Jefferson's Anti-Slavery Crisis: Alternate History of the U.S.

Chapter 1: The Origin of the South: 1784-1800
  • Darn. Did the delegates of Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina just walk out of the Constitutional Convention? We will be hanging separately if we are not hanging together. Did these delegates just give up on the dream of independence? They are the most spineless cowards I had ever seen in any of the colonies or in the newly-formed United States of America. I saw chickens more courageous than these fellows.
    -Benjamin Franklin

    That is because they were the most cowardly of hypocrites. We wanted freedom from Great Britain and that all men were created equal. They, however, thought it would mean the end of slavery, which they apparently treasured to the degree that they would not join us in our fight for freedom. I knew there would be trouble with the anti-slavery clause in the Declaration of Independence, but I never knew the Deep Southern delegates would be so protective of their ‘peculiar institution’ as to betray us. These unworthy Judases deserve their place in the ninth circle of hell. In that case, we will continue with our journey for independence. The objections in the lower South will not deter us from our dream of freedom.
    -Thomas Jefferson

    The British Empire had suffered a major setback in 1784. It had lost a large number of its colonies—from Virginia to New England. The loss of the colonies had repercussions beyond their direct loss. The prestige of the Empire took a massive hit, and soon, the British were worried that their other colonies—in the Caribbean, in the American south, and in Canada—were thinking about breaking free. Slaveholders in the American south were pacified due to the British promises that they would be protected, at least for the time being. The abolition movement had yet to properly take hold among the members of the British Parliament.

    How did it all start again? Blunder after blunder from the British Parliament—they kept on angering their own colonists via suppression of rights “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness” as the unhappy colonists complained. In addition, lack of representation was a constant problem. Particularly, the quartering of British soldiers in colonial homes was a disaster that was never to be repeated again since it contributed heavily to the ensuing debacle.

    The situation got out of control quickly, with fighting breaking out between the Continental Army of the newly-declared United States of America and the British Army. The redcoats, formidable as they were, had soon lost the war--soon called the American Revolutionary War. While the Caribbean, Georgia, and the Carolinas remained nominally loyal, bands of ‘patriots’ had caused problems down there as well. While not nearly as organized as the Continental Army (which quickly gained shape under Von Steuben and General Washington), they caused a ‘fire in the rear’ that forced various detachments of British redcoats to destroy them, which diverted soldiers from the rest of the war. Perhaps most disturbingly, many of these ‘patriots’ were escaped slaves or small farmers who disdained the wealthy planter elite.

    Archibald Bulloch had grand ideas for the colony of Georgia. It was at this point, only a sliver of territory around the Savannah River. It had some plantations and economic development, but was rather underdeveloped even by the standards of the other surviving British colonies. Indigo, rice, and sea cotton were its major products. The use of African slavery was critical to the development of the colony, and almost nobody in Georgia wanted it to end. However, Georgia was still less profitable than the Carolinas above it, with the lower number of plantations and other economic sources of money. All those colonies remained largely agricultural, with the few cities around rivers or ports.

    Spanish settlers remained a problem in Georgia, coming from Florida, and the Creeks and other Native Americans made the frontier a dicey affair. He originally wanted the British government to spend more funds and troops on clearing out the Creeks, perhaps to make more land available for plantations, but nothing went through. The colonial legislature—granted a slight bit more autonomy due to the fiasco (for the British Empire) that was the American Revolution—was not greatly interested in inviting more British soldiers, unless there was an active war going on.

    Attempts to provide a new colonial charter for Georgia and the Carolinas had gone by with little success. Over to the north of them, in the United States of America, constitution-building was going by quickly, and with large compromises to satisfy the various states. However, the British were very concerned with anything that resembled rebellion in their remaining colonies. The cage of royal control had been expanded a small amount, but the cage was still there, and everyone could see the boundaries. At least the taxation issue was resolved to the satisfaction of all parties involved.

    The British Empire had drawn plans to purchase Florida and Louisiana from Spain. The Spanish were willing to sell, but not their entire holdings. After all, Spain would have difficulty defending those territories to Britain or the United States. In addition, Spain had a money crisis. Centuries of profligate spending had caused its funds to start running dry. It needed funds more than it needed low-value land across the ocean. It was perfectly willing to sell the land to someone who could help it out of the rut. However, there would be obstacles for the British Empire. The United States of America also had a plan to buy out Spain’s holdings in North America, directly to the west of the USA. Difficulties would ensue, with both nations at great enmity at each other.

    At least some of this enmity would reduce due to the Jay Treaty of 1795, where the British agreed to vacate forts in U.S. territory in the Great Lakes and Northwest Territory regions in exchange for the U.S. giving Britain "most favored nation" trading status. Another result of this treaty was that the Canada-U.S. boundary was more clearly developed to avoid confrontation over that border.
     
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    Chapter 2: The Great Migration
  • Chapter 2: Will be updated tomorrow for more content.
    “The Great Migration was beneficial for the United States. Many of the surviving ‘Southern Patriots’ who fought for liberty, even if it was unsuccessful in the so-called ‘Columbia', obtained fled north to the ‘Land of the Free and Home of the Brave. We shall venerate the sacrifices of those who died for our freedoms by guaranteeing that we behave according to the inalienable rights enshrined in the Constitution of the United States of America.”
    Alexander Hamilton

    One man would become very important for Columbia; the term that would eventually be used to describe the British holdings of Georgia, the Carolinas, and eventually, more territories. This man would greatly shape how that area of the world viewed itself. His name was Andrew Jackson. He was originally on the frontier, fighting alongside other pioneers and colonial militia against some groups of Native Americans, making alliances with others, and generally well-respected amongst the population of Columbia—except by their British overlords. They thought Jackson had notable weaknesses as well as strengths. They feared he could become another Washington, someone who could cause another ‘Patriot’ movement and they feared the loss of these valuable holdings.
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    Andrew Jackson

    Columbians at least could claim that the original ‘Southern Patriots’ were things of the past. Many of the surviving Patriots who had started the “fires in the rear” had moved to the United States of America as soon as its independence was ensured at the Treaty of Paris. The rest gave up or long since died in battle. For them, what was alarming was the offer of freedom given by the Continental Army for any slave that joined it—and that the United States of America was upholding the deal. John Laurens was influential in the passing of this promise, and upholding it. He was hailed as a hero for helping America realize its dreams of freedom.

    Many wealthy planters feared slave revolts. The colonial legislature attempted to assuage their fears, but it was primarily a pawn of the British government and could get little done without the support of the mother country. As a result, some further assurances made their way down the chain of command, but they did little to assuage the fears of wealthy plantation owners. Besides, the British government was not taking the risk of slave rebellion seriously due to the lack of evidence for any. Sure, there were a few escaped slaves every year, but so far, not a significant loss. This would spiral into a dangerous situation later on in history, though…

    Speaking of Washington, he had become the first president of the United States of America, serving two terms only. The U.S. Constitution had been ratified, with many compromises to get all the states on board. The importance of “all men free from tyranny” was such that slavery would eventually be abolished in the United States of America by the year 1836. The slave trade itself—and not merely the transatlantic slave trade—would be banned fifteen years earlier in 1821. Furthermore, the expansion of slavery to new states would be banned by 1830. Raucous debate ensued over this principle, but it passed due to American fervor in their founding principles that “all men were created equal” and in the evil of slavery. This slow abolition of slavery clause was seen as ominous by many non-Americans, but all the U.S. states accepted it, even Virginia—especially since some of the most ardently pro-slavery planters in Virginia moved south. The United States of America had attempted to carefully thread the needle between the great European powers via a policy of “Malice towards none; charity towards all”, but this was about to change soon. Washington also greatly developed the American economy from the basket case at the end of the Revolution to a functioning nation. The standard of living in America had risen. The hope for a brighter tomorrow had permeated the nation. The quest to better themselves, to live up to their founding ideals as espoused in the Constitution, ratified by all the states in the Union—originally 10 by 1789—was the national mood.

    In contrast, the southern colonies had similar administrations to the Caribbean, with all reliant on slave-based plantation agriculture. Like many people in the area, Jackson would eventually own a plantation and several slaves. Slavery as an institution expanded even further after the invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in the year 1799. That tool made it much easier to extract cotton from its bolls. As a result, plantations were no longer primarily on the coast but could spread further inland. This drive for inland plantations meant further westward expansion, which meant removing the Native American populations already there. Archibald Bulloch had an opportunity. He would raise support for colonial militias to push out the Native Americans in Georgia; like-minded colonists would do the same for the western parts of North Carolina, and the British overlords would probably approve of it due to gaining more land for plantation agriculture, and with it, more money to the mother country. As expected, the British government allowed the procedure to happen. Over in Georgia, Jackson spearheaded the push; his bravery in leadership was well known in many battles, especially against the Creek and Cherokee tribes. The Battle of Red Creek was the decisive battle in this campaign, where Jackson led a colonial militia against numerically superior Native American forces and routed them—with minimal casualties on his side. Jackson was always careful to minimize his own side’s casualties whenever possible to keep on the right side of public opinion.

    This was also a tragic time, being called the “Trail of Tears” as Native Americans were forced from the lands they had called home. This started almost since the start of Columbia but really started to pick up after 1810, with Jackson leading the charge. Many died in battle; many more died in appalling conditions on the forced movement westwards. Disease outbreaks were common, further adding to the misery. Up to the north, attention was raised about this atrocity, but little was done since the United States did not want to antagonize a power that bordered it on both sides.
     
