IFP Remake

In Industrialist for President I made the mistake of attempting discussion instead of making an effective timeline. This time instead of fretting I'm going to post a viable era by era and year by year system. Rather Simple PODs has led to a 1899 Pro-annexation setiment in Cuba. Also minor PODs in econmics has led to a higher birth rate in the south and more immigrints from both Europe and Japan to happen. I will start my atl with the second term of President Roosevelt's terms. About the same presidents as in Industrialist for President will happen.
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#26 Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)


Theodore Roosevelt

Order: 26th President
Term of Office: September 14, 1901– March 4, 1909
Date of Birth: Wednesday, October 27, 1858
Place of Birth: New York City
Date of Death: Monday, January 6, 1919
Place of Death: Oyster Bay, New York
Occupation: politician, soldier, rancher, author
Political Party: Republican
Vice President: Charles Warren Fairbanks

1858 Oct 27, Theodore Roosevelt, 26th president of the United States (1901-1909) who was the namesake of the "Teddy" bear, was born in New York City in a townhouse at 28 East 20th Street. Today a reconstruction of the house is a National Historic Site and open to the public. The 26th president of the U.S., Roosevelt died on January 6, 1919. He wrote the 4-volume "The Winning of the West." His pursuit of boxing left him blind in one eye. He put 230 million acres of land under federal protection. "Death is always and under all circumstances a tragedy, for if it is not, then it means that life itself has become one."

1858 Oct 27, Theodore Roosevelt’s words, "The only one who makes no mistakes is one who never does anything," were inscribed on the New York City home where he was born. The Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is located at 28 E. 20th Street in Manhattan, www.nps.gov/thrb.

1880 Oct 27, Theodore Roosevelt (22) married Alice Hathaway Lee.

1882 Theodore Roosevelt described Thomas Jefferson as "perhaps the most incapable executive that ever filled the presidential chair." Roosevelt added, "It would be difficult to imagine a man less fit to guide a state with honor and safety through the stormy times that marked the opening of the present century."

1898 Jun 22, Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt and Col. Leonard Wood led the Rough Riders, a volunteer cavalry regiment, onto the beach at Daiquiri in the Spanish American War.

1901 Sep 2, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt offered the advice, "Speak softly and carry a big stick," in a speech at the Minnesota State Fair.

1901 Sep 6, At the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, anarchist Leon Czolgosz (28) made his way along a reception line filing past President William McKinley. Concealed within a handkerchief, Czolgosz held a .32-caliber revolver. As he came face to face with the president, he fired two shots through the handkerchief, striking McKinley in the chest and the abdomen. McKinley died eight days after the shooting and became the third American president assassinated. He was succeeded by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt. Czolgosz, explaining that he "thought it would be a good thing for the country to kill the President," was put to death by electrocution 45 days later. Emma Goldman was one of the people blamed for the assassination.

1901-1909 Theodore Roosevelt (b. Oct 27, 1858) served as the 26th President of the US. He had been elected Vice-President under McKinley’s 2nd term. His "Gunboat Diplomacy" was used to exert US influence and deter Europeans from the Americas.

1902 May 12, Over 100,000 miners in northeastern Pennsylvania called a strike and kept the mines closed all summer. Owners refused arbitration and Pres. Roosevelt intervened. [see Oct 3]

1902 May 20, The United States annexed Cuba. Making it into three official territories. (See Map

1902 Aug 22, President Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. chief executive to ride in an automobile, in Hartford, Conn.

1902 Oct 3, President Theodore Roosevelt met with miners and coal field operators in an attempt to settle the anthracite coal strike, then in its fifth month. The country relied on coal to power commerce and industry and anthracite or "hard coal" was essential for domestic heating. Pennsylvania miners had left the anthracite fields demanding wage increases, union recognition, and an eight-hour workday. As winter approached, public anxiety about fuel shortages and the rising cost of all coal pushed Roosevelt to take unprecedented action. A presidential commission awarded the workers a 10% wage increase and a shorter work week. [see May 12]

1902 Nov 16, A cartoon appeared in the Washington Star, prompting the Teddy Bear Craze, after President Teddy Roosevelt refused to kill a captive bear tied up for him to shoot during a hunting trip to Mississippi.

1902 President Theodore Roosevelt said he would intervene in a coal strike: "I knew that this action would form an evil precedent, and that it was one which I should take most reluctantly." The strike settled without intervention.

1903 May 14, The Dewey Memorial in Union Square, San Francisco, was dedicated by Pres. Theodore Roosevelt.

1904 Feb 11, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed strict neutrality for the U.S. in the Russo-Japanese War.

1904 Apr 30, At 1:06 p.m. President Theodore Roosevelt officially opened the St. Louis World’s Fair commemorating the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase.

1904 Nov 8, Theodore Roosevelt (R) defeated Alton B. Parker (D) in US presidential elections. Roosevelt had succeeded the assassinated William McKinley.

1904 Dec 6, Theodore Roosevelt confirmed the Monroe-doctrine (Roosevelt Corollary).

1905 Mar 4, The inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt.

1906 Mar 17, President Theodore Roosevelt used the term "muckrake" in a speech to the Gridiron Club in Washington, D.C.

1906 Nov 9, President Theodore Roosevelt left Washington D.C. for a 17 day trip to Panama and Puerto Rico, becoming the first president to make an official visit outside of the U.S.

1906 Nov 21, In San Juan, President Theodore Roosevelt pledged citizenship for Puerto Rican people.

1907 Jan 1, President Theodore Roosevelt shook a record 8,513 hands in 1 day.

1907 Feb 26, Members of US Congress raised their own salaries to $7500

1907 Nov 16, Oklahoma Territory was made into the 46th State, with a surge of black southern migrints three months before, creating over 35 towns and cities. It's OTL counterpart of Indian Territory would become a state in 1909.

1908 Jan, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt created Pinnacles National Monument in California. The area was expanded in 2000 for the 7th time and covered 24,000 acres in San Benito and Monterey counties.

1908 Pres. Teddy Roosevelt declared parts of the Klamath Basin the first federal wildlife refuge.

1909 Feb 28, President Roosevelt became the first U.S. president to visit the Austrian embassy.

1909 Mar 23, Theodore Roosevelt began an African safari sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution and National Geographic Society.

1909 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt established the Farallon Islands, 28 miles off the coast of San Francisco, as a wildlife refuge.

1910 Feb 11, Theodore Roosevelt Jr. and Eleanor Alexander announced their wedding date--June 20, 1910. President Theodore Roosevelt signed a bill creating Mesa Verde National Park.

1910 Mar 21, The U.S. Senate granted ex-President Teddy Roosevelt a pension of $10,000 yearly.

1911 Mar 18, Theodore Roosevelt opened the Roosevelt Dam in Phoenix, Ariz., the largest dam in the U.S. to date.

1919 Jan 6, The 26th president of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, died in Oyster Bay, N.Y., at age 60.

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This year saw many changes toward the better in industry. War and terror were on the bloom ovver the span of three continets. The year saw numerous deaths (the queen and the assiasination) as well as births. The Palma Amendment is the first appartent change, but more will follow in the years to come.

1901 Mar 2, Congress passed the Plama amendment, which gave Cuba the option of becoming a commonwealth.
(HN, 3/2/99)
1901 Mar 2, Hawaii's 1st telegraph company opened.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1901 Mar 3, Congress created the National Bureau of Standards in Department of Commerce.

1901 Mar 4, William McKinley was inaugurated president for the second time. Theodore Roosevelt was inaugurated as vice president. The team ran on the issue of keeping the Philippines as a colony.
(HN, 3/4/99)
1901 Mar 4, Term of George H. White, last of post-Reconstruction congressmen, ended.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1901 Mar 6, A would-be assassin tried to kill Wilhelm II in Bremen, Germany.
(HN, 3/6/98)

1901 Mar 7, Blacks were found to be still enslaved in certain parts of South Carolina.
(HN, 3/7/98)

1901 Mar 22, Japan proclaimed that it was determined to keep Russia from encroaching on Korea.
(HN, 3/22/97)

1901 Mar 23, The world learned that Boers were starving to death in British concentration camps.
(HN, 3/23/98)
1901 Mar 23, A group of U.S. Army soldier led by Brig. Gen. Frederick Funston captured Emilio Aguinaldo, the leader of the Philippine Insurrection of 1899.
(HN, 3/23/99)

1901 Mar, The 2-year old Oldsmobile plant in Detroit was destroyed by fire.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901 Apr 1, US Steel was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Mr. Morgan bought out Andrew Carnegie’s steel business and combined it with Federal Steel, American Steel & Wire and several other companies to form US Steel Corp. Judge Gary became its first chairman.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-46)(WSJ, 11/25/96, p.C1)
1901 Apr 1, The American Cotton Oil Company, General Electric, Federal Steel, American Steel & Wire Co. and Pacific Mail Steamship Co. were removed as components of the Dow Jones. Amalgamated Copper, International Paper (preferred), US Steel (common and preferred) and American Smelting & Refining were added.
1901 Apr 25, Erve Beck hit the 1st home run in the American League.
(SS, 4/25/02)
1901 Apr 25, In last of 9th, Detroit Tigers, trailing by 13-4, score 10 runs to win one of the greatest comebacks in baseball (1st game in Detroit).
(SS, 4/25/02)
1901 Apr 25, New York became the first state to require automobile license plates; the fee was one dollar. The first automobile license plates were issued in Paris, France in 1893. The first American city to require drivers to be licensed and register their vehicle was Boston, but the trend quickly spread.
(AP, 4/25/98)(HNQ, 7/18/00)

1901 Apr 29, Anti Semitic riot took place in Budapest.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1901 May 12, Pres. McKinley visited SF.
(SC, Internet, 5/12/97)

1901 May 23, American forces captured Philippine rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo.
(HN, 5/23/98)
1901 May 1901, Walter Reed (49) led the Yellow Fever Commission, a 4-man team, to Cuba to search for the cause of the disease. 200 American soldiers had died from the disease over the previous 18 months. Aristides Agramonte, pathologist, James Carroll, bacteriologist, and Jesse W. Lazear, entomologist, were the other team members. Cuban Dr. Carlos Finlay believed that yellow fever was spread by mosquitoes.
(ON, 10/01, p.7)

1901 Jun 11, Cook Islands were annexed & proclaimed a part of New Zealand.
(SC, 6/11/02)

1901 Jun 12, Cuba agreed to become an American Protectorate by accepting the Plama Amendment.
(HN, 6/12/98)

1901 Jul 15, Over 74,000 Pittsburgh steel workers went on strike.
(HN, 7/15/98)

1901 Jun 20, Charlotte M. Manye of South Africa became the first native African to graduate from an American University.
(HN, 6/20/00)

1901 Aug 8, Santos-Dumont flew his powered dirigible around the Eiffel Tower a 2nd time but sprang a leak and caught suspension wires in his propeller blades.
(ON, 3/03, p.11)

1901 Aug 20, Fawcett committee visited Mafeking concentration camp in Cape Colony.
(MC, 8/20/02)

1901 Aug 25, Clara Maass (25), army nurse, sacrificed her life to prove that the mosquito carries yellow fever.
(MC, 8/25/02)

1901 Aug 27, In Havana, Cuba, U.S. Army physician James Carroll allowed an infected mosquito to feed on him in an attempt to isolate the means of transmission of yellow fever. Days later, Carroll developed a severe case of yellow fever, helping his colleague, Army Walter Reed, prove that mosquitoes can transmit the sometimes deadly disease.
(MC, 8/27/02)(ON, 10/01, p.8)
1901 Sep 3, Boer General Smuts entered Kiba Drift in Cape Colony.

1901 Sep 5, Pres. McKinley announced a new policy of reciprocal trade agreements with foreign nations to encourage markets for American goods.
(AH, 10/01, p.24)

1901 Sep 6, At the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, anarchist Leon Czolgosz (28) made his way along a reception line filing past President William McKinley. Concealed within a handkerchief, Czolgosz held a .32-caliber revolver. As he came face to face with the president, he fired two shots through the handkerchief, striking McKinley in the chest and the abdomen. McKinley died eight days after the shooting and became the third American president assassinated. He was succeeded by Vice President Theodore Roosevelt. Czolgosz, explaining that he "thought it would be a good thing for the country to kill the President," was put to death by electrocution 45 days later. Emma Goldman was one of the people blamed for the assassination.
(AP, 9/6/97)(Hem, Dec. 94, p.70) (WSJ, 5/17/95, p.A-18) (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(HNPD, 9/6/98)(HN, 9/6/98)

1901 Sep 7, The Peace of Peking (Beijing) ended the Boxer Rebellion in China.
(AP, 9/7/97)
1901 Sep 14, President McKinley died in Buffalo, N.Y., of gunshot wounds inflicted by Leon Czolgosz. Vice President Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in as the 26th President of the United States upon the death of William McKinley, who had been shot eight days earlier.
(AP, 9/14/97)(HN, 9/14/98)

1901 Sep 17, At the Battle at Elands River Port, Boer Gen. Smuts destroyed the 17th Lancers unit .
(MC, 9/17/01)

1901 Sep 26, Leon Czolgosz, who murdered President William McKinley, was sentenced to death.

1901 Sep 28, At Balangiga on Samar Island, Philippine villagers surprised a the US military Company C, 9th Infantry Regiment. Church bells, used to signal the attack, were taken by the Americans. 38 of 74 US soldiers were killed and all the rest but 6 were wounded. Philippine casualties were estimated at 50-250 with 48 American soldiers killed.

