In The Name of the King: Mk 2

Well, I'm not even sure this is a good idea. I'm not too good at finishing TLs that I've started, even TLIADs. I'm better at making a colourful map.

But reading LTTW (even though I'm still only on Thread I) has inspired me. Inspired me to do what? Only resurrect pretty much my first proper TL ever. Looking back its immature and only half-formed. My writing skills have enormously improved, and I've got far more innovative ideas.

The premise of the TL is an aborted American Revolution. It never really gets as far as a shooting war, staying mostly as a shouting war. A compromise is hammered out between Britain and her colonies, and things develop from there.

The differences I will be making here will be around the POD which I will be setting further back, and the consequences of my changes. This TL will very rapidly differ from the TL I wrote before. And hopefully, it will come out better.
#1: Can He Fix It? Corsican!

In early 1767, not long into his second ministry, William Pitt suffered a further breakdown in his physical health. Deciding that he was no longer capable of carrying on government, and realising the terrible divergences in interests in his Cabinet, he tendered his resignation to the King [1].

George III was now in a quandary. He didn't want Rockingham with his hostility to the monarch's involvement in the government's affairs back in power. But equally, choosing a Tory from amongst Parliament's ranks would rancour with a Whig dominated body, and be seen as a terrible example of monarchical tyranny.

Faced with little alternative, the King took the radical step of calling a general election. While it wouldn't be held in all constituencies, it would shake up the seats and hopefully produce a faction strong enough for him to put in power without producing too much controversy.

The general election was carried out with the usual levels of corruption and back-room deals which characterised British politics at that time, and as the first election held since Britain's tremendous victory in the Seven Years' War, returned the Whigs to power. Not that that in itself meant much as by this point the Whigs were more like a collection of separate factions gravitating around particular personalities.

The last act of the previous government had been the introduction of the so-called Towshend Acts which had been very poorly received by the Americans. This would obviously be a major cause of concern for whoever took the reins of the new government. To George's dissappointment, the largest and most cohesive faction which emerged were the ones around Lord Rockingham.

Rockingham set about forming a conciliation with the American colonies, and invited the ailing Lord Chatham to informal discussions. During Rockingham's ministry from 1767 to 1774, the prospect of American MPs being represented in Parliament wasn't taken very seriously. Rockingham was determined that Parliament's right to legislate in America was absolute, and that this included the raising of revenues. But at the same time, he was nervous of antagonising the increasingly restive colonies.

In 1768, a seminal moment of Rockingham's career arrived. The Corsican Crisis emerged over the sale of the island of Corsica to France. The thing that made this a Crisis, was that was another party involved. The Corsicans themselves. They had set up a somewhat shaky republic, which was what had triggered the Genoan decision to sell the island when they found they couldn't effectively put the rebellion down.

The French purchase, and the ensuing counter-rebellion moves set off a diplomatic row across Europe. Into which Britain, the ascendant power of the world with its naval domination, stepped. Rockingham led Britain alongside other Mediterranean states like Sardinia in a textbook example of gunboat diplomacy. With France's finances in a poor state, they couldn't risk buying the island only to have to fight for it in an expensive war. They backed down and refused to purchase the island. Corsica became a de facto British protectorate, and both Genoa and France were compensated for their loss.

The satisfactory conclusion to the crisis had a number of consequences. Rockingham won over the support of the wider public, which strengthened his somewhat tenuous grip on power and affirmed the Rockinghamites as the strongest faction of the Whigs. It also allowed Britain to form an alliance with Russia, getting it the continental ally that it had sorely lacked since the end of the Seven Years' War. Finally, it won over many American intellectuals who may have taken a more extreme path had they not seen British arms used in support of 'liberty'.

In 1770, a similar strategy again triumphed in the Falklands Crisis. The Spanish attempted to claim the Falklands Islands, and tried to invoke the Bourbon Family Compact. British MPs, their patriotic pride inflamed, threatened war. Louis XV backed down, and the Spanish rapidly ceded control of the islands to Britain. This also had a number of effects. British pride was further bolstered, and more importantly, it was bolstered in the Americas. The French and the Spanish had been divided, and the French grew increasingly bitter about the strength of British actions.