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    Road Map
  • Here's the roadmap for the foreseeable future. 1796--present. I edited the Road Map again. Let me know interesting possibilities for non-US, non-Britain parts of the world... I still need to flesh these out.
    "Jeffersonian Democracy"
    "Checkmate in France" (Events in France)
    "Westward Expansion"
    "American Military Situations"
    "An Age of Industry"


    "1836--Emancipation Year"
    "Panic in British Columbia"
    "Cabin of Misery and other Literature"
    "Revolutions of 1840"
    "Columbia Revisited"

    "The China Question" (China + the rest of Asia)
    "Internal Revolution of 1855"
    "Fury in the South"
    "Wars of Independence"
    "The Roaring 1870s"

    "American Bismarck"
    "The Era of Civil Rights"
    "Golden Age of Imperialism"
    "Depression of 1890"
    “The Age of Iron and Blood”

    "The Powder Keg" (moved from the previous)

    "Foretaste of Horror"
    “Industrialized Horror”
    “Home Unrest”
    “An Uneasy Peace”

    “The World Depression”
    “National Recovery”
    “The Fair Deal”
    “The Growing Conflict”
    “Hell is Empty, and all the Devils are Here”

    “The Darkest Hour ”
    “Light at the end of the Tunnel”
    “A fellowship of nations?”
    "Literature Reconsidered"
    “Curtains of Stone”

    “The Power Atomic”
    “An International Standoff”
    “Various Cultural Developments”
    “Proxy War”
    “Collapse”

    "Shall Not Perish From This Earth"
    "Technological Developments of Tomorrow"

    “A Brighter Tomorrow”
     
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    Pictures part 1
  • 1582428735822.png

    Snake cut into pieces showing the colonies. GA, SC, and NC fell off the snake...

    1582428995057.png

    General Washington Crossing the Delaware (American Revolution Painting)
     
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    Chapter 3: Checkmate in France
  • Here's the France Update.

    Checkmate in France
    “The King has largely agreed to our demands. This is the first step in the formation of a fairer and more just France. We can finally start to rectify the horrendous injustices that plagued the French people.”
    -Lafayette
    "The Events in France have shown the weakness of the French King compared to the revolutionaries. Such movements could erode at the legitimacy of kings and emperors in other countries, such as in my own. There needs to be a coalition of countries that can stand against revolutionary action in case it arrives here. There aren't enough words in French or in German to say how much I despise revolutionaries."
    -Metternich


    France had been a powderkeg ever since 1784. Famine had gripped large sections of the populace, and starvation caused by decades of bad harvests and drought caused many people to be furious at the government, which they saw as providing no relief to them. A volcanic eruption in Iceland changing the world’s climate did not help matters. Frivolous spending, often in the clergy and nobility, and exacerbated by providing support to the American Revolution, had caused massive problems for the French financial situation. The situation was grievous. Marches for bread spiraled into marches for political reform since the King, Louis XVI, was seen as hopelessly inept—often listening to the lies of whoever comforting the most. As a result, the impending disaster. The French thinkers, inspired by the American Revolution, had new ideas for France, including a constitutional republic. Tax reform was also crucial, as the first two estates, despite having most of the wealth of France, hardly paid any taxes—an injustice many of the French intellectuals were trying to rectify. Most of the reformers were also trying to end the feudal system once and for all.

    The King, in a desperate attempt to solve the financial crisis gripping the country, would call up the Estates-General, which was not summoned for 175 years. This did not solve the country’s problems, and only further established the French nobility as out of touch with everyone else. The Third Estate, composed of most of France’s population, had great issues that they were being voted down by the other two estates, despite those two having far less population. As a result, reform seemed impossible.

    King Louis XVI decided to do something sensible, probably for the first time ever. The country was at stake, and he feared losing his head similarly to Charles I of England centuries prior. He decided to appear before the Estates-General even in their state of agitated revolt. His Majesty appeared before them, and made a short speech saying that his terrible advisors caused all the problems in France and that he was still looking out for the welfare of France. To ensure his political survival, the King realized he needed to meet the key demands of the Third Estate, such as the representation by head it desired. The crowd responded with shouting of “Vive le Roi!”

    Despite the complaints of the nobility, the King (at least temporarily) agreed with the demands of the Third Estate and finally taxed the nobility and clergy. Mass distributions of bread to the peasantry—in an attempt to curtail the ‘bread riots’ occurring throughout France. Most importantly, the Third Estate—with some defectors from the first two estates—had ideas on reducing the power of the King. But at least the worst was over. Most of the necessary reforms passed and the King survived with his prestige as a venerated figure in French politics intact.

    The French system was completely overhauled by the end of the 1700s. Gone was the “Ancien Regime”. The old nobility had its power greatly reduced. The “Overhaul of France”; some called it the “French Revolution” due to all the drastic changes, would greatly affect world history to come. Shortly after the restructuring of France, the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen”, detailing the rights of citizens in France, would form.

    Americans were sympathetic to the changes in France since they reminded Americans of themselves—fighting against a tyrannous government. As a result, many Americans helped spread their own democratic ideas to France. Other countries in Europe looked upon this with alarm. The “Overhaul of France” greatly worried them, Austria and Prussia in particular. Austria originally had plans to invade France, but these plans were stopped by the fact that Louis XVI was still on the throne—even if his powers were reduced by the new Constitution of France. The flight of French aristocrats to many countries, especially Austria, only increased the fear established monarchs and nobility had on revolution or dramatic overhaul.

    Revolutionaries in Prussia attempted to gain traction for their own movement but received little help for now. The French were busy consolidating their own political reform (some called it ‘internal revolution’, and the Americans were trying to support the French. The Prussian government sought the support of the British government to quash potential rebellion. The British sent some soldiers to help the Prussians in case revolution happened, but this only caused more suspicion in Prussia. Various revolutionaries attempted to seize gunpowder from an old storehouse, but were defeated by the Prussian army and scattered.

    By the time of 1792, the dust had largely settled in France. King Louis XVI had accepted various limits on his power, and the reformers had largely gotten what they wanted. Stabilization was finally starting to return to the battered country. Part of this change was due to key aristocrats seeing the injustices of the old system and supporting the Third Estate—which convinced the King that the “Ancien Regime” was a lost cause. The tax system was greatly revised, with the end of local taxation systems. Instead, a national taxation system replaced all the local taxation systems, and a land tax was implemented. The deficit looked better now that the nobles were properly taxed—and the King made sure they did not step out of line. Even an approach toward free trade was considered, although implementation would have a difficult time passing.

     
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    Chapter 4: Jeffersonian Democracy and Western Exploration
  • The United States of America was still very much an agricultural nation. The notion of a rural Republic would not die out until later. The Industrial Revolution would start soon, though. For instance, the Lowell Mills would soon develop, turning cotton (typically imported from Virginia, or from British sources in the south)—into cloth. Similar mills would become commonplace in Great Britain, and some would appear in France and Prussia. Very few would appear in Columbia, though. This was purposefully achieved for the purpose of making it dependent on the mother country. Factories started to spring up in America, starting from the late 1790s and continuing into the decades afterwards. American manufactures developed, often copied from British sources due to the British ban on export of manufacturing techniques, skilled workers, and industrial machinery. The development of interchangeable parts from metal was a key step in the American system of manufacturing that gave America an important advantage in industrialization. The development of industrialization in the United States of America was one of the major flashpoints that set America onto its destiny as a major power.

    The Election of 1796 was critical for American democracy because it was the first transition of power between opposing factions. John Adams respectfully ceded to Thomas Jefferson in it after Jefferson received more votes in the Electoral College. The peaceful transition of power was crucial for the survival of American democracy. Jefferson’s Presidency had obtained several important accomplishments for the United States of America. The first would be the continuation of Westward expansion and the gaining of large amounts of land for the United States of America. Westward expansion was a key part of American policy, and it had just finalized an agreement, the Treaty of London, about the border with Great Britain’s holdings both to the North and South of them: 49°40’N in the North between Canada and the USA, and 36°,30’ N for the boundary between Columbia and the USA. The apparently odd-looking southern boundary was simply the Virginia-North Carolina boundary extended westward as the border area.

    In 1802, the United States of America attempted to buy Spain’s northern holdings for a bargain price in the Treaty of Madrid. This enraged Great Britain, so a compromise was made where Great Britain would gain New Orleans and its surround area, while the U.S. would get the rest of the Louisiana Territory and free use of the Mississippi River and New Orleans port, and Spain would receive cash payments (around $9 million from the U.S. and $10 million from Britain). After acrimonious bickering, the Treaty of Madrid was finalized in 1803.

    Even prior to the Treaty of Madrid in 1803, Britain and Spain had problems over imperial ambitions, and there was an issue on disputed territory in Florida. The San Lorenzo treaty was signed in 1802, giving Florida to the British for a sum of cash, while the British would gain Florida. Spain accepted to all these because it was desperately short on cash and needed the money quickly. Spain would fall further and further into decline, even with the cash infusion. Its colonies in South America, Mexico, and Central America were becoming restless, eventually rebelling by the 1820s. Part of the reason was due to the American beliefs in freedom from colonization spreading southward, and another reason was the Spanish crown attempting to drain the gold and silver from its colonies to pay its debts and cover its bills back home. The development of Spain proper still lagged behind Britain, France and the United States of America. Charles IV, the Spanish king, was widely derided as incompetent. He had little idea of how to rule an empire, and the Spanish intellectuals often accused of spending large amounts of money at parties. Rebellions started in Spain, but were crushed due to their lack of popular support across the country. They may have hated Charles IV, but many of the Spanish distrusted republicanism even more. So the Spanish republicanist movement failed horribly, succeeding only in draining the treasury of the Spanish crown even more.