1901 Sep, US Brig. Gen’l. Jacob Smith ordered US Marine and Army units to turn the island of Samar in the Philippines into a "howling wilderness" so that "even birds could not live there" in retaliation for the Sep 5 attack at Balangiga. The mission bells of Balangiga were taken as war booty and later placed in the F.E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne, Wyo. A Marine major was court-martialed on murder charges for executing 11 Filipino prisoners but was acquitted after he testified that he was under orders to shoot every Filipino over age 10. Gen’l. Smith was found guilty of misconduct and admonished.

1901 Oct 2, The 1st Royal Naval submarine launched at Barrow.
(MC, 10/2/01)

1901 Oct 12, Theodore Roosevelt renamed the "Executive Mansion," to "The White House."
(HNQ, 6/28/00)(MC, 10/12/01)

1901 Oct 16, President Theodore Roosevelt incited controversy by inviting black leader Booker T. Washington to the White House.
(HN, 10/16/98)

1901 Oct 28, Race riots, sparked by Booker T. Washington’s visit to the White House, killed 34.
(HN, 10/28/98)

1901 Oct 29, Leon Czolgosz was electrocuted for the assassination of President McKinley at Auburn Prison in NY state. Czolgosz, an anarchist, shot McKinley on September 6 during a public reception at the Temple of Music in Buffalo, N.Y. Despite early hopes of recovery, McKinley died September 14, in Buffalo.
(AP, 10/29/97)(HN, 10/29/98)(ON, 4/00, p.5)(AH, 10/01, p.30)

1901 Nov 18, The 2nd Hay-Pauncefote Treaty was signed. The U.S. was given extensive rights by Britain for building and operating a canal through Central America.
(HN, 11/18/98)

1901 Nov 25, Japanese Prince Ito arrived in Russia to seek concessions in Korea.
(HN, 11/25/98)
1901 Dec 11, Marconi sent his 1st transatlantic radio signal from Cornwall to Newfoundland. [see Dec 12]
(MC, 12/11/01)

1901 Dec 12, Italian scientist and engineer Guglielmo Marconi received the first long-distance radio transmission in St. John's, Newfoundland, 2,232 miles. Electrical engineer John Ambrose Fleming transmitted the Morse code signal for "s" from across the Atlantic Ocean in England and Marconi heard it--three short clicks--through a radio speaker. Marconi had begun experimenting with radiotelegraphy around 1895, and he realized that messages could be transmitted over much greater distances by using grounded antennae on the radio transmitter and receiver. A few years after the successful transmission with Fleming, Marconi opened the first commercial wireless telegraph service.
(HNPD, 12/12/98)(MC, 12/12/01)

1901 The Alabama state constitution was enacted to reverse gains made by blacks after the Civil War. It included a prohibition on marriages between blacks and whites. In 1999 steps were taken to repeal the ban.
(SFC, 11/7/98, p.A11)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)

1901 Hiram Stevens Maxim, inventor of the first true machine gun, was knighted by Queen Victoria.

1901 The first espresso coffee machine was invented.
(WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W9)

1901 The Indian Motorcycle Manufacturing Co. of Springfield, Mass., produced the first commercially marketed gasoline-powered bike in the US. The last Indian motorcycle was made in 1953. A 2nd generation of the company started up in 1998 but folded in 2002.
(WSJ, 4/16/99, p.W14)(SFC, 7/27/04, p.D1)

1901 Joshua Lionel Cowen (22) set up a battery-powered toy train to draw customer attention to goods in a store display window. This marked the beginning of Lionel Trains.

1901 Henry Ford founded the Henry Ford Co. but soon left. In 1902 the remaining owners dissolved operations and formed the Cadillac Co.

1901 Henry Joy became chairman of the Packard Motor Car Company.
(MT, Win. ‘96, p.4)

1901 Ferdinand Porsche built an electric-drive hybrid, the Lohner-Porsche.
(AAM, 3/96, p.93)

1901 Ransom E. Olds (1864-1950) assembled 425 curved-dash Oldsmobiles and thus became the first mass producer of gas automobiles. He founded Olds Motor Works that later became part of General Motors.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901 New York State issued the first license plate.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901-1902. The so called baseball "war" years occurred when the upstart American League-formerly the Western League-challenged the dominance of the National League on the East Coast. The American League wooed National League stars and became firmly established as a major league. In January 1903, peace was achieved in an agreement that gave each of the two leagues equal importance, established rules regarding two teams in one city, shifting teams from cities and transfers of players between leagues.
(HNQ, 4/10/99)

1901-1905 Discovery of oil in the nearby villages of Red Fork and Glenn Pool in 1901 and 1905 launched the Oklahoma city of Tulsa’s modern era. The city’s population of 1,400 in 1900 reached 18,200 by 1910 and 72,000 by 1920. Tulsa long called itself "The Oil Capital of the World."
(HNQ, 10/2/98)

1901-1907 Oldsmobile built 7,000 Curved-Dash Olds vehicles. The cars cost $650 and advertisements bragged that "It will do the work of six horses."
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1901-1909 Theodore Roosevelt (b. Oct 27, 1858) served as the 26th President of the US. He had been elected Vice-President under McKinley’s 2nd term. His "Gunboat Diplomacy" was used to exert US influence and deter Europeans from the Americas.
(AP, 10/27/97)(WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A12)

1901-1910 The Edwardian period named after Britain’s Edward VII (r.1902-1910).
(SSFM, 4/1/01, p.44)


Again, not much has happend different than the timeline. In fact almost no changes. Puetro Ricans and Cubans are considered US citzens, and the begining of a civil rights movement is happening. Spainsh is starting be establised as a second American Langue, whilest the Edwardian Era has started. What can be expected except for the growth of American people. Thoasands of millions of dollars are about to be spent not only on the Canal, but seeds of hate are being sown in Latin America against the US and France particularly.

1902 Jan 4, The French offered to sell their Nicaraguan Canal rights to the U.S.
(HN, 1/4/99)

1902 Jan 7, Imperial Court of China returned to Peking. The Empress Dowager resumed her reign.
(HN, 1/7/01)

1902 Jan 17, Gideon Scheepers, South Africa Boer leader, was executed.
(MC, 1/17/02)

1902 Jan 18, The Isthmus Canal Commission in Washington shifted its support to Panama as the canal site.
(HN, 1/18/99)

1902 Jan 19, The magazine "L'Auto" announced the new Tour de France.
(HN, 1/19/99)

1902 Jan 28, The Carnegie Institute was established in Washington, D.C.
(AP, 1/28/98)

1902 Jan 31, In the US it was tax freedom day, the day by which citizens met their financial obligations to the government. By 1999 it had shifted to May 10.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.7)
1902 Jan 31, A French soccer team played in England for the first time: Paris lost, 4-0, to Marlow FC.
(HC, 2003, p.64)

1902 Feb 1, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay protested Russian privileges in China as a violation of the "open door policy."
(HN, 2/1/99)
1902 Feb 1, China's empress Tzu-hsi forbade binding woman's feet.
(MC, 2/1/02)

1902 Feb 11, Police beat up universal suffrage demonstrators in Brussels.

1902 Feb 19, Smallpox vaccination became obligatory in France.
(HN, 2/19/98)

1902 Feb 21, Dr. Harvey Cushing, US brain surgeon, performed his 1st brain operation.
(MC, 2/21/02)

1902 Feb 22, A fistfight broke out in the Senate. Senator Benjamin Tillman suffered a bloody nose for accusing Senator John McLaurin of bias on the Philippine tariff issue.
(HN, 2/22/98)

1902 Feb, Dr. Walter Reed published his results on yellow fever. He concluded that: "The spread of yellow fever can be most effectually controlled by measures directed to the destruction of mosquitoes and the protection of the sick against the bites of these insects."
(ON, 10/01, p.8)

1902 Mar 4, The American Automobile Association was founded in Chicago.
(AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)

1902 Mar 10, The Boers scored their last victory over the British, capturing British General Methuen and 200 men.
(HN, 3/10/98)

1902 cMar 19, Japan formed an alliance with England.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1902 Mar 20, France and Russia acknowledged the Anglo-Japanese alliance, but asserted their right to protect their interests in China and Korea.
(HN, 3/20/98)

1902 Mar 22, Great Britain and Persia agreed to link Europe and India by telegraph.
(HN, 3/22/97)

1902 Mar, Henry Ford (38) left the Detroit Automobile Company and soon found backers for the new Ford Motor Co., which incorporated in 1903.
(ON, 3/03, p.1)

1902 Apr 2, Thomas L. Talley set up the first moving picture theater as part of a carnival in Los Angeles.
(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.10)(MC, 4/2/02)

1902 Apr 4, British financier Cecil Rhodes left $10 million in his will to provide scholarships for Americans at Oxford University in England. The first scholars were selected in 1903. In Rhodesia [later Zimbabwe] after Cecil John Rhodes, British imperialist, died at age 48 he was buried in a tomb in the Matopos Hills. He had co-founded De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., and built great railways through southern Africa. "So much to do, and so little time."

1902 Apr 7, The Texas Fuel Co. was founded. It soon changed its name to the Texas Co. and eventually became Texaco.
(SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1902 Apr 10, South African Boers accepted British terms of surrender.
(HN, 4/10/98)

1902 Apr 13, James Cash Penney (J.C. Penney) opened his first Golden Rule Store for clothes, shoes and dry goods in Kemmerer, Wyoming. It grew to a chain and was renamed J.C. Penney in 1913. By 1929 there were 1,395 stores in the chain. [see Apr 14]
(WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/13/99)

1902 Apr 14, J.C. Penney opened his first store, in Kemmerer, Wyo. [see Apr 13]
(AP, 4/14/97)

1902 Apr 18, Denmark became the 1st country to adopt fingerprinting to identify criminals.
(MC, 4/18/02)

1902 Apr 20, Scientists Marie and Pierre Curie isolated the radioactive element radium.
(AP, 4/20/97)

1902 Apr 28, A revolution broke out in the Dominican Republic.
(HN, 4/28/98)

1902 May 2, "A Trip To The Moon," the 1st science fiction, was film released. The French film "Le Voyage Dans La Lune" (Voyage to the Moon) was a 14-minute silent film directed by Georges Melies. It displayed early efforts in trick photography to show a group of scientists traveling to the moon after being shot from a giant cannon.
(WSJ, 3/19/98, p.R4)(MC, 5/2/02)
1902 May 6, British SS Camorta sank off Rangoon and 739 died.
(MC, 5/6/02)
1902 May 6, There was a Zulu assault at Holkrantz, South-Africa.
(MC, 5/6/02)

1902 May 12, Over 100,000 miners in northeastern Pennsylvania called a strike and kept the mines closed all summer. Owners refused arbitration and Pres. Roosevelt intervened. [see Oct 3]
(LCTH, 10/3/99)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1902 May 20, The United States annexed Cuba. Making it into three official territories.

1902 May 31, The Boer War ended between the Boars of South Africa and Great Britain with the Treaty of Vereeniging. This effectively ended a 3-year uprising by the Boers, led by Louis Botha, commandant general of the Transvaal forces. Botha was a signatory at the peace conference. The combination of superior fire power and a brutal war of attrition launched by Lord Kitchener forced the Boers to give in. Kitchener burned the farms of Africans and Boers alike and collected as many as a 100,000 women and children in carelessly run and unhygienic concentration camps on the open veldt. Britain annexed Transvaal.
(V.D.-H.K.p.289)(HN, 5/31/99)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A21)(MC, 5/31/02) (HNQ, 6/29/02)

1902 Jun 19, The US Senate voted in favor of Panama as the canal site. US support for a $40 million purchase was based on Congressional acceptance for a canal in Panama rather than Nicaragua, and the acquisition of land to serve as a canal zone.
(HN, 1/18/99)(ON, 1/00, p.1)

1902 Jun 23, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year duration.
(HN, 6/23/98)

1902 Jun 28, Congress passed the Spooner bill, authorizing a canal to be built across the isthmus of Panama. The US purchased a concession to build Panama canal from French for $40 million.
(HN, 6/28/98)(MC, 6/28/02)

1902 Jul 4, Pres. Roosevelt officially ended the Philippine-American War. Estimates for the civilian people killed ranged from 250,000 to 1 million. Creighton Miller in 1982 published "Benevolent Assimilation," a comprehensive account of the conflict.
(SFEC, 1/31/99, Z1 p.1,4)(WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A6)(PC, 1992, p.642)

1902 Aug 9, Edward VII was crowned king of England following the death of his mother, Queen Victoria.
(SFEM, 1/26/97, p.40)(AP, 8/9/98)

1902 Aug 22, President Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. chief executive to ride in an automobile in Hartford, Conn.
(AP, 8/22/97)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A20)
1902 Aug 22, The Cadillac Company formed from the Henry Ford Co. when Henry Ford left. Ford formed the Ford Motor Co. in 1903.

