), even the great unspeakable: Orion, the one engine that can bootstrap us not just off this planet, but out of this solar system. All it'll take is a little drive and imagination, which so far as I've seen no one else in this business, not even the great white hope Elon Musk (before he sold out and started taking toilet paper to the cosmonauts in that spinning tin can up there), have hope. But Walker does.

    Fly on, Mr Walker.

    Excerpts from The Return: The Official NASA Guide, 2018

    As Charles Rogers stepped out of the lunar module Armstrong, the eyes of the world were upon him. At this moment, all our conflicts, all the myriad problems of the earth, ceased to exist. In Iraq, in the Congo, in Palestine, all eyes were glued to the screen.

    Rogers stepped down into the lunar dust of the Mare Serenitatas, and gazed across the magnificent desolation. He turned his eyes to the heavens, and spoke.

    'We're back.'

    His words were heard around the world, uniting the peoples of the Earth in hope for the future.

    ***

    Nigel Durschmied clicked off his TV as he heard Walker approaching. He knew his boss hated watching the moon landing-something about 'big government at its worst' was all Nigel could make out from the muttering-but to Nigel, it was like...like...well, Nigel couldn't describe it. You would need poets, or artists, and Nigel was mostly definitely not a poet. But still the same, seeing those scenes and hearing those words touched something deep within his soul. Which was odd, as Nigel was fond of denying, rather vehemously, that he didn't have a soul worth noting.

    Nigel span around from the TV, and sighed inwardly as Walker approached his desk. It wasn't that he disliked Walker; he was a good boss, and generally tolerant of his staff's eccentricities. It was just that he was so...well, the closest word was 'idealistic', but that didn't quite convey how Nigel viewed Eugene Walker, a man who saw Star Trek as something akin to a science textbook. To all true scientists, men with such views were seen as mildly dangerous. In short, he was a good businessman and a canny investor, but had all the technological skill of a Luddite.

    Walker was smiling. 'So, Nigel, how goes the work? I don't suppose you've got some form of miracle drive you haven't told me about?'
    Nigel sighed, outwardly this time. 'No, sir. In fact, I have even less good news than I did when we started out. Look, did you really HAVE to say 5000? 500 might have been a bit more tolerable. For starters.'
    '500 doesn't excite people, 5000 does. That extra 0 puts a tingle up your spine, doesn't it?'
    'More a shudder down my back, sir. Excuse my bluntness, but do you understand what you're asking of me?'
    'Well, I expect you to put 5000 people on the moon in 12 years. Alive, hopefully, but I'm open to compromise. So, how do we go about that?'
    'ASBs, sir.'
    'What?'
    'Alien Space Bats, sir. Internet slang. Came about in 2012 after that shooting in Denmark, sir. You know, the man who said they were out to get him?'
    '...what?'
    'Look, sir, my point is that it's impossible. For starters, landing on the moon is incredibly difficult. You have to bring enough fuel to put you into orbit, send you towards the moon, stop you once you get there, start off towards the surface, stop once you get THERE, and then reverse the whole process to get back. It's...complicated, sir.'
    Walker looked puzzled. Nigel hated it when he looked puzzled; it either meant he hadn't listened or he hadn't understood. Or both, usually. 'But we don't want to bring them BACK. That saves fuel, doesn't it?'
    'Yes, sir, but when you consider we're sending 5000 people to a planet-'
    'Moon, Nigel.'
    Nigel sighed. 'Yes, sir.'
    'Got to get your terminology right, you know.'
    Nigel refrained from mentioning that Walker often referred to iPods as 'mini Discmen'. He bit his tongue, and continued, 'But, sir, the fact still remains that it is enormously difficult.'
    'But?'
    'What but, sir?'
    'But you've come up with some answers, haven't you?'
    'Only very, very sketchy plans, sir. Most of them illegal, impossible, hopelessly optimistic or, usually, all three.'
    'Well?'
    Nigel turned towards his computer, and sorted through his folders. He opened up a GIF file, and showed it to Walker. He waited for a response, or, more likely, a request for detailed clarification, possibly using hand gestures.
    Instead, Walker was transfixed. 'Are my eyes deceiving me, Nigel?'
    'I...wouldn't know, sir.'
    'That's a nuclear rocket.'
    '...yes, sir.'
    'You're proposing to use a nuclear rocket.'
    'NASA experimented with it in their NERVA tests in the 1970s, sir. Of course, this model is highly speculative and most likely highly illegal. We'd need government backing, and that would be...problematic, sir. Sir?'
    Walker wasn't listening. He grinned as he leant in towards the screen.
    'Umm...sir?'
    'Get to work, Nigel.'
    'On what?'
    'On this. I'll deal with the government if you deal with the specs.'
    'Sir, I don't think you understand. This is...'
    'Oh, shut up, Nigel. We're going to the MOON.'

    Excerpts from a feature by the Wall Street Journal, 23 August, 2018

    In the past few weeks, three words have dominated the lips and time of investors: American Lunar Company. Deliberately modeled on the Virginia Company, in both its name and what they hope to be its eventual format, the ALC has effectively monopolized business talks, not least because it has been taken so seriously. Why? To find out, the Wall Street Journal has interviewed five prospective investors.

    John Updike, laborer, Buffalo, NY: Well, I guess it's for my kids. Everyone's talking about global warming and war with China and all that stuff; personally, it sounds like a bunch of whining sissies to me, but I think it's best to invest in the future anyway. If we don't do this now, then we'll never get to do it, will we? I mean, that's the way America used to do things: investing in the future, not blowing stuff on madcap schemes. Besides, I don't want the Chinese to get it, just like they got every other thing that made America great.

    Robert Bernstein, company executive, Chicago, IL: Well, ordinarily I wouldn't, but Walker's stock has been some of the most reliable around. The Moon's resources, particularly Helium-3, have been vouched for by very reliable experts; the way I see it, to the victors go the spoils. We need to ensure those resources for future generations.