But from 1770 to 1774, Rockingham's ascent was challenged by noises in America [2]. Rockingham had maintained duties on tea, and riots had broken out because of it. He had to deal with Governor's who took draconian measures to deal with rioters which only inflamed the situation. An attempt to reduce the price of tea to undercut Dutch smugglers only worsened the situation as it looked like the British were simply milking their colonial subjects to feed the East India Company. An event known as the Boston Tea Party took place in 1773, in which Bostonites threw British tea into the harbour. Rockingham reacted by passing a law which allowed Britain to clamp down on civil disturbances far more effectively. However, the actual effect was to worsen the situation.

He won the general election in 1774, and at this point the idea of a more vigorous conciliation with Americans was mooted. The Earl of Chatham again emerged as a major advocate for the Americans, and many Americans resident in London also cropped up offering their own views. Britain was lucky in that the Rockinghamite Whigs were prominent in their support for reconciliation and compromise with the Americans, within the bounds of the British Constitution.

In 1775, a Convention was held in Britain taking in representatives from each colony in British America. A deal was hammered out over the following weeks. To Chatham's consternation, Rockingham allowed a loosening of the trade laws which had so raised American hackles, allowing British governments to raise taxes in America. As well as taxes raised directly, each colony retained their right to raise their own taxes for their own use. Each colony would receive a stipend from Britain to fund local government. Payment of public officials in the colonies would come directly from the Crown, rather than from colonial governments. Each colony would be represented in Parliament by two MPs, though they would have a special right to sit in Parliament even after removed from office, until their replacement arrived. Certain boroughs would also be given representation in Parliament with two MPs apiece. The final provision was for the admission of peers from the colonies. Each colony would nominate 'two notable individuals of venerable colonial heritage who have made a great contribution to their colony'. After that, titles would be dispensed in the usual fashion.

Other provisions included the rescinding of the 1763 Proclamation that bound colonial frontiers at the Appalachians, and the creation of Indian protectorates within colonial boundaries. The creation of new colonies was reserved for the British government.

[1] Our POD
[2] There are a lot of things which haven't occurred in TTL as opposed to OTL. No Continental Congress, though there are Committees of Correspondence. No Intolerable Acts, only one Intolerable Act. No Boston Massacre. Generally, British-American relations are better, and if a revolution was to occur in TTL, it would take place in the early 1780s to allow for worsening of relations to the point that Americans decide they need independence.
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#1a: The New Noble Families of America

Quebec: Marquis de Lotbiniere, Baron de Longueuil
Nova Scotia: Baron de Poboncoup
St John's Island:
Massachusetts: Baron of Quincy
New Hampshire:
Rhode Island:
New York:
New Jersey:
Virginia: Barons Lee
North Carolina:
South Carolina:
East Florida:
West Florida:
Windward Islands:
Leeward Islands:
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#2: Carry Me Back To Virginia

As the new settlement was arranged, and the colonies and few boroughs elected their representatives, and the new Peers made their way to Britain for their investiture, a few issues came to the government's attention. Primary among them was that prior to 1763, the British government had paid little attention to conflicting colonial territory as it had been irrelevant so long as they didn't actually control that territory. After 1763, those contentious areas were behind the Proclamation line so were again considered irrelevant. But now that the Proclamation line had been rescinded and British subjects were once again heading west, the parlous state of affairs once again had to be settled.

First of all there were those areas east of the Line to be settled. The Benning Wentworth Grants were settled in favour of the Province of New Hampshire, much to New York's consternation, and led to one of the first speeches by an American MP in the House of Commons. The second set of claims east of the Line were some of the claims of New England provinces, specifically, Massachusetts claims on New York, and Connecticut claims on Pennsylvania. In both cases, the claims were voided and the borders of New York and Pennsylvania recognised.