    Exploration would also prove to be an important part of the Jefferson administration, with him being the main writer of the Declaration of Independence and a big contributor to the U.S. Constitution. He was able to get enough support with the House of Representatives and the Senate to pass a law that permitted a large expedition on the land purchased in the Treaty of Madrid. The expedition was led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark; it made peace with various groups of Native Americans, discovered over one hundred new species of plant and animal, and reached an ocean in the West (the Pacific Ocean). This expedition added greatly to many fields of science; the pictures that some of the pioneers painted inspired future generations of Americans to settle this vast expanse of land.

    Americans would send more pioneers and settlers into this newly-purchased land from Spain. There was a large expanse, to be subdivided into states when enough people inhabited them. The promise of vast opportunity attracted many immigrants to the U.S. for a chance at a better life. New farms sprang up in arable land to the west, and the cultivation of many crops, especially wheat, increased drastically. The United States was on its way to becoming the breadbasket of the world. Great Britain would do the same in the territories that would eventually be given the names Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. However, large farms and plantations were the order of the day there. Westward expansion came at the expense of the Native Americans. The “Trail of Tears” in Columbia was not the only part of the Native American tragedy. Native Americans were often forced to move westward or forced to integrate into the country that absorbed their land. Many other Native Americans were simply killed in battle—and reports came flying in of massacres of Native Americans by colonial militias in Columbia, but the British authorities did not investigate further due to ‘lack of evidence’. The United States of America could have questioned the British authorities, but fear of being drawn into a conflict with Great Britain, coupled with a desire to remain neutral, caused the United States to focus more on its own affairs, and the questioning was dropped.
     
    Chapter 5: American Military Situations
  • Chapter 5: American military situations

    The French, ironically enough, would soon have a problem with the United States of America. France had supported the American Revolution… for a price. John Adams, one of the chief American diplomats of the time, stated that the U.S. would have difficulty paying the French debt. A previous argument that the debts were old to an older regime fell apart once the situation in France stabilized; in 1798, the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand wanted the U.S. to continue paying the war debts of the American Revolution, and in higher amounts. The United States of America also had a problem with the policy of impressment, where French and British ships seized and captured American ships and their crews. Complaints arose from the United States government, but they fell on deaf ears. As a result, the United States prepared for war if necessary, but attempted to avoid war via diplomacy.

    A worsening international situation spurred the professionalization of the U.S. Army and Navy. Defensive fortifications started to be produced along the United States of America’s borders with Canada and Carolina. Attempts at playing off one major European power against another also saw action. The United States of America desperately wanted to stay neutral, and it attempted to get the other European powers as a standoff against France and Britain. The United States of America did get the support of Austria and Russia against France and Britain, although Austria was widely considered a ‘paper lion’—strong on paper, weak in practice. Russia was also considered a ‘crouching bear’—strong when defending itself, weaker when attacking or defending someone else. Russia and Austria had disagreements with France since they feared French revolutionaries trying to spread their ideals to them. They knew what happened in Prussia and in Spain—rebellions in the name of overthrowing a monarch. They did not want that to happen to them. The U.S. did manage to successfully play off the foreign powers, who may have been threats to it. As such, the United States of America was largely left to its own devices in settling the West, and trade in peacetime. This lack of foreign entanglements partially contributed to an "Era of Good Feelings" where the country was humming along smoothly. Two political parties would develop, the Federalists, and the Democratic-Republicans, with the former supposedly having more moneyed interests and the latter supposedly being in favor of the common man.


    A small war would break out over Barbary pirates seizing American ships. The United States of America built up a navy, which had hardly existed in the years prior, and sent it under the command of John Paul Jones in 1801. The U.S. Navy performed admirably against the Barbary pirates, with foreign countries being surprised at the efficacy of the U.S. Navy. The Battle of Tripoli, where U.S. Marines performed their first success by invading Tripoli and forcing a surrender, as the U.S. Navy wiped out the resident Barbary Pirate navy, led to the eventual fall of the Barbary ‘Pirate States’ because no one feared them anymore after the Battle of Tripoli. The U.S. Naval buildup had also contributed to the vanishing of impressment by 1810, as the United States of America would now be able to hold its own in a naval war against Britain or France.

    Aaron Burr would be disgraced in the United States of America during this period, for being too soft against the British. He was considered a British pawn, probably because he tried to ignore the impressment issue. As a result, he was widely considered ‘persona non grata’ for accused cowardice. Rumors also started to fly around him, from bribery to extortion, none of which could be fully proven, but it was enough to send Burr out of the United States of America, not wanting to be laughed at by everyone. He could return, but decided not to since everyone would make fun of him and no one would accept him. As a result, Burr was seen taking a tour of Europe, and also arrived in British Columbia for a time.

    Clean, Old-Fashioned Hate

    The expression “Clean, Old-Fashioned Hate” was surfacing around this time. Large waves of immigration started to arrive to the now-industrializing USA, and were met with much skepticism. When large amounts of land still existed on the frontier, most of the immigrants were tolerated, at least there. But it was in the cities where the most skepticism about immigrants existed. Many existing workers feared they would be pushed out of work. The most hatred was directed to the Irish immigrants; fear of Catholicism was a main factor in this. Many enterprises such as the formation of the Erie Canal starting in 1817 required large amounts of labor, often sourced from recent immigrants. Admittedly, the construction of the canal was fraught with problems. Delays, disease outbreaks, and worst of all, abuses of labor. Company thugs often appeared to force the workers to continue operating. The appalling rates of death on the job would soon reach the ears of the American public, but proponents of the canal won out. Nonetheless, crafty politicians started to realize that the recent immigrant vote could be useful for their own ambitions. They often used graft at this point, leading to the formation of the first political machines.


    The immigration to the United States of America did not translate to more immigration to ‘Columbia’, which was the British Deep South. This area did have some immigrants, especially after the British attempted to resettle Irishmen there to clear up room in Ireland. The “Irish Clearances” would allow for further developments of the Agricultural Revolution in those cleared lands, and other parts of the "Irish Clearances" were used to make factories. There was a laboratory in Ireland, built from small parts of these lands, and they would be used to experiment with varying agricultural practices. Promises of better land, more supplies, and an easier chance to feed their families often reached the Irish, and they would supposedly get these promises if they moved to 'Columbia'
     
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    Fires Across Spain (A Mini-Narrative)
  • The French Revolution was largely over by 1795. But across Europe, the waves of revolution would only begin. Witness Spain, for instance. Here is a story about a person who really was there. A narrative, so to speak.

    The year was 1797. Colonel Wellesley and his men watched as the sun barely peeked across the horizon. With the permission of the King of Spain, Charles IV, a British Army composed of hardened veterans landed in Spain. They were there because the British Empire did not want Spain falling into revolution, or worse, falling into the French camp. The British—French rivalry was still going strong, and it was in British interests to keep the status quo in Spain. Spain might have distrusted Britain now in terms of colonial expansion, but Spain allying with France was even worse; therefore, Britain would attempt to improve relations with Spain by helping the King of Spain crush a rebellion at home. This army was supposed to find the Spanish rebels and destroy them, but so far, their journey led them to this part of the countryside. Those rebels could run quickly, Colonel Wellesley thought. How was it that the British Army was going to find them? The answer would arrive in the form of local cavalry scouts belonging to the Spanish Army. They had spotted a rebel camp not far from here, but quick marches would be needed to seize the opportunity.

    The high command ordered the British army there to pack up and march quickly towards the direction of the rebel camp. Everyone followed the vanguard, and at a blistering pace. With luck, the rebels would be caught unaware. That was exactly what happened, as the Spanish rebels did not expect a fight so early in the morning. Gunshots rang in the air as cannons launched their cannonballs at the rebel camp. Colonel Wellesley, directed his troops to get into line formation to confront the enemy. He stood near the front, to further motivate his own men despite the danger. The rebels fired back. However, their discipline was raw and inexperienced compared to the British veterans. A bayonet charge by the front ranks of the British army terrified the Spanish rebels, with many of them trying to run away from the charge and falling over each other.

    Due to the open plains, the British line formation was highly effective at clearing out the rebels. Those onrushing lines of soldiers firing their muskets, supported by cavalry and sharpshooters in some cases, caused the rebel army to rout, or flee in a disorderly manner. Many of the rebels ended up dead, with a few taken prisoner. The cohesion of the rebels in the area would never recover. The local Spanish cavalry took very few casualties, and light casualties for the British forces. Colonel Wellesley took time to console his men about the casualties his battalion faced

    “Sir?” One of the cavalry scouts had returned to Colonel Wellesley. “The scouts have found a new rebel movement. Maybe you should alert the officers above you?”

    “That would be a good idea. I shall check with them. It might be a good idea for you and the other scouts to come as well.”

    “Yes, sir.”

    The Spanish Rebellion ended miserably, partially due to British intervention, partially because the peasantry had little interest in rebellion. The new ideas of republicanism were ill-suited for Spain due to the lack of support they had outside the middle class which was educated in Enlightenment ideas. Much of the Spanish public hated the King (Charles IV), but did not trust the new idea of republicanism. It did not help that many of the reformers ended up becoming radicals who wanted to do away with the Kingdom altogether and install a presidential republic similar to the United States of America. The USA did view the situation in Spain with interest, but backed off once Britain committed divisions of soldiers there, not wanting further escalation with Britain. There would be no official action concerning Spain.

    France viewed the situation in Spain with alarm. They feared the growing British influence in Spain, and the growing suspicion of them in Austria and Prussia. That only left Russia as the European power that they could ally with. The French, therefore, sent several diplomatic overtures to Russia for a (temporary) alliance. A favorable trade deal sealed the pact, as the Russians agreed to help the French in exchange for a good trade deal. France was not merely content with making an alliance with Russia to strengthen itself. The movement in Prussia, where large numbers of people demanded reform, and even some members of the army were thinking of joining them, might be a good place to start.
     