    Alaa al-Tamimi, small business owner, San Diego, CA: I came to this country from Iraq to build a better life for myself and my family. Of course, after what happened to Iraq, it would have been near-impossible to be worse. But that is why I am investing in this project: because I wish that one day I can take my family there, to build them a home safe from the troubles of the world. I wish to build a better life, not just for myself, but for my children and their children to come.

    Jolene Brown, doctor, Phoenix, AZ: Well, I find the whole concept fascinating, personally. An entirely new planet, with entirely new challenges to conquer! Think of what we could build there. Think of how humanity will evolve on another planet, not just physiologically but mentally. It's just such a wonderful vision. How could we refuse?

    John Masterson, schoolteacher, Sacramento, CA: Well, we screwed up this planet and this nation, so we deserve a better shot. Every day I walk down the street and what do I see? More to the point, what DON'T I see? That's right, Americans. Just Asians and Hispanics and all the rest of the ethnics. Now, I'm not racist. But I like the idea of a new planet where America can maintain the things that made us great, without getting bogged down in wishy-washy multiculturalism. I want to see a New America, like the one where I used to live, and Walker seems to have the best way of going about it.

    There you have it. People from all across America, from all walks of life. Motivated by all sorts of things, from pragmatism to nationalism to idealism, but all hoping for the future Walker says he can provide.

    The White House is yet to comment on the ALC.

    ***

    'Goddamn it!'

    Luke Farmer, Secretary of State, fifth in line to the presidential succession and self-described 'kingbreaker', slammed the paper down on his desk.

    Nicholas Hedge, his aide, looked in through the door. 'Is everything alright, sir?'
    'Of course not. What, you think I'm damning good interest rates and a booming economy?'
    'Well, actually, sir...'
    'Oh, shut up, I know all about the economy. Spitzer's been at me for days, you know. And now goddamn Walker!'
    'Well, it's not exactly new news, sir.'
    'No, but the Wall Street Journal just makes it worse. Walker's practically been nominated for sainthood over the last few weeks; why can't people just see he's a goddamn snakeoil salesman?'
    'Well, sir, he's certainly idealistic. He tells people what they want.'
    'You can satisfy some of the people all of the time, or all of the people some of the time, but not all of the people all of the time. That's exactly what Walker's trying to do, and that's exactly why I know he's a goddamn liar.'
    'What about in an election year, sir?'
    'Oh, shut up, Hedge, I don't need sarcasm on top of everything else. We discussed Walker in cabinet yesterday; general consensus is 'wait and see'. We don't want to get caught with our pants down when it gets revealed that he's got a baby-powered spaceship or something, but...'
    'But what, sir?'
    'What if he's right, Hedge?'
    'But you just said...'
    'I know what I just said, Hedge, I'm not entirely dependent upon goddamn conehead public servants to run my mind. But think about it. A base on the moon. Think of helium-3 mines, tourism, hell, maybe even manufacturing. Can't you see the possibilities of that?'
    'It would be inordinately expensive, sir.'
    'Sometimes you have to spend a little money to make a little money.'
    'Unless, of course, you don't make any money at all.'
    'If it happens, it happens.'

    Farmer relaxed back in his chair, wincing slightly. Ever since some goddamn towelhead, Sunni or Shi'a, had caught him in a roadside bomb in the Iraqi Civil War, he couldn't even relax anymore without a stab of pain. In 20 years of service, in Iraq, Afghanistan, the State of Palestine, and even a memorable stay in Iran during the Beige Revolution, he'd seen some terrible things, which generally confirmed his impression that humans were by and large apes who'd just gotten bigger sticks to hit each other with. But deep in his heart, he knew that on some deep, unrealistic level, he'd like to see Walker, or someone like him, win. Just this once.

    'We'll just wait and see, Hedge. Who knows. Maybe he'll get hit by a truck and spare us the trouble.'
    'Unlikely, sir.'
    'We're government, Hedge. The unlikely is what we DO.'

    ***

    Nigel sighed as the laptop crashed, again. Ever since the Revelation virus had hit in 2012, internet access had been somewhat akin to swimming in a shark-infested sea with gaping flesh wounds. He finally gave up with the blank-screened computer, and stood up to address the room.

    Here they were. The best of the best. The cream of the crop. The ones who had been so nerdy at school that even the other nerds picked on them, and who had to give themselves their own wedgies because even bullies wouldn't touch them. All of them, by now, working for the American Lunar Company.

    As it turned out, so was Nigel. Walker had offered him a pay rise and a nice office to jump ship; even though he realised the company, once people discovered it was built on Lost in Space-level science, would go belly-up pretty quickly, a pay rise was still a pay rise.

    He cleared his throat. The quiet hum of conversation, which had mostly concerned Kirk vs. Picard fights, stopped.

    'Well, gentlemen, have we come up with any solutions to Mr Walker's predicament?'

    There was an embarrassed silence. Mitchell Stevens, an engineer whose demeanor suggested a small, easily frightened rabbit addressing a Mack truck, raised his hand.

    'Umm...Mr Durschmeid? Mr Walker wasn't REALLY serious, was he? I mean, it's all a publicity stunt, right?'

    Nigel sighed. (He was doing that quite frequently, he noticed, and immediately realised why). Of all the problems with their project, that was one of the major ones: the attitude that all this was a joke, and that pretty soon Walker would reveal he'd just been making it up to promote some new space-themed cellphone. Well, they might as well nip it in the bud.

    'No, Mr Stevens, this is not a joke. Everyone got this? Mr Walker has full confidence that mankind, or at least those specimens of it working for him, will be able to build a sustainable colony of 5000 people on the moon within 12 years.'

    The renewed silence was broken by stifled laughter from the end of the table. Nigel turned to face Keith LaMonte, former NASA engineer, theorist and all-around scientist stereotype.