1902 Aug 23, Gold was discovered in Goldfield, Nv., near Tonopah. By 1907 Goldfield grew to 20,000 residents.
(SFC, 8/31/02, p.A2)

1902 Sep 1, The Austro-Hungarian army was called into the city of Agram to restore the peace as Serbs and Croats clashed.
(HN, 9/1/99)

1902 Sep 17, U.S. troops were sent to Panama to keep train lines open over the isthmus as Panamanian nationals struggled for independence from Colombia.
(HN, 9/17/98)
1902 Sep 17, US protested anti-Semitism in Romania.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1902 Oct 3, President Theodore Roosevelt met with miners and coal field operators in an attempt to settle the anthracite coal strike, then in its fifth month. The country relied on coal to power commerce and industry and anthracite or "hard coal" was essential for domestic heating. Pennsylvania miners had left the anthracite fields demanding wage increases, union recognition, and an eight-hour workday. As winter approached, public anxiety about fuel shortages and the rising cost of all coal pushed Roosevelt to take unprecedented action. A presidential commission awarded the workers a 10% wage increase and a shorter work week. [see May 12]
(LCTH, 10/3/99)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)

1902 Nov 16, A cartoon appeared in the Washington Star, prompting the Teddy Bear Craze, after President Teddy Roosevelt refused to kill a captive bear tied up for him to shoot during a hunting trip to Mississippi.
(HN, 11/16/00)

1902 Nov 22, A fire caused considerable damage to the unfinished Williamsburg bridge in New York.

1902 Dec 13, The Committee of Imperial Defense held its first meeting in London.

1902 V.I. Lenin’s What Is To Be Done? was published and espoused the need for a disciplined, centrally-directed revolutionary party. This work, along with several articles preceding it, comprised Lenin’s most distinctive contributions to Communist theory. His three key theoretical elements were: that the workers have no revolutionary consciousness and that their spontaneous actions will not lead to revolution; that consciousness must be brought to workers by intellectual leaders; and the revolutionary party must consist of full-time, disciplined, centrally-directed professionals capable of acting as one man.

1902 Barnum’s Animal Crackers were 1st produced. In 2002 Nabisco planned a 100 year b-day.
(SSFC, 12/2/01, Par p.17)

1902 Goodwill Industries was founded to help the needy find and keep jobs.
(SSFC, 6/23/02, Par p.12)

1902 The Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for protection of the President. Two operatives were assigned full time to the White House Detail.

1902 The US Newlands Act established the Bureau of Reclamation and began to enact some of the ideas of John Wesley Powell concerning control of water resources in 17 western states. Results included the Newlands Irrigation Project in Nevada’s Fallon area that diverted water from the Carson and Truckee Rivers to new farmland.
(HFA, ‘96, p.128)(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)(SFC, 12/28/02, p.A20)

1902 In the US Oregon became the first of 23 states to allow voters to place issues on the ballot in the form of initiatives.
1902 Train service between New York and Chicago began. In 1995 Amtrak’s "Broadway Limited" service made its final run.
(AP, 9/9/00)(MC, 9/9/01)

1902 Henry Leland reorganized Henry Ford Co. and renamed it Cadillac Motor Co.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(Sky, 9/97, p.97)

1902 The African Standard was inaugurated at the completion of the East African Railway from the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa to Lake Victoria. It was launched by A.M. Jeevanjee, a Karachi-born trader. Jeevanjee sold the paper in 1905 to two British businessmen, who changed the name to the East African Standard and in 1910 moved its headquarters to Nairobi. A few months before independence in 1963, the British-based Lonrho Group bought the newspaper. In 1977, it became a tabloid and the name was changed to the Standard. In 1995 Lonrho sold its controlling interest to the Standard Newspapers Group Limited, a company in which prominent Kenyan politicians are believed to have considerable interests. The name was changed back to the East African Standard.
(AP, 11/15/02)

1902 Thailand annexed 3 southern provinces that had been part of a sultanate called the Kingdom of Pattani.
(SFC, 1/23/04, p.A7)

1903 - 1904

The Years of the Russo-Japaness War had started. Civil Rights, Sufferage, and other ideas started to appear. The ground had been layed for the World to change how it looked at poltics, and at other people. But this was just the rough beginning to a road of strange things to come.

1903 Jan 2, President Theodore Roosevelt closed a post office in Indianola, Mississippi for refusing to hire a black postmistress.

1903 Jan 2, The first electronic message was sent across the 2,610 mile Pacific Cable from Honolulu to SF.

1903 Jan 3, The Bulgarian government renounced the treaty of commerce tying it to Austro-Hungarian empire.

1903 Jan 10, Argentina banned the importation of American beef, because of sanitation problems.

1903 Jan 19, Guglielmo Marconi broadcast the first transatlantic radio message from his station (Marconi Beach) on Cape Cod. It was beamed to King Edward of England from President Theodore Roosevelt. [see 1901]

1903 Jan 24, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Herbert created a joint commission to establish the Alaskan border.

1903 Feb 11, Congress passed the Expedition Act, giving antitrust cases priority in the courts.

1903 Feb 14, US Congress created the Department of Commerce and Labor to help stabilize the economy. It was divided into separate departments of Commerce and Labor in 1913.

1903 Feb 19, The Austria-Hungary government decreed a mandatory two year military service.

1903 Feb 20, Pope Leo XIII celebrated 25 years as the Pope.

1903 Feb 24, The United States signed an agreement acquiring a naval station at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. Pres. Roosevelt leased the site for 2,000 gold coins a year, about $4,080 in 2002.

1903 Mar 2, The Martha Washington Hotel opened for business in New York City. The hotel featured 416 rooms and was the first hotel exclusively for women.
(HC, Internet, 2/3/98)

1903 Mar 3, North Carolina became the 1st state requiring registration of nurses.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1903 Mar 12, The Czar of Russia issued a decree providing for nominal freedom of religion throughout his territory.
(HN, 3/12/98)

1903 Mar 14, The Senate ratified the Hay-Herran Treaty which guaranteed the U.S. the right to build a canal at Panama. The treaty promised Colombia $8 million plus $225,000 annually for a zone 5.2 miles wide.
(HN, 3/14/98)(ON, 1/00, p.2)

1903 Mar 15, The British completed the conquest of Nigeria, 500,000 square miles are now controlled by the United Kingdom.
(HN, 3/15/99)

1903 Mar 19, The U.S. Senate ratified the Cuban treaty, gaining naval bases in Guantanamo and Bahia Honda.
(HN, 3/19/98)

1903 Mar 23, The Wright brothers obtained an airplane patent.
(HN, 3/23/98)

1903 Mar 29, A regular news service began between New York and London on Marconi's wireless.
(HN, 3/29/98)

1903 Mar 31, New Zealand aviator Richard Pearse flew a self-made, bamboo-framed, mono-winged airplane in Waitohi.
(NW, 3/17/03, p.20)

1903 Mar, Orville and Wilbur Wright first attempted to file a patent on their Flying Machine. This patent application, describing only the basic aerodynamics and control surfaces of the aircraft, not the engine, was turned down by the U.S. Patent Office for lack of clarity. [see 1906]
(HNQ, 3/19/01)

1903 Apr 6, French Army Nationalists were revealed for forging documents to guarantee a conviction for Alfred Dreyfus, an officer accused of giving plans for France's defense to Germany.
(HN, 4/6/99)

1903 Apr 14, Dr. Harry Plotz in NYC discovered a vaccine against typhoid.
(MC, 4/14/02)

1903 May 19, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson bet $50 that he could cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500 Winton touring car. He and his mechanic reached NYC July 26.
(SFC, 6/16/03, p.A1)

1903 May 23, Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson set off to cross the US from San Francisco in his $2,500 Winton touring car with his mechanic Sewell Croker. They reached NYC July 26.
1903 Jun 11, King Alexander and Queen Draga of Belgrade were almost assassinated by members of the Serbia army.

1903 Jun 15, Barney Oldfield (1878-1946), race car driver, drove a Ford 999 at a record mile per minute.
(Ind, 10/6/01, 5A)

1903 Jun 16, Ford Motor Co. was incorporated.
(AP, 6/16/98)
1903 Jun 16, Pepsi Cola company formed. [see 1902]
(MC, 6/16/02)

1903 Jun 18, 1st transcontinental auto trip began in SF and arrived in NY 3-months later. [see Jul 26]
(MC, 6/18/02)

1903 Jun 19, The young school teacher, Benito Mussolini, was placed under investigation by police in Bern, Switzerland.
(HN, 6/19/98)

1903 Jun 25, Marie Curie announced her discovery of radium. [see Apr 20, 1902]
(HN, 6/25/01)

1903 Jun 29, The British government officially protested Belgian atrocities in the Congo. Missionaries, such as William Sheppard of Virginia, had provided information that soldiers of Leopold’s private army turned over the right hand of villagers they had killed in order to account for their used bullets. Leopold’s 19,000 man private army held hostage the wives of workers to force men to work.
(HN, 6/29/98)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7,8)

1903 Jul 2, Olav V, King of Norway (1957), was born in England.
(SC, 7/2/02)

1903 Jul 3, The first cable across the Pacific Ocean was spliced between Honolulu, Midway, Guam and Manila. Teddy Roosevelt placed the atoll of Midway Island under Navy supervision. The Commercial Pacific Cable Co. (later AT&T) set cable across the Pacific via Midway Island and the first around the world message was sent. The message took 9 minutes to circle the globe. [see Jul 4]
(SFEC, 7/20/97, p.T5)(HN, 7/3/98)

1903 Jul 4, Pacific Cable (SF, Hawaii, Guam, Philippines) opened. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt opened the first Pacific communications cable by sending a message around the world. Roosevelt sent a message around the world, and the message came back to him in 12 minutes. [see Jul 3]
(Maggio, 98)(HNQ, 7/6/01)

1903 Jul 20, Pope Leo XIII died. He served 25 years, four months and 17 days.
(AP, 10/15/03)

1903 Jul 23, The Ford Motor Company sold its first automobile, the Model A.

1903 Aug 4, Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto of Venice was elected Pope Pius X.
(MC, 8/4/02)

1903 Sep 8, Between 30,000 and 50,000 Bulgarian men, women and children were massacred in Monastir by Turkish troops seeking to check a threatened Macedonian uprising.

1903 Sep 17, Turks destroyed the town of Kastoria in Bulgaria, killing 10,000 civilians.

1903 Oct 10, Philippe Bunau-Varilla met with Pres. Roosevelt in Washington and told him that a group in Panama was planning a rebellion. He asked that the US prevent any Colombian troops from landing to break the rebellion, but received no specific answer.

1903 Oct 13, Boston defeated Pittsburgh in baseball’s first World Series. In 2003 Roger I. Abrams authored "The First World Series and the Baseball Fanatics of 1903;" Louis P. Masur authored "Autumn Glory: Baseball's First World Series;" and Bob Ryan authored "When Boston Won the World Series."

1903 Oct 20, The Joint Commission, set up on January 24 by Great Britain and the United States to arbitrate the disputed Alaskan boundary, ruled in favor of the United States. The deciding vote was Britain’s, which embittered Canada. The United States gained ports on the panhandle coast of Alaska.

1903 Nov 2, London’s Daily Mirror was first published.
(HN, 11/2/98)

1903 Nov 3, There was a Revolution in Panama composed of Panamanian fired departments and some 500 Colombian mercenary troops purchased for some $100,000 by Philippe Bunau-Varilla’s Panama Canal Company. The US created Panama so that a canal could be built and maintained
(HFA, '96, p.42)(SFC, 6/2/97, p.A8)(AP, 11/3/97)(ON, 1/00, p.2)

1903 Nov 4, After a one-day coup, in which an American warship offshore prevented Columbia from quelling the revolt and the only casualty was a Chinese shopkeeper and a donkey, Panama declared her independence. A jubilant President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new republic three days later. The Panama Canal, a cornerstone of Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy, was completed in 10 years.

