Imperium Universalis (Roman TL)


Welcome to the world of Imperium Universalis. The premise behind this timeline is “what if the Romans survived to the present day in one form or another” based on the OTL concept of Dominium Mundi or Universal Monarchy. Which means the recognition of one supreme monarch over all other monarchs. While there is one initial Point of Divergence, I will also make several alterations to secure the survival of the Roman civilization. However it wouldn’t be an unreasonably wank in the absence of the so-called “Dark Age” with no Christianity. Nor would I use the ridiculous idea that centralized empires are inexorably prone to cultural stagnation, and political fragmentation is necessary for steady cultural progress. Instead Rome would become sort of a Chinese entity where it went through a number of dynastic cycles and a dynamic conquest and loss of territories

This timeline is a long term project with a high degree of abstraction, decade-by-decade trends and major events, rather than miniature events of emperors. I will try to make its progress as realistic as possible. While I will try to cover the rest of the world as much as I can, the main focus is the Roman Empire.

As a natural consequence of a surviving Rome, the sleeping Dragon in the east will wake up from a reactionary isolationist complacency and realize that the Empire of the Western Seas is the natural rival of the Celestial Kingdom. Thus the two empires in both ends of Eurasia would be locked in millennia-long Great Game untouchable by the distance. The twin empires survive as functional centralized empires, steadily evolve and modernize socially, politically, culturally, and technologically, both on their own and as a result of ongoing extensive trade and cultural exchange. All the while the Northmen from Scandinavia escaping the reach of the Romans and building a great empire across the sea rivalling both Rome and China in its might. An empire built on a syncretic Norse-American culture, tales of ancestral heroic and republican traditions of Rome.

Due to the scale and unpredictability of the timeline, some events or cultures would still happen despite butterflies for mostly narrative reasons. Having said that, the Roman empire might or might not follow the same “technological tree” as ours with some technology discovered centuries earlier for its usefulness, other technology not cost effective enough to pursue, or developing an alternative path of one similar technology.

The timeline is defined by following PoDs:
  • Rome would go through a more smoothly transition from republic to empire
  • Rome wouldn’t suffer any serious defeat in its early expansions
  • Establishment of a organized religion that is not Christianity
  • Establishment of a stable and healthy succession system
  • The Crisis of the Third Century would be less harsh overall
As a final word I am not very knowledgeable nor expert on Roman history so I might make mistakes here and there. I very much appreciate feedback and if you have good sources please share them.

Without further ado lets us start with our initial POD.

Have a happy Ides of March
Book 1: The Divine Founders

Book 1: The Divine Founders​

Emperor Umberto of the Roman State, and the ruler of the most powerful empire in Terra, was ill at ease. The Industrial Revolution kickstarted by that damn Indian upstart threatened to usurp the throne, as the Triumvirate rightfully controlled. The Roman Empire in the Western Middle Earth, the Serican Empire in Eastern Middle Earth and the Norscan Empire in the upper part of the New World. They were the Masters of the World.

He looked at the map of the world in his study. The world was divided into three colours of various shades, Red, Yellow and Blue. A world divided between Roma, Serica and Norsca each controlling a handful of tributary states. Then the Indian princes threatened to uproot all of their work. Being in the centre of the Silk Road, they were in constant competition against each other and seeking favours from either Rome or Nanjing, and even from Copenhagen in the New World. One of these princes eventually arose above all and conquered all of India in a style of warfare newer seen before. Not since Alexander the Great overthrew and conquered the Persian Empire.

That Indian prince declared himself as Chakravarti, as the fourth master of the world, and put him on equal foot with the Triumvirate. Only they may call themselves Master of the World through the Roman Imperial Cult and the Serican Divine Mandate. They might have allowed the Norscans a seat of the table but only because they were an ocean away. Not the Indians! Only Romans and Sericans could jointly rule over the Middle Earth. There would be no room for another power to rise on the continent.

His musering was interrupted by a knock at the door and his servant entered his study. “They are all here,” he told him.

“Good, please let them in.”

One by one all of his magisters entered his study. The first to enter was his heir, Caesar Filiberto, followed by the three elected consuls from each part of the empire. Gisela of Germania, Cardozo of Latina and Antonios of Graecia. The Roman Empire was in this age indeed not Roman nor Empire but a union of three great people under one monarch in Rome. Soon the rest of the magistracy followed them and they stood around the conference table.