    'Is something funny, Mr LaMonte?'
    'You can't be serious. 5000 people? I mean, what are they going to do up there, twiddle their thumbs in one-sixth gravity while their bones waste away? I mean, I could understand it if he said Mars, because people love Mars. And I could sorta understand it if he said the asteroids, because there's a hell of a lot of stuff we could use to supply Earth orbit. But the Moon's just sad. I mean, the slag from asteroids is about as rich as the moon gets.'
    Nigel readjusted his glasses. He'd rehearsed his speech that morning, which was good, because he had to do it so often. 'Each one is the worst of both worlds, no pun intended, Mr LaMonte. Mars is glamorous but has nothing anyone wants, and the asteroids are full of minerals but have no glamour. Plus the moon's nearby, everyone can see it, and, more importantly, we know it has both helium-3 and water. So the moon it is. Now, how do we get there?'
    A serious-minded scientist in the corner of the table, who Nigel vaguely remembered from some past encounter, spoke up. 'Well, the only way you can get 5000 people there is through nuclear means. I mean, chemical rockets are OK to set up the base, and even put the first few colonists there, but for real large-scale transport you need a NERVA or Orion.'
    LaMonte scoffed. 'Yeah. Orion. I'm sure LOTS of people will be happy about a rocket that involves blowing up nuclear weapons under the craft. Tell me, did you want these 5000 people to go there willingly, or will the Men in Black be involved somewhere?'
    Nigel interrupted. 'Guys, cut it out. Continue, Mr...what's your name, again?'
    'Alex Nguyen, Mr Durschmeid. Anyway, setting up the first few buildings will be easy; we can even use the Bigelow habitats cheaply, seeing as they've quickly realised people are a bit edgy about an inflatable space station. We can use orbital assembly to build the first few ships, send over a few professionals. If we can get NASA onboard, this would be the perfect time to send over a few photogenic space jocks.'
    'Ah...NASA. That's going to be difficult.'
    Stevens spoke up again. 'But, Mr Durschmeid, if they're NOT involved, where's the money coming from?'

    Ah. That. Admittedly, Eugene Walker was a very wealthy man; Durschmeid had heard estimates ranging from tens of millions to tens of billions, with almost every variation in-between. But even so, one man couldn't take America to the moon. In the end, it all came down to the investors. The American Lunar Company could only do this so long as Mr and Mrs. American Citizen stayed hopeful. Which, considering that they were the ones who'd come up with reality TV, wasn't a good sign.

    'America, Mr Stevens. The real America.'

    God, he hated saying that. It made it sound like anyone who'd ever got a degree or voted Democrat was a Martian or something.

    Nguyen continued. 'Anyway, if we build the colony at the poles, we'll have a reasonable supply of water, and if we build near one of the Peaks of Eternal Light that's energy done. So we can get a reasonable colony started. 5000 people, though, is a somewhat different matter.'
    LaMonte spoke up. 'For starters, why? Why would anyone want to go live on the moon? Sure, tourism'll be nice, but uprooting your whole life to go live on a barren rock with no air, no food, and perhaps most importantly no money? In short, where's the bottom line?'

    Durschmeid smiled. He had them. Time for the coup de grace. He wished Walker was here, but he was off talking to the President or getting his hair done; Walker assessed both of equal importance. So Durschmeid just had to improvise.

    'You know, Mr LaMonte, you're exactly right. Where IS the bottom line? But you know, people said the same about Jamestown, 400 years ago. But then they discovered a miracle crop. THE miracle crop. Refreshing, energizing, and best of all, highly addictive. They brought tobacco to the world. We're going to bring them something better.'

    Durschmeid slammed down on his laptop, which finally responded. It projected a slide onto the back wall. A medical report, highly technical but unmistakable in its conclusions.

    Nguyen was taken aback. 'Is that legit?'
    Durschmeid wandered up to the wall. 'Oh, it's more than legit, Mr Nguyen. Our top doctors have come up with this. The evidence is unmistakable: in elderly populations, lower gravity is a boon. Less muscular effort, less stress on the bones, hell, even the skin suffers less stress, so wrinkles might clear up. Plus, of course, this is the Star Trek generation, so the Moon's practically sold to them already.

    Durschmeid spun around to face the group. He'd rehearsed this all in his head. It was finally clicking. 'The Baby Boomers, gentlemen, turn anywhere from 60 to 70 this year. Mortality is finally settling in with them. And makes them mad as hell. These were the people who liberated women. Who ended apartheid. Who've spent a fortune over the last 30 years trying desperately to stay as young as possible, or at least to appear it. The moon is a godsend to these people. Sure, Virginia exported tobacco. But we have something far more precious. We are going to sell these people LIFE, gentlemen.'