1903 Nov 6, Panama declared its independence from Colombia.
(ON, 1/00, p.3)

1903 Nov 7, President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new Panama republic.
(HNPD, 11/18/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)

1903 Nov 17, Vladimir Lenin’s efforts to impose his own radical views on the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party split the Party into two factions, the Bolsheviks, who supported Lenin, and the Mensheviks. The followers of the Marxist revolutionary line espoused by V.I. Lenin called themselves the majority, or Bolsheviks, and referred to their rivals as the minority, or Mensheviks. The Mensheviks took a less radical position, seeking cooperation with middle-class parties. The two factions grew into separate parties, with Bolshevism becoming the strategy that led to the overthrow of Russian czarism and the establishment of soviet power in the revolutions of 1917. The Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Russian Communist Party in 1918 and the word Bolshevik was finally dropped from the official title of the Soviet Communist Party in 1956.
(HN, 11/17/98)(HNQ, 3/17/00)

1903 Nov 18, The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed, granting the United States a strip of land across the Isthmus of Panama and the right to build and fortify the Panama Canal. Building an interoceanic canal was not a new idea at the turn of the 20th century, but U.S. acquisition of California in 1848 and territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean after the Spanish-American War made the canal crucial to American foreign policy. In January 1903, the Hay-Herran Treaty with Colombia--Panama was a part of Colombia--would have given the United States the land and the right to build a canal across Panama, but Colombia refused to ratify the treaty. Subsequently, Panamanian rebels--encouraged by American agents--rose against Colombia on November 3, 1903. After a one-day coup, in which an American warship offshore prevented Colombia from quelling the revolt and the only casualty was a donkey, Panama declared her independence. A jubilant President Theodore Roosevelt recognized the new republic three days later. The Panama Canal, a cornerstone of Roosevelt's aggressive foreign policy, was completed in 10 years.
(HNPD, 11/18/98)(ON, 1/00, p.3)

1903 Dec 9, The Norwegian parliament voted unanimously for female suffrage.

1903 Dec 14, William Ennis became the 1st cop to die in electric chair.

1903 Dec 15, The British Parliament placed a 15-year ban on whale fishing in Norway.

1903 Dec 17, Erskine Caldwell, U.S. novelist, was born.
1903 Dec 17, The Wright brothers' Flyer I flew for 12 seconds in the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The brothers were the sons of a Dayton, Ohio, bishop (Church of the United Brethren). Orville Wright made the first powered, controlled and sustained flight. Orville, lying prone at the plane's controls, flew a distance of 120 feet in 12 seconds. Wilbur ran beside Flyer's wing tip until it was airborne to keep the wing from dragging in the sand. Four sustained flights were made on this day. The 4th flight lasted fifty-nine seconds. The momentous events of that day received little press attention, since the reticent Wright brothers feared their ideas would be stolen by rival aviators. It was not until 1908, after making many refinements to their flying machine, that the Wrights embarked on a series of public demonstrations that finally earned them worldwide acclaim. A one-hour PBS documentary covered their life as part of "The American Experience."

1903 Dec 19, The Williamsburg suspension bridge opened between Brooklyn and Manhattan.
(MC, 12/19/01)

1903 In NYC the Manhattan Bridge opened.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T4)

1903 The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) opened its first building at 10 Broad St.

1903 The hot fudge sundae was first served.
(SFC, 3/7/98, p.E3)

1903 The Baltimore Orioles baseball team was moved to New York where it became the NY Yankees.
(WSJ, 4/2/99, p.W7)

1903 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt set aside the 5 acres of Pelican Island off the east coast of Florida to protect pelicans and other birds from hunters. This began the wildlife refuge system that grew to 537 national wildlife refuges in 2001.
(SFC, 2/8/01, p.A2)

1903 There was a stock market panic this year as Pres. Teddy Roosevelt began to establish himself as the first great "trust buster."
(SFC,10/27/97, p.B2)

1903 Hawaii’s popularly elected territorial legislature first petitioned to become a state and repeated the request at least 17 times. [see 1919]
(HNQ, 2/23/02)

1903 King C. Gillette replaced the cut-throat razor with his safety razor blade.
(Econ, 12/20/03, p.111)

1903 Henry Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Co. and sold the first Model A.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1903 William Harley and the 3 Davidson brothers: Arthur (20), Walter and William (21), started out in a Milwaukee basement to produce their first motorized bike. In 1999 Brock Yates published "Outlaw Machine: Harley-Davidson and the Search for the American Soul."

1903 Buick Motors was established.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1903 The Red Spot Paint & Varnish Co. was established in Evansville, Ind.
(WSJ, 12/20/96, p.A1)

1903 The Buffalo Pottery Company opened in Buffalo. It was established by the Larkin Co., a soap manufacturer, to make premiums for its customers.
(SFC, 7/1/98, Z1 p.6)

1903 The Postal car was equipped with a heater.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1903 The 1st trolley with an electric 3rd rail was installed in Scranton, Pa.
(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.B8)

1903 Major silver and gold deposits were found at Goldfield, Nevada.
(SFEC, 7/9/00, DB p.67)

1903 John Muir influenced the conservation policy of President Theodore Roosevelt during a 1903 camping trip to Yosemite. Naturalist and forest conservation advocate, Muir was largely responsible for the establishment of national parks such as Sequoia and Yosemite. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin, Scottish immigrant Muir worked on mechanical inventions, but when an industrial accident blinded him in one eye, he abandoned that career and devoted himself to nature. As early as 1876, Muir encouraged the federal government to establish a forest conservation program. The Sequoia and Yosemite parks were created in 1890 and two eloquent articles by Muir swayed public opinion in favor of federally protected national forests.
(HNPD, 1/2/99)

1903 Rasputin, the Russian monk and confidant of the Romanovs, came to St. Petersburg as an ascetic holy man and claimed to be inspired by visions of the Virgin Mary.
(WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-15)

1903-1906 The United Shoe Manufacturing Plant was built. It was pioneering reinforced concrete structure in Beverly, Mass., devised by the engineer Ernest L. Ransome. He patented a way to embed twisted square iron rods in concrete.
(WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A16)

1903-1907 William Randolph Hearst served two terms in Congress.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)

1903-1909 In SF infantry barracks were built on Ruger St. in the Presidio to provide quarters for troops being shipped to cover the US expansion into the Pacific.

1904 Jan 2, U.S. Marines were sent to Santo Domingo to aid the government against rebel forces.
(HN, 1/2/99)

1904 Jan 4, The U.S. Supreme Court decided in the Gonzales v. Williams case that Puerto Ricans are not aliens and can enter the U.S. freely, yet stopped short of awarding citizenship.
(HN, 1/4/99)

1904 Jan 5, American Marines arrived in Seoul, Korea to guard U.S. legation there.
(HN, 1/5/99)

1904 Jan 6, A Japanese railway in Korea refused to transport Russian troops.
(HN, 1/6/99)

1904 Jan 11, British troops massacred 1,000 dervishes in Somaliland.
(HN, 1/11/99)

1904 Feb 3, Colombian troops clashed with U.S. Marines in Panama.
(HN, 2/3/99)

1904 Feb 4, Russia offered Korea to Japan and defended its right to occupy Manchuria.

1904 Feb 5, The American’s remove troops from the Cuban territories.

1904 Feb 6, Japan's foreign minister severed all ties with Russia, citing delaying tactics in negotiations over Manchuria.

1904 Feb 8, The Russo-Japanese War began. In a surprise attack at Port Arthur, Korea, the Japanese disabled seven Russian warships. During the war, Russia suffered a series of stunning defeats to Japan; the fighting ended with an agreement mediated by President Theodore Roosevelt, who went on to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.

1904 Feb 9, Japanese troops landed near Seoul, Korea, after disabling two Russian cruisers.

1904 Feb 10, Russia and Japan declared war on each other.

1904 Feb 11, President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed strict neutrality for the U.S. in the Russo-Japanese War.

1904 Feb 23, US acquired control of the Panama Canal Zone for $10 million.
(MC, 2/23/02)
1904 Feb 23, Japan guaranteed Korean sovereignty in exchange for military assistance.

1904 Mar 2, "Official Playing Rules of Professional Base Ball Clubs" was adopted.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1904 Mar 4, Russian troops began to retreat toward the Manchurian border as 100,000 Japanese advanced in Korea.

1904 Mar 7, The Japanese bombed the Russian town of Vladivostok.
(HN, 3/7/98)

1904 Mar 8, The Bundestag in Germany lifted the ban on the Jesuit order of priests.
(HN, 3/8/98)

1904 Mar 15, Three hundred Russians were killed as the Japanese shelled Port Arthur in Korea.

1904 Mar 22, The first color photograph was published in the London Daily Illustrated Mirror.
(HN, 3/22/97)

1904 Mar 24, Vice Adm. Tojo sank seven Russian ships as the Japanese strengthened their blockade of Port Arthur.
(HN, 3/24/98)

1904 Apr 19, Much of Toronto was destroyed by fire.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1904 Apr 30, At 1:06 p.m. President Theodore Roosevelt officially opened the St. Louis World’s Fair commemorating the centennial of the Louisiana Purchase. Although the Fair was originally scheduled to open in 1903, the opening was delayed for a year while the elaborate fairgrounds were completed. Visitors were awed by 142 miles of exhibits shown in palatial buildings like Festival Hall the centerpiece of the fair boasting an auditorium seating 3,500 and the largest pipe organ in the world. Other wonders seen at the St. Louis World’s Fair were the Liberty Bell, ice cream cones. Food vendors, Arnold Fornachou (ice cream) and Ernest Hamwi (sweet, rolled wafers), collaborated for the ice cream cones. In 1903 Italo Marconi received a patent for pastry cornets to hold ice cream. Charles Menches sold ice cream at the fair and an anonymous Syrian sold the zalabia pastry in the next booth.
(HN, 5/2/98)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)(SFC, 6/24/00, p.B3)
1904 Apr 30, The St. Louis World’s Fair popularized the all-American hamburger. The fair lasted 7 months and inspired the phrase "Meet Me in St. Louis." Cass Gilbert designed the art museum in Foret park, the only building left over from the fair. At the Louisiana Purchase Exposition the temperatures in St. Louis soared and hot-tea vendor Richard Blechynden began pouring his tea over ice thus the invention of iced-tea. The fair popularized sausage in a bun, the hot dog with prepared mustard and the ice cream cone.
(SFC, 8/18/96, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 11/17/96, Par p.19)(SFC, 10/12/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 4/19/98, Z1 p.8)(SSFC, 10/5/03, p.C3)
1904 although invented in Waco, Texas in the 1880s, Dr Pepper first received national exposure at the St. Louis World's Fair.
(HNQ, 10/25/00)

1904 May 5, Denton True Young (Cy Young) of the Boston Red Sox pitched the American League's first perfect game as the Boston Red Sox defeated the Philadelphia Athletics, 3-0.
(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A23)(AP, 5/5/04)

1904 May 8, U.S. Marines landed in Tangier to protect the Belgian legation.
(HN, 5/8/98)

1904 May 11, Andrew Carnegie donated $1.5M to build a peace palace.
(MC, 5/11/02)

1904 May 14, The first Olympic games to be held in the United States opened in St. Louis. Some 1,500 athletes competed from 13 countries. The US won 80 of 100 gold medals. At the Olympics the game of golf was played for the last time due to lack of general appeal. The 3rd modern Olympics were held at the St. Louis World’s Fair. A separate competition was held for “uncivilized tribes” in what was billed as “Anthropology Days.”
(SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.4)(AP, 5/14/97)(WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)(PCh, 1992, p.658)(WSJ, 8/11/04, p.B1)

1904 May 18, Brigand Raizuli kidnapped American Ion H. Perdicaris in Morocco.
(HN, 5/18/98)

1904 Jun 6, The National Tuberculosis Association was organized in Atlantic City, NJ.
(MC, 6/6/02)

1904 Jun 8, U.S. Marines landed in Tangiers, Morocco, to protect U.S. citizens.
(HN, 6/8/99)

1904 Jul 21, After 13 years, the 4,607-mile Trans-Siberian railway was completed. [see Jul 31]
(MC, 7/21/02)

1904 Jul 23, By some accounts, the ice cream cone was invented by Charles E. Menches during the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis. [see Sep 22, 1903]
(AP, 7/23/99)

1904 Jul 31, The Trans-Siberian railroad connecting the Ural mountains with Russia’s Pacific coast, was completed. [see Jul 21]
(HN, 7/31/98)

1904 Aug 6, The Japanese army in Korea surrounded a Russian army retreating to Manchuria.
(HN, 8/6/98)

1904 Aug 11, German General Lothar von Trotha defeated the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South Africa.
(HN, 8/10/98)

1904 Aug 12, Aleksei N. Romanov, son of Tsar Nicolas II, was born.
(MC, 8/12/02)

1904 Aug 14, The Hereros rebelled against the German colonialists. The cattle-herding tribe of German South West Africa (later Namibia), were the first genocide victims of the 20th century. Kaiser Wilhelm II had sent General Lothar von Trotha to put down the Herero uprising. Trotha drove the Hereros into the desert and then issued a formal "extermination order" authorizing the slaughter of all who refused to surrender. Out of some 80,000 Hereros, 60,000 died in the desert. Of the 15,000 who surrendered, half of those died in prison camps. Some 9,000 escaped to neighboring countries. In 2004 a senior German government official apologized for the genocide during a ceremony in Namibia marking the 100th anniversary of the uprising.
(HNPD, 4/14/99)(AP, 8/14/04)

1904 Aug 16, NYC began building the Grand Central Station.

1904 Aug 24, In the field battle at Liaoyang, China, some 200,000 Japanese faced 150,000 Russians. The Japanese defeated the Russians in October.