Umberto was the first one to sit down but before did so he bowed his head in respect at the portrait of the divine founders of the empire above his seat. The Father, the Lord and the Son. Also known as Augustus, Octavianus and Aeguptus. If he could remember from the school currently, he mused, there was a conspiracy by the corrupted oligarchy against Augustus. He single handedly fought off over twenty of his would-be assassins with just a modest show of his fighting skills on the Ides of Marts for a very long time ago.

The conspiracy had however been foiled and the remaining conspirators were hunting down. Despite the attempt on his life, his resolve had never been stronger. In order to ensure the security and continuing stability, he reorganised the republic into an empire for a safe and secure society.

Emperor Umberto couldn’t help but wonder what would have happened if the first of the three divine founders of the Roman Empire had been assassinated on the Ides of March that day. Would the Roman Republic have crumbled into chaos? Would another ambitious general have risen to power? The possibilities were endless, and it was a tantalising thought experiment.

As he sat at the head of the conference table, he addressed his magisters, "My fellow magistrates, I would like us to ponder a question that has haunted historians for centuries before we start this meeting. What would have happened if Augustus had been assassinated and did not survive the attempt on his life?"

There was a hush in the room as everyone contemplated the question. It was a sobering thought, and one that required careful consideration. Umberto continued, "We know that after the assassination attempt, Augustus began his transition of the republic into an empire. But what if he hadn't survived? What if chaos had ensued instead?"

Caesar Filiberto, the emperor's heir, spoke up, "It's difficult to say for certain, but I believe that without Augustus’s leadership, the Roman Republic would have continued its downward spiral into corruption and inefficiency. The power struggles between the patricians and plebeians would have continued, and the republic would have fractured into warring factions."

Gisela of Germania chimed in, "I agree with his Imperial Highness. Without Augustus’ unifying force, the various provinces would have broken away and declared independence. The Gauls, the Spaniads, and the Balkans would have risen up in rebellion, and we would have lost the Levant and Anatolia to the Persians and to Pontus. The Roman Republic would have been reduced to a shell of its former self."

Cardozo of Latina added, "And let's not forget about the power vacuum that would have been created. Another ambitious general would have risen to fill the void left by Augustus’ absence. It could have been someone even more ruthless and bloodthirsty than him, plunging the republic into even greater darkness."

Antonios of Graecia interjected, "But what about the Senate? Would they have been able to prevent the chaos from unfolding? Would they have stepped up to lead the republic after the assassination of Augustus?"

Umberto shook his head, "I doubt it. The Senate was too corrupt and ineffectual to govern the republic on its own. They lacked the vision and the leadership qualities that Augustus possessed. Without him, the republic would have collapsed."

There was a moment of silence as everyone pondered the implications of their discussion. Finally, Umberto spoke up, "We must be grateful for Augustus’ survival and the stability he brought to our world. But we must also be vigilant and ensure that our empire continues to thrive and remain strong."

Caesar Filiberto nodded in agreement, "Yes, we must always remember the lessons of history and be prepared to face any challenges that come our way. We are the Masters of the World, and it is our duty to ensure that our empire endures for generations to come."

The other magistrates nodded in agreement, and the meeting began. As they discussed the Indian upstart, Umberto couldn't help but feel a sense of relief. The question of what would have happened if Augustus had been assassinated was an unsettling one, but he was glad that they had discussed it. It was a reminder of the fragility of empires and the importance of strong leadership. He couldn't help but wonder what other historical "what ifs" he should consider. The possibilities were endless, and he knew that as long as he remained emperor, it was his duty to be prepared for any eventuality.
Chapter 1: Emperor Augustus

Chapter 1: Emperor Augustus​

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Magnus was one of the three greatest founding fathers of the Roman Empire, a legendary Roman general and statesman who had been celebrated as a hero, a tyrant, and everything in between. Some saw him as a saviour who brought stability and prosperity to the troubled Roman Republic, while others viewed him as a power-hungry dictator who undermined the very foundations of the Roman Republic. Nevertheless, there was no denying his immense impact on Roman history, from his conquest of Gaul to his reforms of the Roman legal system, and his legacy continues to be felt today. Despite the controversy surrounding his rule, many continue to study his life and leadership for insights into the workings of power and the art of governance.

