If you wait you may become King of Sweden! https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/if-you-wait-you-may-become-king-of-sweden.67101/ The saying refer to the situation in Sweden 1808-09 when during the Napoleonic wars had lost Finland to Russia and tried to conquer Norway in compensation for lands lost. Under Russian pressure Denmark 1808 declared war on Sweden. Russia moved into Finland and Sweden tried to take Trondheim's Len in central Norway. Field Marshall Duke Christian August, regent of Norway led the successful defence and repulsed the Swedish assault. Marshall Bernadotte was to land in Sweden with a French army of 26000 a large part of which were Spanish troops. When Napoleon occupied Spain the Royal Navy transported 9000 Spanish troops from Nyborg in Funen to Spain. 1809 the last of Napoleons troops left Denmark. The Swedish invasion army negotiated a settlement in Norway and the marched on Stockholm toppling mad King Gustav 4. Offered the the throne Frederick 6 rejects it on the grounds of the Swedish coup makers being insurgents. Gustav’s uncle Karl 13 was elected King but being without offspring a heir was needed and Duke Christian August was then approached and at the peace negotiations in Jönköping December 10., 1809 Frederick 6 allows Christian August to accept the offer. The Swedish hope was that Christian August would be willing to incorporate Norway into Sweden as a compensation for the loss of Finland. This was rejected by Christian August. Christian August dies 1810 of a heart attack and Frederick 6 is once again brought up as successor but Sweden wants Christian August’s brother, Frederick Christian who is blockaded in his home by Frederick 6th because of fears of having the age old strife of Slesvig-Holstein versus Denmark reinvigorated. The Swedes then go for an approval of Frederick Christian by Napoleon but ends up with Bernadotte. POD: But WI Frederick 6 had accepted the Swedish proposal? 1807 July, Tsar Alexander and Napoleon meet in Tilsit for peace negotiations. The Danish army is stationed in Holstein as an address to Britain of the Danish intentions to fight Napoleon, but Denmark-Norway wants freedom of the seas and Foreign Secretary Canning is of the opinion that Denmark is too week to resist Napoleon in the present situation. August 16., a British fleet lands 30000 troops in Sjaelland and on August 29., Wellington fights the Sjaelland Landevaern (Home Guard) at Koege. September 2. the bombardment of Copenhagen is initiated and on September 7. Copenhagen capitulates. The Danish Navy is the prize of the British. Because of the loss of the Navy Denmark and Norway are de facto separated and a government commission is established in Norway headed by Duke Christian August. 1808 Robbed of the navy King Frederick 6 see no alternative to join Napoleon. When Tsar Alexander declares war upon Sweden Denmark follow suit. Sweden attacks Norway. 26000 French and Spanish troops under Marshall Bernadotte enter Jutland in anticipation of being landed in Scania. 1809 The Swedish army attacking Norway is repulsed and then marches on Stockholm toppling King Gustav 4. King Frederick 6 of Denmark-Norway is offered the Swedish crown but rejects the offer. Gustav’s uncle, Karl is then offered the crown and takes it as Karl 13. Duke Christian August, regent of Norway is offered the position as successor, as Karl 13 has no offspring and Frederick 6 allows this. The events in Spain makes the British transport the 9000 Spanish troops in Denmark away. 1810 Frederick ask Christian August to ensure the safe passage of grain ships from Denmark to Norway to combat famine. Because of his love of Norway, Christian August allows this which account for much Norwegian trust in the Royal House. Being worried about handling his difficult position Christian August has a stroke while reviewing troops and dies. King Frederick 6 is offered the position as successor to the Swedish throne and accepts. Even if some in Sweden would have preferred Christian August’s brother, Duke Frederick Christian. Frederick 6 is able to manoeuvre himself into position and being an ally of Napoleon he is seen by some as the man to re-install grandeur of former days in the unification of the three Scandinavian Kingdoms. Effectively he is seen as a man who won’t tremble at resorting to force if need be. King Frederick goes to Stockholm for formal acknowledgement by the Swedish Riksdag. On returning to Copenhagen Frederick posts a prescript to the effect of Danish being church, school and legal language in parts of Slesvig-Holstein where the common peoples speak Danish. 1811 The gathering of La Grande Armee commences. The Norwegian University is established in Kristiania. Christian Frederick, son of Frederick who was the son of Frederick 5’s second marriage! is sent to Norway as regent. 1812 May: the war between Russia and the Osmannic Empire is ended by a peace treaty in Bucharest. Russia gains Bessarabia and parts of Moldova. June: War of 1812 between Britain and the USA. Napoleon and La Grande Armee enters Russia. September: after the battle of Borodino the Russian army retreats and Napoleon enters Moscow on the 14. that burns on the next day. October: Battle of Queenstown Heights. Napoleon leaves Moscow on the 19. But with Napoleon on the run Frederick breaks away from alliance and enters into coalition with Russia, Prussia and Britain. The Scandinavian Kingdoms are to field an army of 50000 in Northern Germany. Britain is going to subsidy the Swedish contingent of 30000. Frederick insists on Prince Friedrich of Hesse as commander and Field Marshall von Fersen is commander of the Swedish contingent. A part of the Danish army, what could be thrown together in the winter of 1812 was detached to Jutland to augment the Holstein, Slesvig and Jutish troops. With the stocks of Rendsburg depot they were amply supplied in arms but forced out by the French troops moving in. The total Danish troops number no more than 5000. A determined French force moves into Holstein and proceeds into Slesvig and Jutland. The Danish forces take up flanking positions in Als and Funen after some skirmishing. 1813 March: at the outbreak of rebellion in Hamburg the city is occupied by Russian troops and the French troops in Jutland is hurriedly retreated. The Danish army is able to re-occupy Jutland, Slesvig and Holstein. The Danish and Norwegian contingents, 5000 Norwegian and 15000 Danish troops muster at Copenhagen. The Swedish contingent is shipped to Malmö and the full contingent is shipped off to Pommerania. The Swedes laugh at the rag-tag appearance of the Danish army but the news from Jutland makes them think different. April: the Scandinavian contingent arrived in Pommerania in early April 1813 and took part in the campaign. May: the Russian army retreat from Hamburg and Davouts forces reoccupies it. The Danish army retreat into Holstein. June-July: cease fire. August: the Scandinavian contingent joined in the campaign in Mecklenburg and part of the Danish contingent moved on Ratzeburg in September to continue the pressure on Hamburg. The rest of the contingent goes south and take part in the Battle of Leipzig in October. During the Battle of Leipzig the Scandinavian contingent earn a fighting reputation among the coalition forces but at severe losses. Friedrich of Hesse gives the troops a much needed rest. Denmark-Norway is near bankruptcy and only the insistence of Frederick 6 makes Karl 13 ask Britain for further subsidies to keep the army in the field. 1814 Jews get full citizens rights in Denmark and Norway. A new law of primary education is issued in Denmark and Norway. All of age 7 through 14 must enter compulsory education. Historian Christian Molbech of Denmark begins issuing his “Letters from Sweden in the year 1812” where the Swedes are depicted as friendly and hospitable. This opens the eyes of many Danes to their brothers east of the Oeresound. The letters are later issued in Sweden. March: as part of the coalition the Scandinavians led by Friedrich of Hesse enters France. A Danish brig is sent off to patrol the Danish West Indies and St. Bartholomew, Swedish possession in the West Indies. Napoleon abdicates. Another Danish warship is sent off for the Danish West Indies/St. Bartholomew. August: British troops enter Washington that is burned. Cane sugar from the West Indies is again available in Europe. During the congress of Vienna Frederick 6 is acknowledged as Karl 13 successor to the Swedish throne. December: the War of 1812 is ended by the treaty of Ghent. Scandinavia and its German possessions before the congress of Vienna 1815 January: Battle of New Orleans. March: Napoleon leaves Elba. The 100 days. Denmark-Norway and Sweden enters the last coalition and sends off an army alongside the Prussian. June: end of the congress of Vienna. Pommerania is given to Prussia. Denmark-Norway does not get the Duchy of Lauenburg. Frederick 6 is acknowledged as successor to the Swedish throne but the price is that the Union of Norway and Denmark is dissolved. When Frederick 6 succeeds to the Swedish throne he will become King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden and hold the three Kingdoms in Personal Union. Holstein becomes part of the German League, ruled by Frederick 6 as Duke of Holstein through the German Chancellery. Frederick demand to be compensated for parting with Norway. He wants Slesvig separated from Holstein to be part of the Kingdom of Denmark. He argue that Slesvig has been a Danish fief since ancient times and that the Counts of Holstein upon becoming Dukes of Slesvig 1386 had recognized the sovereign of Denmark as their feudal lord. Since 1460 the Danish King had been Duke of Slesvig until this very day. And the great powers had acknowledged this in 1721. Russia had renounced her claims to Holstein in 1767 ratified 1773 by Tsar Paul. Thus the 1460 Ribe convention of tying Slesvig and Holstein together forever should be declared void and null. And so it came to be. Norway was made an independent Kingdom in personal union with Denmark through inheritance by the Danish royal line and the Ribe convention of 1460 declared void and null with great support of Tsar Alexander. Returning from the congress Frederick is hailed by all in Copenhagen. Later