1904 Sep 4, Dali Lama signed a treaty allowing British commerce in Tibet.
(MC, 9/4/01)

1904 Sep 9, Mounted police were 1st used in NYC.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1904 Sep 11, The battleship Connecticut, launched in New York, introduced a new era in naval construction.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1904 Sep 15, Wilbur Wright made his 1st controlled half-circle while in flight.

1904 Sep 19, Gen. Nogi's assault on Port Arthur: 16,000 Japanese casualties.
(MC, 9/19/01)

1904 Sep 20, Orville and Wilbur Wright flew a circle in their Flyer II.
(MC, 9/20/01)

1904 Sep 25, A New York City police officer ordered a female passenger in an automobile on Fifth Avenue to stop smoking a cigarette. A male companion was arrested and later fined two dollars for "abusing" the officer.
(AP, 9/25/98)

1904 Sep 28, A woman was placed under arrest for smoking a cigarette on New York’s Fifth Avenue.
(HN, 9/28/98)

1904 Oct, 1, Forty orphans (aged 2-6), shipped west in the company of nuns by a New York Foundling Hospital, arrived at the Arizona copper mining towns of Clifton and Morenci. Anglo townspeople opposed their adoption by Mexican American citizens, terrorized the adopting families and took some of the children for themselves. In 1999 Linda Gordon authored "The Great Arizona Orphan Abduction;" Linda Peavy and Ursula Smith authored "Frontier Children," which described the "orphan train" plan to transport poor city-bred children to a healthier life out west.
(SFEC, 1/9/00, Par p.6)

1904 Oct 4, 1st day of NYC subway, 350,000 people rode the 9.1 mile tracks. [see Oct 24, 27]
(MC, 10/4/01)

1904 Oct 20, Bolivia and Chile signed a treaty ending the War of the Pacific. The treaty recognized Chile's possession of Bolivia's nitrate-rich coastal province of Antofagasta, but provided for construction of a railway to link La Paz, Bolivia, to Arica on the coast.

1904 Oct 21, Panamanians clashed with U.S. Marines in Panama in a brief uprising.
(HN, 10/21/98)

1904 Oct 22, The Russian Baltic fleet mistakenly fired on British fishing ships near Dogger Bank killing 2 fishermen. The fleet was in fear of Japanese torpedo boats.

1904 Oct 24, The 1st NY subway opened. [see Oct 4, 27]
(MC, 10/24/01)

1904 Oct 27, The first rapid transit subway, the IRT (Interborough Rapid Transit), opened in New York City. It ran from the Brooklyn Bridge uptown to Broadway at 145th Street with a fare of one nickel. [see Oct 4]
(AP, 10/27/97)(HN, 10/27/98)(MC, 10/27/01)

1904 Oct 28, The St. Louis, Missouri, police tried a new investigation method—fingerprints.

1904 Nov 4, Harvard Stadium became the 1st stadium built specifically for football.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1904 Nov 8, Theodore Roosevelt (R) defeated Alton B. Parker (D) in US presidential elections. Roosevelt had succeeded the assassinated William McKinley.
(HN, 11/6/98)(AP, 11/8/04)

1904 Nov 9, 1st airplane flight to last more than 5 minutes.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1904 Nov 21, Motorized omnibuses replaced horse-drawn cars in Paris.
(HN, 11/21/98)

1904 Nov 23, Russo-German talks broke down because of Russia's insistence to consult France.
1904 Nov 27, German colonial army defeated Hottentots at Warmbad in Southwest Africa.

1904 Nov 28, The pivotal capture by the Japanese of 203 Meter Hill overlooking Port Arthur occurred during the bloodiest battle of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. The battle of November 28-December 5, 1904, resulted in Japanese forces taking the strategic 203 Meter Hill, allowing them to bombard and sink the Russian fleet in the harbor at Port Arthur. Russia surrendered the city of Port Arthur to Japan on January 1, 1905.
(HNQ, 9/20/99)

1904 Dec 1, The Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis closed after seven months and some 20 million visitors.
(AP, 12/1/04)

1904 Dec 5, Japanese destroyed Russian fleet at Port Arthur in Korea.
(HN, 12/5/98)

1904 Dec 6, Theodore Roosevelt confirmed the Monroe-doctrine (Roosevelt Corollary).
(MC, 12/6/01)

1904 Dec 16, Japanese warships quit Port Arthur in order to cut off the Russian Baltic fleet’s advance.
(HN, 12/16/98)

1904 Dec 24, German SW Africa abolished the slavery of young children.

1904 Dec 28, Farmers in Georgia burned two million bales of cotton to prop up falling prices.
(HN, 12/28/98)
1904 Dec 28, The 1st daily wireless weather forecasts were published in London.

1904 Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), writer, political philosopher and lecturer, muckraking author published "The Shame of the Cities." He was hailed as an "American Socrates" because he raised rather than answered questions and jolted his audiences into awareness. He was a leader of the form of journalism that won the sobriquet "muckraking" from Theodore Roosevelt. Steffens sought to reveal the shortcomings of the popular dogmas that equated economic success with moral worth and national progress with individual self-interest.
(HNQ, 10/4/98)

1904 Ida Tarbell (d.1944), journalist, published the 2-volume "History of the Standard Oil Company." It revealed the illegal means used by John D. Rockefeller to gain a monopoly and control oil prices and began as a series in McClure's Magazine in 1902. This led to a federal investigation and the 1911 order by the Supreme Court for the breakup of Standard Oil.
(WSJ, 12/15/98, p.B1)(WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(HNQ, 6/22/00)

1904 Max Weber (1864-1920), German sociologist and political economist, authored "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism." Weber wrote "the modern man is in general, even with the best will, unable to give religious ideas a significance for culture and national character which they deserve." Weber visited the US in this year.
(WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)(WSJ, 8/19/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)

1904 In NYC the New York Times was built over the square known as Longacre Square. [see 1913]
(SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.8)

1904 Mary McLeod Bethune, a black American, founded Bethune-Cookman College.
(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.5)

1904 The National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis was founded. It later became the American Lung Association.
(WSJ, 4/14/99, p.A1)

1904 Alexander Graham Bell, scientist and inventor, escorted the remains of James Smithson, founder of the Smithsonian Institution, to the United States for interment in the original Smithsonian building. Smithson was an English scientist who bequeathed his entire estate to the United States to found an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge, to be named the Smithsonian Institution. Smithson, who had the mineral smithsonite (carbonate of zinc) named for him, was born in 1765 and died in 1829.
(HNQ, 6/26/99)

1904 Englishman Edmund Morel journeyed to the US and encouraged the formation of an American Congo Reform Association. Its first president was Dr. G. Stanley Hall, president of Clark Univ.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)

1904 Radio PH of the De Forest Wireless Telegraph Company began broadcasting from the Old Palace Hotel in SF.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A14)

1904 Israel Waldbaum began selling butter and eggs in Brooklyn, New York. By the 1980s the operation had grown to 140 supermarkets and was sold to A&P.
(SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)

1904 The Roosevelt Corollary transformed the Monroe Doctrine from one of nonintervention by European powers in Western Hemispheric affairs to one of intervention by the U.S. Reflecting Roosevelt's "Big Stick" philosophy, the president stated in 1904: "Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power."
(HNQ, 1/4/99)

1904 Alton B. Parker, aka "the Sphinx" or "the Mummy" or "the enigma from New York," ran as a Democrat against Theodore Roosevelt.
(SFC, 10/22/96, p.E8)

1904 Silas Swallow was the US presidential candidate for the Prohibition Party. The Anti-Saloon League spearheaded 20th-century prohibitionism and invented modern interest-group politics.
(SFC, 8/23/97, p.E3)(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A28)

1904 American Tobacco merged with its holding company, Continental Tobacco Co.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-45)

1904 The Maxwell-Briscoe Motor Car Co. was formed. It would later become Chrysler Corp.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1904 Cleveland Cap Screw introduced the first two-piece engine valve production process based a design by welder Charles Thompson.
(F, 10/7/96, p.66)

1904 Uranium became recognized as an energy source.
(WSJ, 3/18/05, p.C1)

1904 California’s population was around 1.4 million. 14% of US homes had a bathtub, 8% had telephones and the total number of US cars was around 8,000.
(SFC, 6/25/04, p.F8)

1904 After a mine disaster near Pittsburgh killed 178 people, industrialist Andrew Carnegie established a fund to honor rescuers known as the Carnegie Hero Fund.
(SFC, 5/12/96, p.C-8)(WSJ, 6/17/96, p.B1)

1904 The Congo Reform Association was born in England following the return of Roger Casement from the Congo and his meeting with Edmund Morel.
(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)

1904 In Denmark a new law forced the people to stick with the names they had, as opposed to the previous system where people where named after their fathers first name.
(WSJ, 3/17/98, p.A1)

1904 In Germany the O&M Hausser toy company was founded in Ludwigsberg. They used they "Elastolin" trade name for small composition figures that included soldiers of various countries.
(SFC, 1/13/99, Z1 p.6)
1904 In Guatemala the Postal Code created the General Administration of Mail and Telegraphs (GAMT). The system grew to become very inefficient and in the 1980s private delivery businesses began to spring up.
(WSJ, 6/5/98, p.A15)

1904 Iceland won home rule.
(DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)

1904 Panama adopted the US dollar as its currency.
(WSJ, 1/18/98, p.A1)

1904 In South Africa Soweto (an acronym for southwest townships) was established as a separate, African-only district.
(SFEC, 7/19/98, p.T4)

1904 In Thailand the Siam Society, a bastion of Thai culture, was founded.
(WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)

1904-1905 Japan goes to war against Russia.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)
As I look at this I see things not mentioned. For one, anti-US setiment in Columbia is much stronger than OTL. You might have noticed the US took less land with the Canal Zone, but for a much lower price. Japan is being set up for super power, but as events do change so does the results of the first world war. The US is far more competive as the POD was in the stock markets. Greater involvement in the Caribbean is expected. France has increased the number of arms it buys from the US, and generally the Western market is doing well. The Boxer Rebellion was less impactful here, and instead some of the more ambitious US, French, British, and German companies are investing in it. Mean whie did anybody catch my Eastern European change? One ruler that would otherwise be dead walks among men, Alexander Obrenovic, and it will be intresting how Serbia, as well as history are changed. (Hint hint, world War one buffs, and Abdul that's your cue) Before you get your hopes up he dies of poisoning April 13th, 1909, his queen flees to Germany, but it won't be Peter I sitting on the throne. Other choices?
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With the addition of Cuba the US population gained 1.6 million people. Cuba will be an Arizona-like area producing liberial republicans en masse. The amount of sugar produced by the US drastically increases, and Cuba becomes its own unquie community. The demographics of the hispanic vote cause an earlier trend of attepting to win it by the 1930s, a civil rights movement being ready to start by mid-1920s.
The Cuban rebels wanted independence from Spain...if the US flat-out annexes the territory, I'd expect there to be something resembling the Filipino War, only much closer to home.

The anti-imperialist movement, which became strong b/c of the Filipino War, will find even more to object to if there's a war in Cuba.

Perhaps this will lead to fewer, not more, US interventions in the Caribbean. When WWI occurs in TTL, the anti-imperialists could form a genuine peace faction.
MerryPrankster said:
The Cuban rebels wanted independence from Spain...if the US flat-out annexes the territory, I'd expect there to be something resembling the Filipino War, only much closer to home.

The anti-imperialist movement, which became strong b/c of the Filipino War, will find even more to object to if there's a war in Cuba.

Perhaps this will lead to fewer, not more, US interventions in the Caribbean. When WWI occurs in TTL, the anti-imperialists could form a genuine peace faction.
Acualtly there was a strong want before the war for outright US annexation. They were given a high degree of Automony in this tl, and assured citzenship. Cuba reselmbs a mix between a Latin American country (willful and unstable.) and the Hawaiin Republic. The pro-annexation group in this tl is 40% bigger than it was in OTL. The reasons with withdrawning from Cuba were Malaria, and Yellow Fever, not insurgentcy. Although the area in question is known for continous revolving dictators I believe the US occupation was its most stable time. Incorperation will be easy as long as the society at large is given reason to be pacified. I also said more involvment in South America and the Far East, and by that I meant by the industries within US boarders, because a sucessful incorperation of Cuba would cause the US to become more bold.
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This year saw the rise of a superpower in Japan. The Surprise defeat of Russia elevated in the eyes of the world, but unfortunately they felt jipped by the peace process which the US played mediator. The growing feeling of hostility may prove a problem in the future. Both Corperations and Communists were starting to gain sway. In the mean time Civil Engineering was reaching new heights, and transportation was becoming faster. One last thing, Man learned to fly. Planes and helicopters were the first expirements of an era.

1905 Jan 2, After a six-month siege, Russians surrendered Port Arthur to the Japanese.

1905 Jan 9 to Jan 22nd, On what would become known as "Bloody Sunday," Russian Orthodox Father George Gapon led a procession in St. Petersburg of some 200,000 who were marching on the Winter Palace to present their grievances to Czar Nicholas. Troops on the scene panicked, firing into the crowd and killing hundreds, thus igniting the Revolution of 1905. Across Russia, government officials were attacked, peasants seized private estates and workers’ strikes virtually paralyzed the economy. In St. Petersburg, a council (soviet) of workers’ delegates threatened to take over the government. Nicholas consented to the adoption of a constitution and election of a parliament (Duma). The first Duma met in 1906.