His rise to power had been a long and arduous journey, marked by conflict and controversy. Despite his many detractors, he had managed to maintain a firm grip on the reins of power, leveraging his immense wealth, charisma and military prowess to outmanoeuvre his rivals time and again. However, his opponents remained determined to bring him down, and their latest plot was the most daring yet. While Caesar was aware of the dangers that surrounded him, he remained confident in his popularity among the people and his ability to navigate the complex web of Roman politics. Little did he know that the events of Ides of March would change the course of Roman history forever.

On the morning of the Ides of March in 710 AUC Caesar made his way to the Curia of Pompey to attend a session of the Roman Senate.. As he made his way through the crowded streets of Rome, he was surrounded by a throng of admirers and supporters, all eager to catch a glimpse of the great man. However, amidst the crowds lurked a group of conspirators, who were determined to bring about Caesar's downfall. At the centre of the plot were two senators: Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus. They and the rest of the conspirators believed Caesar had become too powerful and had undermined the Roman Republic.

The plot to assassinate Caesar had been in the works for weeks, and the conspirators had carefully planned every detail. They had chosen the Ides of March because Caesar would have departed Rome on his military campaign against Dacia and Parthia a few days later. The conspirators had also taken precautions to ensure that weapons were not brought into the sacred border of Rome and the senator meeting would by chance take place at the temporary Curia of Pompey outside the wall of the city. In addition, they had carefully selected which senators would be involved in the attack and had given them specific roles to play. Despite their meticulous planning, the success of their plot was far from certain, and the outcome would ultimately hinge on a few critical moments in the Senate chamber.

As Caesar took his seat in the Senate chamber, he was unaware that a few of senators around him were armed with concealed daggers, ready to strike. Before the meeting could formally begin, Lucius Tillius Cimber, one of the conspirators, approached Caesar, petitioned him to recall his brother from exile. As Cimber made his appeal, the rest of the conspirators slowly fanned out and surrendered Caesar. Still seated, Caesar, sensing that something was amiss, refused the request. Then suddenly Cimber grabbed him by the shoulder and pulled down his tunic, a signal for the others to begin their attack.

At this moment, Publius Servilius Casca, another conspirator, swiftly drew his dagger and lunged towards Caesar. However, in his agitated state, he missed his mark and only managed to graze Caesar's shoulder. Reacting quickly, Caesar managed to grab hold of Casca's dagger. With the dagger in his possession, he was able to skillfully deflect an attack aimed at his face by Cassius. As Caesar rose to his feet, he unknowingly backed into Titidieus, who was also a part of the conspiracy, and thrusted at him with a dagger. But, armed with his own dagger and alert from the earlier attack, Caesar was able to evade the potentially fatal blow from Titidieus.

The sudden violence had taken the other senators in the chamber aback, but they did not offer any help to the conspirators, as they had hoped. In a state of shock, Marcus Antonius pushed away Trebonius, another conspirator who was holding him back, and rushed inside the Senator chamber after hearing the news that Caesar was being attacked. He impulsively grabbed a dagger from Cimber unaware of his surroundings, and Antonius quickly joined forces with Caesar. With no support from the senators and caught between two skilled fighters, the conspirators realised they were doomed to failure and prayed for mercy.

Caesar accepted the surrender of the conspirators and ordered their imprisonment. Despite their past opposition to Caesar, many senators, including the staunch Republican Cicero, condemned the assassination plot. Cicero warned that the violent removal of a leader could set a dangerous precedent and lead to further instability and bloodshed. He drew parallels to the murder of the Gracchi Brothers less than one century ago, which had caused deep divisions among the Roman people, and argued that such acts could only further divide and weaken the state.

Caesar’s supporters hailed his survival as a sign of divine protection, but he was deeply shaken and betrayed some of his closest advisors and friends who had conspired against him. A treason court was set up to bring the conspirators to justice, and though the assassination plot was unpopular among both the Senate and the people, the verdict of the court was never in doubt. Caesar used the trials to reinforce his commitment to the principles of the Roman Republic, insisting that he was not a king or a tyrant and that no proscriptions would be declared.

