Imperial Dusk - yet another alt-history mod for Hearts of Iron 4

So what's China like?
In 1900, the Guangxu Emperor used Empress Dowager Cixi's support of the Boxer Rebellion as an opportunity to restore his own power. His approach to limiting foreign influence in China was to exploit the increasing tensions in Europe by playing foreign powers against one another, offering additional privileges to Britain, America, and Germany in return for them opposing Russian, Japanese, and French influence in China. After the American Revolution, he enlisted the support of several American businessmen now essentially stranded in China to introduce more Western practices without bringing in more outside influence.

The Qing Dynasty survived the Xinhai Rebellion, thanks to said rebellion turning into the Great War, so the Qing got support from Britain and Germany (and the Nationalists lost some popular support as they were seen as tools of France and Japan). All French and Japanese property in China was seized by China. During the negotiations at Strasbourg, the Chinese initially demanded a share of the colonial spoils, which was really a negotiating ploy to get Britain and Germany to end the Unequal Treaties (although they did bring Mongolia and Korea into their sphere of influence). China is now mostly in control of its own economy, which was important to help rebuild after the devastation of the war.

Similar to the Ottomans and Russia, the Qing have embraced major reforms in order to stave off future rebellions. China now has an elected legislature, a mostly competent civil service, and a rapidly growing industry dominated by Chinese businesses. Literacy and public health have vastly improved.

But not all is well. Emperor Puyi is particularly concerned with the rise of several cliques, composed of businessmen and senior local government officials, that are increasingly dominating certain regions of China. There is also discontent among the peasants, possibly stoked by Japan and America. China in fact has two major socialist movements - a vitalist movement led by Mao Zedong, with its strength in the rural interior, and a syndicalist movement led by Jiang Qing (although she may be replaced), with its strength in the nascent labor unions in the port cities.

My rough plan is that while China will start out apparently united, they will face major internal tensions, probably resulting in some form of civil war. However, if China can pull through without turning to socialism or authoritarianism, they can become a bulwark of liberal democracy.
 
India Part Three
The Kingdom of Hyderabad

The Kingdom of Hyderabad was one of the first princely states to secede from the Raj. Hyderabad, under Asaf Jah VII, known more commonly by his birth name Osman Ali Khan, is one of the larger princely states. It also nabbed the Berar region from the British.
Hyderabad’s focus tree will see them dealing with Syndicalist agitation, compromising with Islamic radicals, modernising the army, and eventually attempting to become the star of the Deccan.
However, if things do not go well for the state, a Syndicalist takeover by P Sundarayya’s SPH or an Integralist takeover by Kasim Razvi’s Majlis-e-Muslimeen will probably happen.
Hyderabad is one of the few factions that can unify India.
(National Spirits are the Indian Civil War, Syndicalist Agitation, the Rise of the Razakars, and Backwards State)
The Kingdom of Travancore
The next southern state on our list is Travancore. Ruled by Chithiral Thirunal Balarama Varma and Prime Minister CP Ramaswamy Iyer, a number of problems face Travancore.
First, Travancore is facing a rise in left-wing extremists. Under PM Iyer, the government will use force and propaganda to crack down on these 'mischief-makers'. They also have no allies- the Syndicalists naturally despise them, the British see them as useless, and the Hindu nationalists believe them to be degenerated Hindus due to the large Christian and Muslim populations. They can ally with Hyderabad, as they both are anti-Syndicalist princes in the south, as can Mysore.
The third issue facing Travancore is a rift between the king and the prime minister. If the king comes out on top he can either hold new elections and bring about progress, while if PM Iyer comes out on top, he can either declare a republic under him only or install Varma’s brother as king.
If Travancore decides to stay alone and crack down heavily on Syndicalism, one P.Krishna Pillai of the Socialist Party will begin the Kottayam Uprising.
 
Would Earl Browder be the DUA’s vanguardist leader?
He is. At the start of the game, the American Revolutionary Front is a minor party, most noted for its support from within the military.

Other major American political parties:
Socialist Labor Party (Syndicalist): The SLP led the American Revolution, and has consistently led the DUA since its inception. The party has maintained control of the Chamber of Labor Delegates (the legislative house representing America's labor unions), but its fortunes have declined in recent years, and it has lost control of the House of People's Representatives (although it is still the largest party there). Since the death of Premier William "Big Bill" Haywood in 1934, the party - and the nation - have been led by Joe Hill, a veteran organizer and author of many American socialist songs. However, while generally liked, Premier Hill is not a particularly skilled politician. A leadership conference is coming up in May, and most expect that Hill will cede leadership to either William Z. Foster, Party Secretary, or Huey Long, senior Delegate for the Longshoremen's Union.