1905 Jan 27, Russian General Kuropatkin took the offensive in Manchuria. The Japanese under General Oyama suffered heavy casualties.

1905 Feb 1, Germany contested French rule in Morocco.

1905 Feb 7, The Dominican Republic signed a treaty turning over customs collection to US.

1905 Feb 8, A cyclone hit Tahiti and adjacent islands killing some 10,000 people.

1905 Feb 21, The Mukden campaign of the Russo-Japanese War, began. In one of the largest battles ever fought up to that time, some 750,000 Japanese and Russian soldiers engaged in the battle for Mukden in the Russo-Japanese War. The 3-week battle pitted 400,000 Japanese and 350,000 Russians stretched over a front extending more than 90 miles. More than 100,000 were left dead or injured as the Russians began a retreat toward Harbin on March 9.

1905 Feb 22, Japan 1st claimed the volcanic islets they called Takeshima, located between Japan and Korea, where they are known as Tokdo (Dokdo). Japan illegally incorporated Dokdo as its territory through an administrative measure of one of its prefectures.

1905 Feb 24, Russian Minister of Agriculture, Alexi Yermolov offered the Czar a new constitution.

1905 Feb 27, Japanese pushed Russians back in Manchuria, and cross the Sha River.

1905 Mar 3, US Forest Service formed. President Theodore Roosevelt successfully lobbied Congress to create the Forest Service and appointed Gifford Pinchot, a fellow conservationist, to run the agency. Pinchot had studied forestry in Europe and worked for the U.S. government in various forestry positions since 1896. He stayed with the Forest Service until 1910 and contributed greatly to its early development and national attitudes towards conservation with his enthusiasm.
1905 Mar 3, The Russian Czar agreed to create an elected assembly.

1905 Mar 4, The inauguration of Theodore Roosevelt.

1905 Mar 5, Russians began to retreat from Mukden in Manchuria.

1905 Mar 8, The peasant revolt in Russia was reported to be spreading to Georgia.

1905 Mar 10, Japanese Army captured Mukden, later Shenyang, China.

1905 Mar 11, The Parisian subway was officially inaugurated.

1905 Apr 1, US Leather was removed from the Dow Jones. It was succeeded by Central Leather Co. It was one of the nation’s largest shoemakers in the first decades of this century.
1905 Apr 1, Berlin and Paris were linked by telephone.

1905 Apr 12, French Dufaux brothers tested a helicopter.
(MC, 4/12/02)

1905 Apr 16, A Japanese baseball team from Waseda Univ. in Tokyo came to the West Coast for a 3-month 26-game tour. They played their opening game against Stanford and lost 9-1. Their manager, Prof. Iso Abe, is called the "father of modern baseball in Japan." They won 9 of their 26 games.

1905 May 26, There was a pogrom against Jews in Minsk, Belorussia.

1905 May 27, Japanese fleet destroyed the Russian East Sea fleet in Straits of Tushima. May 28, A Japanese fleet under Adm. Heihachiro Togo defeated a Russian fleet under Adm. Zinovi Petrovich Rozhestvensky in the Battle of Tsushima. The Russian fleet lost 22 ships out of 38 to the Japanese in the Battle of Tsushima Straits. In 2002 Constantine Pleshakov authored "The Tsar’s Last Armada: The Epic Voyage to the Battle of Tsushima."

1905 May 29, There was a pogrom against Jewish community in Brisk, Lithuania.
(SC, 5/29/02)
1905 Jun 7, Norway dissolved its union with Sweden. It had been in effect since 1814.

1905 Jun 10, Japan and Russia agreed to peace talks brokered by President Theodore Roosevelt.

1905 Jun 11, Pennsylvania Railroad debuted the fastest train in world of that time period.(NY-Chicago in 18 hrs).

1905 Jun 29, Russian troops intervened as riots erupt in ports all over the country, leaving many ships looted.

1905 Jun, In Pittsburgh, Penn., the world's 1st theater geared exclusively for motion pictures opened.

1905 Jul 7, The International Workers of the World founded their labor organization in Chicago. The IWW was formed by William Haywood of the Western Federation of Miners, Daniel De Leon of the Socialist Labor Party and Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party. Members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) were also known as Wobblies. The Wobblies were formed partly in response to the American Federation of Labor’s opposition to the unionization of unskilled labor.

1905 Aug 19, Roald Amundsen and his crew of 6 aboard Gjøe, a converted herring boat, made contact with the US Coast Guard cutter Bear which confirmed their crossing the Northwest Passage following a 26-month journey. Amundsen continued by dogsled to the Yukon while his crew completed their journey at Point Bonita, California, just outside the Golden Gate. Gjøe was returned to Norway in 1972. A commemorative sculpture was left next to the Beach Chalet at Ocean Beach.

1905 Sep 1, Alberta and Saskatchewan became the 8th and 9th Canadian provinces.

1905 Sep 5, The Russian-Japanese War ended as representatives of the combating empires, meeting in New Hampshire, signed the Treaty of Portsmouth. Japan achieved virtually all of its original war aims.

1905 Sep 13, U.S. warships headed to Nicaragua on behalf of American William Albers, who was accused of evading tobacco taxes.

1905 Sep 22, Race riot in Atlanta, Georgia killed 10 blacks and 2 whites.

1905 Oct 4, Orville Wright piloted the first flight longer than 30 minutes. The flight lasted 33 minutes, 17 seconds and covered 21 miles.

1905 Oct 5, Orville and Wilbur Wright's "Flyer III" flew 38.5 km in 38.3 minutes.

1905 Oct 15, US President Grover Cleveland wrote an article for "Ladies Home Journal", joining others in the US who opposed women voters. The president said, "We all know how much further women go than men in their social rivalries and jealousies... sensible and responsible women do not want to vote."

1905 Oct 20, A Great General Strike in Russia began and lasted 11 days.
1905 Oct 20, Russian tsar allowed Polish people to speak Polish.

1905 Oct 26, Norway signed a treaty of separation with Sweden and chose Prince Charles of Denmark as the new king; he became King Haakon VII.

1905 Oct 30, Czar Nicholas II of Russia issued the October Manifesto, granting civil liberties and elections in an attempt to avert the burgeoning support for revolution. Nicholas II also accepted the 1st Duma (Parliament)

1905 Nov 10, Sailors revolted in Kronstadt, Russia.

1905 Nov 18, The Norwegian Parliament elected Prince Charles of Denmark to be the next King of Norway. Prince Charles took the name Haakon VII.

1905 Nov 22, British, Italian, Russian, French and Austrian-Hungarian fleet attacked the Grecian Isle of Lesbos.

1905 Nov 28, Arthur Griffith formed Sinn Fein in Dublin. Sinn Fein is Gaelic for "we ourselves," but also for "ourselves alone." This political party became the unofficial political wing of militant Irish groups in their struggle against British rule.

1905 Dec 1, Twenty officers and 230 guards were arrested in St. Petersburg, Russia for the revolt at the Winter Palace.

1905 Dec 9, The French Assembly National voted for separation of church and state.

1905 Dec 30, Governor Frank Steunenberg of Idaho was killed by an assassin's bomb. The former Gov. of Idaho, was blown up by a booby-trapped gate in front of his home in Caldwell, Idaho. Three Western Federation of Miners leaders in Colorado, Charles Moyer, George Pettibone and William Haywood, were "legally kidnapped" to Idaho and put on trial for the murder. The event and surrounding circumstances were as Big Trouble.

1905 Mark Twain wrote his pamphlet "King Leopold’s Soliloquy" in support of reform in the Congo. US Sec. of State Elihu Root was pressured to take action on the Congo.

1905 The New York Giants with the help of pitcher Christy Mathewson won the World Series under manager John McGraw.
(SFC, 9/28/99, p.A27)

1905 The big football game between Stanford and UC Berkeley was banned from San Francisco due to the riots that often followed. 18 football players died nationwide from game injuries in this year.

1905 The federal government built the Klamath Project, a series of reservoirs and lakes on the California-Oregon border. The Federal Bureau of Reclamation began draining the Klamath Basin to help farmers. The Audubon Society lobbied Pres. Roosevelt to preserve some of the area, a major Pacific flyway for birds, and in 1908 he agreed.

1905 A US federal law made it a felony to use corporate or union money to influence directly a state election.

1905 Teddy Roosevelt established the million-acre Siskiyou Forest Reserve in Oregon.

1905 California ceded Yosemite Valley to the federal government.

1905 W.E.B. Dubois and other black leaders organized the Niagara Movement. it followed the National Citizen’s Rights Association, which was organized by Homer Plessey's lawyer, Albion Tourgee.

1905 Robert Todd Lincoln, son of Abraham Lincoln, gave the Lincoln Life Insurance Co. the right to use the family name.

1905 Charles Evans Hughes supervised a New York state investigation into the insurance industry.

1905 The National Steel and Ship building Company (NASSCO) in San Diego was founded as a small machine shop. In 1997 the employee-owned company encompassed 147 acres with a work force of 5,000 for ship design, construction and repair.
(IBCC, 10/97, #9)

1905 Standard Rope & Twine Co. collapsed. It was succeeded by Standard Cordage Co.

1905 The Sonoma Brewing Company was established in Sonoma, Ca.

1905 Wells Fargo fell under the control of Edward Harriman, a railroad entrepreneur, who moves its headquarters to NYC and merged with Nevada National Bank.

1905 Some automakers introduced motor trucks and ignition locks; and auto plants were opened in Canada.

1905 Winton Motors acquired Cleveland Cap Screw Co., which became the subsidiary Electric Welding Co.

1905 The R.T. Davis Milling Co. began making an Aunt Jemima rag doll set that included Aunt Jemima, her husband Uncle Mose, and children Wade and Diana.

1905 Einstein presented his theory of relativity declaring that the very measurement of time intervals is affected by the motion of the observer. He proposed that light is itself quantized, or particle-like, to explain how electrons were emitted when light hit certain metals. He presented four papers, the first on Brownian motion, the second was on the composition of light, the third proposed the Special Theory of Relativity, and the fourth established the equivalence of mass and energy.

1905 Sylanus Bowser modified his 1885 kerosene pump into a self-regulating gasoline pump.

1905 Gustav Carlson invented plywood.

1905 A Mayo Clinic researcher found that analyzing quick-frozen tissue could tell surgeons whether a growth is cancerous while the patient was still on the operating table.

1905 Pete Aguereberry discovered gold in Death Valley and worked his Eureka Mine for 40 years.
(SSFC, 1/19/03, p.C5)

1905 The Salton Sea in southern California was formed by a broken Colorado River diversion dyke. Prior to this time it had been called the Salton Sink. It flowed unimpeded for the next 15 months.
1905 Kaiser Wilhelm II organized a trans-Atlantic yacht race that was won by Charlie Barr, skipper of the Atlantic. His record crossing was 12 days 4 hrs and 1 min. Scott Cookman in 2002 authored "Atlantic: The Last Great Race of Princes."

1905 In Mexico Pres. Diaz and his finance minister, Jose Limantour, set a silver-gold parity of 32:1, that proved to be a deflationary mistake on the eve of revolution.

1905 Norway established independence from Denmark after 400 years of servitude.

1905 Russia attacked Japan but was easily defeated. [see May 28]

1905 Revolution broke out in Russia and nationalist feelings ignited in the Baltic states.

1905 Over 1 million Russians staged a general strike demanding political reforms.

A year of tragedy, were race was seen as one of the most important issues. Jews, Blacks, and Asians were facing discrimnation all over the world. Lynchings, murders, assination and segration had caught the eye of the US public. Many western States and territories started advertising for the black community to try their luck out west. Meanwhile the Japaness took abuse but found a champion in President Theodore Roosevelt to push to repeal the Anti-Asianic laws. Meanwhile corperations got stronger. Although some got trust bussed, many were regressing back into the patterns of the first industrial revolution. More girls were sold into prostution, and the world seemed a dark place indeed.

