"I Feel as Strong as a Bull Moose!": The Square Deal Continued

1912 Republican Primary's
Back in January i started a timeline on here about this. I gave up on it a couple of days later but restarted it in September of the Atlas. Last time it was in the wrong section since its not a finished timeline so i decided to duplicate what i have here with what i have so far on the Atlas.


The Early 1900's so far have seen a huge amount of Social and political changes occurring in a small period of time. This time saw the assassination of a President, The mainstreaming of the Suffrage and Prohibition Movements, Fights for better workers equality, and the implementation of major social reforms and conditions for workers mostly under Progressive Republican Theodore 'Teddy' Roosevelt.
Under him also there was a mass effort for conservationism and the a new height to a so called 'American Empire' in Territory and Influence throughout the world. American interventions into Latin and South America were at a all time high and the so called "Banana Wars" occurred in which American Interventions occurred in mainly Caribbean and Central American Country's due to conflicting American interests in the regions especially with Banana company's. In 1903 in a intervention in what was then Columbia but now Panama; US forces gain access to the Panama region. Panama gained separation from Columbia and the US controlled a area called the Panama Canal Zone. This zone would soon be home to the Panama Canal.

He was succeeded by William Howard Taft who was more conservative then he was but he was able to win in a landslide and finally kill William Jennings Bryan's Political career in the 1908 Election after he comfortably defeated him ending his third run for the presidency in shambles. However Roosevelt decided to pass the Progressive torch upon him. Under his reign, the United States continued on a stable direction with a few hiccups in the Panic of 1910-11 however his policies successfully warded off Progressives from the Republican Party. And this was the condition heading into the 1912 Election

1912 Republican Primary

As expected republican president William Taft announced his intentions for a reelection early on.
However he was faced with progressives in the Party calling for a Primary so the Party bosses couldn't just give it to Taft. The Progressives in the Party got there way and with that began a series of 11 Primary's in 11 States. And with this, Taft's new rival but still friend Teddy Roosevelt entered the Race.
Robert La Follete also entered even though a much smaller opponent viewed by many. The first primary was in North Dakota on March 19.

The first primary went to La Follete however the way the primary went meant that delegates weren't assigned by states and instead could go to any candidate. This meant that Taft had a 90 Delegate lead as he was the Establishments candidate. On March 26th was the New York primary. Teddy's Home state went overwhelmingly for Taft with the New York City Area going to him by 70%.
He got most of the Delegates two. This primary was followed by Wisconsin on April 2nd when La Follete's home state went for him in a 40 point Landslide. Roosevelt got his first big win in Illinois were he won every county and followed that with a win in Pennsylvania, Oregon, and Nebraska all by landslides. On the map it looked like a blowout but the delegate had Taft in a slight lead. Taft toke Massachusetts however by a 50-48 Margin.

Roosevelt went on to win all five states remaining. He won Maryland 53-47 over Taft. In California, Roosevelt received 55% to Taft's 27% and La Follette's 18%. He was able to beat Taft in his Home state and win South Dakota and New Jersey. Going into the convention however Taft had a 100 Delegate advantage. He lead 566 to Roosevelt's 466. This was viewed by many as Undemocratic because Roosevelt had won the Primary Electorate in a Landslide.

However being the Party Establishments favorite, Taft walked in as the Front runner. Roosevelt was not
going to give up. The only way for him to beat Taft in delegates was for him and La Follete unite and all other Progressive Delegates to form a Anti-Taft League. In our timeline Roosevelt couldn't bear himself with La Follete and didn't join and instead ran independent. However in this timeline he decides to do it it for the sake of Progressive Republicans. His alliance with other Progressive Delegates form a upset as they upset the Incumbent and President in Delegates. Taft refused to back down and battled for the remaining delegates. After a week at the Convention the last delegates were bounded to the candidates and Roosevelt came on top 598 to Taft's 572

1912 Democratic Primarys
1912 Democratic Primary

The Chances for the Democrats looked weak. The Republicans had been in Power for decades with Grover Cleveland in the 1890's being the last Democratic President. The Economy was in a stable and growing condition and the Progressive wing of the Democratic Party had been swept away and ran off to the Republicans. The Democratic field was narrow to saw the least and the Only major power broker was Speaker of the House Clamp Clark. Unlike the Republican field however the Primary's were much more competition. They had just implementation primary to end the reign of the Party bosses of Tammany Hall and the Elite in deciding the Candidates.