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    Chapter 6 Important Speeches and Quotations
  • Small update, to make sure I'm doing something. Here are some important quotations from this timeline.

    “The American Dream, where all people are not only created equal, but treated equally, is fast becoming a reality. An age of Votes and Speeches is also here, with the protection of voting rights to ensure democracy is not just on paper but actually occurring as we speak. America also stands tall on the foreign stage in an era of ‘Iron and Blood’; we will defend our fundamental rights against any foe, and we hope to inspire others with them. The famous African American civil rights activist Booker T. Washington once stated he wanted his children to be judged ‘not by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character’. A proposed civics education bill will help realize his belief. Some would say, ‘American Dream is not merely about race. Massive class issues make it very hard for the law to treat everyone equally.’ To that, a new welfare initiative to provide relief for Americans who have difficulty making ends meet—I understand the plight of many Americans in our cities, factories and countryside. America will continue to live up to its founding ideals, and it will become a shining beacon for the huddled masses of the world. Together, we will make the Founding Fathers proud. They wanted their country to become an inspiration not only for their own citizens, but for all mankind—even if it meant great danger. Not even the loss of a large section of their own country could stop them from enshrining their ideals in the U.S. Constitution.”
    Excerpt of a State of the Union Address, 1878, by Otto Leopold Bismarck (ATL Version of Otto von Bismarck).

    “Jefferson sparked an anti-slavery crisis with the anti-slavery language in the Declaration of Independence and later in the U.S. Constitution. Historians think that this crisis molded America into a country that would stop at nothing to ensure that all its people were treated equally. Most of the presidents would share this belief, and they would guide the country into the direction it was supposed to be—a shining torch of hope to the other peoples of the world."
    -Richard Nixon, in his book A More Perfect Union: On How the USA Developed (1974); later, an audiobook version would be satirically called the “Nixon Tapes”

    "The violence in early 19th-century Prussia was almost fantastic in its scale. It was one of the most violent rebellions ever, partially succeeding in what the revolutionaries wanted, but many in the succeeding generation would wonder, 'Why? Why did all this bloodshed happen, and were the benefits worth it?' Many families, such as the Leopold (Bismarck) family, fled to escape the political violence, often to the United States of America due to the frontier being advertised as the 'Land of Opportunity'. The aforementioned Otto Leopold was born in the U.S. after his parents fled Prussia. He changed his name to "Otto Leopold Bismarck" to remind himself of his heritage, and perhaps because he wanted to sound cooler. He wasn't wrong. After a brief career studying law, he ran for the House of Representatives almost as soon as he was old enough and could meet the other requirements. His activism in welfare and his charismatic speeches won him his first election, but his star would not stop there..."
    -Also from A More Perfect Union: On How the USA Developed

    “Those ‘British Columbians’ to the south of us concern themselves excessively with their own color. It’s madness, I say. Then again, they ran off in terror when Jefferson pointed out the contradiction between slavery and a government supposedly wanting freedom. They did not value their freedom from Great Britain enough to sacrifice their own lifestyles of oppression.”
    -Alexander Hamilton.

    “It is not merely the color of skin that causes unfair treatment. Women are being treated unfairly. Workers are being treated unfairly. Poor people are being treated unfairly—all by the government and industry.”
    -Harriet Beecher Stowe

    "The journey towards the 'shining city on a hill' that our ancestors dreamed of is perhaps a never-ending one. But maybe that's okay. The search for equal rights is a constant battle to improve ourselves. Our leaders have performed admirably, but there is always room to grow."
    -Abraham Lincoln

    "Away down South in the land of Traitors"
    -First line of a satirical song "Johnny Reb" criticizing and satirizing British Columbia for its refusal to formally join the American Revolution out of fear that slavery would be abolished while praising the efforts of the titular "Johnny Reb" and other parts of the "Fires in the Rear" that distracted British soldiers in the south to make the American Revolution successful. The song "Johnny Reb" was popular in the United States of America as a result.

    "Angus Meatpackers used every part of the cow except for the 'Moo'."
    -First line of the book The Urban Horror by Grover Cleveland. This book displayed the industrialized horror of meatpackers, and the appalling conditions suffered by their workers. The book follows the main character, David Dunburrow, as he immigrates to the U.S. thinking it a land of opportunity. He finds few opportunities and ends up working at a meatpacking industry, where the terrible working conditions described in graphic detail make him ill of poisoning rather quickly. His family is quite literally torn apart by the industry (one scene depicts his cousin falling over an edge and get diced to bits below); the company (due to operating in a time with surpluses of labor) fires David Dunburrow after he has expended his value. Dunburrow ends up on the wrong side of the law and ends the story in prison, upon which, he finds other prisoners that were working in an organized labor movement. He decides to join them when the prison is compromised via a break-in. Published in 1876, and quickly became a bestseller. It spurred calls for safer workplaces and more pay for workers.
     
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    Chapter 7: 1836: Emancipation Year
  • The Presidents from 1810 to 1836 had the difficult task of keeping the United States safe from the European powers, a task they performed successfully. A "Frigid Conflict" period began around 1810-1814, and was primarily due to worsening relationships with European countries. The buildup of the U.S. Navy to protect U.S. ships from impressment (kidnapping of sailors) occurred during this time, and as the U.S. Navy increased in size and the large European wars winded down, so did impressment. The Presidents from 1810-1836 also oversaw the industrialization of the United States into one of the most formidable economic powers in the world, and the growth of the American military to hold its own on its home territory. The "Era of Good Feelings" from 1820-1828 saw a decrease in partisanship, and a growing respect the political parties (Federalists and Democratic-Republicans) had for each other. By 1828, the Tariff issue would be decided in favor of the more industrialized northern states. Several new states had joined the United States: Indiana in 1816, Illinois in 1818, Missouri in 1820, and Maine in 1824. Several diplomatic close calls existed, but they did not lead to war… yet. Trouble would be brewing on the horizon in 1837, but this was a bit in the future. The United States was able to stay neutral in the various European wars and rebellions that occurred in this period, and make profits from all sides involved.

    Large amounts of immigration had arrived in the United States from 1820 onward, spurred by beliefs in the “Land of Opportunity”—many of these immigrants worked the growing factories and other industrial enterprises. Many of them suffered dangerous working conditions and little pay, but they would soon be able to find their voice. For by the late 1830s, writers would take to sharing the plight of the immigrant worker in the “dark satanic mills”, and the American people would start to listen.

    The slave trade (not just the transatlantic but also the interstate) was banned in 1820 under the James Monroe administration. This was considered one of the crowning achievements of the Monroe administration. Westward expansion continued, the economy continued to hum, and no foreign disasters occurred. Monroe had grand plans for helping protect the independence movements and recently independent countries in South America such as ‘Gran Columbia’ from European powers, but did not see much success in passing those plans through Congress. After all, many Congressmen questioned the ability of the United States to support any such doctrine, and the idea was placed on the back burner for now. There was also a fear that such a protection would lead to a US war with European powers, which while the country was busily professionalizing its own military and expanding its industry, a war not fought on US soil against a major European power was seen as a terrible idea. Monroe also supported large amounts of westward expansion, seeing it as “America’s destiny” to expand to the Pacific Ocean coast discovered by Lewis and Clark all those years ago. With westward expansion came the formation of new farms and enterprises stretching to the western territories and later, the new states.

    The early 1830s saw the development of several new cultural factors. The first was the "Second Great Awakening", where religion took a greater role in the lives of many Americans. This period saw religious revival that helped with some reforms in America, and was a product of the "market revolution" spurring industrialism. Social and geographic mobility issues also contributed to the formation of the "Second Great Awakening" . Besides with religion, the "Second Great Awakening" also helped with the formation of the temperance movement, concerning alcohol, and also the formation of other moral, social, and reform movements. New branches of Christianity formed or became popular, and many of the converts were women. Women also played a large role in the reform movements, such as the push for universal education in the 1830s. Dorothea Dix spearheaded a movement to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. In one dramatic case, Cane Ridge, Kentucky saw a massive meeting of 25000 people in the "Camp Meeting" led by the prominent preacher Charles, G. Finney.

    The main tenets of the "Second Great Awakening" were these
    1. People need to readmit God and Jesus into their lives
    2. God's grace obtainable by faith and good deeds
    3. Needed to reject rationalism that threatened beliefs
    4. Predestination vanished
    The Year was 1836. Emancipation year, as slavery was to cease to exist that year. The expansion of slavery, as well as the slave trade, were banned earlier, and by Emancipation year most of the states had already freed their slaves. Many of the more religious people, due to the “Second Great Awakening” had saw this prophesized year, 60 years since the hallowed First Independence Year, as a year of great tidings. Plans were made of a bureau called the “Freedmen’s Bureau” to serve black Americans once slavery ended—often giving them plots of land and the supplies needed for successful agriculture. And it was official that on July 4, 1836 that slavery would cease to exist.

    The cost of freedom was immense. It was often said that the “Panic of 1837” was partially due to the large cost used to free the slaves and attempt to provide for them once slavery was over.

    When the day finally came, speeches were sent and given out, and the Negro would be forever free in the United States of America. The famous writer Emerson stated that “Americans were finally beginning to live up to their Founding Fathers’ ideas and making them proud. There still are plenty of injustices to solve, though, and we need to raise attention to them.” These would include racial discrimination, especially in the workplace. Often times, African Americans were the “last hired and first fired” of the employees. The system of "tenant farming" developed, but was quickly derided as abusive and at one point, called "slavery by another name". It would be removed several years later, but clearly, America needed to still make large strides to become the "land of the free, and the home of the brave" that it saw itself as.
     