    Excerpts from an interview on Sunrise, October 19, 2018

    Cosh: Hello, and welcome back to Sunrise. Today, we've got a very special guest; the man who says he can take mankind to the moon: forever, this time! Ladies and gentlemen, put your hands together for Eugene Walker!
    Walker: Thanks, Daniel.
    Cosh: Now, Eugene, first up I'm sure we're all dying to know how you're responding to NASA's newly announced Armstrong Base proposal.
    Walker: (Shrugs) It's just an Antarctic station that's gotten a long way from home. Of course, we'd love to use it as a logistics point, but that's not really what the ALC's about.
    Cosh: Well, Mr Walker, the one thing you haven't told us is what the ALC really IS about.
    Walker: Simple, really. We plan to transport 5000 willing people to the moon, build accomodation for them, and begin the construction of a colony on the moon. I'm sure NASA would love to cooperate with us; after all, aren't we doing their job for them?
    Cosh: But, Mr Walker, I have a letter here from a Mr Laws who says, and I quote, 'putting 5000 people on the moon would only be possible if Mr Walker has some form of unicorn-driven engine.' I hope he's being sarcastic, but the point remains that it would be rather difficult.
    Walker: (Laughs) Not at all, David. Sure, that's what NASA say, but they WOULD say that, wouldn't they? But the thing you've got to understand is that NASA function not to facilitate space travel, but rather to prevent it; to keep contracts in the same hands for decades on end. And so, new ideas, ones that could actually get us into space en masse, get stifled.
    Cosh: Yes, but you haven't ACTUALLY said what those ideas are...
    Walker: Well, we're still working on the details, and you must understand these things take time, David. But I still stick by my promise that by 2030, there will be 5000 American citizens on the moon.
    Cosh: Well, how do you respond to your critics' claims that you're a charlatan?
    Walker: Well, when I'm on the moon and they're not, I think we can take that as a pretty good refutation.
    Cosh: That's about all we've got time for, I'm afraid, but just one final question: why do you expect people to go to the moon, Mr. Walker?
    Walker: I thought you'd never ask. (Turns to camera) Age. It's a problem that grips us all. Hell, I would know, I'm going to be a grandfather next year. I know the havoc the years wreak upon our bodies. But the ALC has an answer.
    Picture it. The moon has lower gravity, to reduce stress. A controlled environment, to eradicate disease. And I guarantee it is completely, utterly safe. Hell, you'd have to TRY to die there.
    So I offer this to you, America: twenty more years of blissful, unstressed life, above the national life expectancy. Are you really going to turn down the one thing that can delay the Grim Reaper? Because, in the end, it all comes down to a simple choice. Life...or death?
    Cosh: Thank you for joining us, Mr Walker.
    Walker: My pleasure.

    ***

    2018:
    -Man returns to the moon in the Orion 6 mission.
    -Eugene Walker, formerly of SphereComm, launches the American Lunar Company, designed to set up commercial exploitation of lunar resources.
    -NASA announce their plan for Armstrong Station, a permanent scientific establishment of two to four people on the moon by 2025.

    2019:
    -After months of study, the ALC release their plans for lunar exploitation. They plan to buy US Ares V rockets to extract helium-3 from the moon. They announce their plans for their first unmanned launch by 2020, and their first manned launch by 2021. Their claims are met with wild enthusiasm from the public, and general skepticism from experts.
    -Orion 7 and Orion 8 land on the moon. NASA begin further planning for Armstrong Base.
    -The first 'lunar tickets' are sold by the ALC to willing colonists.
    -War breaks out between the Islamic Republic of Iraq, an Islamic fundamentalist Shi'a state, and Najd, the former Saudi Arabia. This creates an immediate crisis on already strained oil supplies, prompting further interest in the ALC's plans for helium-3 extraction.
    -The People's Republic of China announces its plans to land men on the moon before 2025.

    2020:
    -Lewis and Clark, two unmanned ALC craft, land on the moon, launched by American Delta VI rockets. The craft are complicated rovers, with soil sampling capabilities. A site in Oceanus Procellarum is identified as the site for the planned NewJamestownCity.
    -The US government comes under increasing pressure to endorse the ALC. They finally relent, giving Eugene Walker license 'to further the interests of the United States in colonising the moon.' This gives Walker access to NASA training facilities, and discount use of Ares V rockets. This effectively brings the ALC under the wing of the US government. Orion spacecraft are planned to land the first people in New Jamestown, and Armstrong Station is quietly scrapped.
    -In response to US backing of Najd, the Islamic Republic of Iraq launches an oil embargo against the US. This further inflames international tensions. However, far from curtailing space expansion, public enthusiasm for new sources of energy merely advances it.
    -On December 25, chosen deliberately to echo the orbit of Apollo 8, the first habitation module, codenamed Townhall, lands on the moon, launched by an Ares V. The inflatable module is based on the mooted Skywalker-class spacestations of Bigelow Aerospace, and is capable of holding 4 people, as well as containing scientific facilities.
    -Eliot Spitzer is defeated in the presidential election by David Vitter, a conservative Republican.

    2021:
    -An Ares V launch lands the first helium-3 extraction facility.
    -China launches the Zheng Ho, a rocket capable of placing 100 tons in lower Earth orbit, and sending men to the moon.
    -On July 4, 2021, the first four ALC astronauts land in the New Jamestown settlement in the Mayflower, a modified Orion. Robotic extraction and refinement facilities are activated. Although the US does not claim sovereingty over the areas it plans to mine, it faces criticism for its exploitation of the moon. Although the colony is not self-sufficient, it recycles most of its materials.
    -The ALC, in conjunction with NASA, announces plans to build the Enterprise, a fusion-powered craft in orbit capable of taking 50 people to and from the moon on repeated trips, built using lunar materials.
    -The first Chinese taikonauts orbit the moon, with plans to land next year.