The Race Ended up with 4 People, Champ Clark; House Speaker, Woodrow Wilson; Governor from New Jersey; Judson Harmon, and John Burke; Governor of North Dakota. The First Primary was North Dakota were Burke won 98% of the Populous unsurprisingly being his home state. Wisconsin was more competitive but in a shock Wilson won a 10 point victory over expected Nominee Clamp Clark.
Clark followed that with a smaller then expected win in Illinois. In Pennsylvania Woodrow Wilson unsurprisingly won the state next to his. Champ followed that again in Nebraska with Judson in a Surprising 2nd place with 35% of the Vote. Clark followed that with Oregon where he won 51% to Wilson's 46%. clark then went on to win Massachusetts and Maryland by Landslides.

Wilson's campaign looked bleak and he needed a win in California or to be close. He lost the State to Clark by 15%. Clark won Ohio, Judson's Home state by 5% and he dropped out. Burke also dropped out seeing he was not a compromise candidate. Wilson won his Home State next with 76% of the vote however even though he won that big he dropped out seeing he couldn't win in the States or Delegates. The South Dakota Primary was cancelled as Clamp was the basic Nominee.

The Convention was uneventful and Wilson called his delegates to Clamp and to unite the Party against
the Republicans who 'Want to act as the only Party for the Country'. There was a small Progressive Uprising but was put down by the establishment. Remaining Progressives went to Roosevelt.


1912 United States Election Campaign
The Campaign of 1912

The Campaign was set to be a extreme one. Not only was it the first genuine opportunity in more then 20 years for a Democrat to win the white house but the fact that both canidates held very different opinions from each candidate. Champ was born to a poor Southern Family and held rather conservative democratic views. Roosevelt on the other hand was a Former one term president (Minus him serving out the rest of McKinley's term after his assassination) born to a Rich northern family.

Meanwhile each candidate choose a VP. Clark choose Wilson and a concession to the more liberal Bryanite wing of the Democratic Party even though he was his former Rival. Roosevelt chose Progressive from California Hiram Johnson on the other hand. This was a move on his part to fill the void the nomination of Clark had on the Liberal Wing of the Party in a attempt to win over them and unite all Progressives under his campaign. More Conservative Republicans and most of the North Eastern Establishment were furious at this move and some members threaten a third party run.

After third party speculation died down due to fear that it would lead to a Democrat Victory however. In late October a faction of the more establishment republicans lead by Philander C. Knox decided it was best for conservatism if they actively backed the Democrat candidate which they did. They reasoned that Clark was more conservative and so backed him. Roosevelt's lose among these types of Republicans however were balanced with the Progressives he gained from the Democrats.

Clark was a Jacksonian Democrat and believed in reform, however not radical change to uproot the system. The condition of the workingman which even though improving was still poor with still no 8 hour work day and minimum wage for and Clark needed all the reformist messages he could get if he wanted to win him over. Clark decided to appeal to the south in which he was from and win the greater south and eastern coast to edge out a victory. He spent most of his time in these areas and campaigned heavily in the crucial swing state of New York. This was a must win for Democrats and was a do or die if the Democrats wanted a chance. The Last Democratic President Grover Cleveland knew this and succeeded in winning the election by winning New York though that was from a little help from the Tammany Hall Machine.