Human Liberation Movement (Vitalist): The HLM is one of the two major opposition parties. While their leadership is largely composed of old-school anarchists, their base is primarily rural. Their greatest strength is the largely black communes of the South, who resent the SLP's emphasis on industry and urban areas. They advocate not only anti-urbanization, but a reconstructing of American society to focus on health and vitality rather than production. Emma Goldman and Oscar Ameringer are the party leaders.

United Farm-Labor Party (Cooperativist): The UFLP is the ITL counterpart of the Democratic Farm-Labor Party. Based primarily in the Midwest, the UFLP is most noted for its opposition to the big unions that not only make up the Chamber of Labor Delegates, but also control most of the American economy. The UFLP wants to see the unions decentralized, and more power given to individual cooperatives. Essentially, they want to transition to more of a market socialist economy instead of the semi-planned one currently in use. The UFLP leadership includes Norman Thomas and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Democratic Republican Party (Progressive): The D-Rs descend primarily from the old Democratic Party, which (somewhat reluctantly) backed the Reds during the Revolution. After the SLP pushed through a complete revision of the Constitution, the Democrats joined with a handful of Republicans who had also opposed McKinley, most notably Theodore Roosevelt (who did serve as Director of the National Park Service under Premier Debs), to form the Democratic Republican Party. The D-Rs don't officially condemn the Revolution, but they do want to see some elements of capitalism brought back (mostly entrepeneurship), and spend a lot of their time condemning the "excesses of socialism". Cordell Hull is the current leader of the D-Rs.

Constitutional Restoration Party (Liberal): The renmant of the old Republican Party, the CRP advocates the restoration of the pre-1906 Constitution. They are mostly irrelevant, having failed to win even a single seat in Congress for years, partly due to constant infighting quietly encouraged by the Union Investigation Service (the internal security branch). Officially they are committed to a peaceful restoration, but are dogged by reports that they are connected to militant groups and foreign enemies.

Prohibition Party (Conservative): The Prohibition Party survived the Revolution mostly by standing very still while there was any fighting. Its leaders were smart enough to not condemn the Revolution, but after Prohibition failed in the Chamber in 1919 (popularly attributed to the postwar flood of German socialist immigrants), they kept advocating not only for the prohibition of alcohol, but for restrictions on various other social excesses. The Prohibition Party regularly condemns jazz music, public dance halls, about 90% of the American film industry's annual output, and the increasingly libertine American sexual mores. Most Americans regard them as a joke, and they are probably the least likely party to come to power.

The remaining parties are actually underground militant groups, and are mostly there to be put into power should the DUA be conquered and puppeted.
 
He is. At the start of the game, the American Revolutionary Front is a minor party, most noted for its support from within the military.

Other major American political parties:
Socialist Labor Party (Syndicalist): The SLP led the American Revolution, and has consistently led the DUA since its inception. The party has maintained control of the Chamber of Labor Delegates (the legislative house representing America's labor unions), but its fortunes have declined in recent years, and it has lost control of the House of People's Representatives (although it is still the largest party there). Since the death of Premier William "Big Bill" Haywood in 1934, the party - and the nation - have been led by Joe Hill, a veteran organizer and author of many American socialist songs. However, while generally liked, Premier Hill is not a particularly skilled politician. A leadership conference is coming up in May, and most expect that Hill will cede leadership to either William Z. Foster, Party Secretary, or Huey Long, senior Delegate for the Longshoremen's Union.

Human Liberation Movement (Vitalist): The HLM is one of the two major opposition parties. While their leadership is largely composed of old-school anarchists, their base is primarily rural. Their greatest strength is the largely black communes of the South, who resent the SLP's emphasis on industry and urban areas. They advocate not only anti-urbanization, but a reconstructing of American society to focus on health and vitality rather than production. Emma Goldman and Oscar Ameringer are the party leaders.

United Farm-Labor Party (Cooperativist): The UFLP is the ITL counterpart of the Democratic Farm-Labor Party. Based primarily in the Midwest, the UFLP is most noted for its opposition to the big unions that not only make up the Chamber of Labor Delegates, but also control most of the American economy. The UFLP wants to see the unions decentralized, and more power given to individual cooperatives. Essentially, they want to transition to more of a market socialist economy instead of the semi-planned one currently in use. The UFLP leadership includes Norman Thomas and Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Democratic Republican Party (Progressive): The D-Rs descend primarily from the old Democratic Party, which (somewhat reluctantly) backed the Reds during the Revolution. After the SLP pushed through a complete revision of the Constitution, the Democrats joined with a handful of Republicans who had also opposed McKinley, most notably Theodore Roosevelt (who did serve as Director of the National Park Service under Premier Debs), to form the Democratic Republican Party. The D-Rs don't officially condemn the Revolution, but they do want to see some elements of capitalism brought back (mostly entrepeneurship), and spend a lot of their time condemning the "excesses of socialism". Cordell Hull is the current leader of the D-Rs.