    ***

    'Hey, guv, any idea what's taking them so long?'
    Lang sighed. As nominal 'governor' of New Jamestown (in practice, he was effectively first amongst equals; Walker had only chosen the title because, in his words, 'it sounds so much more permanent, doesn't it?') he was in theory responsible for communications, and a lot more besides. In practice, though, all four 'colonists' were just spam in a can; wee little puppet men, in the hands of the controllers back in Houston, and to the company bosses. It annoyed the hell out of him, but what could he do? He was just a cubicle worker; the fact that his cubicle was on the moon had very little to do with it.
    'No idea. It'll only be a few minutes, don't worry.'
    Station Science Officer (another one of Walker's quirks; the fact that they were all scientists had apparently slipped his mind) Ben Simons grinned at him. Early on in their stay, Lang had liked Simons' grin; it kept them cheery and reminded them not to take things too seriously. By now, though, he longed for a shotgun.
    They'd been told this would happen; the psychologists called it 'moon madness'. They lived in an environment of almost solid grey; grey walls, grey landscapes, even the most grey people you could hope to find. It was only logical that sooner or later they'd start to get on each other's nerves. Still, all the scientific justification in the world couldn't change the fact that Lang couldn't wait to get off this goddamn rock.
    The first team were just trailblazers; they would set up the equipment, get the lifesupport systems running, keep the flag flying, and most importantly, start the helium-3 extraction. Still, Lang was counting down the days until he could see blue skies again.
    Finally, he heard the blessed static in his ears that meant a call from Earth. Communications were generally sketchy at best, so these few minutes every day-particularly today-were important.
    'Governor Edward Lang, this is Houston...repeat, this is Houston. Come in.'
    'This is Governor Lang, we hear you loud and clear.'
    'OK, we've got a lock. Safety check?'
    Lang tapped a few buttons on his console. They were in Townhall's operations centre; theoretically, the control base for the moon. By now, however, Lang had spent far too long on the moon to harbour any notions of autonomy. They were just pawns, after all; nothing he did here couldn't be done back on Earth. But, after all, symbolism was important; they needed to maintain the 'pioneer' myth. Back on Earth, they didn't see a bunch of middle-aged guys getting angry at each other in a tin on a barren rock; they saw Lewis and Clark, boldly striding into the frontier. And, of course, the cameras loved the operations centre.
    'OK, Houston, we have a safety check. We're good to go.'
    'Roger that. You have a go for liftoff.'
    'Lifting off in three, two, one...'
    Simons turned to the window, still grinning. Outside, there was a flash of light. Lang turned to look at it; even after a lifetime of space, nothing could beat a rocket launch.
    This was the first helium-3 launch; they weren't up to using fusion rockets yet, but the entire rocket, minus the fuel, was made right here, by the robotic factories. About 50 kilos of precious helium-3 would plummet through Earth's atmosphere; trivial now, but enough to build an industry that would one day light up the moon. The resources of an entire planet, plundered to light a million hungry air conditioners.
    But then, Lang wasn't here for moral judgments. He was just a cubicle worker; cows don't have a say on vegetarianism.
    ***

    2022:
    -The first Chinese lunar landing mission. At the time, there is increasing internal unrest in China, due to secessionist terrorism, disillusionment with the regime, and tension over Taiwan; the increasingly creaky PRC government use the landing as a PR coup, and pledge to form lunar colonies.
    -The first helium-3 capsule lands on Earth. At this point, the project is nowhere near cost-effective, but the symbolism is what matters.
    -The first commercial fusion reactor is built in France. Due to the world oil shortage, fusion is rapidly adopted across the world over the next decade.
    -Millennium Developments, Inc, is created; a multinational corporation of several commercial space businesses, it aims to increase commercial development of the moon. The ALC pointedly refuse to join.
    -Robots begin moving south from New Jamestown (which, incidently, is at 5 degrees South, 33 degrees West) towards the South Pole, to begin planning for a railway to transport water.

    2023:
    -A new habitation centre lands in New Jamestown. New crew arrivals increase the permanent population to 12.
    -The fusion boom causes economic chaos throughout the Middle East, as oil prices rapidly fluctuate. The tenuous government of Afghanistan collapses. The civilian government of Pakistan is overthrown by a military coup, in response to the situation of the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
    -The first greenhouse lands on the moon. Although it is still not self-sustaining, this is trumpeted as a 'great step towards the colonisation of the stars' by Eugene Walker. In a mood of increasing international turmoil, few notice. The ALC's inability to return a profit from the lunar enterprise is increasingly noted, and share prices fall.
    -Millennium Developments, Inc, launch their first unmanned test of their lunar hardware.
    -The New Jamestown manufacturing plant begins processing lunar ore for the construction of the Enterprise. However, funds for further launches come under increasing strain, due to the worsening financial climate.

    2024:
    -The first components of the Chinese moon colony Mao Zedong begin landing on the moon. This fails to ignite much public enthusiasm in America; the worsening economic climate creates greater strain on the ALC, who are increasingly unable to maintain New Jamestown.
    -A second greenhouse is launched to New Jamestown, making it reasonably self-sustaining. However, construction of the Enterprisestill moves slowly. Despite Walker's repeated appeals to 'just wait a while and the cash will just roll in', he is sacked in a boardroom coup. Walker retires, a bitter, defeated man.
    -In the Islamic Republic of Iraq (the Shi'a south of the former Republic of Iraq), the United Iraqi Alliance finally loses power, after 20 years of dominant-party rule, to an alliance of Islamist parties after the oil crash. Oil prices immediately rise in the US.
    -The ALC declare bankruptcy, and are bought out by the US government. New Jamestown becomes a US government possession. Behind in the polls for the upcoming election, Vitter declares his intention to continue the construction of the Enterprise, and to make helium-3 mining viable. He is re-elected in a narrow victory.
    -Using a SpaceX Dragon vehicle, previously only used for deliveries to the increasingly ramshackle ISS (now a solely Russian-commercial venture), Millennium Developments, Inc, launch two men on a circumlunar trip.
    -The first colonists arrive in the Mao Zedong colony.
    -Robots begin laying the foundations for the South Pole-New Jamestown railway.

    2025:
    -The final components of the Enterpriseare assembled in lunar orbit. It is designed to stay in space permanently, although it requires extensive fuelling from Earth. It can only carry 20 people, although with extra modules it could theoretically carry up to 50. It arrives in Earth orbit for the first time on April 26. The government begins applying for colonists. About half the applicants are professionals being hired for their skills, but the other half are paying customers. Tickets cost several million dollars apiece, but in a worsening international climate the idea of a 'refuge' appeals to tens of thousands of people. The prospective 'colonists' begin arriving in orbit, ironically on SpaceX craft. The Lunar Boom begins...

    October 23, 2025

    Dr. Herbert Marshall stepped onto the moon for the first time. The dream of generations, a beacon to the hopeless. All around him stretched the endless beach of eternity.

    'What a dump.'

    Which, admittedly, it was. The last four years had not been kind to New Jamestown; four landings a year had created a 'town' that resembled the unwanted lovechild of a decrepit mining town and the apocalypse. But, then again, Herbert had not come to the moon for aesthetics.