in the year he visits Kristiania, Norway. After much debate with, among others Professor Georg Sverdrup a parliament, the Storting is set up in Kristiania and a constitution given/written. This constitution is a mirror of its time with the Kingdom being hereditary and giving the King much power but with the legislative, executive and judicial powers clearly separated. Also most male above the age of 25 are accorded the right to vote at elections. The King is hailed by the Storting and everybody else in Norway as Frederick 1. A National Bank is planned and a Norwegian currency is to be issued. A census of the Scandinavian countries shows these figures: Sweden: 2,5 mill. Norway: 1,0 mill. Denmark: 1,25 mill. Holstein: 0,25 mil Total: 5 mill. 1816 The economic depression in Britain increases immigration to the USA. In Europe the depression hit hard on Denmark-Norway, but the internal market with Sweden ease the pain. The plantation owners of the West Indies are asked also to produce cotton for the internal market. This is mainly due to the explicit wishes of King Frederick, who during the war had to have his army cut their coats short in order to preserve cloth for repairs. A plan for building a new Danish navy is brought up. Ten ships of the line and ten frigates are to be built along with 16 lesser warships. The Norwegian navy will be built up to the same strength. An intermediate Naval Staff is set up in Bergen. The Kings direct rule is diminishing due to the growing complexity of Government. This is seen in Sweden as a guarantee against too autocratic Government by Frederick 6. The building of a royal castle in Kristiania is initiated. Arc-duke Karl August of Saxe-Weimar grants his country a constitution, the first in Germany. Prussia declares compulsory military service. 1817 The Wartburg fest – German students gather to demand German unity and burns non-German books. Britain suspends the Habeas Corpus Act in the wake of workers riots. 1818 King Karl 13 of Sweden dies; Frederick 6(1) is elected and crowned King Frederick 2 of Svear, the Goths and Wends in Stockholm. King Frederick declares that he is going to uphold the laws of Sweden and keep the Riksdag. From Stockholm Frederick travels to Kristiania and then back to Copenhagen hailed by the crowd in the three cities. There is some talk that the King should reside in each of the three capitols for a period of the year, but Frederick argues that the union Government has been set up in Copenhagen and he must be in close contact with his ministers. Frederick does promise to visit his three capitols regularly and set up a prince as regent in both Stockholm and Kristiania. The name of the Kingdom is to be The Union of Scandinavian Kingdoms. The negotiations regarding the Government of the Union are commenced in Copenhagen and the Act of Union settles that, the Storting of Norway and the Riksdag of Sweden is going to be represented at the Union Government in Copenhagen by a Minister, who’s going to be assisted by a Chancellery to take care of day to day business. Norway also represents the North Atlantic Union Lands. The Union Lands council in Reykjavik sends a representative to the Storting in Kristiania. In the Storting the Minister is elected whereas in Sweden the Estates comprising the Riksdag is to reach compromise for appointing a Minister. To soften things up each Estate is to send a representative to the Union council in Copenhagen as part of the Swedish Chancellery. This is an offspring of the Norwegian constitution. Three golden crowns are added to the top corner of the flags of the Union Kingdoms to signify the new status. The King is allowed to a regent in both Norway and Sweden. Prince Christian Frederick is sent to Sweden to reside at Stockholm as regent. His brother Ferdinand is sent off to Kristiania as regent. A joint war council is set up with Field Marshal von Fersen as head to facilitate the command of units spread all over the Union. The council is in control of both army and navy forces of the Union. An attack on any Union Kingdom or territory is an attack on all. This is to counter any foreign (German) attack on Jutland and having only Danish forces to respond with. The first practical issue of the joint war council is to expand the Danish-Norwegian Marines regiment to also supply Marines for Swedish men-of-war. The first assignment of the new regiment is to reinforce the Union presence in the West Indies, Africa – Gold Coast and India – Tranquebar. A young Dane, Helmuth von Moltke enlists in the Union army. In Sweden the ten ships of the line and the five frigates is going to be augmented by one frigate and a number of lesser warships. The war council is to coordinate the building programme with the building programmes of Denmark and Norway. A new Admiralty is gathered in Copenhagen joining the Admiralty of Denmark and Sweden as well as the Naval Staff of Norway. The Scandinavian occupation troops are pulled back from France. The lessons of the Napoleonic campaigns are to be studied closely the following years. One important lesson learned is the massing of artillery when committed to battle. Also the use of light troops is to be recognized. With his new enlarged Union of Kingdoms King Frederick 6/1/2 asks to become part of the Great Powers conference. Frederick is politely told to mind his own business. A Union warship arrests a plantation owner in the West Indies that tries to smuggle slaves to the islands. The slaves are confiscated and sold at a public auction. The plantation owner is sent to Denmark for imprisonment. German liberal students unite in the Allgemeine Deutsche Burschenshaft. Constitutions on a French/English model are given in Baden, Württenberg and Bavaria. 1819 The first steamship cross the Atlantic and the first steamship come to Denmark. Riots in Copenhagen directed against Jews are dealt with harshly by the Government. 14 year old H.C. Andersen arrives in Copenhagen. King Frederick visit Stockholm aboard the Union, former Swedish ship of the line “King Gustav IV Adolf”. This is to show the Kings interest in Sweden. The King is guarded by the newly formed Drabant-Guards clad in the colours of the house of Oldenburg – red and yellow horizontally striped coats and white trousers. This guard consist of only one company but is raised in all three countries among junior officers. They will only do 3 three years service in the Drabant-Guards, but that is going to pave the way for the highest positions. The Swedish Livsdrabanter are disbanded and the Guards regiment takes over their role in Sweden as well as the Norwegian Guards (Liv) Regiment and the Danish Guards regiment are kept as elite regiments in the three countries and as the Kings and Regents Guards, but the Drabant-Guards is in essence the Kings bodyguard, always travelling alongside him in contrast to the Guards regiments that remain in their respective countries. For most of the years of his reign King Frederick would during summer visit his three capitols. An army officer’s academy is founded in Stockholm. A Union command is set up in Stockholm to counter possible Russian assault by way of the Aaland Islands. All navy officers are trained at the naval academy in Copenhagen dating back to the 1620’ies. Work is begun on a Union Flag. The Allgemeine Deutsche Burschenshaft is reacted to by the German Princes after a number of attacks among those the murder of reactionary poet August von Kotzebue. Books and newspapers are to be censured, the Burschenshaft declared illegal and liberal university teachers thrown out of office. Britain, August 16: The Peterloo massacre in Manchester. Law on freedom of the Press is passed in France. 1820 Scientist H.C. Ørsted publishes his discovery of electro-magnetism. In order to strengthen the economy and facilitate inter-union commerce the inter-union currency of “Krone” is introduced. Everybody is to exchange to the new currency. This is a move approved by the three parliaments and the three National Banks. The Scandinavian Union is mostly self sufficient in iron, copper, silver, timber and agricultural produce as well as in possession of a large largely Norwegian fishing fleet and a mostly Danish/Norwegian merchant fleet. The internal market also means cheaper guns for the army and navy. A stock exchange is set up in Kristiania. The joint war council begin the design of a new Union army uniform based on the colours of the Oldenburg House – red and yellow. Improvements in farming are spreading from Holstein to Denmark and Scania making for a greater agricultural production and lowering of prices on food stuffs, making for better health public as a result. This is sorely needed as bad harvest in Norrland of Sweden make it necessary to ship grain from Scania and Denmark there to avoid famine. To improve internal communications a new network of roads paved with cobblestones is begun throughout the Union. The roads are to link up Kristiania and Stockholm and a southern road to Malmö to connect by ship to Copenhagen are also laid down as well as several other roads. The events in Spain, Portugal and France spark off talks in Sweden of a new constitution and a more democratic Riksdag than the one based on the estates. In Denmark police infiltrate the liberals and J.J. Dampe who argues that the peoples should decide government and the military should aid in that is arrested and sentenced to death. King Frederick changes the capital punishment to life imprisonment. Pure Quinine is made by French chemists Pierre Joseph Pellitier and Joseph B. Caventou to be used as medicine against malaria in the Scandinavian colonies of the Gold Coast and the West Indies. 