1906 Jan 12, The Dow Jones Industrial average surged over 100 for the first time. It would steady off at 148 in 1908

1906 Feb 1, 1st federal penitentiary building completed in Leavenworth, Kansas.

1906 Feb 2, A Papal encyclical denounced the separation of church & state.

1906 Feb 4, The New York Police Department began finger print identification.

1906 Feb 9, Natal proclaimed a state of siege in Zulu uprising.

1906 Feb 10, Britain's 1st modern and largest battleship, the "HMS Dreadnought," was launched.

1906 Feb 15, British Labour Party organized.

1906 Feb 19, W.K. Kellogg & Ch Bolin incorporated the Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Co. Will Kellogg spent 2/3 of the company budget to advertise Corn Flakes.
(SFC, 11/16/96, p.E4)(ON, 2/05, p.10)

1906 Feb 20, Russian troops seized large portions of Mongolia.
(HN, 2/20/98)

1906 Mar 3, Vuia I aircraft, built by Romanian Traja Vuia, was tested in France.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1906 Mar 7, Finland became the first country to give women the right to vote, decreeing universal suffrage for all citizens over 24, however, barring those persons who were supported by the state. [see Mar 15, 1907]
(HN, 3/7/98)

1906 Mar 13, Susan B. Anthony (b.1820), abolitionist and advocate of black suffrage as well as the rights of women to vote, died. Eleanor Roosevelt suggested that Susan B. Anthony should be added to the four faces of Mount Rushmore. Eleanor Roosevelt later suggested that social reformer and woman suffrage leader Susan B. Anthony should be included with the images of Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt, but her suggestion was not accepted.
(AP, 3/13/99)(HNQ, 4/17/00)

1906 Mar 20, Army officers in Russia mutinied at Sevastopol.

1906 Mar 24, "Census of the British Empire" showed England ruled 1/5 of the world.

1906 Apr 6, 1st animated cartoon was copyrighted.

1906 Apr 9, The third modern Olympic games opened in Athens and marked the 10th anniversary of the modern Olympics.
(HN, 4/9/98)

1906 Apr 11, Einstein introduced his Theory of Relativity. [see 1905]
(MC, 4/11/02)

1906 Apr 13, There was a mutiny on the Portuguese battleships Dom Carlos and Vasco da Gama.
(MC, 4/13/02)

1906 Apr 18, 5:12 a.m. the San Francisco 8.2 earthquake occurred. Seismologists in 1977 reduced the magnitude to 7.9. 28,000 buildings were destroyed and 498 blocks leveled. One quarter of the city burned. About 700 people died. The massive earthquake was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles and as far inland as Nevada. It caused severe damage and loss of life in the San Francisco Bay area, and a three-day fire spawned by the shaking reduced 4.7 square miles of the city to blackened ruins. Military officials estimated $400 million of damage and a total of 700-800 killed. Modern research estimates that closer to 3,000 of San Francisco's 400,000 inhabitants lost their lives. Sweeney Observatory in Goldengate Park was destroyed. Some 30,000 people were left homeless and lived in GG Park for up to a year and a half. The quake was centered in Olema. Old City Hall at Fulton and Larkin was destroyed.

1906 Apr 22, A new baseball rule put the umpire in sole charge of all game balls.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1906 May 10, Russia's Duma (Parliament) met for the 1st time.

1906 May 22, Orville and Wilbur Wright were awarded U.S. Patent 821,393 for "new and useful improvement in Flying Machines." They had hired a patent attorney to refine their 1903 application. The first successful powered flight of the Wright Flyer took place on December 17, 1903.

1906 Jun 30, The Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act became law.
(HFA, '96, p.32)(AP, 6/29/99)

1906 Jul 4, Great Britain, France & Italy granted independence to Ethiopia.
(Maggio, 98)

1906 Jul 23, Pogroms took place against Jews in Odessa.
(MC, 7/23/02)

1906 Aug 7, In North Carolina, a mob defies a court order and lynches three African Americans which becomes known as "The Lyerly Murders."

1906 Aug 13, At Fort Brown, Texas, some 10-20 armed men engaged an all-Black Army unit in a shooting rampage that left one townsperson dead and a police officer wounded. A 1910 inquiry placed guilt on the soldiers and Pres. Roosevelt ordered all 167 discharged without honor.

1906 Sep 1, Papua was placed under Australian administration.
(SC, 9/1/02)

1906 Sep 8, Robert Turner invented the automatic typewriter return carriage.
(HN, 9/8/98)

1906 Sep 11, Mohandas Gandhi addressed a meeting in Johannesburg on social protest against the Asiatic Law Amendment, a new law by the province of Transvaal that made it compulsory for all Indians over age 8 to register with the government and carry ID cards. In the India Opinion he published articles on what he called Satyagraha (Truth Force): "the vindication of truth not by infliction of suffering on the opponent but on one's self."
(ON, 9/03, p.1)

1906 Sep 22, Race riots in Atlanta, Georgia, killed 21 people.

1906 Sep 24, The First US National Monument, Devils Tower, was designated by President Theodore Roosevelt. Devils Tower is a volcanic rock formation, rising 865 feet over a base of gray igneous rock at 1,700 feet, located in the Black Hills of Wyoming.

1906 Oct 3, The first conference on wireless telegraphy in Berlin adopted SOS as warning signal.

1906 Oct 8, Karl Ludwig Nessler first demonstrated a machine in London that put permanent waves in hair. The client wore a dozen brass curlers, each weighing two pounds, for the six-hour process.

1906 Oct 11, The San Francisco school board ordered the segregation of Oriental schoolchildren, inciting Japanese outrage.

1906 Oct 20, Dr. Lee DeForest demonstrated his electrical vacuum tube (radio tube).

1906 Oct 22, 3000 blacks demonstrated and rioted in Philadelphia. This movement would again march for equal rights in 1913. A push for civil rights among Republicans and a few Democrats was starting to be heard.

1906 Oct 25, US inventor Lee de Forest patented the "Audion," a 3-diode amplification valve which proved a pioneering development in radio and broadcasting.

1906 Nov 6, Republican Charles Evans Hughes was elected governor of New York, defeating newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst.
(AP, 11/6/99)

1906 Nov 9, President Theodore Roosevelt left Washington D.C. for a 17 day trip to Panama and Puerto Rico, becoming the first president to make an official visit outside of the U.S.

1906 Nov 18, Anarchists bombed Rome’s St. Peter’s Cathedral. Nobody was injured

1906 Nov 21, In San Juan, President Theodore Roosevelt pledged citizenship for Puerto Rican people.
1906 Nov 21, China prohibited opium trade.

1906 Nov 22, The "S-O-S" distress signal was adopted at the International Radio Telegraphic Convention in Berlin.

1906 Nov 30, President Theodore Roosevelt publicly denounced segregation of Japanese school children in San Francisco.

1906 Dec 6, Lt. Thomas E. Selfridge flew a powered, man-carrying kite that carried him 168 feet in the air for seven minutes at Baddeck, Nova Scotia.

1906 Dec 10, President Theodore Roosevelt became the first American to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, for helping mediate an end to the Russo-Japanese War. This was the first Nobel Peace Prize.
(AP, 12/10/97)(SFC, 9/29/99, p.C3)

1906 Dec 14, First U1 submarine was brought into service in Germany.

1906 Dec 24, Canadian physicist Reginald A. Fessenden became the first person to broadcast a music program over radio, from Brant Rock, Mass.

1906 Upton Sinclair published "The Jungle," a novel that exposed the intolerable working conditions in the Chicago slaughterhouses.

1906 In New York City Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913) financed the building of the Pierpont Morgan Library, a research library and museum at 29 E. 36th St. It was designed by McKim, Mead and White.

1906 The Hotel Nevada opened in Las Vegas shortly after the rail lines from Los Angeles and Salt Lake City met nearby.

1906 In San Francisco the belt and suspender factory at 130 Bush was constructed shortly after the earthquake. The 10-story building was built on a 20x80 foot lot.

1906 A US Steel mill begat a company town name Gary after Elbert H. Gary, the chairman of the board.

1906 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt stood at the rim of the Grand Canyon. He descended to the bottom in 1908 and declared it a national monument.

1906 Pres. Theodore Roosevelt urged the passage of the Antiquities Act to allow the president to designate areas of scientific, historic or archeological significance as national monuments without the approval of Congress.

1906 The US Government passed the Antiquities Act. It was used to set aside American resources by executive order.

1906 Pres. Roosevelt appointed Oscar Solomon as Sec. of Commerce. Solomon was the 1st Jewish person to hold a US cabinet position.

1906 The US Bureau of Chemistry, a precursor to the FDA, was created.

1906 The Alaska capital was moved from Sitka to Juneau.

1906 Gov. James Kimble of Mississippi denounced black men as fiends and argued that lynching was the only way to control a barbarous race. Thousands of blacks left Mississippi for Oklahoma. A similar surge of migrants was felt in Indian Territory and New Mexico Territory.

1906 A.P. Giannini saved $80,000 from the Bank of Italy building before it burned and reopened after the earthquake and fire before the other SF banks.

1906 Upton Sinclair wrote a letter to Pres. Roosevelt urging him to send an inspector into the Chicago packing houses.

1906 Ex-Lax, the laxative, was first sold. Its main ingredient, phenolphthalein, was later found to be a cancer risk and it was yanked from the shelves in 1968. The laxative qualities of the chemical were thought to be first discovered accidentally by Hungarians in 1902 who considered using it as an additive in wine.

1906 Gay and Robinson joined other sugar planters in the California & Hawaiian Sugar Co. with operations in the SF Bay Area. C&H Sugar took over a waterfront mill in Crockett, Ca.

1906 Morgan brought in Theodore Vail to organize the AT&T telephone system.

1906 The Haloid Co. was founded in Rochester New York (home of Kodak). It was a photographic paper supplier and later became the Xerox Corp.

1906 The Commercial Pacific Cable Co. (later AT&T) planted ironwood trees on Midway Island after setting cable across the Pacific.

1906 Alfred C. Fuller founded the Fuller Brush Company in Hartford, Conn., with $375 in savings and expanded sales using a door-to-door salesforce. It was bought out in 1968 by Consolidated Foods for $53 million and then sold to CPAC in 1994 for $17 million.

1906 Charles F. Kettering designed the first cash register powered by an electric motor.

1906 The Planters Nut and Chocolate Co. was formed. The company's symbol, Mr. Peanut, was created ten years later.
1906 Wagon builders John, William and Augustus Mack came out with a 10-ton truck.

1906 The twins Francis and Freelan Stanley won acclaim when their Stanley Steamer set a world speed record at Ormond Beach, Fla., at 127.66 mph.
As the presidents popularity grew, so did the unstableness of the world. The systems of alliances, and the devolpment of technology would lay the foundations for one of the bloodest wars of all time. How many would dodge this storm?

1907 Jan 1, Pres. Theodore Roosevelt shook a record 8,513 hands in 1 day.
(MC, 1/1/02)
1907 Jan 1, The Pure Food and Drug Act became law in the United States
(HN, 1/1/99)

1907 Feb 8, Revolution broke out in Argentina.
(HN, 2/8/98)

1907 Feb 10, It was reported that SF Mayor Schmitz had agreed to close the city's "oriental schools" and allow Asian children to attend white schools following a meeting with Pres. Theodore Roosevelt.
(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W3)

1907 Feb 13, English suffragettes stormed the British Parliament and 60 women were arrested.
(MC, 2/13/02)

1907 Feb 18, 600,000 tons of grain were sent to Russia to relieve the famine there.
(HN, 2/18/98)

1907 Feb 26, Members of US Congress raised their own salaries to $7500.
(SC, 2/26/02)
1907 Feb 26, Royal Oil and Shell merged to form British Petroleum (BP).
(SC, 2/26/02)

1907 Mar 1, There were only 15,000 Jews left in Odessa, Russia. The attacks on the Jews continued as more and more evacuated.
(HN, 3/1/98)

1907 Mar 2, General Louis Botha was named premier of Transvaal.
(SC, 3/2/02)

1907 Mar 5, The 2nd Russian Duma, which included 7 Lithuanians, began work. The Duma stayed in session until June 15.
(LHC, 3/5/03)

1907 Mar 9, Indiana enacted the nation’s 1st involuntary sterilization law based on eugenics. It was intended "to prevent procreation of confirmed criminals, idiots, imbeciles, and rapists." In 2004 Christine Rosen authored "Preaching Eugenics."
(NH, 7/02, p.12)(MC, 3/9/02)(WSJ, 4/22/04, p.D10)

1907 Mar 11, President Roosevelt induced California to revoke its anti-Japanese legislation.
(HN, 3/11/98)

1907 Mar 15, Finland became the 1st European country to give women the right to vote. [see Mar 7, 1906]
(MC, 3/15/02)

1907 Mar 16 The British cruiser Invincible, the world’s largest, was completed at Glasgow shipyards.
(HN, 3/16/98)

1907 Mar 21, US invaded Honduras. US Marines landed in Honduras after Americans living there were threatened by revolutionaries.
(SFC, 9/30/99, p.E5)(MC, 3/21/02)

1907 Mar 22, James Gavin, U.S. Army General, was born. He commanded the 82nd Airborne Division on D-Day, Operation Market-Garden and the Battle of the Bulge.
(HN, 3/22/97)(AP, 3/22/99)
1907 Mar 22, Russians troops completed the evacuation of Manchuria in the face of advancing Japanese forces.
(HN, 3/22/97)(AP, 3/22/99)

1907 Mar 31, Romanian Army put down a Moldavian farmers' revolt.
(MC, 3/31/02)

1907 Apr 17, The Ellis Island immigration center in New York Harbor processed a record 11,747 immigrants, part of a record 1,004,756 for the year. Between 1820 and 1970, the year 1907 saw the largest number of immigrants to the U.S., 1,285,349. Between 1905 and 1915, the annual immigration numbers topped 1 million six times.
(SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T10)(HNQ, 8/12/99)