    A space-suited figure approached. As part of NASA's desperate attempt to 'bring a splash of life to the moon', the suits were brightly decorated; the figure approaching now was in some ungodly shade of green. Far from brightening up the place, it looked like the suit was covered in a horrible fungus.

    A voice spoke over the headset radio. 'Welcome to the moon, ladies and gentlemen. I'm Governor Edward Lang, pleased to meet you, I'm sure we'll be friends, sorry about the suit. If you'd just come this way...'

    Lang walked off, followed by most of the other passengers. Herbert, though, took the time to look around.

    Like most of the early colonists, he had no living family; NASA called the recruits 'bright young men and women, out to build a future for themselves on the new frontier', presumably because it sounded better than 'disposable saps'. Which, admittedly, most of them were; during Herbert's three days in the spamcan they called the Enterprise, he'd seen enough Star Trek to give him convulsions at the sight of a pair of pointy ears. But even so, he had to admit a frission of excitement. They were the second set of colonists to arrive on the moon; the MOON, for gods sakes! Of course, even that only added up to 50 people, it still made some small part of his spirit...well, soar. Only a small part, though. Dreams of 'the new frontier' were only minor distractions; Herbert was following in the much more AMERICAN tradition of dreaming of having so much money he could build a guest house out of dollar bills.

    He hurried off after Lang, who was giving the New Jamestown equivalent of a 'guided tour'. Admittedly, there wasn't much to see; four crude dormitories had been constructed on the moon by the factories, which looked, to put it mildly, somewhat ramshackle. The rest of the base was factories and refinement plants.

    Even so, he had to admit they were impressive. The first of the foundries had been tiny by comparison, only weighing a few tons, but the robots had been busy. They'd been fed regolith, tons of it, and they hadn't stopped building yet. A crude automated mine stood outside town; inside, the factories pumped out endless streams of rocket parts and walls and engines and, most precious of all, refined helium-3.

    Herbert suspected it looked even more impressive to the other people in the audience. Wannabe space cadets were in short supply; what NASA wanted now were workers. Robots were expensive, finnicky, and hard to maintain; so, with typical government logic, NASA had decided to import engineers and miners, who were even more expensive, finnicky, and hard to maintain. And, of course, Herbert, who would have to do the maintenance.

    Why was he here? In truth, he wasn't so sure himself. Sure, the money would be great, and he would become famous to pasty-faced nerds across the world, but he sensed it was something more than that. Herbert, a man whose previous experience with adventure had been ordering a Vanilla Pepsicoke, was experiencing his first frission of excitement. The Lunar Dream had another victim.

    ***

    After four years on the goddamn moon, Edward Lang was finally fed up.

    He'd been a company man; a cubicle worker, who just happened to be a scientist. When he'd been 'sidesized' from SphereComm to the ALC, he accepted it, no problems; with the economy the way it was, you took the jobs you got. He even accepted this ridiculous moon mission; sure, it'd play hell with his nether regions and it'd take a few years from his life, but he did what he was told. Hell, he even got to be the 'governor' of the colony, although mostly so that he could yell at people for the ALC, rather than having the ALC yell directly at them.

    But then the ALC had gone bust. The only thing Lang was surprised at was how long it'd taken; the government had been taking it over bit by bit for years, and it had consistently failed to turn a profit. People weren't willing to take 'next year, we'll have basketball courts on the moon. NEXT year' forever, and they finally hadn't.

    But Lang had liked the ALC. He'd always been a history buff, and even if Walker hadn't quite got some of the lessons (for example, the Virginia Company was about as independent from the government as the Department of Defence), he appreciated what he was doing. But now he was a government employee, and things were beginning to get deeply seedy.

    They'd kept him on as governor, if only because he knew the place inside out by now, but the new crewmembers worried him. They weren't career scientists, like Lang; they were former fighter pilots, every one of them, and they meant business. Sure, they took orders, but generally interpreted them more as 'gentle suggestions'.

    Still, he was going back to Earth on the Enterprise; this long, four-year stay in the world's furthest-out airport lounge would be over. Who said there were no happy endings anymore?

    ***

    Walker watched the screen woozily. He wasn't sure how many he'd had; truth be told, if you asked him what the date what, he might get it on his third try if lucky. Even so, he knew that he was deeply, deeply angry, and had been for quite some time.

    He waved his hand through the air. 'I promised them immortality, you know, Nigel. Immortality. What kind of a world is it where a company promising eternal life goes bust?'
    'Umm...the kind where the company can't actually GIVE immortal life to people?'
    'But we were so CLOSE, Nigel! The Enterprise was just a year from completion!'
    'We were several million dollars in the red, sir. Remember, sir? The bank repossessed two of your houses?'
    'But it wouldn't have mattered, Nigel. Millions of people were going to fly with us. BILLIONS. What are a few houses compared to that?'
    'When it still costs untold millions to put material into space, sir, you'd be surprised how much.'

    Even so, Nigel Durschmeid still didn't accept that as an explanation. Sure, he'd known that sooner or later, the ALC would go bust, but this soon? Walker may have been a dreamer, but he wasn't stupid; he knew what people wanted.

    No, this was a setup. The government had first affected calculated disdain towards the company, then, once they started getting boots on the ground, had leapt at it with claws out. And now New Jamestown was theirs.

    Nigel had jumped ship before the ALC crashed, and had been quickly offered a job at Millennium Developments. Even so, he had enough friends working at the government-owned ALC to know that things were going rapidly downhill. The Chinese in Mao Zedong had started scouting out the South Pole; New Jamestown had sped up construction of the polar railway and had started dispatching scouts. Sooner or later, it was clear one side or another was going to shoot the other in the eye, and THEN the moon would get pulled apart like a jigsaw.

    The whole thing depressed him immensely. They'd gone out there to make a profit; ignoble, yes, but motivated by a desire to enrich their country. But this was just a pissing competition in space; rampant nationalism on a stage ill-suited for it. And the moon would pay the price.