1821 The Storting in Kristiania, Norway want to have its own flag for the Kingdom instead of the Danish Dannebrog with a Norwegian Lion in the top corner. As the Swedish Kingdom is using the blue flag with the yellow cross Norway also want to display its status as an independent Kingdom in the Union. King Frederick sees this as Norway drifting away from Denmark, but in the end gives in and sign the law. The new flag is a Dannebrog but with a blue cross in the middle (as per OTL) and seeing this, the King is not displeased. He also issues a decree that in the North Atlantic a Dannebrog with a Norwegian lion carrying an axe in the top corner is to be used; The Faeroe Islands displaying a sheep in the lower corner, in Iceland a fish and in Greenland a Polar Bear. The work on a union flag is still in the early stages, as it is difficult to agree as to how to combine the red, white, blue and yellow. A cross and three golden crowns are to show, but that is about all that is agreeable. Danish Lieutenant Helmuth von Moltke enters the Union Army Academy in Stockholm. Revolutionary events in Italy and the Balkans once again put forward the demand in Sweden for a new constitution. The King is able however use the strength of nobility in the estates Riksdag to pull off a no change situation. The experience of 1820 result in a Government decree of revision of farm lands in Sweden, joining the farmers lands into one or two parcels instead of several thus facilitating the working of the land. The revision was initially met with protest but eventually these voices were silenced as most could see the need for the revision but also as some saw not implementing the revision as the stepping stone for a Danish lead in the Union because of greater agricultural resources. Cereals would win the hearts and minds for Denmark. Potato farming is highly recommended by the Union government. Napoleon Bonaparte dies. The first steamship built of iron in Scotland. 1822 The situation in Latin America and the Caribbean makes the Union dispatch another Marines company aboard warships to signal Union steadfastness. Henrik Nicolai Clausen, Professor of theology at the University of Copenhagen continue the era of liberalism in Denmark by arguing in private that autocracy must make way for individual freedom as it has already done in Sweden and Norway that is even part of the Scandinavian Union. A change of government is needed to give the three nations one common and free constitution. The words of Clausen are to spread through Danish society in the years to follow and later provide inspiration for men like Orla Lehman and D. G. Monrad in starting the liberal newspaper “The Fatherland” in 1833. Having learnt the lesson of Dr. J.J. Dampe two years previously H.N. Clausen is very careful who he approaches to spread the word. The Great Powers congress in Verona decides to intervene in Spain. Britain leaves the congress. The Greek declaration of Independence spurs off a number of Scandinavians as volunteers in the independence war. Some hotheads at the Army Academy fuelled by stories of teachers who came to know the ideals of freedom, liberty and equality during occupation duty in France 1815-18 want to take off, but all servicemen are barred from being granted leave to serve in insurgent forces against a legitimate government. 1823 Lieutenant von Moltke graduates the Union Army Academy and is elected for service in the Drabant-Guards. President Monroe issues the Monroe doctrine. The Scandinavian Union declare that it is not going to interfere in American affairs but only keep order in its colonies and protect sea lanes of commerce by hunting down pirates of the Caribbean. French troops moves into Spain to restore King Ferdinand 7. Outraged at this action Swedish newspapers calls for guarantees against misuse by the King of his powers. Parallels are drawn to King Frederick’s autocracy by Danes writing in the Swedish papers who also name King Frederick a Tsarist puppet. Field Marshall von Fersen swears loyalty towards the King and asks to be given orders to mobilize against the Revolution. Frederick calms his enraged Field Marshal but silently have the names of writers from the editors by referring to Union security and in a number of quiet trials the writers are sentenced to take up residence in the colonies for life. This action is quietly referred to St. Petersburg to calm a more than fuming Tsar. As the price on grain is going for an all time low taxes are lowered to make farmers able to pay them. 1824 In a way to take the heat off the liberals in Sweden the Danish/Norwegian law of basic education is forced through the Swedish Riksdag making for every 7 to 14 year old to attend school. The law is seen by the nobility as a means of spreading the revolution by making the peasants (and workers) able to read and write, but the liberals hails it as a step of progress for the peoples of the Scandinavian Union. A second burst of articles against the autocracy of Denmark are written by Danes in Norwegian and Swedish newspapers not being subject to the censorship of Denmark. The King use his well tried formula of the security of the Union this time to suppress the Norwegian and Swedish newspapers, but they keep re-appearing under new names. The action of King Frederick does little to calm the Tsar’s irritation over the spread of liberalist and revolutionary ideas in Scandinavia. Repeal in Britain of the Combination Act. Death of Louis 18th; Charles X is new King of France. The Ashanti on the Gold Coast goes to war against the British. The Scandinavian Governor at Fort Christiansborg is asked to support the British and does so. The Ashanti is defeated by a joint British-Scandinavian-Akim force, the Akim being allies of the Scandinavian Union. It is decided to speed up the process of making a Union flag to get some rally point for all subjects of the Union apart from the King himself. A proposal is submitted to the King late in the year. Of several proposed Union Flags -among those variants of the Dannebrog and the old Union flag of Erik of Pommerania - the decision is taken after advocacy of Field Marshal von Fersen, who demands a rally point for all Union armed forces, to go for not necessarily a traditional flag, so in the end the first proposal is decided upon. Traditionalist’s and church view it favourably as it keeps the tradition of the Scandinavian cross, Swedes view it favourably as it show the three crowns which also serve to please the Danes who view that as a reinstatement of the Kalmar Union symbols, liberals view it favourably due to its containing the colours of the Tricolore in the right order. The King is pleased with the colours of the Dannebrog as well as the royal arms of the three crowns. The flag is well received when flown from public buildings, army units on the march and navy ships on the last day of the year. 1825 Scandinavian immigration to USA has been growing for some years due to increased population growth. Norwegians are off first followed by Swedes and Danes. The Government is able to make part of the immigrants to go settling in the West Indies and on the Gold Coast of Africa after granting low interest loans. Parts of the new settlers are poor peoples moved forcibly out of their homeland to help build the colonies. Quinine is indispensable for the settling of the West Indies and the Gold Coast. The Scandinavian Marines regiment is once again increased to be able to meet the demands of colonial duty. Service with the Marines has become a means for the young and restless to explore the world and for the junior officers to win laurels in combat. Captains Schleppegrell and Rye are given leave from the army to serve with the Marines. Field Marshal von Fersen dies. Count Frederick Adolph Holstein a leading figure in the advancement of the peasants’ situation, promoter of biblical societies and Christian mission is also an advocate of supporting the Greek War of Independence. In these circumstances the count becomes an unwilling rally point for the Unions impoverished in especially Sweden but also in the other countries. Because of his support of the Greeks he is seen as a lever for the liberals. The church on the other hand dislikes his entanglement of priests for the new mission, the nobility his advocacy of peasants education and improvement of situation and the government his support of the Greeks. Holstein himself takes strength in God and with support of his wife, Wilhelmine Juliane (Reventlow) he continue his work to better the situation of peasants but not only in Denmark also as his reputation grow and deputies from the other Kingdoms arrive at his Manor House he accept this task as Gods testing of his devotion. Another Holstein initiative to increase the peasants’ situation was the set up of savings and loan associations as well as cattle insurances. These didn’t provide much capital for investment but in time they would secure an uncertain future of many peasants. This initiative met with much nobility opposition when introduced in Sweden but was greeted by peasants and liberals alike. Grain prices slowly rises. Tsar Alexander dies heirless and the uncertainness about succession spurs off the Decembrist uprising that is put down by Alexanders heir and brother Nicholas 1. Nicholas 1 is an enemy of liberalism, will of the peoples and national state and the voice of the principle of legitimacy. Nicholas 1 view the Scandinavian Union as a conglomerate of weak willed individuals not fit for Government. He is especially enraged of the Swedish and Norwegian newspapers commenting of his putting down of the uprising and this is also linked to the Greek war of independence and calling on all sane men to reject the autocracy of King Frederick, puppet of the Tsar, in Denmark and grant a free constitution for Denmark. King Frederick once again tries to suppress the newspapers. 1826 A number of Union Naval officers are granted leave to serve in foreign Navies. Lieutenant von Moltke finishes his service in the Drabant-Guards and enters service with the Joint War council. Britain and Russia agree to mediate in the Greek war of independence on the basis of Greek autonomy under Turkish supremacy. As the Tsar has his attention diverted from the north King Frederick feel much relieved. The Kings relief is going to be short lived however, as he is met when arriving in Stockholm on his summer cruise by a much angered Swedish nobility that resent the Holstein initiatives. They view these as undermining their own position in society as well as in government. Frederick does his best to calm the Swedish nobility; among his efforts are the promotion of Swedish general Magnus Brahe to Field Marshal and head of the Joint War council. Frederick also defends Holstein as a Danish nobleman loyal to the crown. Grudgingly the Swedish nobility fall in. Russia declares war on Persia over supremacy in the Caucasus which leads to another outburst in Swedish and Norwegian newspapers by liberal writers. In West Africa the Ashanti moves 11000 warriors towards Fort Christiansborg on the Gold Coast. The British despatch troops to join the defence of the Scandinavian Marines. The Ashanti is virtually destroyed in the ensuing battle. 