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    Chapter 8: Panic in British Columbia
  • The area known as Columbia, later British Columbia (The Carolinas, Georgia, et al.) went into a panic in 1836. To the north of them, the United States of America had just banned slavery. Slavery was instrumental in the economy of Columbia, as well as to the Caribbean colonies. By this point, though, the British government had plans to phase out slavery entirely. It would take some time, but thanks to William Wilberforce (who campaigned extensively for the end of slavery in the British Empire before he died), the days of slavery in the British Empire would be numbered. The British government had plans to abolish slavery by 1840, maybe 1845 at the latest, perhaps even a bit earlier if the abolition faction garnered more support, but either way, slavery would be on its way out. It had made the British Empire look cruel, the other countries (especially the United States of America) said. This caused many of the plantation owners and slaveholders in British Columbia to start getting worried not only at the United States of America, but also at their British overlords.

    Texas had just gained its independence from Mexico in 1836, with support from sympathetic pioneers from both the United States of America and from British Columbia--Mexico had to eat the loss. The Mexican leader Santa Anna returned home, humiliated. At this point, Texas would remain an independent republic since neither Britain nor the USA wanted Texas in the hands of the other power. Prior to this, many of the settlers in Texas had come from British Columbia, and brought slaves with them. The slavery debate had greatly impacted the Texas Revolution, and was seen as foreshadowing future events in the history of North America.

    Andrew Jackson had a splendid career, from his roots in the early 1810s pushing out Native Americans from the Carolinas, exploring the New Orleans area, and helping with the development of the Carolinas and Georgia. Business was booming. Cotton, tobacco, and other plantation crops made their way to Britain, or to the United States of America. The economy was still heavily based off those agricultural raw materials. In an interest to keep Jackson where the British could easily keep an eye on him, and due to his sky-high popularity, the British government named Andrew Jackson as the royal governor of North Carolina in 1820. He performed admirably, alongside his famous colleague John C. Calhoun in South Carolina --termed "The Dynamic Duo" at one point in an early political cartoon.

    Now British Columbia was chugging along well since its inception. There was little interest in taking it due to the weakness of the United States of America for a while, and even when the United States of America gained more wealth, land, and a more professional army, that did not change much. In case of a U.S. threat, British soldiers would be sent to the border area, and forts would be constructed as well. Limited colonial militias were also tolerated, primarily for the purpose of driving off Native Americans and protection against outlaws. The frontier (and the United States of America had similar issues) almost by definition had an almost "wilder" sense to it, and with a very limited police presence, colonial militias were tolerated as a necessary evil to keep outlaws and criminals away. Sheriff's posses served a similar role on the frontier of the United States of America until they were replaced by federal marshals and a much more organized police force later on. Some westward expansion did happen. The western part of North Carolina had enough people in it to justify the formation of a new province, which was called Tennessee. The formation of new provinces from Georgia was also considered once they had enough people in them. Louisiana was thriving, especially the area adjacent to the New Orleans port due to all the commerce going through it.

    Now foreign relations were performed by the British government--for British Columbians, the one that mattered was the very mixed relationship between British Columbia and the United States of America. On the one hand, trade existed between the two due to close proximity and a demand for cotton textiles in the USA. On the other hand, the Americans, especially many of the people who were on the forefront of social mobility and justice, despised the people most associated with the "Continental Convention traitors". British Columbians feared the Americans, especially after 1836 when slavery was abolished. A flight of escaped slaves northwards could happen, and in fact, did. Now the British did not listen to the complaints of wealthy planters about the flight of escaped slaves due to 1. fear of an international dispute leading to war, and 2. Abolition sentiment was rising in Great Britain, and due to parliament reform, was expected to win by 1845 at the latest and end slavery then. The booming economy did little to distract many British Columbians from the tense political climate, with political arguments becoming more common. Increasingly, slavery was seen as a positive good by some of the planters who depended on it, while it was often seen as a necessary evil elsewhere in British Columbia, and as an evil that must be stomped out by much of the British parliament. The colonial Houses of Burgesses did receive permission of the British government to raise militias for removing the Native Americans, but these militias would expand at around this time due to the hostile, frightful climate. Perhaps more information was needed for the colonial Houses of Burgesses in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, and Florida. These had some limited authority to deal with certain problems like Native Americans and other local matters, but trade, economy, foreign policy, etc. all were done by the British government.

    All would change in 1837. The largest British holdings in North America would soon find themselves on fire. For the British not only had problems with slavery in British Columbia, but would face the consequences of mismanagement and delaying reforms for far too long in Upper and Lower Canada.
     
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    Chapter 0: Introduction, Who, What, Why
  • I was always fascinated by the American Dream, and how it does not always translate to the American Reality. So I asked the question, "What if Georgia and Carolinas did not participate in the American Revolution (walked out of the Declaration of Independence convention) due to Thomas Jefferson's Anti-Slavery Clause in the Declaration of Independence? (This almost happened in real life but was pulled specifically out of fear that those states would leave the United States of America).
    1580924420447.png

    Signing of the Declaration of Independence

    Now, I was also curious as to what if the USA always lived up to its founding ideals of freedom and equality, from the very beginning? Now, the British Army still loses the American Revolution, and the aftereffects of the GA, SC, NC refusal to join would heavily affect U.S. and British history afterwards?"
    I got some answers there so I am trying to make a new timeline on this. Wish me luck, and please give me advice!
    It is the American Revolution that so many revolutions and movements around the world are based off. It is the better angels of our nature that many are still trying to follow, despite the problems of modern America. Imagine how much stronger that would be with an America that believed in freedom and equality and willing to make the necessary sacrifices to do so. They will inspire many others into fulfilling those dreams of freedom.

    I've always wanted America to live up to its purpose. So here's my take on that. The conception of America isn't its problems (though modern America has its fair share of problems) but of freedom, civil rights, prosperity, etc. So let's make that a reality in this timeline. There aren't going to be truly awful Presidents, but there will be some "Meh" ones that are usually glossed over. Civil rights occur much earlier than OTL--as much as 50-60 years ahead of schedule in some places. The optimism of Americans is drawing them to new heights. JASC Americans aren't drowning in their problems or embracing them--they see challenges to be defeated.

    1580767284282.png

    A Captain America quote from Marvel Comics. You may know this from Worffan. It's prescient for this timeline.

    I was interested in the idea of a southern "British Columbia" ever since reading Murica1776's Expanded Universe of WMIT posts. I was thinking of something similar, but in a less grim dark setting. There will be some double blinded what ifs!
    Edits for Maps
    OTL "British Columbia" renamed "New Caledonia"
    "Selkirk" province in Canada, named after a famous explorer (probaby in place of OTL Manitoba).
    Altered states: Jefferson and Lincoln somewhere (maybe in place of Idaho or Arizona)
    New state capitals... TBD in the western expansion 3.0 chapter.
    Any place to get good maps?
    If you have any ideas for areas other than the U.S, go on for ideas! I'd like them.
    Thank you, @HeX, for inspiring me to write a timeline!
     
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    Chapter 9: Panic in British Columbia Part 2
  • Update. I've stopped running from the update. Here it is.
    The British Parliament had a serious chance of passing anti-slavery legislation in the 1830s. That day finally came due to the efforts of William Wilberforce (died 1833) and Prime Minister Earl Grey in 1834. Prime Minister Earl Grey was able to carefully negotiate with the British Parliament to get a coalition that was able to stand up to the interests of the politicians deeply invested in the cash crop (sugar, cotton, etc.) businesses. The day came when the future of slavery in the British Empire would be decided, although Wilberforce would not live to see it, and Earl Grey would have resigned by then. It was a cold day at the end of 1836, when the Abolition of Slavery Act in the British Empire would pass. This would set in motion the freeing of slaves all throughout the empire. Naturally, the Caribbean and British Columbia sections of the Empire, which were dependent on plantation agriculture, plunged into such an abyss of fear that revolts spread. The planters thought the British government had abandoned them, and staged a revolt. The British sent armies over to take back control over any rebelling territories. And the battle would be joined.

    The first real battle was the Landing at Savannah. British soldiers on the mainland were being pressed back by various militias, which were built to protect the interests of the wealthy planters. They were on the verge of defeat when the proverbial cavalry arrived at Savannah after re-subjugating the Caribbean and bringing it back under control. The British soldiers disembarked from their landing barges and ships after ships of the line fired upon the Savannah defenses, which caved in relatively quickly, though a few small ships were indeed lost. The soldiers marched in, destroyed the relatively weak colonial militia in Savannah, and took control of the city. British losses were medium-sized, acceptable due to amphibious operations typically having high casualties. The columns of British veterans moved inwards, trying to link up with their beleaguered brethren that were trying to defend against the rebelling colonials. Most of these brethren perished, but their deaths meant something--it bought the British soldiers more time to move inland. Taking cities alone, though, would not do much--the rebel army would need to be found, surrounded, and either destroyed or captured. That was the difficult section. Much intimidation of guides occurred, as the British forces attempted to find their way across the terrain.

    James Bremer was the architect of the British landings on the coasts of "British Columbia"--and the attacks would occur at multiple places at once to stretch the defenders thin. Lesser officers often led their soldiers out from the ships in charging in, but most of the higher command was too valuable to risk in the middle of a battle. Accusations of cowardice sometimes resulted, but were less common that one might expect. One reason why the British landings were so easy was because the slaveholder rebellion had very few ships--those were provided almost entirely by Great Britain, and didn't join the Rebellion, or joined it to help the British soldiers. The coastal defenses were not very effective, either. These cannons fired on the British ships but took massive barrages in return and all ended up destroyed.