Beyond the line were the claims of many colonies stretching out in great long parallel strips which could technically carry on all the way to the Pacific. Most of this contested territory was the Ohio Country, claimed by Virginia, New York, Connecticut and Massachusetts at various points. It was decided that none of the colonies would receive any territory in the Ohio Country. The new colonies (non-voting) of Transylvania and Vandalia had been carved out of Virginia, and now, like the New England colonies, they could not exercise direct control of the territory. At the southerly point of the New England claims, the line drawn was recognised and everything north of their and then around the Great Lakes to the border with Quebec was made the Crown Colony of Charlottania. Eveything south of that line to the borders of Pennsylvania, Vandalia and Transylvania became the Crown Colony of Ohio. Neither had any representation in Parliament. New York's loss of New Hampshire and her claims to the Ohio Country were compensated by acquiesing to her claim to the peninsula to the west which had formerly been part of New France. The less populated areas of former New France outside Quebec became part of Charlottania.

The last region was the area of the Carolinas. Since the northern colonies had been deprived of their western claims, a decision was made to similarly deprive the southern colonies. Instead two Crown Colonies were set up. The North and South Carolinian claims were merged into the Colony of West Carolina. Georgia as only a very young and low populated colony was allowed to keep her western territories.

These adjustments caused a great degree of concern amongst the colonials. But whenever a representative from one region raised the issue it inevitably came into conflict with the representatives of another. Cleverly, the British had divided the aims of their colonial cousins. The brief sense of pan-American identity dissolved over the course of the 1770s, replaced by a loyalty to 'shire' and then to wider Britain.

Alongside the adjustment of colony/shire boundaries, decisions had to be made as to which American towns should be given borough status to send representatives to Britain. Eventually a consensus was reached, with Philadelphia, Boston, New York and Baltimore gaining representation as populous cities, and Williamsburg and Charles Town being given representation as centres of population in the South and as older settlements. Halifax and Quebec City also gained representation to give the more northerly colonies representation. The Jamaican town of Kingston was also made a borough to give the Caribbean colonies a boost.

Over the proceeding decades, the central government in London would take on more and more responsibilities from the colonial or shire governments, administered through the Secretary of State for the American Colonies. The colonial administrations would become largely responsible for the administration of certain services and the local judiciary, with much more responsibility being processed through the American Colonial Office under the Secretary of State. It became standard practise for the centrally appointed Secretary of State to have a deputy chosen from the American delegations.

Possibly the largest impact of the enfranchisement of Americans on a relatively standard pattern was that it accelerated the pace of demand in Britain itself for reforms to the House of Commons, to the distribution of constituencies and to the franchise as a whole. These debates would sharpen the divisions within the Whigs, and lead to the relative resurgence of the Tories as a force of reaction against the liberal ideas which surfaces throughout the 1770s and 1780s.
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Heres an electoral map of Britain-in-America. I might get round to actually using this at some point.

You know what would improve the irony here even further? British Napoleon winning a great victory against the French at Waterloo, the French (under the ingenious and intelligent Admiral Villeneuve) handily defeating the British at sea but failing to achieve any notable success on land, and George III being an American national hero.

Just throwing in a few ideas. :)

I like it!
Indeed. Interesting stuff. I wonder if a certain Corsican will appear at any point :)? Anyway, Subscribed.

I can neither confirm nor deny whether l'Empereur will emerge at all.

You know what would improve the irony here even further? British Napoleon winning a great victory against the French at Waterloo, the French (under the ingenious and intelligent Admiral Villeneuve) handily defeating the British at sea but failing to achieve any notable success on land, and George III being an American national hero.

Just throwing in a few ideas. :)

I like it!

I don't know about that. Suffice to say, the Revolutionary Wars will be very different in this world.
#3: You Gotta Fight For Your Right To Party

The realignment of the British party system had been a long time coming. The Tory-Whig feud that dated back to the Restoration, ad was accentuated by The Glorious Revolution, had broken down over the course of the 18th century, leaving the Whigs governing almost continuously since the mid-1710s. As the Whigs established their supremacy, and the Tories faded away into irrelevancy and virtual non-existance, the Whigs became riven by factionalism. Each faction gravitated around a different personality and as their stars rose and fell, factions formed, collapsed and reformed. It was an unstable system, but it kept a vague sense of unity as factions usually formed around specific issues, and were short-term arrangements.