Those who directly participated in the assassination attempt, including Brutus and Cassius, and those who had previously been pardoned were executed for high treason. Some conspirators were shown mercy and pardoned, while others were stripped of their citizenship and sent into exile. Only a small minority of the Senate was implicated in the purge, and they were replaced with senators loyal to Caesar. However, those who were pardoned had their political careers effectively ended. To let the situation cool down while he was away on his planned military campaign, Hirtius and Pansa were appointed as consuls, and Lepidus was appointed as Magister Equitum to oversee Rome in Caesar's absence.

Following the assassination attempt, Caesar realised that the Senate was too corrupt and ineffective to bring about meaningful change in Rome. Despite his previous efforts to work with the Senate, he believed that he was now the only one capable of restoring order and prosperity to the republic. He began to see himself as a necessary dictator, determined to save the republic from its downfall and become a benevolent ruler. His unwavering belief in his ability to rule and protect the republic ultimately drove him to take drastic measures, leading many historians to view his assassination attempt as the beginning of the Roman Empire in all but name.

Finally after one month of delay, Caesar left Rome for his military campaign in Dacia.
1.1 Dacian Campaign 44 BC

1.1 Dacian Campaign 44 BC​

Dacia had posed a threat to Roman influence in Thrace, Macedonia, and Illyria, particularly when King Burebista united the native tribes and began an aggressive campaign of expansion. His kingdom extended to Pannonia in the west and reached the Black Sea in the east, with his authority stretching into the Lower Danubian Plain. Caesar recognized that a united Dacia was a potential threat to the security and stability of the Roman Republic. He was particularly incensed that King Burebista had allied with his enemy Pompey during the civil war. Therefore, Caesar, as part of his planned Parthian campaign the following year, intended to cross into Dacia to punish Burebista and assert Roman dominance in the region.

Both Caesar and Antonius travelled to Macedonia and met with several legions already prepared for the Dacian campaign. While in Rome handling the aftermath of the assassination attempt, Caesar instructed the legions to speed up preparations for the war effort and establish a base of operations in Thessalonica. His grandnephew Gaius Octavianus had been sent to Apollonia in Illyria to receive a formal education in rhetoric, law and military tactics, among other subjects. He joined his uncle in the Dacian campaign, along with his associate Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa to gain military experience. With Caesar’s arrival, the Roman army promptly marched out of Macedonia with 8 legions

Despite having previously been allied with Pompey, the Thracian king Rhescuporis I chose to side with Caesar in his campaign against Dacia due to his ongoing hostility with king Burebista. To show his loyalty, Rhescuporis I sent his own forces to join the Roman army as auxiliaries and granted Caesar passage through his territory. From there, Caesar led his army across the Haemus Mons and went into Dacia, making his way towards the Greek cities along the coast by land and sea. Caught off guard, Burebista was unable to block this move at the fringes of his territory, and the Greek cities quickly submitted to Caesar with minimal resistance. As part of the agreement, the cities established supply depots while Rome provided protection with the establishment of garrisons to guard against potential Dacian counter-attacks.

After securing logistical support, Caesar and his army began their advance from the coast along the Danubius river in May. Knowing that he would be outmatched by Caesar in the open Lower Danubian plain, Burebista retreated to the mountains to fight another day. While the plain to the south of the river was easy to take, the conquest of the interior would require an extensive campaign. Fortunately, Caesar was more than capable of handling the task, given his experience in warfare against the Gauls, as well as the vast resources he could bring to bear. However, he was unwilling to get bogged down in Dacia when he also planned to strike at Parthia in the East after his Dacian campaign.

Hence Caesar led his army across the river, intent on engaging Burebista’s forces in a decisive battle. To weaken Burebista’s hold on his kingdom, Caesar played various local tribes against each other. Although the Dacian tribes had rallied behind Burebista, they only did so out of fear of the impending Roman invasion. However instead of confronting Caesar head-on, Burebista restored to asymmetric warfare, using raids and skirmishes to harass the Roman army. In response, Caesar began to attack and razed Dacian villages one by one, putting Burebista under increasing pressure from his own nobility to face Caesar in battle.

