While Communism and religion have traditionally been opposed, this hasn't stopped there from being occasional Christian/Islamic socialist movements. Buddhism has similarly occasionally had its own socialist ideas, and furthermore enjoys the advantage that it does not inherently believe in a god and can easily be portrayed as atheistic, diminishing its apparent contradictions with Marx's denunciation of religion as the "opiate of the masses." Early in the Soviet Union and Mongolia, Buddhism was tolerated and viewed as different than other religions, until ultimately receiving the same treatment that other religions got under Stalin. So what if in a Buddhist nation, the flavor of communism that ultimately developed was a hybrid alliance between Buddhism and Communism, which upon the victory of the Revolution in this particular nation, develops a continued alliance between the two. Although various nations might be a possibility, I particularly think that South-East Asia would be the most promising spot for such a revolution: Mongolia and Tannu Tuva would be bound to be Soviet (or Chinese) puppets given their population size, while Chinese, Korean, and Japanese versions might be excessively syncretic and diverse which would prevent Buddhism from being the main religious element allied with the revolution. Tibet's Buddhism was conservative and theocratic, and so its unlikely that any communist revolution there would be allied with the Buddhist monasteries which controlled the country! Therefor, South-East Asia seems the most likely target, particularly colonized nations, where Communist progressive agitation and Buddhist opposition to state secularism and state-backed Christianity, plus its influence among the masses, could find allies in each other. Burma historically tried the "Burmese Way to Socialism", and of this set Burma, possibly Sri Lanka, and French Indochina seem the most likely: Vietnam was also quite known for the conflict between Buddhist and Catholic faiths. Being displaced from the peak of society, Buddhism has less reason to support the status quo, and hence can possibly be more amenable to an alliance with communists. This revolution would presumably also presumably be along either Soviet or Maoist lines, with its attitude towards religion being its principal deviancy. I know very little about Buddhist theology and practices, and of course they would vary greatly from country to country. My knowledge of communism is also mediocre. However, I'd like to hypothesize that the following (unique) ideas and policies might be ones which the new Revolution implements: Ideological elements: 1)Buddhism's focus on the acceptance of suffering would be a useful ideological tool on the regime, and would be exploited to the max: by living a simple spartan life one would both be in line with the principles of Buddhism, but also help free up resources for investment into economic investment and military spending, as well as of course justifying the poor living standards compared to Capitalist economies. 2)Religions like Catholicism or other Christian branches would be labeled as backwards, superstitious, irrational, and the opiates of the masses, as compared to the rational, progressive, and "atheist" (Buddhism does not after all, necessarily believe in a god) Buddhism. Furthermore they would be castigated as agents of imperialism and colonialism, another justification for their destruction. 3)The five moral precepts (no killing, no stealing, no sexual misconduct, no lying, no intoxicants), and Bodhisattva-path would be stressed and used as a justification for a new Socialist morality and New Man. 4)I am unsure how Communist Buddhism might seek to reconcile a cyclic approach to time in Buddhism and the inherently linear course of Marxism. Some usage however can be made of comparing nirvana to communism (in the stage approach of historical materialism), and the Buddhist six realms compared to the stages of development of society. 5)Karma and other religious morality would be used as the basis of a moral economy, emphasizing communalism and equating participation in the socialist system to good acts. 6)It would be declared that Buddhism has been a liberating and humanitarian force throughout history in East Asia and the world. Wherever there is a contradiction here, such as Buddhist "feudalism' in Tibet, it would be brushed asides by declaring it to be a corruption of the original teachings of the Buddha, and that in fact, Buddhist Communism is returning to his original pure and true thought and principles. 7)A principle sticking point would be the relationship to "feudal" figures such as the Dalai Lama. Unless if the Dalai Lama himself could be converted to Buddhist Communism, it would be a difficult relationship! Policies: 1)Naturally there would be no persecution of Buddhism in Buddhist-Communism with the liquidation of the religious leadership, destruction of its temples, and cultural oppression. Other religions would presumably not enjoy the same treatment. 2)The degree to which Buddhism is actively promoted by the state might vary, ranging from it simply being accepted with sympathy to actively promoted. 3)The Buddhist lamas and monks might be seen as being part of the intelligentsia, and like in North Korea proclaimed as being part of the three-fold alliance of workers, peasants, and intellectuals. 4)Like in the early Mongolian case presumably the Party might recruit from the Buddhist monk and lama classes, so there might develop a substantial overlap between Buddhism and the Party. Indeed, seeing the Party as the lackey of Buddhism or Buddhism as the lackey of the party might become obsolete: the two might be inseparable. 5)Religious education and government education might overlap, or even become fused. 6)As one possibility, when collectivization of land comes, justifcation of it and its model might derive from and base itself on the Buddhist monastery principle: perhaps the new communes might center on a monastery. 7)There might be development of a Buddhist International, in addition to a Communist International, serving as a union for communist Buddhism. This would be particularly used to attempt to legitimate continuing influence and control in other Buddhist nations of whatever country Buddhist communism develops in. Are there any other suggestions of how Buddhist communism might differ from regular communism? Hopefully people with more knowledge of Buddhism and/or Communism might suggest some!