This changed with Rockingham. His Whigs were reformers, but wished to protect the oligarchy. As his career grew in success, his faction became more stable and defined itself around more personalities. As the American MPs came to sit in the Commons, most came to sit with his Whigs. The American party systems in the colonies could mostly be described as Court vs Country, and Rockingham's pro-landowner, and anti-royal power rhetoric attracted many Country Americans.

But as Rockingham's faction strengthened, so he was able to govern without the support of other Whig factions. And many Court Americans aligned with either these factions are went to sit with the Tories. As talk of radical reforms to the franchise, to constituencies and so on arose, more conservative factions of Whigs began to shift toward the Tories, leading to a resurgence in that party.

There were two main splits in British politics which caused the coalescence of factions into parties. The first was between 'King's Friends' who welcomed George III's more active role in politics, and those who believed this active role only harmed the British Constitution. The second division was over reform. Of course 'reform' is a broad category, and in this sense it is more a division between radicals and conservatives. From these divisions four stable-ish parties emerged over the course of the 1770s and 1780s.

The first were the Rockinghamite Whigs, or simply Whigs. They wanted reforms (limited reforms) to the parliamentary system to make it more democratic and less corrupt. The assent of figures like Charles James Fox can be seen here. The Whigs were opposed to the King's involvement in politics, noting the instability of the years when the King directly imposed his will on Parliament over who formed a government.

The second were the Northite Tories, sometimes just referred to as Tories. They favoured the King's new role in Parliamentary politics, pointing out the need of the monarch in the British Constitution. They did not favour reform, preferring to keep systems as they are, with a view that reforms only be introduced if they were absolutely necessary. Very much a Court Party and associated with property and old money.

The other two parties were smaller. The first were the Pittite Tories, who welcomed the King's active role, but they were also reformers, looking to keep the constitution balanced, unlike the Northites who saw themselves as servants of the King. The Pittites even proposed franchise reform, albeit to strengthen their base amongst the gentry.

The last and smalled group were the Burkite Whigs. They disliked the King's interference in Parliamentary affairs, but at the same time did not want to see great upheaval to the British constitution. They preferred to allow things to develop at their own pace.

In some ways the parties had a great deal in common, but the differences were sufficient to keep them separate. The Rockinghamites managed to entrench their dominance throughout the 1780s, their majority only collapsing with the advent of the Revolutionary wars which merely sharpened the differences between the four parties.
#4: Sold South

On August 23rd 1770, Captain James Cook determined that New Guinea was not contiguous with New Holland and claimed the whole eastern coast of the continent for Britain. This would have great consequences down the line. As the American colonies began their transition from being economic outposts of the Empire, to being part of the Empire itself, so it could no longer remain an effective home for penal colonies. Some could be established in Ohio or Charlottania, which were sufficiently remote from the shires to the East.

Instead, rebels, recalcitrants and recidivists could be sent to the newly discovered continent. While the first colony would only be set up in the late 1780s, it soon became an ideal site for transportation of difficult elements from Britain, Ireland and Britain-in-America. Australia also became an effective punishment for runaway slaves. The colonial corporations which controlled much of the economy there paid a good price for labour, and before the abolition of slavery in the 1840s, an effective (and occasionally illicit) market existed.

While combining a cocktail of petty criminals, Irish nationalists, desperate former Scots and northern farmers, revolutionaries, ex-plantation slaves and extreme American Jacobins would come at a price later on, for now it seemed to be an effective solution to the issue of rising crime rates and prison overpopulation at the start of the 19th century.
#5: Vogue

In early 1776, the first American MPs and Peers crossed the Atlantic to sit in Parliament. As well as spurring on the construction of a new district of the city to house them (further expanded to house new MPs from Great Britain herself in the ensuing decades), it encouraged a wave of other Americans to make the journey back to Britain, and with the lifting of most trade restrictions also encouraged more intercourse between Britain and her new shires.