Buridava eventually yielded to the pressure and led his army to battle against the Romans near Buridava. Despite the fierce fighting of the Dacian forces, they were ultimately defeated by the superior discipline and tactics of the Roman legions, leading to a rout. In their flight, the king and the remaining soldiers fled to the Dacian capital of Sarmizegetusa, pursued by Caesar's forces. After a lengthy siege of the capital, Burebista was killed in a conspiracy within the walls of his stronghold at the first sign of weakness. The Dacian nobility handed over the king's head to Caesar, believing they could negotiate a better deal with him.

As Caesar's Dacian campaign neared its end, he sought to establish a peace agreement with the Dacian nobility, rather than attempting to subjugate them. Caesar recognized that pushing too hard could provoke the Dacian nobility to rebel against Roman rule. In an effort to avoid such a scenario, Caesar allowed the Thracian king, Rhescuporis I, to annex the territory south of the Danube River. From a logistical standpoint, administering this territory from Rome would have been impractical. In exchange for giving up their unified kingdom, the Dacian nobility were permitted to retain control over their own smaller states.

The campaign proved to be a significant victory for Caesar, which allowed him to strengthen his hold on the Balkans and exact retribution on King Burebista for his support of Pompey. Upon returning to Rome, Caesar was welcomed with great fanfare, leading a glorious triumph with his grandnephew Octavianus at his side in the chariot. While his triumph over Dacia was somewhat overshadowed by his previous victories in Gaul, Egypt, Pontus, Numidia, and Hispania, most of these triumphs had been tainted as they were all about celebrating the defeat of fellow Romans in the Civil War. The Dacian triumph however served to rally the Roman people around a clear-cut victory over a foreign adversary. For this Caesar was awarded the victory title of Dacius by the Senate.

In Rome, Caesar embarked on an ambitious program of reforms and public works projects, cementing his popularity with the Roman people. He oversaw the completion of ongoing projects, such as the Saepta Julia, Forum Julium, and Curia Julia, while also initiating new construction projects, including a new temple of Mars, a theatre, and a library modelled after the one in Alexandria. In addition, Caesar undertook major civil engineering projects, such as draining the Pomptine marshes to create new farmland, rerouting the Tiber to prevent flooding in the city, and expanding the harbour at Ostia and constructing moles to improve safety.

It was soon time for Caesar to turn his attention to Parthia.
Really interesting TL and I am enjoying it a lot (and hope to see soon another chapter) but I have just two things to point: first the assassination of Caesar happened oustide the Curia of Pompey NOT inside it… The conspirators would NEVER bring any kind of weapon inside the Senate hall as that would be against Rome’s customs and traditions so the murder need to be just outside of it as OTL. Second Caesar’s grandnephew at this time is still named Gaius Octavius (as Octavianus was the declination of the name of his former gens after the adoption by Caesar, who in OTL was done with Caesar’s last will)
Really interesting TL and I am enjoying it a lot (and hope to see soon another chapter) but I have just two things to point: first the assassination of Caesar happened oustide the Curia of Pompey NOT inside it… The conspirators would NEVER bring any kind of weapon inside the Senate hall as that would be against Rome’s customs and traditions so the murder need to be just outside of it as OTL. Second Caesar’s grandnephew at this time is still named Gaius Octavius (as Octavianus was the declination of the name of his former gens after the adoption by Caesar, who in OTL was done with Caesar’s last will)
Thank you for your feedback and your interest

For the assassination of Caesar. Many ancient historians including Plutarch who was born two year before the Ides of March reported that Caesar had been assassinated inside the Curia of Pompey. There are also archaeological evidence of where the assassination happen which had been uncovered for around 10 years ago. You are right that it is forbidden to bring weapons inside the scare border of Rome known as Pomperium, but Curia/theater of Pompey was located in Campus Martius outside of Pomperium. The conspirators picked this location of that reason.