1827 In Sweden the Holstein movement is gathering momentum with peasants slowly accumulating capital making them less dependant on the nobility land owners. As Holstein also advocated small scale industry on a home basis to increase peasants’ family sustainability some poor peoples begin to make household utensils and “art” to sell to sustain them. Making life just a wee bit better for the poor or rather believe that tomorrow is going to dawn on them too. Britain, Russia and France issue a note to the parties in the Greek War of Independence of secession of hostilities. As the Ottomans reject the note the Great Powers order their naval squadrons in the Med to stop all Ottoman and Egyptian shipping to Greece which leads to the Battle of Navarino. Valuable experience is gained by the participating Union Naval officers. Count Holstein is deeply concerned about the Ottomans rejection of the Great Powers note. The Copenhagen monopoly on trade with the West Indies is suspended. 1828 Heir to the thrones of Denmark and Norway Prince Frederick marries Princess Vilhelmine of Denmark, daughter of Frederick 6/1/2. Former Swedish Prince Gustav of Vasa is engaged to Princess Marianne of the Netherlands, daughter of King Willem 1 and Queen Wilhelmina (of Prussia). The move is quietly encouraged by King Frederick 6/1/2 as he view it as a move to gather allies against simmering German nationalism. The Netherlands is one of the foreign powers, like the Scandinavian Union to hold lands in the German League. Change of the British Corn Act increases Scandinavian export of grain. The crisis is over. Both Danish and Swedish grain producers; large and small begin to feel the effect. The “Holstein” savings and loan associations pop up all over the Scandinavian Union. With better income for the peasants and poor the migration to especially the US is stagnant. Forest is cleared in Sweden for more farming and small cities are founded along the new cobblestone roads now linking almost every part of the Union to the others – improving trade and exchange of ideas. The first steam engine is built in the Scandinavian Union. Steam engines are going to give a boost to the logging industry in Sweden and Norway. The rebuilt royal castle of Copenhagen is occupied by the royal family. Gunsmith Löbnitz construct a breach loading rifle that enters service with the Scandinavian army. The rifle is not gastight and is phased out in 1848. Russo-Persian war ends and the Russo-Ottoman war begin. Prussia and Hesse-Darmstadt enters a customs agreement. In reaction Saxe, Hanover, Kur-Hesse and Braunschweigh supported by Britain and Austria enters the Central German customs union. (Zollverein) Bavaria and Württenberg enter the South German customs union. The German Confederation once again asks King Frederick for an assembly of the estates in Holstein. King Frederick grants the assembly and insists on Holstein joining the Central German customs union. 1829 Birth of Scandinavism of art by the coronation of Danish poet Adam Oehlenslaeger in Lund as king of Scandinavian poetry by Swedish poet Esaias Tegnér. The political Scandinavism has been fact for the last decade. Prince Ferdinand, regent of Norway marries Princess Caroline, daughter of Frederick 6. They settle on the castle of Kristiania. Frederick Laessoee enters the Union Army Academy in Stockholm. A new Union conscription law is passed through the three parliaments: almost any young man residing in the country side is eligible for service. Teachers and students are exempt. With the much increased population the possible number of young men eligible for conscription also increases. London conference: the Russo-Ottoman war is ended. Greece achieves independence, Serbia autonomy as well as does Moldova and Wallachia. Russia gains the Danube river delta, Black Sea east coast and part of Armenia. An estates assembly is established in the Kingdom of Denmark having been promoted by Kingdom council member Anders Sandøe Ørsted, brother of H.C Ørsted who feels that such a move will serve to secure the position of autocracy. This decision is applauded by the newspapers of Norway and Sweden, but they also note the lack of a constitution for Denmark. Henrik Nicolai Clausen becomes a member of the estates assembly of Roskilde, Sjaelland. Count Frederick Adolph Holstein is asked by the King to also take up seat of the estates assembly of Roskilde. 1830 Prince Gustaf of Vasa and Princess Marianne are married. The marriage doesn’t pay off politically to the benefit of the Scandinavian Union. The couple settle in Austria. Increasing prices on foodstuffs benefits farmers in the Scandinavian Union. The common basic education is another benefit as farmers are able to administer their property but also that common peoples are able to understand what is going on and want to know more of the affairs of state. The July Revolution: King Charles X flees to Britain. Louis Philippe elected King of the French. The revolution spreads to Belgium. The Great Powers convene in London and the independence of Belgium is recognized. A Russian-Austrian-Prussian demand of intervention is rejected by Britain and France. Rumours in Poland of use of the Army of Poland in Belgium provoke a revolution that is met by force of Russia. The events in the Netherlands are a grim reminds to King Frederick that the Great Powers may still act arbitrarily towards minor nations. Frederick however feel as the ruler of a greater power; if a lesser, greater power. King Frederick is asked to give Denmark a Rigsdag on basis of the estates assembly. Frederick rejects the idea but among the advocates are such persons as Anders Sandøe Ørsted and count Holstein. Both are going to promote the idea in years to come. In Sweden some liberals and peasants ask for improved representation of their estates. In the wake of the July Revolution students in Holstein demand the union of Holstein and Denmark dissolved and a republic created. The Ritterschaft of Holstein does not love the state of affairs but are not ready for such a move. Britain and the Scandinavian Union conclude a peace treaty with the Ashanti. 1831 The cholera-year. The epidemic claims deaths in the tens of thousands. The climate of Revolution is about to spread to Scandinavia but the birth of Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete daughter to Ferdinand and Caroline (inspired by SteveW’s: The Tallyrand Plan) puts an effective stop to this. The birth is celebrated by student’s; followers of Scandinavism in all three Kingdoms. Tsar Nicholas makes some angry musing about the Scandinavian succession but is too occupied in Poland bringing down the Polish revolution. In the wake of the war with the Ashanti Scandinavian settlers probe inland on the Gold Coast establishing small plantations. Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha is elected King of Belgium, inaugurated July 21, September: The Polish revolution is crushed by the Russian army. Kur-Hesse leaves the Central German customs union and joins Prussia and Hesse-Darmstadt. The Central German customs union is blown. King Frederick view this as a setback, having had Holstein join the Central German customs union. This causes resentment in Holstein among the students and the Ritterschaft on the dispositions of their ruling Duke. King Frederick continues trade cooperation with the former members of the Central German customs union: Hanover, Saxony and Braunschweig. Saxony is given a constitution. Austria fights revolutionary uprisings in Northern Italy. 1832 With Tsar Nicholas having his back free, he warns the Aaland Isles being a dagger poised at the hearth of Sweden. The Union Joint War council make the Stockholm command permanent and allocate forces for it. Until now the Stockholm command was only to be allocated forces in case of war. These forces consists of both Naval and Army units. The Naval units are both a coastal fleet and a deep sea fleet. This threat brings Swedes of every political observance together. King Frederick as Duke of Holstein looking for possible German allies begins talks with representatives of the British government and the King of Prussia. The Göta Canal linking Lake Vättern to the Baltic is completed. The inland waterway is along with the new road system a great improvement of internal communications. During the building of the Göta Canal the Motala works had been established, which are due to become one of the largest machine manufacturers in the Union supplying locomotives and steam engines for ships as well as building iron hull ships. The use of steam engines in lumber mills in northern Sweden increases the need for labour. Poor peoples are transported for free by government to northern Sweden when they agree to work in the lumber industry. News of the Great Parliamentary Reform of Britain reaching the Scandinavian Union is widely published and seen by the liberals and peasants as an ideal objective. A son is born to Gustav of Vasa and Marianne. He is christened Gustav Willem. The Hambach Fest in Bavaria. A German republic is publicly demanded. King Frederick is slightly alarmed at this outburst of German nationalism and especially as some Holstein students carry this outburst on at Kiel University. Bavarian Prince Otto is elected King of the Hellenes. (Greece) 1833 A Union Bureau of Statistics is founded to supply government with reliable figures and provide a better basis for conscription. A hole is punched in the censorship of Danish newspapers by a verdict in the Supreme Court. Freedom of press is obtained by responsible editors. Alfred Nobel inventor of dynamite is born. Parliament ends slavery in the British Empire by the Slavery Abolition Act. Count Holstein advocates abolition of slavery in the Scandinavian colonies getting into conflict with the plantation owners. The government at this stage is not in opposition to Holstein as abolition would pave the way for more immigrants to the West Indies, because of the need for manual labour and the possibility that foreign planters would withdraw from the islands. This creates tension in the Scandinavian West Indies and the Marines are alerted. Deutscher Zollverein established with Prussia as the leading member without Austria. King Frederick approaches Austria’s Prince Metternich for an understanding, not to be left alone in Germany. Surprisingly Metternich is open to Frederick’s suggestions seeing this understanding as a counter weigh to Prussia dominating the German Confederation. The Russian government decide that autocracy, orthodoxy and nationalism will be guidelines for ruling the country. An outburst against Scandinavia follows, King Frederick is held to not be able to rein in his peoples. Frederick is able to get support from Metternich who supports him and the Tsar calms. As the Frederick-Metternich understanding gets into the public of the Scandinavian Union the liberals of all three Kingdoms are on the back of Frederick – autocracy guaranteed by autocracy in its worst form – making Frederick give up the scheme of a possible alliance with Austria. 