Constitutional Restoration Party (Liberal): The renmant of the old Republican Party, the CRP advocates the restoration of the pre-1906 Constitution. They are mostly irrelevant, having failed to win even a single seat in Congress for years, partly due to constant infighting quietly encouraged by the Union Investigation Service (the internal security branch). Officially they are committed to a peaceful restoration, but are dogged by reports that they are connected to militant groups and foreign enemies.

Prohibition Party (Conservative): The Prohibition Party survived the Revolution mostly by standing very still while there was any fighting. Its leaders were smart enough to not condemn the Revolution, but after Prohibition failed in the Chamber in 1919 (popularly attributed to the postwar flood of German socialist immigrants), they kept advocating not only for the prohibition of alcohol, but for restrictions on various other social excesses. The Prohibition Party regularly condemns jazz music, public dance halls, about 90% of the American film industry's annual output, and the increasingly libertine American sexual mores. Most Americans regard them as a joke, and they are probably the least likely party to come to power.

The remaining parties are actually underground militant groups, and are mostly there to be put into power should the DUA be conquered and puppeted.
Why is Emma Goldman the Vitalist leader?-
Emma Goldman said:
Anarchism has declared war on the pernicious influences which have so far prevented the harmonious blending of individual and social instincts, the individual and society. Religion, the dominion of the human mind; Property, the dominion of human needs; and Government, the dominion of human conduct, represent the stronghold of man's enslavement and all the horrors it entails.
Then again, paganism is rather different from organised religion.
 
Why is Emma Goldman the Vitalist leader?-

Then again, paganism is rather different from organised religion.
Vitalism is a lot more than paganism. In fact, paganism isn't even a core tenet.

Vitalism is primarily an anti-industrial and anti-hierarchical ideology. Vitalists believe that the modern world has become focused on wealth at the expense of human well-being, both physical, mental, and spiritual. Extreme vitalists (who aren't really represented for game reasons) resemble a much less murderous Pol Pot - get people out of the cities, shut down the big factories, return to an agrarian society. Moderate vitalists view this as the ideal, but far in the future.

The reason vitalism has absorbed much of the anarchist movement is that since the American Revolution, American syndicalists have mostly given up on abolishing the state (although the more doctrinaire types, like Foster, are demanding that everything be run through the unions). For obvious reasons, socialists around the world frequently take their cues from America, so this split is increasingly widespread. Vitalism applies anarchism not only to government, but all societal institutions, including organized religion. Some vitalists, such as Goldman, are simply atheists. But vitalism itself originated in India (I think I forgot to mention that earlier) and generally avoided attacking religion directly in favor of attacking its abuses. A common idea among Hindu vitalists is redefining the caste system from something you are born into to something you choose (sidenote: perhaps a vitalist Indian state could have symbols representing the four castes on its flag). These vitalists explicitly rejected the notion of atheism, arguing that spiritual well-being was just as important to their program as physical and mental well-being.

In Britain and Ireland, that has taken on the form of a rejection of Christianity itself in favor of a return to paganism (given the cultural dominance of the Anglican and Catholic churches). Scandinavian vitalists are similar, although they lean less on theology and more on playing up the egalitarian nature of pre-Christian Norse society. Haiti has essentially made voodoo a state religion, with a predictable reaction in the former Dominican Republic (which if you look closely at the map, is now under Haitian control). Japan has basically dropped the imperial cult aspect of Shintoism (and many Japanese leaders are making noises about favoring Buddhism instead). Bolivia and Guatemala (the other two vitalist states in the Americas) are more pluralistic and syncretic. Mao's Chinese vitalists favor Taoism over Confucianism or Christianity. And in the DUA, the HLM's membership variously endorses unorganized Christianity, outright atheism, and even various forms of Native American beliefs.
 
Vitalism is a lot more than paganism. In fact, paganism isn't even a core tenet.

Vitalism is primarily an anti-industrial and anti-hierarchical ideology. Vitalists believe that the modern world has become focused on wealth at the expense of human well-being, both physical, mental, and spiritual. Extreme vitalists (who aren't really represented for game reasons) resemble a much less murderous Pol Pot - get people out of the cities, shut down the big factories, return to an agrarian society. Moderate vitalists view this as the ideal, but far in the future.