    Other landings occurred throughout the coast, such as the Wilmington landing in North Carolina, the Sack of Charleston (which became notorious for the destructiveness of the British soldiers in taking the area), and landings in Florida. The Florida landings were somewhat of an embarrassment for various sections of the British forces since some of them ended up lost in swamps and harried--this could be chalked up to the ineptitude (a "Modern Major General" of sorts) of the commander staging the landings in Florida. The Sack of Charleston horrified some Americans, but others thought that the sack was performed against the most treacherous class seen. Hardly anyone forgot the supposed "cravenness" of the southern delegates leaving the Continental Congress due to fear of antislavery language. The Americans thought that the British Empire was finally doing the right thing by ending slavery, and there was no sympathy for the southern slaveholders.

    The Sack of Charleston was also one of the largest battles. The sizable colonial detachment fought the British soldiers for two days as the city burned around them. The British did not want to risk more house--to--house fighting after the second day, and the order came to torch the city and end the battle. The plumes of smoke reached up into the sky, some blowing northward into North Carolina and even Virginia. Cannons howled as grapeshot and cannonballs hurtled throughout the air. The city lay in ruins by the third day as the British captured many of the rebel forces. The colonial morale broke as much of the colonial army could not escape. The Washingtonian strategy of having higher mobility and tiring out a numerically numerous enemy failed in the end, as the British, supposedly, were fighting to make men free, and their soldiers never forgot that. A complete lack of foreign recognition of the rebels in British Columbia sealed the deal for them. Other British forces rampaged up the coast, and moving inland to chase fleeing rebels. The rebels lost almost every battle they entered, although that could be explained because they were trying to run away and tire out the British Army, causing the cost of deploying it to skyrocket and make the war unpopular back home. To say that failed was a horrific understatement. The rebellion ended with most of its ringleaders dead or captured.

    It took years to take down the "Southern Rebellion", but ultimately, in 1841, the "Southern Rebellion" ended after British generals rampaged through the South in the "March Away From The Sea", with many of the plantations up in flames. The guerilla-chasing (note the innovation of smaller "kill teams" to pursue a smaller and more agile force) took much of the last year, with the capture of New Bern in North Carolina being the last major battle--it saw the hanging of Roger Taney at the conclusion of the battle due to treason (He helped orchestrate the entire rebellion). But "British Columbia" was not the only area with rebellions that the British had to deal with...
     
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    Presidents Roadmap
  • Presidents since Washington
    F = Federalist. D-R = Democratic-Republican
    1796-1804 Thomas Jefferson (D-R) Achievements: pioneered "Jeffersonian Democracy" which emphasized civil rights for all and equal rights. Also engineered the purchase of large amounts of western land from Spain and compromises/treaties with Great Britain. Avoided close call with France. (Democratic-Republican party)
    1804-1808 John Adams (F). Achievements: Buildup of the U.S. Army and Navy, and also of industrialization. (Federalist)
    1808-1816 James Madison (D-R) Achievements: Continued buildup of the U.S. Army and Navy to avoid close call with Britain in 1812. Also continued progress on industrialization and greater acceptance of immigrants. (Democratic-Republican). It was during this period that westward expansion started to progress in earnest.
    1816-1824 James Monroe (D-R). Achievements: At this point, the United States of America was not only expanding westward, but also reflected in on itself. The development of specifically "American" forms of writing and literature. Encouragement of "American" style to differentiate from Europeans. While not carried out, the idea of a "Monroe Doctrine" that had America protect other independent countries in the Americas foreshadows future developments. The United States also got out of the economic hole that characterized its early history due to paying for land, war debt, etc.
    1824-1832 John Quincy Adams (F) Solved tariff policy in favor of protecting industries. Bank of the United States renewed.
    1832-1840 Henry Clay (D-R). At this point, slavery was abolished in 1836 as per the U.S. Constitution. The development of the "American system"--unique American economic practices as well. Volunteers sent to the "Canada Rebellion" but no direct U.S. involvement due to avoiding war with Britain. The Panic of 1837 caused problems for Clay (economic downturn that he was unable to solve) and cast a shadow over his second term. 1837 saw beginning of women's suffrage movement although Clay didn't take it seriously. Poor leadership of Clay causes Democratic-Republicans to divide.
    Note: Maine/Massachusetts went separate due to Missouri Compromise. In this TL, the upper part of Maine gets enough people to become a new state (and some form of Missouri compromise does occur).

    Will be continued
     
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    Fears, Hopes, Personality of the United States (N-6)
  • I asked Murica1776 (famous for further developing CoCaro on the Expanded Universe thread of What Madness Is This) on country development. The response was instructive. Hope, fears, personality, neighbors, traumatic events and how they affected the country, politics, and economics are very important. So here's my take.

    Database Sample
    N-6 United States

    Darkest Fear: Not living up to the ideals of its founding fathers/Becoming a bastardization of what it was intended to be. As a result, education sector has large amounts of “Civics Education” on the virtues of the founders and the importance of the American ideals. This is an important part of the “Education Revolution”. Another fear is fear of being invaded/conquered so there is a large military and fort buildup to prevent this.

    Hopes and Dreams: The great hope is to live up to what the U.S. Constitution says, and to make America a beacon for other nations. The American Dream forms early and many politicians want to make this a reality.

    Personality: At this point, still very idealistic. Courageous, almost. Frontier areas are very free-spirited. Civil rights will become important after 1836 after the end of slavery and the retooling of movements for other equal rights such as the end of urban discrimination on immigrants and women’s suffrage. There is also going to be a movement called “Exporting the Revolution” that, while not officially endorsed by the U.S. government, is partially responsible for the success of the Canadian Rebellion and the formation of the U.S. sphere of influence.

    Resources/Economics: Still mostly agricultural (and that wouldn't change until 1870s). Wheat, corn, and other food crops in the west, more industry to the east (especially New England). Textile industry very important at this stage, and mining in the west will soon become important. Cattle ranching leads to the rise of great meatpacking industries (and eventually a book that details the abuses of the various meatpacking industries).

    Leadership/Politics. 2-party system in place--know nothings attempted to become a 3rd party but dwindled over time. They were strongest in late 1820s early 1830s before dwindling after 1836 due to people thinking they were dangerous. Hasn't been a downright terrible President (although Clay 2nd term isn't good since he couldn't dig out of an economic panic). Most of the “Bad” presidents are/will be bad because they just coasted on their predecessors.

    Traumatic event in the nation's past--Ga, NC, SC "chickening out" of the Continental Congress. This causes great enmity between North and South (which trade has only partially mitigated). There isn’t a desire to retake the south due to Great Britain, but most of the people (other than big industrialists) hate their counterparts across the border. Also a great fury at any social injustice, not just slavery, to make the Founders proud.

    Neighbors: Aforementioned southern states (hated--they became British Columbia), Canada (which had 1837-38 rebellions modeled after the American Revolution). US attempts to stay neutral in European politics although some US traders do sympathize with their French and British counterparts trying to get trade in China.

    Battles: Barbary Battles justified the growth of the US Navy. Besides American Revolution, many volunteers would stream into Canada (but no official involvement) to support the Canadian rebellion. Native American war/Westward expansion, but those are not particularly difficult opponents. There will be a Mexican war as westward expansion continues. This will lead to a US win and further expansion.
     
    Chapter 10: Canada Part 1
  • Canada: Part 1 (1783-1836)

    In 1784, the British created a new colony called New Brunswick n Canada primarily due to the influx of Loyalists (fleeing the American Revolution). They settled along the shores of the St. John River. In 1791, the Constitutional Act replaced the Quebec Act and divided Quebec into two pieces, forming Upper and Lower Canada. Why did Britain do this? One reason was establishing consistent administrative structure in all the “Canadian” colonies of British North America; the construction of colonies of New Brunswick and Cape Breton in 1784 helped provide a model for this purpose. Consistency in the British Parliamentary system as a further model for colonialism and imperialism to spread to other areas of the globe was also an important goal.

    Cutting costs by letting the local governments raise funds for local projects was also critical for the Constitutional Act. The British now wanted colonies that were relatively self-sustaining but still beholden to the mother country. The British also wanted to make sure the executive (governor) had more power than the elected representatives. The governor’s powers actually increased at the head of an appointed executive council. The elected legislative council of a colony was allowed to draft legislation and recommend action, but the executive made key decisions. This Constitutional Act was perhaps a response to the American Revolution, but it had its own problems, and was criticized as soon as a decade after its completion. Perhaps most tellingly, there would be less autonomy to colonial governments in Canada, not more. In addition, the Constitutional Act would be criticized for favoring the Anglican elite in both colonies. These complaints would boil over until the 1830s, where they would explode in dramatic fashion.

    Lower Canada and Upper Canada actually had different cultures. Upper Canada was influenced strongly by the Church of England, and it was more similar to the other colonies in Canada than Lower Canada was. Lower Canada was the heartland of the old Quebec and was predominantly Catholic and francophone.

    However, both groups had a similar problem. They were run by tight small groups referred to disparagingly as the Chateau Clique for the former (named because it ran the colony from the governor’s residence) and the Family Compact for the latter. In the case of Lower Canada, several attempts existed to expand the influence of its assembly. Many of the assemblymen wanted trade-offs that would limit the executive authority. Some reforms did happen by 1830, but for many reformers, it was too little, too late. There was also a great suspicion that the southern colonies in “British Columbia” and the Caribbean were given preferential treatment, and this rankled in the brains of many Canadians.