The most pronounced changes introduced by this was fashion, particularly male fashion. The banyan, already worn privately in Britain, was worn publically in humid colonial Virginia and soon became an item of street clothing during warmer weather. The more restrained fashions of many Americans, such as Benjamin Franklin, also caught on amongst the less wealthy British, and led to a stark divergence in fashions paralleling politics. More conservative people, who sympathised especially with the Northite took up continental styles known pejoratively as 'macaroni' while liberals particularly Rockinghamites took up the Franklin style often eshewing wigs all together.

One anonymous wag commented, 'Whigs are the last people to be caught wearing a wig these days, whereas Tories are always trying to outdo one another with the size of their Whig'. This was a comment on even though the Whig one party domination had come to an end, most 'Tories' were still reluctant to identify as such and loudly proclaimed their Whig credentials in a way which made it obvious that they were not Whigs at all.

But arguably, while the emergent of 'Yankee Doodle' and Macaroni styles of dress were important, they have since been overshadowed by the Dandies. In the 1770s to 1790s, the group was only in its infancy. But the essence of Dandy dress was to combine Yankee simplicity with Macaroni elegance. Extravagant powdered wigs were out, lace was in. Puritanical black was out, a range of tasteful browns and pastel shades were in. If the Yankee style represented the middle class and Americn pretensions of the Whigs, and the Macaroni represented a desire to emulate European styles amongst the Tories, then the Dandy style represented the reality of British politics. They showed Britain's new mercantile class, but also the firm grip of the aristocracy. They showed the new vogue for things American, but also showed Britain's prominence in Europe. Dandies were Enlightenment Men, not Puritans or powdered Frenchmen.
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#6: Oh, Vienna

In 1777, the last of the junior line of Wittelsbach died of smallpox. As hundreds died in Boston of smallpox, normally one man dying would have little effect on history. In this case, the death was enormous. Without a child, there were now three possible heirs to the throne. Charles IV Theodore of the Palatinate had the best claim but also had no heirs. Charles II August of Zweibrucken had a legal claim because of this. And the Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria, Joseph II claimed the Electorate through his wife. In such a situation, war was inevitable.

Nonetheless, the Emperor sought to avoid war by promising Charles IV Upper Bavaria uncontested (allowing him to parcel off land to his natural sons) if he would allow him to take Lower Bavaria. Unknown to them, Charles II was arranging a deal with the Saxons and the Prussians. And Charles II also had allies in the French. But to make things even more complex, the Bourbon succession to the Spanish throne meant that the traditional enmity between Paris and Vienna was at an end. The two states were now virtually allies, fellow Catholic absolute monarchies, against the expansion of Protestantism. And France was eager to go to war. Twice humiliated by Great Britain, and having been refused the territorial gain of Corsica, they wanted a victory in Europe to prove their strength.

France finally decided to go to war on Austria's side supporting the succession of Joseph to most of Bavaria. They encouraged Austria to give up some of Austria's territory in the Netherlands to Charles IV, a proposal which Joseph II was wary of. But with Prussia forming a Union of Princes in the north, he needed allies. France's plan was devious, and complex. This would only emerge in the latter stages of the war. Britain and Russia stayed out of the war watching the events carefully, only wanting to intervene if the balance of power was directly threatened. Austrians also bought the neutrality of Russia by selling them portions of Galicia.

Most of the fighting took place in Bohemia between Austria and Prussia. Austria managed to defend her territory, while France fought against the northern states. The war carried on for four years, and over that time, there were many reversals of fortune but the result was reasonably amicable for almost everyone in involved. But France pulled something out of the bag which infuriated Austria and put an end to their attempt at an alliance.

At the peace negotiations, Austria gave up all of the Austrian Netherlands, while taking all of Bavaria, essentially trading the territory with Charles IV Theodore. What they could never have expected was the death from pneumonia of the prince, and the succession to the throne of French ally Charles II August. He alone now controlled the Netherland-Rhenish kingdom that Charles IV Theodore had built at Austrian expense. Austria had spent tens of millions of florins only to see the Prussians secure the allegiance of northern Protestant states, and France gained a substantial buffer state within the Holy Roman Empire. The balance of power was maintained.