    Nigel became aware Walker had been talking for a while. Generally, most of what Walker said these days was of limited relation to reality, but Nigel heard an unusual clarity in his ex-boss's voice.

    'What was that, sir?'
    'I said, Nigel, think pilgrims. New Jamestown is just like the old Jamestown; business and government, hand in hand, out to make a profit. But we could be the pilgrims, Nigel. Free thinkers, out to set up a new society. A BETTER society.'
    'Well, with truth, sir, puritans weren't exactly free thinkers.'
    'Pah. Then we'll just do better than the Jacobeans, won't be hard. Tell me, Nigel, do you have any jobs running at that Centenary...thing of yours?'
    'Millennium Developments, sir.'
    'Oh, it doesn't matter. When I run the company, that name is RIGHT out.'

    ***

    'You're going to do WHAT?'
    Lang stared at the screen, stunned. On Earth, NASA Administrator Keith Reynolds stared back impassively.
    'We're claiming the south pole, Lang. I'm sorry, but it's them or us.'
    'No it's not! The Outer Space Treaty-'
    '-says squat, Lang. Sources of ours in the Chinese government say that they're becoming...concerned about the fact we might claim the caps, so they're moving their own annexation. We're simply cutting them off. At the same time, we're going to claim all land within 200 kilometres of New Jamestown.'
    'So you're claiming the poles because they might, and they're claiming the poles because you might?'
    'Exactly. The next Enterprisecolonists have been postponed; we're sending 20 marines instead. We need to set up an outpost at the moon to pursue our claim. Oh, and your replacement.'
    'M...my replacement?'
    'Yes. I'm sorry you had to hear it this way, Governor Lang, but you're fired. The next governor of the AmericanLunarTerritories will be a military official. Sorry, Ed.'
    The line went blank. Lang leant back, stunned.

    So that was it. To hell with the rest of the world, gimme gimme gimme. And it would be like this all over the moon; we set up a base and claim land, they set up a base and claim land, and soon everything gets chewed up.

    God, he hated this goddamn grey rock. But over the last four years, it'd been home. A stuffy, boring, industrial home, but home.

    When they say 'you can't go home again', they generally don't mean 'because soon enough it's going to get obliterated in a land war'.

    ***

    May 16, 2026

    The most important man in lunar history descended towards the surface, turned green, and threw up.

    Andrew Lawson was, on the face of it, an unlikely candidate to be the most important man in lunar history. Brought up in Colorado, he'd quickly discovered that most careers open to him involved being stuck down a deep hole whacking rocks with large, heavy objects. He didn't mind, though; he liked mining. He was good at it. He was, in fact, a dangerously decent person; he took those bits of the Bible about 'love thy neighbour' more seriously than most priests, he was entirely comfortable with anyone regardless of sex, orientation, race, or even geekiness, and perhaps most importantly he had the knack.

    It's hard to define the knack. Hitler had it. Lenin had it. Clinton had it. On 9/11, even Bush had it. 'Charisma' only begins to cover it; it was the gift of making other people see your point of view. In a world of staid opinions, it was a rare and valuable gift.

    Of course, at the moment, the knack was somewhat absent; it's hard to convince people when a large portion of your guts are in a paper bag.

    Andrew Lawson was one of the first of a new breed of lunar colonists. Before him were the fighter jocks, the professionals, even a few tourists. But he was here for something different.

    'Honey? Are you OK?'

    He was a family man, the first on the moon. His wife, Cindy, was also a miner; their son, Jake, was 10, and had stayed awake for a week before liftoff. NASA had gone through thousands of candidates for the 'first family of the Moon'; they had no idea what they were in for.

    Lawson tried to grin and bear it.

    'I'm fine, Cindy. Really, I'm fine.'
    'Really? So what's that in the vomit bag, cough syrup?'
    '...yes?'
    'It'll be over soon, honey.'

    Cindy moved over to talk to Jake, who, if anything, was even worse off than Andrew. They were in one of the new Armstrong-series landers; manufactured on the Moon, they were capable of carrying ten people at a time, although this came in conditions that would have made tinned salmon claustrophobic. Still, that wasn't what worried Andrew; what worried him was the experimental fusion engine beneath the craft. It was, effectively, a mini-reactor blasting hydrogen to thousands of degrees and blasting it at the surface; it was admittedly effective, but Andrew had never been comfortable with balancing on a flame that was, when you got down to it, produced by a nuclear weapon.

    He tried to concentrate on the view. Unfortunately, it wasn't much better from that side, either; 8 years of inhabitation had ploughed the ground around New Jamestown into a state more familiar to veterans of trench warfare. The base was still effectively a huddle of shacks, surrounded by a ring of silo-looking factories; around them, the landscape was dotted by automated mines, each one connected to the factories by railway tracks. On the horizon, a silvery railway stretched off into the horizon; that must be the South Pole railway, carrying vital hydrogen from the frozen poles.

    Man could make robots for a hell of a lot of things, but in the end it took a man to do a man's job. When it came down to it, robots simply couldn't be made cost-effective enough to extract minerals in the quantities needed. The moon needed grunt labour, and that's why he was here.

    ***

    The new colonists wearily trudged through the 'streets' of New Jamestown; technically, they were just places where buildings weren't. But Lawson walked with a spring in his step. They were in a city, on the MOON. Granted, a city of 100 people, and one that only existed because NASA needed somewhere to keep lab rats, but that didn't take away from what they'd done. It was extraordinary, it truly was. Of course, the buildings were admittedly somewhat drab, but that would just take time. Soon enough, they'd build a home to be proud of.

    Jake walked next to him, in a specially NASA-made child space suit, covered in corporate logos. Jake was already one of the most famous people in the history of space flight; a hero to kids everywhere. Of course, all the 'interviews' they'd had done were masterpieces of fabrication, but Lawson didn't have the heart to tell Jake.