    Economic development of Canada was going apace, but many in Britain saw Canada primarily as a source of raw materials to be brought for refinement back in the mother country. A canal-building project similar to the ones in the United States of America, along with railway projects, were successful

    By the 1830s, several reformers were speaking actively against the tight small groups called the Chateau Clique and Family Compact. The other Canadian colonies were also facing mismanagement issues similar to those of Upper and Lower Canada, but slightly less severe. As such, a Canada-wide movement started to form…
     
    Chapter 11: Know-Nothing Idiots Part 1
  • The journey to civil rights isn't always quick, nor easy, even in a timeline where it's faster and more successful than OTL.

    The Know-Nothing movement reached a height in 1832 due to the influx of migrations in the 1820s. Many Americans feared the mass migration due to concerns of replacement. Factory workers were often paid very little, and many companies would prefer picking immigrants due to their supposed superior work ethic. In fact, many immigrants would work hard to achieve their “American Dream”, where they wanted to make their life in the “Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave” more successful. America was a land of opportunity, but many people were thinking that the opportunity was not unlimited in their communities. Deluges of immigration settled the west and led to the formation of new states. For instance, Missouri became a state in 1820 in the Missouri Compromise; this was highly contentious. In exchange for Missouri’s statehood, slavery would no longer expand (expansion of slavery would be banned by 1830 according to the U.S. Constitution, but many lawmakers wanted it banned earlier) and Maine would form out of Massachusetts in short order (by 1824)—something that many lawmakers also wanted. The largely agricultural west had soaked up much of the immigration, but many other immigrants arrived in the cities due to the promise of a better life. The big businesses in the cities often actively attracted immigrants for a labor force, always wanting more people to replace those lost on the job.

    The Know-Nothing movement, called because its supporters typically stated “I know nothing” when questioned about the movement, was a nativist reaction to the supposed tide of huddled masses. It was also anti-Catholic, a fear that the Papacy could subvert America. Due to religious differences between Protestants and Catholics becoming a political issue, the large arrival of German and Irish Catholics further inflamed the movement; splinter groups such as the Order of the Golden Circle and Native Sons started to appear as well. Irish and German workers, unsurprisingly, were the worst targeted. Besides direct attacks and violence flare-ups at some polling places, signs started to appear which stated, “No Irish need apply”, and the spread of varying conspiracy theories. The spread of conspiracy theories linking the Roman Catholic Church to the ills of society became more common and frightening by the day. In response, various groups and people, such as William Lloyd Garrison, attempted to slow down the Know-Nothings by counterattacking in the media.

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    This flagrant racism was largely not solved until late 1836 when bills about equal protection received serious consideration, and the abuses of the Know-Nothings were brought to the forefront of public attention. The movement was very mysterious—probably due to the lack of response given by its supporters. As such, very little was known about its leaders at this time, especially after the movement went underground due to the federal government wanting to reduce the anti-immigrant racism, calling it a blight on the “All men are created equal” sections of the US Constitution and Declaration of Independence. The Know-Nothings would resurface later, but for now they burrowed underground like prairie dogs. Perhaps the big deciding factor for the defeat of the initial Know-Nothings was the alliance of corporate interests (who wanted more immigration for labor purposes) and civil rights groups who wanted to protect immigrants and their rights. The corporate interests had enough money and influence to counteract the Know-Nothings and affect the way Americans thought about the new immigrants. Fervor for the founding fathers could have also contributed to the failure of the Know-Nothing movement in several areas due to their racism.


    Update 2/23
    An interesting development during this period was the start of "Revolutionary Drive" or "Revolutionary Spirit", with an emphasis on democracy and civil rights. It also tolerated immigrants or other kinds of "American". Political scientists thought "Revolutionary Drive" began as a response to the Know-Nothing movement, but others stated "Revolutionary Drive" was simply the continuation of the ideals espoused in the U.S. Constitution. The noble actions of the founding fathers and how to live up to them became critical for "Revolutionary Drive." Many of its adherents wanted to spread the American beliefs and the American dream to other countries, both to free their inhabitants, but also to get America some foreign allies. This way, the United States of America would have a greater safety from its enemies in the event of a war. This would play out in the Canadian Revolution (1837-41), but would not stop there. Various Americans would travel to Europe in the 1840s, especially in 1846-48, due to the spread of democratic reforms there. Many of these reformers would influence the restructuring of the countries of Austria, Denmark, and Spain. Most importantly, the formation of Germany and its national character could be partially attributable to the American help. Many scholars of future eras would consider the development of "Revolutionary Drive" to be the founding of greater American influence in the wider world. Some countries, such as Great Britain, started to become scared of this growing American influence, and wanted allies of their own to push against it.

    President Clay had pioneered the "American system", which helped establish a unique American culture and a sense of identity. This system incorporated "Revolutionary Drive", but also had dimensions in art and literature. As the United States of America expanded westwards, driving out the Native Americans in their way, the pioneers and settlers established settlements, farms, and towns. Many of them settled the prairies of the Great Plains. Art of the frontier, the farms, the Rocky Mountains, and the rivers would be centerpieces of American art. Famous scenes of American history such as the Continental Congress, the signing of the U.S. Constitution, American Revolution battles, and the Indian Wars would also frequent American art galleries. Literature often covered the same topics in an attempt to distinguish from novels in Europe at the time. Partially due to the importance of the frontier, books such as "Self-Reliance" by Ralph Waldo Emerson stressed individuality. This American system would prove to be Clay's main accomplishment, especially since he would go under fire for poor handling of an economic crisis.

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    Self-Reliance by Ralph Waldo Emerson
     
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    Chapter 12: Know-Nothing Idiots Part 2
  • Updates arrived. What do you think?
    Here's another one.

    The corporate interests and companies which wanted more immigration didn’t do this due to an interest in immigrant welfare. They opposed the Know-Nothings, but they supported the influx of immigration for more labor. The most infamous of these was Charles Goodyear, notorious for using company mercenaries to “beat the devil” out of his mostly immigrant workforce. Too many times, corporate mercenaries slugged workers with batons and bludgeons; more than once a small private army of thugs had fired upon striking workers using new rifled muskets. Goodyear had several enterprises, one of which was in rubber, but other Goodyear factories produced various components for railways. He attempted to perform vertical integration, or controlling various parts of the same industry. This way, he could have a greater control over the rail industry than any of his rivals, who typically had influence in only one or two sections of the industry. He was on his way on becoming one of the earliest and most infamous “Titans of Industry”.

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    Charles Goodyear, around 1835

    The word got out on just how bad Goodyear was. Many Americans didn’t buy the “Industrial Propaganda” coming out of newspapers owned by him. They were furious. Various Senators and Representatives exploited this, running for office on such campaign promises. Goodyear fought tooth and nail with lobbying and often outright corruption to get his way. But that thankfully didn’t happen. Even some of the other industrialists thought Goodyear went too far on mistreatment of his workforce. It was looking awful, a disgrace to supposed “equal treatment” that the nation so cherished. Other historians, though, found a less noble motive—the fall of the Goodyear corporate empire could allow other companies to pick up the pieces. This came to a head in 1840, a “Workplace Safety Act”, which prohibited the use of mercenaries, private armies, etc. in cities and started the development of a “Federal Workplace Safety Guidelines” and an inspector force to ensure compliance(note the important exception on the frontier). This Act passed despite the efforts of Goodyear to lobby Senators and Representatives to stop it. This, combined with a law on monopolies in 1841 (although it was heavily criticized for an “I know it when I see it” definition of monopolies), mauled Goodyear’s various industries. He died a broken man, as almost everyone hated him, and his business empire greatly reduced in size.

    Update: Goodyear wasn't the only thing going wrong in America at this time. The Panic of 1837 caused people to lose confidence in President Henry Clay, who was largely seen as unable to help America get out of its economic depression. Various means such as poll taxes and racial discrimination had caused problems for Americans trying to realize their civil rights. Infamously, immigrants and African Americans would be the worst affected--and many urban communities with large numbers of either ended up facing the worst injustices there. All the while, political machines in many American cities fostered political corruption, making people think their votes no longer mattered in local government. The "Tammany Hall" machine in New York, first established around 1840, would be a festering example of the rottenness of these political machines. Reformers attempted to tackle all these problems, but often would not find the political will to see their changes become reality until a while later. Some of these reformers even wanted to spread American influence abroad, so to bring American freedom to other parts of the world. This, however, would cause many other countries to be suspicious of the United States of America.

    Another problem for civil rights was the Know-Nothings, who resurfaced in the late 1840s and early 1850s along with the next wave of immigration. The collapse of Goodyear and the realization that the American Dream wasn’t only a dream drove even more immigrants towards the United States of America. Backlash ensued due to fears of overcrowding in some places, though. The Know-Nothings returned, with them even gaining some state legislature seats, and a Senate Candidate in New York by the name of Fillmore. They seemed to be more successful this time due to the wave of immigration being even larger than the previous one, though once again, their presence was thankfully limited by the importance of equal rights to most Americans. The Know-Nothings attempted a rebrand, calling themselves, the “American Party”, but this fooled hardly anyone. Many people just saw them as a tired, old retread of nativism. As a result, the organization died as it lived, reviled by most Americans.

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    Know-Nothing Nativist Propaganda.