The reason vitalism has absorbed much of the anarchist movement is that since the American Revolution, American syndicalists have mostly given up on abolishing the state (although the more doctrinaire types, like Foster, are demanding that everything be run through the unions). For obvious reasons, socialists around the world frequently take their cues from America, so this split is increasingly widespread. Vitalism applies anarchism not only to government, but all societal institutions, including organized religion. Some vitalists, such as Goldman, are simply atheists. But vitalism itself originated in India (I think I forgot to mention that earlier) and generally avoided attacking religion directly in favor of attacking its abuses. A common idea among Hindu vitalists is redefining the caste system from something you are born into to something you choose (sidenote: perhaps a vitalist Indian state could have symbols representing the four castes on its flag). These vitalists explicitly rejected the notion of atheism, arguing that spiritual well-being was just as important to their program as physical and mental well-being.

In Britain and Ireland, that has taken on the form of a rejection of Christianity itself in favor of a return to paganism (given the cultural dominance of the Anglican and Catholic churches). Scandinavian vitalists are similar, although they lean less on theology and more on playing up the egalitarian nature of pre-Christian Norse society. Haiti has essentially made voodoo a state religion, with a predictable reaction in the former Dominican Republic (which if you look closely at the map, is now under Haitian control). Japan has basically dropped the imperial cult aspect of Shintoism (and many Japanese leaders are making noises about favoring Buddhism instead). Bolivia and Guatemala (the other two vitalist states in the Americas) are more pluralistic and syncretic. Mao's Chinese vitalists favor Taoism over Confucianism or Christianity. And in the DUA, the HLM's membership variously endorses unorganized Christianity, outright atheism, and even various forms of Native American beliefs.
So like a less violent version of the Unabomber?
 
So like a less violent version of the Unabomber?
Something like that. Mind you, most vitalists don't want to actually abandon all modern technology, they just want to move manufacturing to small town machine shops and the like. And like the syndicalists, they generally accept that their ideal state is years or decades off.
 
Where would a pro-urbanisation, pro-industrialisation anarchist go?
They'd probably join the radical wing of the syndicalists. Foster is hellbent on abolishing the House, and some socialist nations (such as the Commune of Hawaii) are run entirely by unions (the current system was a concession to the Democrats), which more closely resembles the anarcho-syndicalist ideal envisioned by Daniel DeLeon. Whether this truly qualifies as abolishing the state is of course a subject of fierce debate. The more doctrinaire syndicalists are generally in Foster's camp, still embracing the anarchist label, while Long represents a more moderate and statist wing. Generally speaking, people who were actual socialists IOTL will be more in Foster's camp, and those who weren't will be aligned with Long.
 
It is. What should we change about Vanguardism?
The name is a bit vague
The 'vanguard party' is a concept not only non-unique to leftism but one that excludes Strasserist and National Syndicalist types (Social Nationalists).
Plus the idea of the Vanguard Party itself was created by Lenin who I assume is largely forgotten ITTL.
Thanks! Any plans on making a discord?
 
The name is a bit vague
The 'vanguard party' is a concept not only non-unique to leftism but one that excludes Strasserist and National Syndicalist types (Social Nationalists).
Plus the idea of the Vanguard Party itself was created by Lenin who I assume is largely forgotten ITTL.
Thanks! Any plans on making a discord?
Lenin isn't completely forgotten ITTL. He's known almost exclusively as a theorist who died in Switzerland.

Strasserism or National Syndicalism would actually be viable as alternate ideologies, either included within or replacing Futurism.
 
Map update! A few changes:

1. French Guiana is now in Dutch hands instead of British (the Dutch joined the war midway to make a few gains, this being one of them).
2. Bessarabia is under Austrian rule (it was before the war).
3. The Ottomans directly rule Palestine (while there is a Jewish presence, it is not as substantial as I had originally planned).
4. The Ryukyu Islands are under control of Socialist Japan instead of Imperial Japan, as it is likely they would also have revolted.
5. The Russians still directly control the Caucasus (with the Ottomans on their side, it's unlikely they would have ever lost control).



Also, here is the current list of Countries That Are Definitely Socialist:
Wuliwya Suyu (People's Union of Bolivia)
Socialist Republic of Cuba
Democratic Republic of Guatemala
Commune of Haiti
Hawaiian Workers' Union
Workers' and Peasants' Democracy of Japan
People's Republic of Liberia
Workers' Republic of Panama
People's Republic of the Philippines
Democratic People's Republic of Puerto Rico
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Democratic Union of America

All these states are members of the International Union. Also still a member is Mexico, despite no longer having an officially socialist government (Mexico starts as Progressive). Mexican politics are very tense at the moment.
 
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