Clark set his views in place and ran on a classic Democratic Campaign up to that point in which was to campaign very little though when he does do it in the swing states and advocate Classical Bourbon Democratic Ideals. Theodore Roosevelt decided to stick to his Progressive views calling the election pivot that Clark performed towards disaffected Urban and Suburban Republicans in a Detroit Campaign event "a open political lie that everyone knows about"

By October the Republicans had consolidated the Progressive base from both party. Meanwhile persuaded by Clark, Conservative Republicans switched to him. Progressives filled the void in the republican party and at least for now were dominant there and vice versa for the Democrats. In the Fall of the Campaign saw the first real nationwide and state polls ever in American Politics. In a experimental poll by the New York Times to see how the election was up to that point found:

Nationwide - Roosevelt 51%, Clark 49%

Key Swing States -

Missouri - Clark 55%, Roosevelt 44%

Indiana - Clark 53%, Roosevelt 47%

Ohio - Roosevelt 49%, Clark 48%

Arizona - Clark 53%, Roosevelt 44%

New Mexico - Roosevelt 50%, Clark 45%

Idaho - Clark 47%, Roosevelt 47%

Kansas - Clark 50%, Roosevelt 50%

Utah - Clark 49%, Roosevelt 48%

New York - Roosevelt 54%, Clark 44%

Pennsylvania - Roosevelt 51%, Clark 45%

New Jersey - Clark 49%, Roosevelt 47%

Delaware - Roosevelt 52%, Clark 46%

Wyoming - Roosevelt 50%, Clark 43%

Massachusetts - Roosevelt 54%, Clark 46%


The race was close with a small Roosevelt lead. If added by who is in the lead then Roosevelt came on top with 298 Electoral Votes to Clark's 233. When the poll was released both campaigns went on Hyper drive. Roosevelt didn't want to wish on a close election and was actually determined to win in a landslide like in 1904. Clark also was worried about losing but this poll was good. It meant that the Democrats could win again.

They began to campaign hard in the western states and in the New England Area seeing Roosevelt's Weakness. Throughout the rest of September and Early October Roosevelt campaign on both his record and calling his opponent a puppet to Tammany Hall. Clark called him a Thin Skinned Radical. Small fights occurred until a So called 'October Surprise' Came upon when it was revealed by the Washington Post that he was involved in the block to overthrow the Panama Government to build the canal in his Term as president.

The original source was never known however it is believed it came from the Clark Campaign. Nevertheless it hurt him. Clark pounced on it calling it 'Disgraceful a President would personally overthrow another country's democracy'. Roosevelt called it unneeded controversially and say he had to do it for the safety of the country.

He said it was a personal attack from the Clark campaign and unneeded. It did hurt him in the polls and the next NYT poll showed him ahead only by 3% with him at 43%, Clark at 40%, and Surprisingly Little known Socialist Eugene V. Debs at 16%. He bolstered in support saying he was a alternative from the two party infighting.

He called Roosevelt "a disgrace to any Progressive cause" and "a Democrat handpicked by the Klu Klux Klan". Roosevelt responded to this by saying he will implement in his campaign a pledge to start a minimum wage at a living wage for the time at around 2$ and support for Suffrage.

This was praised by progressives but did little to dealt with Debs. A final poll before the election was held with Roosevelt and Clark at a Dead Heat of 40% and Debs at 19%. And this ended the campaign of 1912. Only the Election could decided who should lead the country.
1912 election results
Election Night


Theodore Roosevelt (R-NY) addressing crowd of 1,300 People in New York City.

The 1912 Presidental Campaign for President was finally over.
The Contenders were as followed:

The Republican Candidate for President was Theodore Roosevelt. He was a Former President
from 1901 when he took over the presidency after the death of his successor William McKinley to 1908 when he handed the office over to his hand picked successor William Howard
Taft. Theodore was a member of a Group called the Progressives. They called for reform in society and to reel in and limit the negative effects of capitalism had on the American Worker in the Early 1900's. He called for reforms, and much more so then he did in 1904 in his other run for the Presidency.
He called for a Minimum Wage, 8 hour work day, called for equal sufferage, and for better working conditions and vowed to always stand on the side of the Workers.