    Nevertheless, the Know-Nothings did bring up a valid point. Overcrowding was a problem in various cities in the United States of America, and it was becoming detrimental for the immigrants themselves. As a result, city planners attempted to make housing more affordable, and to avoid the worst excesses that were documented by various social groups. Horror stories of sordid living conditions that fueled the paranoia about diseases and immigrants started to emerge, and many local and state initiatives arose to save them. By 1858, the Federal Government attempted to pass a law about housing standards… while this attempt failed, it would inspire several other housing law proposals. Housing standards were not the only part of worker problems that Americans realized was problematics. Workplaces, especially the steel mills, slaughterhouses, meat processors, and factories, often had horrific safety records, with many workers dying every day. The workers being merely cogs in the great machine of American industry was not just a rumor--it was very real in the 1840s and 1850s. The callous nature of industrial processing, partially fueled by the influx of immigrants and African Americans, led to the ruination of hundreds of families. Several best-selling books about the plight of the worker, such as The New Slavery by Sojourner Truth in 1854, had galvanized Americans. They would not stand for the horrid injustices in their country. The push for equal rights after the end of slavery in 1836 would be the beginning of a new era in America.
     
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    Chapter 13: Canada Part 2
  • The year was 1837, and not only was "British Columbia" in flames, so was Canada. Upper and Lower Canada in particular were steaming from decades of mismanagement. The Chateau clique in Lower Canada was known for not only gross mismanagement and not serving the interests of most of the inhabitants well, but also increasingly for corruption. Many back home in Great Britain were trying to get more revenue out of Canada and its relatively diverse economy, but not investing enough back into Canada. Another dissatisfaction with the system of the time was discontent at the oligarchy of wealth and privilege. Many Canadians were thinking that the economic system as it stood did not benefit regular Canadians. As such, a populist reform movement could occur. Perhaps the most jarring of all the concerns was the supposed discrimination against French-Canadians. Many demanded equal rights not simply stated in a constitution but also realized in fact.

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    Louis-Joseph Papineau, architect of the Canadian Rebellion in Lower Canada

    A few years prior, in 1834 the Patri Canadien organization, of which Papineau was an important member, which campaigned for equal rights for French Canadians, among other promises, changed its name to Patri Patriote. This was an allusion to the Patriots all the way back in the American Revolution. Some Americans were intrigued by this, not only with the possible solidarity to their forefathers, but also because the US-Britain rivalry still existed and many Americans didn't want to be confronted by Great Britain on both borders. The British didn't think this was going to become a problem until much too late. The Patri Patriote compiled the Ninety-Two Resolutions to the British government, along with a petition of 90,000 signatures. The British, as usual, failed to develop an adequate response to the petition or other attempts at reform.

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    Lower Canada wasn't the only place with a rebellion in Canada. Similar to Lower Canada, Upper Canada had many of the same problems.
    William Lyon Mackenzie was the leader of the rebellion in Upper Canada. He ran a newspaper called The Colonial Advocate that often vented reformer positions and was often decried by the Tories as "radical". The republican and pro-American language from the more radical side sometimes clashed with some of the moderates. Mackenzie, though, was spending much of the time finding volunteers, and many of them were training themselves in case of a rebellion. Various soldiers of fortune from America arrived in disguise as well to help train them, not wanting a senseless defeat or slaughter and the discrediting of the reform movement in Upper Canada. The events in Lower Canada (which had a higher proportion of French-Canadians) had given new opportunities for the rebellion in Upper Canada. The governor of Upper Canada, Sir Francis Bond Head, had been widely disliked in Upper Canada for not listening to the advice of the reformers. He sent most of his troops to Lower Canada to help deal with the rebellion there, leaving Upper Canada more open to the rebels.

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    William Lyon Mackenzie: leader of the rebellion in Upper Canada.

    The Americans saw that the rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada not only were trying to fight against what was seen as unreasonable British dominance, but were also using classic American documents such as Henry Paine's works. The Church Massacre where British soldiers burned Canadian rebels alive inside a church horrified many Americans. Volunteers started creeping across the border to help the Canadian rebels. At this point, the United States wanted to support a kindred spirit, even if it meant a conflict with Great Britain. Perhaps it was war fever, or "revolutionary spirit", or just wanting a more friendly northern neighbor, but regardless, the Americans were willing to help out the "Canadian Rebellion." The British Army, once dominant in "British Columbia", found itself harried and unable to catch the forces of rebels in Canada. One reason could be the incompetence of the British forces, especially the recently-promoted Major General Elphinstone (promoted in 1837, and eager to obtain more glory for the Empire.) He turned out to be a complete bungler. In the Battle of Montreal for instance, he ended up ordering the British Cavalry to charge a well-defended position--and suffered almost complete losses. The song "Modern Major General", detailing the failures of British generalship, was partially inspired by him. The British forces in Canada found themselves struggling to not only catch the rebels, but facing mounting costs of an unpopular war back home. Their counterparts back in British Columbia at least were having some success with getting the rebels. Torching cities like in the Sack of Charleston didn't help due to the populist nature of the rebellion. People didn't get scared--they got angrier, and Britain was quickly losing sympathy from other countries. While the British could still win battles in Canada, they were not getting any closer to winning the war, unlike in British Columbia. War with the United States over the US volunteers in Canada was rejected by the British Parliament because they thought it would fail horribly. There weren't even that many large battles--this was very much a disorganized war because the Canadian rebels knew they couldn't stand up to the British Army in a standard pitched battle. So it was hit and run everywhere, perhaps the precursor to guerilla warfare in later wars. British strategists after the fact seemed to think the reason why the Pacification of Canada failed and the Pacification of "British Columbia" succeeded was because the former had volunteers from another power and had a broader base of support, therefore making an unconventional war easier.

    The end result of the "Canadian Rebellion/Revolution" was an independent Canada, with the British only holding onto "British Columbia", New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. The British government also saw a complete collapse in its confidence, with the deaths of many political careers--losing most of Canada, serial incompetence, and cowardice at a war with the U.S. Admittedly, actually fighting the U.S. would have simply drained the British treasury faster. The newly-independent Canada formed a republican government along the lines of the United States of America, and the two countries became allies soon after. Many of the volunteers that helped the Canadian rebels returned back home with far more military experience, further increasing the strength of the U.S. Army--this would later be useful in fighting the Native Americans in the next stages of western expansion. With Canada, the United States of America would have its first true ally, someone who would stick by it through most situations.
     
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    Chapter 14: Civil Rights: 1840s Style
  • Civil Rights: 1840s Style

    After the Emancipation Year in 1836, Americans found out they had long ways to go before they actually realized “All Men Were Created Equal.” The creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau in 1840 was a start. The reason why almost four years went without any civil rights progress was partially due to the Panic of 1837. The US government was attempting… almost nothing. It didn’t think it could do much with the depression. In fact, more effort was going into settling the West, or sending volunteers to Canada to get an ally in the north. Many people saw Henry Clay as completely incompetent, and with his American system in ruins due to the Panic of 1837, so did he. Clay felt like there was nothing he could do about the depression—future historians would see this despair as tarnishing his reputation. He wasn’t terrible, but still among the bottom rung of Presidents due to inability to solve an economic depression, and insufficient progress on civil rights. This was despite his pioneering of the American system, and the beginning of a uniquely American culture.

    The economy would finally improve by the early 1840s. The United States had more markets in Europe now that Europe had rebuilt from its spat of previous wars. The National Bank of the United States of America was now in good condition. People started feeling hopeful again, which could have been the reason for some of the various civil rights initiatives in those eras. They were going back to work; their lives were secure enough that they could start thinking bigger. The military spending could also decrease now that there was a friendly ally to the north and that Great Britain had little appetite for yet another American adventure. Part of the reason for why the Panic of 1837 was especially bad was that "British Columbia" was not getting much cotton out when it was fighting the British forces and when it was left in shambles. Its rebuilding (with tenant farming producing the cotton now that slavery was abolished), allowed some of the U.S. textile factories to recover. It was at this point that railroad construction exploded, with many new railroads crossing the United States of America. With the construction of the railroads came decreased travel times and increased prosperity for the nation.

    The women’s rights movement also started in the late 1830s and early 1840s. Women were marginalized, especially because they were not allowed to vote in this era. Many marches and other peaceful protests started to occur in various cities around America. President Clay, however, did not take this seriously. He never paid them much attention, thinking the movement would simply fizzle out as police arrested the demonstrators. The police, however, had the opposite effect, especially after the election of Martin Van Buren in 1840. Van Buren was hopeful of the movement, but he thought it would take constitutional amendments to make permanent progress on this issue. He attempted to rally Representatives and Senators on the importance of a voting rights omnibus Constitutional Amendment to expand suffrage to African Americans and women. That Constitutional Amendment would have been the 13th. Its passage would be rather difficult and would outlast Van Buren. In the end, the 13th Amendment would take until 1852 to pass, after getting though 2/3 of the House of Representatives, 2/3 of the Senate, and 3/4 of the state legislatures. The last holdouts who had the most resistance supporting this Amendment would be the "upper South" of Kentucky, Virginia, and Missouri. An actual "Equal protection of the Laws" amendment was still in the future, many politicians being rather unwilling to pass such a law since they thought it would or could never be enforced.

    The women’s rights movement stalled for some time, but it was not the only large civil rights push in this era. The Freedmen’s Bureau was formed in 1840 as one of the first achievements of Van Buren. He wanted to realize the Emancipation Year and start extending equal rights to African Americans. Providing education to the recently-freed African Americans was probably one of the successes of the program. It helped them get on their feet as Americans. Job opportunities arrived when laws that prohibited employment discrimination based on race passed. This could be attributable to Van Buren. Other African Americans would join the large pool of western settlers trying to make their own farmsteads on the western prairies. A “Great Migration” toward the cities to find those urban factory jobs took most of the remaining African Americans.
     
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