1834 During the early meetings of the Danish estates assembly conscription on a broader basis than just the population of the countryside is brought about. This is grabbed by King and Government to ask for passing of law in Norway and Sweden to call up more conscripts in all Kingdoms to ensure a stronger defence of central Sweden and reinforcements at the ready. The Norwegians are reluctant but the Swedes who know how close the fortress of Bomarsund is to Stockholm pass the law through the Riksdag. After this the Norwegian Storting gives in. Part of the conscription law is a reorganization scheme for the Union army being set up in Brigades with Divisional staffs skeletons being kept on duty as Drabant-Guards and doing service at the Joint War council. At Stockholm however one Divisional staff is kept at full strength. Just in case. In Sweden the debate of the representation of the estates once again surface. As the peasants gain better economic foundation and more political insight they demand to be better represented in the Riksdag and the liberals see this as a lever for themselves and allies with the peasants demanding changed representation. The Slavery Abolition Act embitters the Boer population of South Africa and many participate in the Great Trek. The Scandinavian Union government decides to free all slaves’ children. None are going to get born into slavery in the Union. As full emancipation is to take place in 12 years time some slaves are embittered. It is thus decided to reinforce the Marines in the West Indies by another company. This decision is questioned by count Holstein who’d like abolition to take effect now. The church and especially the missionary movement strongly ague that all men are equal to God – which spurs off a new round of liberal writers in Swedish and Norwegian newspapers but also Danish ones calling for an end of autocracy in Denmark by using the very arguments of the church, that is viewed as one of the pillars of autocracy! King Frederick uses the new law on slavery to once again contact the British Government on German and Russian matters. The British are positive towards the Scandinavian Union but that is it as far as results goes. 1835 First Scandinavian meeting of natural scientists in Göteborg. A permanent Scandinavian board of natural sciences are set up during the meeting. H.C. Andersen issue his first novel and the first fairy-tale. Gunsmith Peder Rasmussen makes a musket with a revolving magazine. It is tested by the Scandinavian army that orders a few hundred for testing in units. Captain von Moltke obtains leave from the army to serve with the Marines. The army garrison of St. Croix in the West Indies are planning a mutiny but the plans are uncovered and the Marines, commanded by von Moltke act swiftly sealing off the garrison and the leaders are summarily tried and shot. Von Moltke’s action is noticed at the Joint War council as well as at court. Education of slaves’ children is to be instituted. The law is passed in Denmark much to the credit of count Holstein. For his services to King and Union Holstein has the highest Swedish, Norwegian and Danish orders bestowed upon him. The sight of a black face on the streets of Copenhagen, Stockholm, Kristiania and Bergen is still rare but no longer a curiosity, as the freed slave’s children are going for education in the Scandinavian Union along any other young person. 1836 John Ericsson of Sweden patents the screw as propulsion for ships. German scientist Heinrich Wilhelm Dove points to the interrelations of weather in Europe and Equatorial and Polar air currents. Scandinavian scientific expeditions are sent off to Greenland and the Gold Coast to investigate Doves theory by the natural sciences board in Göteborg. H.C. Andersen is invited to the court of Prince Ferdinand and Princess Caroline in Kristiania. Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete absolutely loves his fairy-tales. H.C. Andersen writes a short story during his travel to Kristiania aboard the steamer Lindeness. The story tells of the advancement of engineering leaving the engineers all black! This story is also a great success at court. Rasmussen muskets are supplied to the Marines for testing under every condition. Death of count Holstein, thousand of peasants and poor peoples all over the Union mourn him and delegations are sent off from Sweden and Norway to offer their condolences. Count Holstein’s son is asked to take up his father’s legacy, which he does but as a more conservative politician in that he tries to unite the great land owners and the peasants. In the Union army the punishment of running the gauntlet is abolished. Charles Darwin returns to Britain after his five-year journey aboard the HMS Beagle. 1837 Governor Peter von Scholten tries to ease the tension of the slaves in the West Indies. Some free blacks are admitted to serve with the Marines. Former King of Sweden, Gustav 4 Adolf dies in St. Gallen, Switzerland. Norwegian painter Constantin Hansen returns from Rome and is contracted by the Copenhagen Art Union for a painting. During his stay in Rome Hansen was an associate of Danish sculptor Berthel Thorvalsen. Interrogation using torture is abolished throughout the Scandinavian Union. Victoria succeeds to the British throne. Because of Salic law the Union of Hanover and Britain are dissolved and Ernst Augustus becomes King of Hanover. The repeal by Ernst Augustus of the 1819 constitution of Hanover is protested by Scandinavian liberals. Heir to the throne Prince Frederick divorces Princess Vilhelmine. This is followed by an outburst from Tsar Nicolas that the Aaland Isles are a dagger towards Stockholm. The Union navy are ordered on manoeuvres in the east Baltic and the Botten Bay around the Aaland Isles. The army units in and around Stockholm are put on higher readiness. 1838 Danish sculptor Berthel Thorvaldsen returns from Rome to a hero’s welcome in Copenhagen. He’s made an honorary citizen of Copenhagen and later on visiting Stockholm and Kristiania also of these cities. Swedish and Norwegian artist’s going to Rome had like their Danish counterparts been stopping at Thorvaldsen’s workshop and come to know his hospitality. Industry is still in its infancy in Scandinavia but a Scandinavian Industrialist’s Union is founded to support new industries. Rasmussen rifles are made standard issue of the Marines to increase their firepower, as they often lack heavy fire support besides what the Navy ships can provide when in range. 1839 King Frederick 6/1/2 of the Scandinavian Union dies. He is succeeded in Denmark and Norway by Prince Christian Frederick, taking the name Frederick so as not to upset the Swedes, as Frederick 7/2 and is elected Frederick 3 of Svear, the Goths and Wends. To smooth the election in the Riksdag a law of improved treatment of the impoverished is offered and passed. Only the most conservative nobility protest the law as they claim the impoverished is already well off due to the Holstein schemes. The liberals expect a constitution for Denmark but are disappointed. The Tsar is satisfied with autocracy being upheld in the Scandinavian morass and tension ease off. Prince Ferdinand, Princess Caroline and Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete move to Stockholm. New regent in Norway is Prince Frederick, son of King Frederick and heir to the Kingdoms. A change of residence is thought to improve the ways of the prince but a posting to Sweden seem too risky at this stage. The new King is well educated and pays a visit to the natural sciences board in Göteborg where he is made an honorary member. Willem 1 of the Netherlands acknowledges Belgian independence. Luxembourg is partitioned between the two countries. As his son is a more conservative person the legacy of count Holstein is taken up in Sweden by member of the Riksdag and editor Lars Johan Hierta by writing editorials in his newspaper “Aftenbladet” (Evening (News)Paper) agitating the welfare of Swedish peasants and poor. 1840 A census reveals these figures of the Scandinavian Union Kingdoms: Sweden: 3,2 mill. Norway: 1,3 mill. Denmark: 1,6 mill. Holstein: 0,35 mil Total: 6,45 mill. The Joint War council decide to have Copenhagen, Stockholm and Kristiania joined by Morse telegraphs. Later Bergen, Trondhiem, Haparanda, Slesvig, Kiel and Altona are linked up. Upon return to Copenhagen von Moltke is ordered to serve at the Joint War council. He is despatched to Stockholm to streamline the staff of Stockholm Command. During his service in Stockholm von Moltke strongly argue the strategic needs for building railroads in the Scandinavian Union to facilitate the swift transfer of units. The first Union railway is planned from Copenhagen to Roskilde. John Ericsson is asked to deliver a boat to the Union Navy for trials of his propulsion screw. Early breach loading smoothbore guns are manufactured at Aakers Iron casters in Sweden by freiherr Martin von Wahrendorff. Union army buys two guns for tests. Artillery commander A.F. Tscherning argues in favour of these guns to augment the firepower and rate of fire of massed artillery but the breach locks needs improvement. Queen Victoria marries Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha who becomes Prince Consort. German chemist Justus von Liebig publishes his work on the use of fertilizers in farming. Liebig had been the initiator of import of natrium nitrate for use as fertilizer in 1825. Nobody wanted to use it at that time, but soon the time will be ripe. 1841 Heir to the throne Prince Frederick marries the second time to Mariane of Mecklenburg-Strelits. They take up residence in the castle of Kristiania, Norway. The Tsar is near to being positive towards the Scandinavian Union. Another joy of the Tsar’s is the news of Danish liberal politician Orla Lehman being sentenced to three months imprisonment for having induced dissatisfaction with the government. One objective of count Holstein was local rule by the peoples. This year the Local Municipality Act is given in Denmark, setting up parish ruling and county councils whereby the landed gentry and peasants are given part in the local rule. Another improvement in the peasant’s situation is the abolition of peasant’s obligation to supply wagons and manpower for public works like building of roads and transport of goods. This is passed by law in all three Kingdoms. 