    'Hey, Dad, what's that?'
    'That's a factory, Jake.' They'd been given careful instructions on where everything was, mostly because NASA didn't want commoners touching their equipment.
    'And that?'
    'That's another factory, Jake.'
    'Wow. There's lots of factories, aren't there?'
    'There sure are, Jake.'

    Which was right; there WERE lots of factories, simply because as astonishingly expensive producing stuff on the moon was, it was far more expensive to take it there. There were rows of production compounds, constantly pumping out concrete, steel, ceramics, rocket parts, shovels, tracks, train cars; the basis for an entire industrial complex. There were plants for getting oxygen out of the rockets. the polar railway had been completed earlier in the year, they'd been shooting off rockets practically daily.

    The secret lay in helium-3. It was damn hard to mine; for every few grams you got, you got a a hell of a lot of waste with it. But Earth craved it. Vast amounts of it. Ever since the Middle East had gone to hell in a handbasket and the last oil reserves had begun looking suspiciously dry, people on Earth were clinging to fusion like a glowing life preserver. And for the most efficient fusion, helium-3 was the only way. Grams of the stuff were enough to make or break fortunes.

    The new colonists reached a rough open area, in front of Townhall, the original habitation module. New Jamestown was built on an X shape; the rough prefabricated houses went along one street, the factories along the other. Convenient.

    A word or two about the new colonists. They weren't the space cadets of the earlier years. These were 'men of the earth', or 'honest battlers', terms generally used by academics to dismiss anyone less sophisticated than they were. They were builders, manufacturers, miners, even a farmer or two. You can get all the fighter pilots you want, but sooner or later every colony needs a plumber.

    Outside Townhall they were met by Governor John Houston. Lawson had met his predecessor, Edward Lang, a generally amiable, worried chap who seemed slightly too tightly wound for this kind of job. Houston, on the other hand, positively oozed confidence. A former Marine, he was every stereotype of the hard-nosed military general there had ever been. He also liked violins, and cats.

    Houston stepped forward. Even in a spacesuit, Lawson could tell the man was heavily built; the type you wouldn't want to meet in an alley at night. Well, that was fine. This was the new frontier, after all; limp-wristed poets generally came later.

    'Alright, ladies and gentlemen, listen up. My name is Governor John Houston, and I'm going to make the rest of your lives hell.'

    There was a nervous giggle or two; Lawson knew better.

    'OK, to whoever just laughed; let me assure you I seldom, if ever, say anything without meaning it to the bottom of my soul. Let me just dispel some illusions you may have. This is not the Enterprise. Not the starship, not even the salmon can you came here on. This is a mining town. You are here to work, and you will work. The fact is that from no one you have no rights. What are you going to do, leave? There's a few thousand kilometres of grey rock you're welcome to. You have come here to do a job, and that job is to make this enterprise profitable for the United States of America.

    'If you don't know how important this base is to the United States, let me spell it out for you. We're not the most important people in the world at the moment, you understand? If 9/11 and 3/4 didn't make that absolutely clear, the 'Land Grab', as some of the more liberal columnists have taken to calling it, certainly did. I don't care about your opinion on whether we own this grey dust under your feet; we say we do, and so we do. The Chinese say they own the ground under that thing they call the Mao Zedong, and hell, maybe they do. When the Russian-European Space Consortium finally get around to getting boots on the ground, they're welcome to it too. The secret is getting it before they do.

    'I will not wimp around the truth, ladies and gentlemen; we mean to possess the moon, and everything on it. Once we get to Mars in a few years, a project that will be a major preoccupation of your labours, we're getting it, too.

    'Why? Because we have a responsibility. A responsibility to the United States to ensure that we remain the strongest power in the world for as long as necessary. I'm not a scientist. I couldn't tell you the first thing about helium-3, except that it's enough to keep us on top for a bit longer, and that's good enough for me. It should be enough for you, too.

    'I will not lie to you: I will run this colony with an iron fist for as long as I am here, and I mean to be here for a while. You're here to do a job, and I intend that you do it. If you can cooperate with me, that's good, and we should get along fine. If not, then remove your helmet now, because it'll be a hell of a lot less painful than what'll come next.'

    'Godspeed, ladies and gentlemen, and good luck.'

    Extracts from The Space Review, April 4, 2026

    Sure, the Americans have taken a lot of flack for the Land Grab. And sure, on the surface, it may seem somewhat unorthodox; after all, claiming 500 square kilometres as your lunar territory may not be exactly looked kindly upon by international law. But the left-liberal obsession with the issue is entirely over the top, and motivated by wimpy idealism that pays no regard to the facts of the issue.

    Tell me, liberals; if what America did was 'naked imperial aggression', then what was China's land grab a week later, pacifism? The fact is that the Moon is the new frontier, and everyone wants a piece of it. I suppose the ESA (the left's favourite poster child)'s decision to start launching components for their lunar base in coalition with Russia was an attempt to peacefully share the moon with humanity, right? Completely wrong. The age of the 'neutral moon' was always a fabrication, and now has been thankfully relegated to the dustbin of history. From now on, we will see the increasing commercial and national exploitation of the moon, and it's about damn time.

    The UN's condemnation of the land grab just shows how blind and feeble they really are, and will hopefully speed their disintegration.

    Extracts from an article by the Sydney Morning Herald, May 20, 2026

    New Millennium Developments CEO Pledges Mars Mission By 2030

    The new CEO of Millennium Developments, ex-American Lunar Company chairman Eugene Walker, has pledged to send colonists to Mars within the next 4 years.

    At a press conference yesterday, Walker said, 'What really killed the ALC was a lack of vision. Sure, lunar mining can be done, but it doesn't inspire anyone; it's just grey, mechanical, lifeless. The new goal of Millennium Developments is a truly millennial development; we aim to establish a self-supporting colony on Mars, as a second home for humanity'

    NASA were not available for comment.