While Joseph was angry, he had shed the more troublesome portions of his empire while making great acquisitions in German-speaking Central Europe. And half way through the war, his mother died making him sole ruler of Austria. He had a vision of Enlightened Despotism, planning to reform the Austrian Empire and make it a true rival to the upstart Prussians. He planned to excise medieval anachronisms, and bring order and unity to all the possessions of the Crown. In this endeavour, Joseph II would become an inspiration to monarchs in half of Europe. As for the other half...
Currently, I am concerned that some people may note the parallels of certain aspects of my TL and Thande's exemplary Look To The West. This is not deliberate. I have done some not inconsiderable reading and I am simply setting out what I think would happen. I think this merely compliments Thande's far superior work as it shows that hes put the work and the effort in, and what hes written is accurate. I doubt mine is going to be anything like as good in the long term. Thande has a talent for always dropping the unexpected. I have a bad habit of following the same kind of paths. And also a taste for the fantastical might result in some borderline ASB stuff in my TL down the line. At the start however, you shouldn't be enormously surprised if our respective TLs look and feel somewhat similar. After all, they have somewhat similar premises.
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#7: Surat's Where Its At

The main thing distracting Britain from affairs in Europe other than its intervention not being strictly necessary was the Maratha War. Beginning, rather ironically, over a succession crisis and what was regarded by some as an illegal cession of Maratha territory to the British, the Empire struggled for nine years to defeat the Indian empire ultimately only managing to force them to a stalemate.

The failure to defeat the Marathas exposed fatal flaws in Britain's military and economic structure. Both had been left to their own devices since the end of the Seven Years War, and the Rockingham government swiftly realised that changes had to be made. Most of these changes took place during the war before they could have an effect. And some had even been set in motion before the war, as American militias were integrated into the British Army.

The situation also called into question the administration of the British East India Company. As much as the Maratha War had been a conflict been two rival claimants as Peshwa of the Marathan Empire, it was a conflict between different jurisdictions within John Company, and also between the British government and its corporate subsidiaries. Clearly authority had to be enforced.

British sovereignty was enforced over the Company and its political as well as economic role recognised. The different councils were rationalised, with Warren Hastings being appointed Governor-General, in overall command. His realisation that an attempt to prosecute a war against the Marathas would be ultimately fruitless was looked upon kindly in Britain, if not amongst his corporate fellows, and he was elevated because of that. His position at the top of the tree would yield great benefits in time.

A Board of Control was established, deeply tied into the mainstream ranks of power in Westminster, considerably weakening the power of the corporation to act independently. The foundations of an administrative bureaucracy within the country were also established. Due to the more Atlantic focus of Britain, an emphasis was placed on the participation of local rulers and traditional law in governance at a local level.

As for military reforms, the most key and dramatic change was a reformation of the ability to purchase commissions. While commissions in the army still had to be purchased, now it was much easier to ascend the ranks on the basis of merit, and some regiments didn't have any purchasable ranks. This made it much easier for Americans to climb up the pecking order of the British military establishment, while avoiding rocking the boat too violently amongst the traditional British ruling class. An analysis and overhaul of the Navy and Army tactics was also ordered. In practise this mostly benefitted the navy. As trade restrictions were loosened up, so the economy grew and Britain's navy needed to be more flexible to defend a growing number of merchants.
#8: The Tories Strike Back

In the early 1780s, with the Rockinghamite Whigs seemingly at the height of their powers, they had introduced several reforming policies, abolishing some of the pocket boroughs, reassigning seats to growing industrial towns. The franchise hadn't been expanded but there were plans in the works. The only issue was the fears of the oligarchic masters of the party that they would lose control. But one of the issues that Rockingham championed especially after he won re-election in 1781, was that of Ireland and Catholic Emancipation.

He first of all lifted most of the medieval limits on the Irish Parliament, retaining the British Government's control over the Lord Lieutenant and the House of Lords, and retaining the right of the Crown (essentially the British Government) to direct the external affairs of Ireland. As for internal affairs, it was left up to Ireland with the exception of an annual tribute to the Crown.