1842 Steamships begin ferrying passengers across the Oeresund. A weekly postal steamer is taking care of Copenhagen-Kristiania and Copenhagen-Stockholm communications. The number of steamships is not only growing commercially but also in the Navy. Ericsson’s screw propulsion has been adapted and slowly the ships of the line and frigates are being converted to dual propulsion by steam and sail. This development leads to the Union Navy ordering coal to be mined wherever possible. Mines are setup in Greenland and Svalbard and the trade with Britain takes on coal as an important item in exchange for Norwegian export goods. A local way of producing coal is to burn charcoal. Less efficient but trees is at hand all over the Union. A new landmark of the Union Naval bases is the cloud of black dust hanging over them. Danish and Scanian farmers begin import of nitrate fertilizer, which is going to give greater crop yields. Treuille de Beaulieu invents the screw breach lock for guns. The Local Municipality Act is passed in the Storting of Norway. The peasants of Sweden agitate, supported by Danish and Norwegian peasants for passing of the Local Municipality Act in Sweden too. 1843 The railway Copenhagen-Roskilde is planned to be extended to the west coast of Sjaelland. De Beaulieu breach locks are fitted to Aakers guns and two are delivered to the Union artillery for trials. Another two are supplied to the Union navy. Jenny Lind, the Swedish nightingale (opera singer) performs in Copenhagen. H.C. Andersen immediately falls in love and follows her every performance, even back to Stockholm. Jenny Lind Burmeister and Baumgarten iron casters start their industry in Copenhagen. This is in time going to become Burmeister & Wain shipbuilders and ship engine manufacturers. The commander of Copenhagen Fortress allows the opening of “Tivoli” on the ramparts of the city. The Local Municipality Act is passed through the Riksdag in Sweden applauded by Hierta in his editorial in “Aftonbladet”. 1844 Magnus Brahe resigns as head of the Joint War council. Danish General Krogh is promoted Field Marshal and appointed new head of the council. 20 Aaker guns with de Beaulieu breach locks are delivered to the Union artillery. A similar number is delivered to the Navy. Heir to the throne Prince Frederick hasn’t produced an heir and his wife Princes Mariane has had enough and leaves Norway for Mecklenburg-Strelits. The Ritterschaft of Holstein voice that it will not accept female succession in Holstein. The Holstein student protest against female succession and demand Salic law adhered to. This pressure weighs heavy upon Prince Frederick and is thought to have brought about a depression made worse by his wife leaving. Prince Ferdinand and Princess Caroline hire teachers to undertake the formal education of Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete. It is done in the anticipation of Ferdinand of his daughters now being in line for succession and having the example of Queen Victoria in mind. The Princess takes a keen interest in mathematics which later leads to her discussing ballistics with colonel of artillery Tscherning. She also has a keen interest in the arts and languages from her growing up in Kristiania and Stockholm leading to her mixing Norwegian, Swedish and Danish into her own Scandinavian tongue, but she also catches up on English, German and French. Railways linking Stockholm with Göteborg and Kristiania with Malmö is planned. In Holstein a railway linking Altona with Kiel opens. Jenny Lind does not share H. C. Andersen’s feelings towards her. To soothe himself he goes on a journey to Italy to visit Danish sculptor Berthel Thorvalsen in Rome. 1845 Scandinavian economy is getting stronger and the Krone is made exchangeable in silver. Danish peasants and liberals unite in the Peasant Friends Society calling for better legal protection of farmers. The Society is also known as the Holstein Movement and soon branches are established in Sweden. The Scandinavian Union navy is undergoing a refit getting steam engines with screw propulsion. The construction of an iron railway bridge across the Götaelv in Göteborg is commenced. The corvette “Galathea” commanded by captain Steen Bille is sent on a round the world scientific journey. During the journey it sets up a colony in the Nicobar Islands. A number of natural scientists of the Board of Göteborg are aboard the corvette. Among them are members of the Linnean faculty that are later to issue a monumental atlas of flora of the world. 1846 Aaker begins to manufacture rifled breach loading guns. The Union artillery and Navy are immediate customers. The number of guns is still low, but each ship of the line and frigate is fitted with two. Danish liberal politician Orla Lehmann demands a free constitution for Denmark and Holstein being excluded from the Union with Denmark. The Holstein movement develops into a political movement recommending the peasants to vote only for adherents of a free constitution in Denmark. In Sweden the Holstein Movement works for a reform of the Riksdag, abolishing the estates representation that secures power of the nobility. 1847 The Copenhagen-Roskilde railway line opens. At the estates elections in Denmark the liberals and the Holstein movement gain the majority and King Frederick ask his legal advisor P. G. Bang to draw up a constitutional proposal. Captains Helmuth von Moltke and Frederick Laessoee of the Joint War council tour Holstein making new maps for the council. They use their eyes well and upon completion of their mapmaking mission they submit a plan of a campaign in Holstein against German Confederation troops to the Joint War council. The telegraph lines are completed. Naval corvette “Ørnen” (Eagle) bombards rebellious villages on the Gold Coast. Following the bombardment the Marines enter the area and order is re-established. Two black children had been sacrificed and their blood spilled on the tribal drums to strengthen them and better call on the warriors of the tribe to do their utmost. Those responsible for sacrificing the children are tried and decapitated. 1848 King Frederick 7/2/3 gets through his illness without blood poisoning. The doctor uses a clean blade. Ivar Asen issues his dictionary of the common Norwegian language. Danish fisher Jens Vaever invents the net “snurrevod” to be pulled by a boat. This invention makes fishing much more profitable and soon spread to Norway. Munktells of Sweden deliver the first Scandinavian locomotive to run on the Stockholm-Göteborg line. The line has reached Skövde in West Götaland. The Malmö-Kristiania line going north has reached Varberg in Halland and the line going south from Kristiania has reached Halden. Munktells is also contracted by the Union Navy to supply steam engines for warships. February: The Communist Manifesto is published in London by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The revolution breaks out in Paris and spread to Vienna and Berlin. March: In Holstein the situation is out of control. Nationalist students hoist the German Tricolore in Kiel and demand abolition of the Union with Denmark and a republic. The commander of the Army in Holstein, Duke Frederick the Prince of Noer marches his brigade-size army towards Kiel but arriving there the Holstein officers recognize their brothers among the revolutionary students and refuse to shoot at them. Also the Ritterschaft is against arms being used against the students demanding what they dare not! The Danish officers serving with the Holstein units quietly make their way out of town during the night. A large meeting of liberals and Holstein Movement in Copenhagen decides to address the King for a free constitution. The address argue that only Denmark of the Union Kingdoms is led by autocracy and a free constitution is needed for the peoples to continue as law abiding subjects of the Union King. Freedom of the individual is all important. Receiving news of the events in Kiel the liberals of Denmark demands a free constitution and that Holstein leave the Scandinavian Union. King Frederick rejects the demands and order Duke Frederick August the Prince of Noer to re-establish law and order in the Duchy. The Holsteins reject the Kings proposal because of Salic law insisting upon a male heir. The King insists that Prince Frederick IS heir to the throne of Denmark and Holstein but the Union Government won’t accept him as heir and Sweden threatens rejection at election. Duke Christian Frederick of Augustenborg the leader of the Ritterschaft and hereditary Duke now argues that King Frederick must renounce his claim to Holstein which Frederick rejects flatly. As Duke Frederick August the Prince of Noer makes no move in Holstein King Frederick wants the Union army to move into Holstein and re-establish law and order. The Kings advisors advocate that he consult the Scandinavian parliaments before executing such a move as he by many in Norway and Sweden is regarded as acting in Holstein as ruling Duke and not King of the Scandinavian Union. By acting in the role of commander-in-chief of