For the name of Octavian. Ill change it to Octavius
Thank you for your feedback and your interest

For the assassination of Caesar. Many ancient historians including Plutarch who was born two year before the Ides of March reported that Caesar had been assassinated inside the Curia of Pompey. There are also archaeological evidence of where the assassination happen which had been uncovered for around 10 years ago. You are right that it is forbidden to bring weapons inside the scare border of Rome known as Pomperium, but Curia/theater of Pompey was located in Campus Martius outside of Pomperium. The conspirators picked this location of that reason.
I had always read who the assassination happened on the stairs of that Curia, but I could be wrong…
1.2 Parthian Campaign 43-40 BC

1.2 Parthian Campaign 43-40 BC​

After his affairs settled in Rome, Caesar prepared for his long-awaited invasion of Parthia, seeking further glories for Rome. The Roman public still clamoured for vengeance after the humiliation of Crassus' defeat at Carrhae almost a decade ago. In addition King Orodes II had great ambition to expand his realm and encroach on Roman influence and its client states. Even more insultingly, the Parthian monarch had backed Pompey in the recent Civil War and could even lend support to Caesar’s rivals. For a man like Caesar, this was an irresistible opportunity to inch ever closer to the legacy of Alexander the Great, and to punish the Parthian king and restore honour to Rome.

To provide his nephew with valuable administrative experience, Caesar appointed Octavius as proprietor in Antioch to oversee the mustering of legions and establish logistics centres for the upcoming campaign. An army of 16 legions and a host of auxiliary units of mixed mounted and ranged troops joined Octavius in Syria. Learned from Crassus’ failed invasion of Parthia, Caesar sought to remedy this by not focusing on heavy infantry but rather on a mixed approach with focus on archery. In total Caesar’s army consisted of 80,000 legionaries, 10,000 Celtic and Iberian horsemen and some 20,000 archers, slingers, light footmen and mixed cavalry together with a vast siege train. With his vast military experience and superior tactical skills, Caesar felt confident in his ability to lead a successful campaign against the Parthians.

The military buildup in Syria however prompted King Orodes II to take action. The Armenian King Artavasdes II had been a Roman ally and even offered support to Crassus, advising him to take the northern route through his kingdom. When Crassus refused this offer and instead advanced through Syria to his doom, King Orodes II later invaded Armenia and forced Artavasdes to align himself with Parthia. With the imminent invasion from Rome, Orodes II feared that Artavasdes II switched his loyalty to Rome. In February of 711 AUC, Parthian armies led by Crown Prince Pacorus intervened under the guise of protecting Armenia from the Romans.

After using the Parthian invasion of Armenia as a pretext for war, Caesar and Antonius immediately set off to Antioch. Upon arrival, Octavius was sent back to Rome as quaestor to gain further administrative experience. Caesar and the bulk of his army marched towards the Armenian capital Artaxata. He liberated cities along the road and took control of Armenia, restoring it as a Roman client kingdom. Although Caesar achieved his initial objective, he suffered heavy casualties to the hit-and-run tactics of the Parthian forces.

Meanwhile Crown Prince Pacorus launched a counterattack against Syria to cut Caesar off from his supply line, and engaged Antonius in the Battle of Antioch. The Parthians used their superior numbers and excellent cavalry to defeat Antonius and capture the Roman eagle standards. Antonius attempted to flee to Cilicia but was soon captured and executed by the Crown Prince. This defeat was a significant blow to Caesar's campaign. He was forced to return to Syria to engage Crown Prince Pacorus and prevent the Parthians from gaining further ground.

After returning to Syria to engage Crown Prince Pacorus, Caesar gathered his army and marched towards the Parthian army, which had established a camp at Cyrrhestica. At the start of their engagement, the Parthians launched a massive assault on the Roman positions, hoping to overwhelm them with their superior cavalry. However, Caesar and his army held their ground and fought back fiercely. He ordered his archers and slingers to concentrate their fire on the Parthian cavalry, which was vulnerable to missile fire. The Parthians attempted to outflank the Roman army, but Caesar anticipated their move and sent a detachment of infantry to block their path. Eventually, the two sides clashed in a fierce melee battle, and the Romans managed to break the Parthian line, sending them into a rout.

Despite their initial success, the Parthians soon became disorganised and lost their advantage. Crown Prince Pacorus himself was killed in the chaos of the rout, which led to a further disintegration of the Parthian forces. Caesar's tactical brilliance, along with the valour of his troops, proved decisive in securing a hard-fought victory over the Parthians. This triumph was a significant turning point in his campaign against the Parthians and helped to establish Rome's dominance of the Eastern Mediterranean. The loss of the Crown Prince however triggered a succession crisis.