Roosevelt never felt like he should run after 1908 again. He thought Taft would continue
on his legacy. And even though Taft busted more monolopys then he did, Roosevelt still felt Taft had betrayed him so in 1912 he primaried him and after a scandalous primary and convention which resulted in LaFollete and Roosevelt teaming up to win Roosevelt the Nomination. His Nomination
brought bad will in the party's establishment but they failed to properly revolt.

Meanwhile on the Democratic side was Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
James Beauchamp "Champ" Clark. Born to well off Family in Lawrenceburg, Kentucky
he soon entered politics and became a Representative for Missouri's 9th District in 1896 he soon climbed up the political system to become Speaker of the House in 1911 succeeding Joseph Cannon. He then decided to throw his hat into the Presidential Democratic 1912 Primary. He had stiff competition
but was able to narrowly win over primary challenger Woodrow Wilson who then became his VP nomination in a effort to unite the Party.

Clark in Ideology was mixed. Overall up to that point he could be considered a bourbon Democrat.
He was a Isolationist, He had close ties to Eastern and Southern Democratic Establishments and he campaign vehemently against most of Taft's Legislation. He also didn't support much of the radical solutions Progressives offered in his own party and the
Republican Party.

He knew there needed to be change but modest one's at best. In order to ease up tensions with the More Liberal Democrats in his party, he choose New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson as his VP. Wilson a Reformer and a more Liberal Democrat he was able to ease tensions though it became clear that the
Progressive Candidate in the Race was Roosevelt.

This was the situation going into the 1912 Election. The Election started Early Around 8:30 PM. Around this time states out east were being to be called. The Reliably Republican States of Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire were called for Roosevelt in no doubt. In the entire existence of the Republican Party up to that point Vermont has never voted Democrat and today these three states decided to stick to the tradition picking a Northern Republican over a Southern Democrat. The Count in Vermont showed 75% for Roosevelt, In New Hampshire 68% for Roosevelt, and in Maine 70% for Roosevelt.

Around 9:00 PM more states were being called. All of New England had been counted and had all gone to Roosevelt. Out of all of these there was one swing state. That was Massachusetts. Although a
safe Republican state, Roosevelt's trouble with the more establishment Urban Republicans in places like Massachusetts made it close. However Roosevelt in the End picked it up 45-37%. Suprisingly there was a strong Debs performance in this State which indicated something for the Future.

By a little before 9:30 PM New York had begun reporting. That state was polled from early votes
and showed Roosevelt at 40% to Clarks 37% and Debs at a huge 23% of the Vote. After hearing news of this. The Debs Campaign situation in New York City began to lighten up.

But at 9:45 PM New York was called for Roosevelt as a major blow for Clark. The final numbers were 39% to Clark's 34% and Debs 25%. Meanwhile at that time it had been reported that the Southern States of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Kentucky had gone to Clark. The Count at this point was 101 for Clark and 89 for Roosevelt.

At 11:00 PM the Swing States of Missouri and New Jersey were polled and had gone to Clark. Missouri
was Clark's Home State so was unsurprising but New Jersey was aSwing State and had lean Roosevelt in the polls. It was suggested that the Northern New Jersey Republicans that diffected to Clark were the reason. Meanwhile unsurprisingly Texas, Florida, Virginia, and West Virginia were called for Clark.
Pennsylvania closed its polls and after more then 60% counted showed a 45%-40% Roosevelt Advantage for him with Debs at 15%. Roosevelt would later win that state. Meanwhile Delaware; a swing state, and Maryland went to Clark. The Totals were 190 Clark to 127 Roosevelt.