the Scandinavian armed forces in this situation, ordering Norwegians and Swedes into Holstein he might lose popular support in those countries. King Frederick then asks the Norwegian and Swedish minister in Copenhagen of their assessment of the matter. The Norwegians will be reluctant to participate in the Kings war as ruling Duke of Holstein and the Swedes will be generally positive but only because of the nobility directing affairs of the Riksdag. Frederick then offers a free constitution for Denmark to soften up the Norwegians but they are still reluctant. He then offers a free constitution for Denmark and that all men serving during the war will be given right of vote in their home country regardless of their meeting conditions. The Storting of Norway and the Riksdag of Sweden unanimously express support of the King and Union Government. Frederick gives Denmark a free constitution. The King retains executive power. The new 2 chamber parliament, Rigsdagen of Landsting (country thing) and Folketing (Peoples thing) is given legislative power and high court the judicial power. He declares that Holstein will be ruled by ducal decree. The right of vote to all servicemen immediately fills the enrolment offices throughout Scandinavia not only with conscripts but huge numbers of volunteers. Von Moltke and Laessoee are ordered to adjust their plans and move off to Slesvig immediately. April: As the Union army cross the border of Holstein Duke Frederick August, brother of Duke Christian Frederick, Prince of Noer and general of the Union army then joins the rebels and calls every able-bodied Holstein to join the army and fight for their rights. The Holstein army seizes the depot at Rendsburg, Slesvig to gain weapons and munitions. The new railway of Sweden is used to move troops, one division and a brigade towards Denmark. From Skövde it’s a 4 day march to Göteborg where the transport fleet awaits them. In order not to expose Stockholm all called up recruits and reserves in Svealand are kept there for training. The division of Scania is mustered in Malmö a brigade is transported by ship and landed on Femern, off the Holstein Baltic coast. The rest of the division is moved to Slesvig. The Norwegian troops of brigade size led by general Rye go by way of Göteborg to Aarhus and then march on the paved roads south. The Army in Slesvig, two divisions and a cavalry brigade laid siege to Rendsburg and marches for Altona, close to Hamburg. A brigade size force is moved by ship from Fynen to land at Kiel. The swiftness of Union movement catches the Prince of Noer off-guard. He was not aware of the von Moltke/Laessoee plan being in his headquarters at Rendsburg when it was presented to the Joint War council. The insurgents in Rendsburg are offered pardon if they surrender but they decide to sit out the siege and a gun-shot is the answer. Arriving at Rendsburg the Norwegian brigade relieves the Union troops that march towards Hamburg. The Norwegians close the ring around Rendsburg. The Prince of Noer musters his troops in Segeberg to protect the new Holstein government that has taken seat there after the Union troops landing in Kiel. The Holstein government calls upon the German Confederation to aid it against Union aggression. The German Confederation recognizes the Holstein government and asks its member states to support Holstein against Scandinavian Union aggression. King Ernst Augustus of Hanover puts his army, one division at the disposition of the Confederation and other contingents begin to pour in. Prussian King Frederick William 4 sends off a corps to drive the Union troops off German soil. The Union government declare a naval blockade of all German ports that is immediately enforced. As the German states don’t possess any major warships the blockade is totally effective and German overseas trade drops to zero almost over night. Hamburg is occupied by Union troops. Freiherr Martin von Wahrendorff asks to leave Sweden for Germany. He is granted free leave and his industries are bought by the Union government. May: The Confederation troops of division size assembled in Hanover commanded by general Halkett move into Lauenburg to close on the border with Holstein. The Union troops have occupied Hamburg and the north bank of the Elbe and are awaiting the Confederation force between Bergedorf and Sachsenwald. The Espignol (single or multi barrel musket loaded with a high number of shots that is fired in succession but has to go to the armoury for reloading) Company is with the Union army. The value is good in prepared positions but the weapon has to fire all its rounds in one go and the lack of field reloading is noted. The corps of engineers is tasked after the war with improving the weapon. On the Elbe the Union frigate Rota was firing at the Confederation flank but being subjected to artillery fire the ship caught fire and had to be towed off to safety at Glückstadt. This incident led to Union warships being given armour plating. The Prussian corps moves through Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelits into Lübeck. It then moves north into Holstein towards Kiel. After pushing Union troops out of Kiel the Prussians swing southeast to bag the Union army at Hamburg-Altona. Unknowingly the Prussian corps walks into the von Moltke/Laessoee trap. Union troops on Femern cross the sound to the mainland and marches south east to cut Prussian lines of communications at Plön. The Union force, a reinforced division at Hamburg holds off the Confederation troops. At Neumünster in central Holstein the Prussians makes contact with Union forces, a division commanded by general Bülow who fights a holding action. As the Prussians assault Bülow the Union main force, two divisions and a cavalry brigade forming a corps arrive from Rendsburg. This force is a nasty surprise for the Prussians especially the corps artillery commanded by colonel Tscherning with a complement of breach loaders, part of them rifled, which keeps up a continuous barrage of the Prussians. Outgunned and outnumbered the Prussians retreat towards Kiel only to find their line of communications severed and then march south towards Segeberg and the Holstein army. Von Moltke and Laessoee moves the Union corps southeast. Union cavalry operating in squadrons is able to locate the Prussian corps and von Moltke deploys the Union corps to await the Prussian arrival. On the old battlefield of 1227 at Bornhöved the Prussians run into the Union corps blocking their march. Outgunned and outnumbered the Prussians through sheer discipline manages to keep cohesion and when night falls they are able, due to bad reconnaissance by Union cavalry to skirt the Union lines and arrive the next morning at Segeberg. Laessoee leads the march towards Segeberg pursuing the Prussians. A day later the Union assault on Segeberg unfolds. After a prolonged artillery barrage the Union troops close in and rout the Holsteins. The Prussian situation is untenable and von Wrangel retreat his corps into Lauenburg and Lübeck. In the west the Union troops has stopped general Halkett’s Confederation troops east of the Elbe and is pushing them back into Lauenburg. In early July Holstein is cleared of foreign troops and the Rendsburg Depot surrenders. A cease fire is agreed upon mostly due to the Scandinavian Union naval blockade ruining German overseas trade, even though Russia keeps Prussia supplied with everything needed. Only the utter rejection of revolution keeps Tsar Nicholas from openly supporting Prussia. Stamps are issued but soldiers in service are exempt from using them on letters home. This brings about an enlargement of the Postal Services of all three Kingdoms as tens of thousands of letters are to be delivered each week. 1849 Engineer Ludvig August Colding, road and water supply inspector of Copenhagen travels to London to study sewers, water and gas supply in the city. His studies are not to be implemented in the Scandinavian Union until after the Cholera-epidemic of 1853. The railway bridge across the Götaelv is completed as is the section of railway from Göteborg to Skövde, effectively linking Stockholm and Kristiania to Malmö in Scania. The German constitution is finished in Frankfurt am Main. The Imperial crown is offered Frederick William of Prussia who refuses it and new revolutions break out in the Palatinate, Saxony and Bavaria. Austrian and Prussian troops are despatched to fight the revolutions. Prussia calls for negotiations on a German Union in Erfurt next year. Russian armies enter Hungary to aid in putting down the Lajos Kossut rebellion. Prussia exerts pressure on the Confederation in Frankfurt am Main to end hostilities with the Scandinavian Union. The Union government asks the British government to establish contact with its counterpart to end the war. President Louis Napoleon of France also applies pressure to the German Confederation assembly if only to humiliate the Germans. At a conference in London the German Confederation accedes to end hostilities. Prussia does not participate. The Scandinavian Union returns Hamburg to the German Confederation and lifts the blockade. Holstein is to remain in Personal Union with Denmark but is to be given a free constitution. The question of succession is to be dealt with when the issue is unavoidable – King Frederick acknowledges that Salic law is to be observed. King Frederick asks to keep the Scandinavian Union envoy at the Frankfurt assembly. This is not rejected. Church bells are ringing all over the Scandinavian Union to signal the end of war and thanksgiving services is held to commemorate the fallen heroes. Von Moltke is promoted lieutenant colonel and appointed chief-of-staff of the Joint War council. Laessoee is also promoted and appointed chief-of-staff of Stockholm Command. Both are to lecture at the Union Army Academy on their planning and execution of the Holstein campaign. Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete turns 18 and is celebrated by Stockholm students singing her grace. Present is among many other guests general of artillery Tscherning who must tell her all about the use, effect and ballistics of the new artillery in the war. 1850 H.C. Andersen travels through Sweden and issues a book “Sverrig” in which he praises Sweden and its peoples. His description of Lake Siljan sets off many a Danish painter to find inspiration. H.C. Andersen also visits the regent Prince Ferdinand Princess Caroline and Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete in Stockholm where he is received as an old friend. Duke Christian Frederick of Augustenborg is tried along with his brother, the Prince of Noer for treason against their duke and sentenced to have their estates in Slesvig and any hereditary claims to that duchy or the duchy of Holstein forfeited. The Prince of Noer is dishonourly discharged from army service without right to wear his general’s uniform. They are then forced to take up residence in Holstein. All men of the Scandinavian Union that served their King during the war is granted right of vote. This prompts the Holstein Movement to raise the issue of mobility of the peasants. Most of the peasants still worked on farms owned by the nobility, renting the farm for life. The Holstein Movement wanted freedom for the peasants, freedom to buy their farm and freedom to settle where they wanted. With the number of new voters primarily from rural areas the Holstein Movement mandate is increased. A new system of colonial administration is instituted. To reduce corruption and mismanagement each colonial governor or administrator is commandeered of to his posting for a specific number of years. At the termination of his administration a new administrator takes over and a mission from the Union colonial ministry checks the accounts. Any mismanagement is duly reported and taken action at. The new system has the advantage of nobody knowing who is going to be new administrator and so to some extend blocs scheming according to whose in office. The drawback is mismanagement by uninterested administrators, though that is countered by the accounts checking and possible discharge. March: meeting in Erfurt of the German States to discuss the Union. The Prussian Union proposal is accepted, but the Austrian re-appearance, after having fought fighting the Hungarian rebellion has Hanover and Saxony break off from Prussia and enter in the Union of Four Kings with Bavaria and Württemberg. Austria then has the Confederation in Frankfurt am Main reopened and sends in troops into Hesse to aid the Elector fight his Parliament. This almost brings about war with Prussia. And Tsar Nicholas support Austria. April: Tsar Nicholas wants to settle the unsettled question of Danish succession. The future heir to the thrones of Scandinavia is now recognized by all, but no one says so, to be a woman, Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete, whose father Prince Ferdinand is brother of the King and whose mother Caroline is daughter of the former King Frederick 6/1/2. Tsar Nicholas sends a note to the Union Government rejecting the prospect of female inheritance and demanding a settlement of a male heir. The choice of Nicholas is Duke Frederick William of Hesse-Kassel, married to Alexandre Nikolaevna daughter of Nicholas who died giving birth to their son 1844 who also died shortly after. Duke Frederick William’s mother Louise Charlotte is the sister of King Frederick and Prince Ferdinand. The Government and the liberals of Scandinavia are enraged. A despot on the throne – never! The German Confederation headed by Prussia joins in with the Tsar and demand the 1849 treaty unsettled issues dealt with. King Frederick declines the Russian and Prussian demands referring to the London agreement and being sure of German disunity and Russian inability to act due to the unstable situation in Germany. At the end of the year things cools down. Just trying to find a peaceful solution to the succession King Frederick suggests his niece marry Duke Frederick William. Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete says NO. Prussia decides on a naval building programme. This is seen as a necessity to combat a blockade in future conflicts with the Scandinavian Union. State of the Union 1850: Since the tying together of the three Scandinavian Kingdoms in 1815, well technically since Christian Augusts naming as successor to the Swedish throne in 1809, but the construction was sanctioned by the Great Powers 1815, then 45 years have elapsed. The Kingdoms are unified by the Monarch in Personal Union. 1818 to 1839 King Frederick 6/1/3 of Denmark/Norway/Sweden of Iceland, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands, Duke of Slesvig and Holstein. Since 1839 the Kingdoms has been ruled by his successor King Frederick 7/2/3. Heir to the throne is King Frederick 7/2/3 son, Prince Frederick. But as Prince Frederick hasn’t produced any issue in his two marriages; thus the succession question is open. The will of the peoples of Scadinavia is that Princess Juliane Marie Frederikke Margrete, whose father Prince Ferdinand is brother to the King, should be successor. The war of 1848-49 with the German Confederation served to prove tri-national will to cooperate in the direst of circumstances. Peace has been achieved but the last part – the succession question is to be dealt with by Salic law in Holstein when it will be imperative. Government is still done by the King in his capital of Copenhagen. The Union share government, army and navy. The King is supreme commander-in-chief. The acting chief of Union Joint War council is Danish Field Marshal Krogh. In the other two Kingdoms a regent is residing to act on day-to-day business of that Kingdom. Each Kingdom has its own institutions: Parliament, National Bank, Universities etc. The currency in all three Kingdoms is the Krone. This has made for a stronger economy and the Krone is by now exchangeable in silver. The Kingdom of Denmark is mostly an agrarian society, Norway has an export economy based on timber and iron but also fishing make up an important part as does the merchant marine. Sweden is a major producer of armaments, especially modern guns and iron build warships but also timber, copper and agricultural products. Together the three Kingdoms are able to procure most needed goods and are self-supplying in agricultural produce. An important import is fertilizer for the agricultural production. In Sweden more land has been made to use for agriculture since 1820. This is made possible because of the Holstein Movement originating in Denmark. The Holstein Movement was an offspring of the ideas of Count Holstein who wanted to help improve the situation of the peasants. He did so by introducing savings and loan associations and cattle insurance. The ideas spread to Sweden and have served to improve prospects for Swedish peasants. Early use of steam engines for timber logging and propulsion of ships and trains have also served to improve economy. Steam engines are manufactured locally. The Scandinavian Union is a leader in the development of modern guns, its artillery and warships being issued breach loaders and is state of the art. Politically Norway and Denmark have free constitutions and an elected parliament. Sweden has an estates based parliament in which the nobility holds the majority. This nobility hold on power is being contested by liberals and the Holstein Movement. The liberals benefit from the free press of Norway and Sweden until 1848 when Denmark also attained its free constitution and freedom of press is expected soon in Denmark. This have led to the liberals being more vocal which in turn have served to irritate the Tsar, who fortunately have been so preoccupied with wars and uprisings that he haven’t had the time to take military action against the Union. The Holstein Movement benefited markedly by the giving right of vote to all servicemen of the war of 1848-49, as most conscripts were still drawn from the peasants. The introduction of basic education in the three Kingdoms have served to make the populations aware of their rights as well as able to know what is going on in society and take part in the local rule as outlined in the Local Municipality Act of 1841/2/3. An idea fostered by Count Holstein. Culturally the peoples of the Union are interested in getting to know each other. The military service is party to this as it brings together young men from the three Kingdoms to serve together for several years. Understanding each other is essential in this business as the war of 1848-49 has showed. As such the languages serve to help cooperation as they do not differ greatly. And a sort of inter-Scandinavian service language of army and navy is developing. Writers travel the Kingdoms and issue their perceptions to eager audiences. Painters meet at beautiful places or travel to Rome to find inspiration. But inspiration from far away is not uncommon as the colonies provide the exotic and unexpected – black peoples in state service or on training in the Kingdoms, spices, fruits, plants and strange animals from the West Indies, Africa and India. But this is mainly a big city issue. Another way to get inspired is to travel the colonies as a state servant or settle as many are induced by the government to do. The early days of rounding up the poor and send them off as settlers are over. The settlers are given low interest loans to establish themselves and foreign land owners are taxed harder than Scandinavians. Generally a feeling of being Scandinavians, not Danish nor Norwegian nor Swedish is beginning to spread. Scientifically the Union benefit from the Natural Sciences Board having been set up in Göteborg and from the extensive colonial empire reaching from the Arctic to the tropics making field work in almost any climate is possible within the Union. The Galathea expedition has produced a wealth of information which is only being digested as has the results of the air current investigative expeditions of 1836. Another result of the Galathea expedition was political; the setting up of a colony in Nicobar Islands and a treaty with the King of Hawaii. Captain Bille drew up the last on behalf of his Scandinavian majesty, with his majesty of Hawaii. Slavery has been abolished in the Scandinavian Union and its colonies. To meet the demand of labour and the growth of populations Scandinavians as mentioned has been encouraged to settle in the colonies. This has been a success as the migration to the USA has dwindled markedly since the commencement in 1825.