The Irish Parliament under Henry Grattan was loyal to Britain and the Empire, and while there was some talk of integrating Ireland into Great Britain as America had, Grattan maintained that this would be like integrating Hanover. However, despite Grattan and his Parliament's loyalty to the British state, the War of the Bavarian Succession and the feelings of inadequacy which emerged from the failure to prevail in the Maratha War led to the anti-Papist Gordon Riots in Britain.

The Tories, while traditionally a crypto-Catholic party, tapped into this dissatisfaction with reformist Whig policies and under Lord North, the Tories formed an effective opposition to the Whigs for the first time in decades. The almost exclusive Rockinghamite utilisation of 'The Mob' to prove his populist credentials had been usurped. From now on, Rockingham's star, once ascendant, would now set.

One small positive for Rockingham was William Herschel's discovery of a new planet. While he initially named it Georgium Sidus, there was some controversy about naming a planet after a King, rather than a God or Goddess. Some proposed Neptune, but with more of a focus on Britain's armies than her navy at least in the public eye, it seemed an odd choice. There was also a proposal to call it Ouranos. But to name a planet after a God who ate his own children at a time when a war was being fought in Europe over a throne vacated by a man who had sons, and one of the prime contenders being a man who in turn famously had no legitimate heirs, it seemed spectacularly insensitive. Instead, the new planet was named Britannium Sidus, naming it after the Goddess Britannia, the Roman tutelary goddess of Great Britain, and symbol of the British nation. This naming was unrecognised for several decades in much of Europe, but eventually the name was accepted, especially after other planets were named after national personifications.
#9: Make Me One With Everything

As the 18th century entered its dying decades, so the Enlightenment long pondered over by thinkers and intellectuals began to enter the practical world of politics. Different forms of Enlightenment thought would have different impacts in different places, and would have dramatically different concepts of freedom and government. In most of Continental Europe, Enlightened Despotism became vogue, with many kingdoms modelling themselves after Prussia or Austria. Britain and Ireland became great examples of the Enlightened Constitutional Monarchy with the Netherlands and Poland-Lithuania following a similar pattern. The last form, Republicanism was mooted as early as the 1760s but wouldn't have a proper impact until the 1790s.

One of the most prominent aspects of Enlightenment thought was religion. Different forms of Enlightenment again had different attitudes to religion. While all had an emphasis on rationality, in Britain the emphasis was on deism, on a new way of thinking about Christianity, whereas amongst the Enlightened Despots, the focus was simply on tolerance. In many ways the more democratic Britons could be much less tolerant particularly towards 'superstitious' Catholicism. People like Thomas Jefferson produced 'Rational Bibles' with all supernatural elements purged.

But in opposition to the Enlightenment were the Romantics. They would not really emerge until the height of the Revolutionary Wars, but the initial thinkers emerged in the 1770s and 1780s. Unlike the Enlightenment which grew from the sciences and a greater knowledge of the natural world, the Romantics grew from the arts. They criticised notions of rationality, the concept of progress, and the trends of politicised Enlightenment towards the dissolution of the individual. Centralisation of order and an increasing lack of tolerance of dissent. Instead, they proposed to use modern technology to return to a simpler age of small tenant farmers living under benevolent lords in a society based around virtue and mutual service. In some ways it was informed by Enlightenment notions, but it was an essentially conservative ideology seeking to turn the clock back. It cloaked itself in nostalgia for the medieval and being steeped in the arts, harked back to the age of legends.

At the same time these ideas were being discussed, so two clashing notions of religion emerged. One fitted into the rational world of the Enlightenment Man. The other better suited the Romantic. Both emerged in Britain. The first was Pantheism built upon upon Spinoza and Jefferson's ideas, it conceived of a singular godhead, and the concept of good living to achieve a place in the afterlife. God was the Demiurge, the designer and creator of the universe but He merely observed, taking no direct intervention in His Creation. The other was the new Druidry Movement. The first of many such resurrections of ancient faith, they followed what they believed were active gods, manifested in nature and daily life.