1907 May 6, San Francisco streetcar workers of the Carmen’s Union went on strike after owner Patrick Calhoun refused to accept a $3 per 8-hour day wage. Calhoun hired James Farley to break the union.
(SFC, 9/13/02, p.D9)

1907 May 7, In San Francisco a gunfight erupted during the electrical workers strike in what came to be known as "Bloody Tuesday." City union street car workers fought with scabs and 4 people were killed and 20 seriously injured.
(SFC, 1/20/98, p.B3)(SFEC, 12/26/99, p.W3)

1907 May 13, The 1st helicopter was piloted by French investor Paul Cornu. The copter hovered a foot off the ground for 20 seconds. [see Apr 12, 1905]
(MC, 7/29/02)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.D2)

1907 Jun 4, Automatic washer and dryer was introduced.
(MC, 6/4/02)

1907 Jun 11, Paul Mellon (d.1999), art lover, horse breeder (1964 Gold Baton), and philanthropist, was born to Andrew W. Mellon and Nora McMullen. Andrew Mellon was a financier and longtime secretary of the treasury. Mellon donations created the Yale Center for British Art, the Bollingen Prize for poetry, and the National Gallery of Art in Washington.
(SFC, 2/3/99, p.A22)(SC, 6/11/02)

1907 Jun 14, Women in Norway won the right to vote.
(HN, 6/14/98)

1907 Jun 16, The Russian czar dissolved the Duma in St. Petersburg.
(HN, 6/16/98)

1907 Jun 21, E.W. Scripps founded United Press.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1907 Jun 26, Russia’s nobility demanded drastic measures to be taken against revolutionaries.
(HN, 6/26/98)

1907 Jul 1, World's 1st air force was established as part of the US Army.
(MC, 7/1/02)
1907 Jul 1, The Asiatic Registration Act became law in the province of Transvaal, SA.
(ON, 9/03, p.1)

1907 Jul 3, A Papal decree forbade the modernization of theology.
(MC, 7/3/02)

1907 Jul 8, San Francisco Mayor Eugene Schmitz was sentenced to 5 years in San Quentin for graft and bribery. Others were forced out of office for accepting bribes from the telephone company, gas company, trolley company, local skating rinks and boxing promoters. Dr. Charles A. Boxton (d.1927) admitted to taking bribes and was granted immunity by District Attorney W.H. Langdon for his testimony. Boxton was then appointed temporary mayor for one week in place of Mayor Schmitz and then resigned. The Native Sons of California promptly struck Boxton from their rolls. Schmitz was later elected to the SF Board of Supervisors.
(SFC, 9/9/96, p.E8)(SFC, 9/30/99, p.E5)

1907 Aug 28, United Parcel Service began service in Seattle, Wash. Two Seattle teenagers began a telephone message service that grew to become the United Parcel Service (UPS).
(SFC, 7/22/99, p.B1)(MC, 8/28/01)

1907 Aug 31, England, Russia and France formed their Triple Entente.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1907 Aug, Mayor Eugene Schmitz and others were forced out of office for accepting bribes from the telephone company, gas company, trolley company, local skating rinks and boxing promoters. Dr. Charles A. Boxton (d.1927) admitted to taking bribes and was granted immunity by District Attorney W.H. Langdon for his testimony. Boxton was then appointed temporary mayor for one week in place of Mayor Schmitz and then resigned. The Native Sons of California promptly struck him from their rolls.
(SFC, 9/9/96, p.E8)

1907 Sep 1, Walter Reuther, labor leader, was born. He merged the American Federation of Labor with the Congress of International Organizations
(HN, 9/1/99)

1907 Sep 6, The luxury liner Lusitania left London for New York on her maiden voyage.
(HN, 9/6/98)

1907 Sep 8, Pius X published his anti-modernism encyclical Pasceni dominici gregis.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1907 Sep 12, The ship Lusitania arrived in NYC after a 5 day record crossing of Atlantic.
(MC, 9/12/01)

1907 Sep 26, New Zealand declared independence from UK.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1907 Oct 27, The first trial in the Eulenberg Affair ended in Germany. Prince Philip Eulenberg was an aristocrat and former diplomat who was an old friend of the Kaiser’s. Others were jealous of Eulenberg’s position. Maximilian Harden, editor of the magazine Die Zunkunft, began to print a series of articles in the fall of 1906 which alleged that Eulenberg and other highly placed men were homosexuals.
(HN, 10/27/98)

1907 Nov 7, General Electric was re-instated as a component of the Dow Jones. Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Co. was removed from the Dow Jones.
(WSJ, 5/28/96, p.R45)

1907 Nov 13, Paul Corno achieved the first helicopter flight.
(HN, 11/13/98)

1907 Nov 15, Count Claus Schenck von Stauffenberg, German anti fascist colonel, was born.
(MC, 11/15/01)

1907 Nov 16, Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory were unified to make Oklahoma, which was made the 46th state. Black settlers founded some 30 towns before statehood was achieved.
(WSJ, 11/10/97, p.A1)(HFA, '96, p.42)(NG, 5/95, p.92)(HN, 11/16/98)

1907 Nov 21, The Cunard liner Mauritania set a new speed record for steamship travel, 624 nautical miles in a one day run.
(HN, 11/21/02)

1907 Nov 26, The Russian Duma lent support to Czar in St. Petersburg, who claimed that he had renounced autocracy.
(HN, 11/26/98)

1907 Dec 13, In Argentina the Ministry of Agriculture struck oil while drilling for water in Comodoro Rivadavia.
(WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A9)

1907 Dec 23, The 1st all-steel passenger railroad coach was completed at Altoona, Pa.
(MC, 12/23/01)

1907 Dec 29, Robert C. Weaver (d.1997), the first African American to serve on a president’s cabinet, was born. He advised Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt on Housing, Education and Employment. [see Jan 13,18, 1966]
(HN, 12/29/00)

1907 Dec, The US stock market, spurred by a "bear raid," took a nose-dive and set off a widespread panic. Many banks failed.
(SFC, 9/30/99, p.E5)
1907 Dec, There was stock market panic this year when the Knickerbocker Trust Co. failed. J.P. Morgan took charge and forbade the NY stock market to close and raised $25 million in 15 minutes to add liquidity. He summoned the most important bankers to devise a plan to abort the panic and no depression was induced. Morgan also called on clergymen to preach sermons of confidence. The crises led the government to create the Federal Reserve System (1913). Morgan got bankers to agree to settle accounts among themselves with clearinghouse certificates rather than cash and thus increased the money supply. The story was later recounted by John Steele Gordon in his 1999 book "The Great Game."
(SFC,10/27/97, p.B2)(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A22)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A32)

1907 Dec, Banker J.P. Morgan saved the US financial system by putting his own money on the line in the Panic of 1907. In the Panic of 1907 J.P. Morgan, who ran US Steel, bought the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co. and trustbuster Theodore Roosevelt agreed not to object to the buyout. Elbert H. Gary was the chairman of US Steel.
(WSJ,2/13/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 5/28/96, R45)(WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1907 The US Customs House in NYC was constructed.
(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.T4)

1907 The Hague Convention of this year prohibited the taking of war booty and instituted what some considered the first wartime environmental protections.
(WSJ, 5/29/96, p.A6)(SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)

1907 The US Tillman Act prohibited national banks and corporations from making political contributions in federal elections. It was named for Sen. Benjamin "Pitchfork Ben" Tillman, a democrat from South Carolina.
(SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D9)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.A8)

1907 A Federal Meat Inspection Act was passed.
(WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A1)

1907 Pres. Teddy Roosevelt continued to establish himself as the first great "trust buster." He won a ban on corporate contributions.
(SFC,10/27/97, p.B2)(SSFC, 3/18/01, p.A1)

1907 The City Council of Fort Dodge, Iowa, passed legislation that required everybody between the ages of 25 and 45 to get married.
(SFEC, 2/23/96, z-1 p.2)

1907 The New York Currier & Ives partnership, formed in 1857, closed down with an inventory of 7,000 titles.
(WSJ, 12/19/00, p.A19)

1907 The Murphy Oil Company was founded in Arkansas.
(F, 10/7/96, p.60)

1907 Hermann Minkowski, mathematician, proposed a new geometry that added time to the three dimensions of space.
(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough p. 118)

1907 Leo Baekeland of Yonkers, NY, invented Bakelite, a hard plastic. [see 1909]
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1907 Lee De Forest patented the "Audion tube," a sensitive receiver for radio signals. He also invented the first method for putting sound on film.
(SFC, 12/27/99, p.A8)

1907 In France the physicist Georges Claude discovered that high voltage electricity shot through certain gases radiated color. He patented a neon tube in 1909.
(G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.B7)(SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T6)

1907 The British forced the abolition of slavery on the new Sultan of Zanzibar and Lamu Island went into an economic decline.
(SSFC, 4/15/01, p.T7)

1907 In Korea some dozen civilian leaders started a national campaign to raise money to ease the national debt to Japan, which was its colonial ruler. About 1/6th of the total debt was donated.
(SFC, 1/7/98, p.A8)

1907 Royal Dutch combines its oil operations with Shell Transport & Trading Co.
(WSJ, 11/2/04, p.A14)

1907 In Sudan the first primary school for girls was founded by the Bedris family. It grew to become the private Ahfad University.
No takers? I know it might be moving too slow for some with too much information. I apoligize for overloadeding your poorheads.
I'm glad your restarting this. I wanted to get involved in the previous ones discussion, but I started too late.

To tell the truth, I think that your giving more information than necessary. I'm interested in the invention on the fudge sunday, but we don't need the blow by blow account of everything that happened OTL. :D

Could you describe in more detail how this differs from OTL?

Also, I know that my Reunification of the Republican Party in 1912 is also a thread that focuses on presidents of the US in this basic time fraim, but I promise that I in no way stole anything from you.


I agree with what Reformer is saying about paring it down to the essentials. A lot of this stuff most people are gonna have no way of knowing if it differs from OTL or not without researching every little thing you write. And who wants to do that? We're reading this for entertainment. :D

Just a note: In the first section, you have Aguinaldo being captured by US forces on two separate dates - March and May 1901. Is that just a typo?
Diamond said:
I agree with what Reformer is saying about paring it down to the essentials. A lot of this stuff most people are gonna have no way of knowing if it differs from OTL or not without researching every little thing you write. And who wants to do that? We're reading this for entertainment. :D

Just a note: In the first section, you have Aguinaldo being captured by US forces on two separate dates - March and May 1901. Is that just a typo?
I stole all except a few things from OTL. The date is confused in history. I'm also trying to give you stuff to keep it in context. This is ment to be a small deviating timeline, over a slow slow time. I put everything I thought was important, or humorous. :p That is understandable I hope.

Just so you know I got my OTL data from here:


The format for this year and the next one has changed a bit. I’m going to experiment with a note format. I’m going to post a few points that happened during that year, and then summarize the feeling of the year at the end. Please tell me how you like it. I’ll use timeline format again when it gets More ALT than OLT.

Engineering Feats: Inventions, Buildings, Transportation and Communication.

- Major Subways have started to appear.
- Wireless Radio Broadcasting
- 100 passenger airships plans announced by Count Zepllin
- Biplanes first carry passengers
- The Panama Canal was being cemented into place
- Oct 1, The Ford Model T, the first car for millions of Americans, hit the market. Each car cost $825. Over 15 million Model Ts were eventually sold, all of them black. The Model T automobile cost $850 when it was first introduced to the public. Ford lowered the price of automobiles—previously regarded as a toy of the rich—by maintaining control of raw materials and using new mass production techniques.
- Oil was discovered in Persia.

Wars and Rumors of Wars
- Italians reported that Somalia was under siege by Abyssinians (Jan. 9)
- Russia and Britain threaten to get involved in Macedonia (Feb 14th)
- Russia took some of Poland
- Bulgaria Independent from the Ottoman Empire
- Austria does not annex Bosnia and Herzegovina , but would in 1911.
- Young Turk Rebellion against the Ottoman Empire

Domestic Laws
- Women can’t smoke in New York.
- Workmen’s Comp approved

World Issues
- Women’s Suffrage laws
- Race Riots
- Limits on Immigration to the US made by Japan.
- King of Portugal (Carlos I) Assassinated
- Germany builds up its navy, Britain protests
- British-Russian Relations Improving
- King Leopold II (d.1909) turned the Congo over to Belgium for a large sum of money. It was later estimated that the population of Congo dropped by 10 million people during the period of Leopold’s rule and its immediate aftermath.

The world improved a little this year, as child labor laws were passed in Germany. With the introdution of the Model T we see transportation start to develop. Both planes and automobiles started selling widely. Radio, and telephones were just starting to spread. Indeed a year for gadgets and growing industries
The world was not all well though. In Britain and in the US women’s suffrage laws were being stalled. Rebellion marked Africa, and the Ottoman Empire. The war against the Mosquito-carried yellow fever was being waged. Perhaps the world is just healing, or is it the calm before the storm?
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