Having learned about the death of his son Crown Prince Pacorus, the grief stricken king Orodes II abdicated his throne to his younger son Phraates IV, who quickly eliminated his rivals and consolidated his power. One of the exiled princes, Monaeses, sought refuge in Syria and offered Caesar his assistance against Phraates IV in exchange for Roman support. Caesar saw an opportunity and invaded Upper Mesopotamia with the backing of Monaeses’ followers and an army of 20,000 Armenians. Along the way, he brought the kingdoms of Commagene and Osroene under his control before turning his sights on the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon, situated on the Tigris River.

With the help of Monaeses and his army, Caesar invaded Upper Mesopotamia and quickly forced the submission of the kingdoms of Commagene and Osroene. He then marched towards Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital, along the Tigris River. Despite being outnumbered, Caesar used his army's engineering skills to drive a wedge between the Parthian army and Ctesiphon and put the capital under a bloody and gruelling siege. Although the main Parthian army remained undefeated, Caesar was able to claim a symbolic victory. He secured the return of all of the Roman Legionary Eagle Standards, as well as the release of prisoners taken at the Battle of Carrhae. In addition, the Parthian king offered a large tribute to Caesar.

After consolidating his gains in Northern Mesopotamia and establishing the Province of Osroene to secure the Eastern frontier, Caesar turned his attention towards Syria with the aim of securing Roman dominance over the region. His plan was to reform the existing client state system, which had proven to be unstable and unreliable, and establish a more centralised government in the region. He believed that the creation of two larger and more powerful client states, such as a Judean state and a Phoenician state, in addition to the Roman province of Syria, would be more effective in maintaining Roman control in the region.

Of course Caesar soon learned that both the Egyptian queen Cleopatra as well the Judean governor Herod demanded his attention.
Great chapter! After some setbacks Caesar emergers victorious!
Its also nice and quite realistic to see Caesar suffering setbacks on his campaign, even ones as early as these

Shows that despite his badassery he's still a man, not in control of everything, its one of these things that Caesar Lives TL often ignore for the rule of cool
Its also nice and quite realistic to see Caesar suffering setbacks on his campaign, even ones as early as these

Shows that despite his badassery he's still a man, not in control of everything, its one of these things that Caesar Lives TL often ignore for the rule of cool
Agreed, the man was one of the greatest roman generals of all time, but he suffered setbacks and defeats.

Oh ominous
Specially looking forward to the Cleopatra bit.
I would like to give a shout out to the two Youtube channels: Kings and Generals and Invicta

While I would of course use other sources than these two channels, their videos nevertheless inspired my timeline and some of the chapters might be based on their videos. I would definitely recommend King and Generals' immense Caesar, Callic Wars and the Civil War playlist
As an example Invicta had made an alternative history on what if Caesar wasn't assassinated, and both my Dacian and Parthian chapters are based on this excellent series. You can watch it here
However the assassination attempt of Caesar is ironically based on another video from the Youtube channel Historia Civilis. While I personally doesn't like his style and I think he is biased, his video on the Ides of March was still helpful for me to write this chapter.
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Its also nice and quite realistic to see Caesar suffering setbacks on his campaign, even ones as early as these
To be honest I did that so I have a good excuse to kill off Mark Atony. He is a tyrant and he did try to manipulated Octavian in the wake of Caesar's death like you suggested in your timeline. With him of the way we would also avoid the chaos of the Second Triumvirate and the civil war.

Specially looking forward to the Cleopatra bit.
You want Cleopatra but I am more interesting in telling about Herod "the Great" ;-)
Historia Civilis hates our guy but his Ides of March video is excelent
His video on what were Antony & Cleopatra's plans for the East was also what inspired my current timeline

Kings & Generals I only found recently but Im enjoying their mongol invasion of Europe very throughly

As for Invicta, I waited literal years for the conclusion of their Caesar Lives series, it was indeed that good and it only hypes me up even more to know you took THAT as an inspiration

Though hopefully you wont go for their GOT parody ending XD