At 11:30 PM it was announced that Roosevelt won the State of Ohio. He won it 46% over Clark's 44% and Debs 10%. Meanwhile in the Crucial swing state of Indiana Clark was leading 43% to Roosevelt 39% and Debs 18%. Also Illinois and Michigan were called for Roosevelt unsurprisingly. Wisconsin was polled and the result was to close to call. Roosevelt was in a apparent lead at 34% to Debs 33% and Clark's 32%. Wisconsin was a Republican State when polled but had a long history of Socialist Activity around Milwaukee which may had tilted in Debs Way. Meanwhile in another Surprise Debs won the State of Minnesota making it the first time since the Populist Party when a third party won a state. Debs also won Iowa and Oklahoma which in final polls showed Debs at 40% to Clark's 33% and Roosevelt's 27%.

At 11:45 PM the Plains states were polled. The Swing state of Kansas went to Clark due to disaffected Republicans, Nebraska with its long Populist History went to Roosevelt, South Dakota with a equally
long Populist History was also polled and surprisingly went to Debs with a 4% lead and North Dakota too was polled with Debs leading.

November 6th entered and the Western States began to be called. California went to Roosevelt
which was the home of his VP Hiram Johnson, Nevada went to Roosevelt, Washington to Roosevelt with a strong Debs showing and Colorado to Roosevelt.

At 2 AM the rest of the States came in leaving Wisconsin, Arizona, Oregon, Utah, North Dakota
and Idaho in suspense.

At Around 3:30 AM Oregon went to Debs with him at 40% to Roosevelt's 35% and Clark's 25%, North Dakota went to Debs too with the final result being 50% with Debs, Roosevelt at 40% and Clark at 10%.

At 5 AM, Wisconsin went to Roosevelt with its 13 Electoral Votes with him at 35.5% to Debs 35.0% and Clark's 29.5%. The Electoral Vote Count at this time was 245 Electoral Votes for Roosevelt,
215 for Clark, and Debs at 50.

At 6 AM, Montana and Wyoming were called for Roosevelt and Idaho for Roosevelt too.

At 8 AM as the Sun was high in the sky in New York City Utah was called for Roosevelt 40-38%, New Mexico too was called for him and Arizona was too close to call with a small Clark Lead. The Vote
so Far was 263 for Roosevelt, 215 for Clark and 50 for Debs. Arizona was the decider of the election and it took days for it to be fully counted.

On November 11th it was decided that Roosevelt won the State by .25%. this put him at 266 EV
the minimum amount of Electoral Votes needed to Win. Clark demanded more recounts in the state and the state was recounted though by November 25th was finally done counting with Roosevelt still winning the State by .12%. Clark finally Conceded allowing Roosevelt to Win another term.


The Election was very regional. The South went to Clark by overwhelming Margins due to its heavy Democratic Nature and also due to the fact that it was Clark's home Region. The West went to Roosevelt minus Oregon which went to Debs. The West was Heavily Republican and was no surprise Roosevelt was able to pull it off hear though by much smaller margins then in 1904.

The Northeast; Home of Classic Republicanism and base of the Republican Party went to Roosevelt handily though by smaller margins. The Closest State in this region was the State of New York. Vermont went to Roosevelt by almost 80%. Meanwhile the only state that went to Clark in this Region
was New Jersey due to disaffected republicans and also due to it being Clark's VP State.

The Midwest was the decider of the Elections. In a turn of events Debs Socialist Message resonated very well here and well enough to give him electoral votes and 19% of the Vote. Ohio and Michigan went to Roosevelt by 5-15% Margins. Indiana; a Swing State went to Clark meanwhile Minnesota and Iowa went to Debs. Wisconsin was the closest state decided between Debs and Roosevelt with Roosevelt narrowly winning by 0.5%. Illinois went to Roosevelt easily.

The Plains state were also another battleground. Out of all of these States; Debs won 3, Clark won 1, and Roosevelt won 1. Debs won the Dakotas and historically socialist friendly Oklahoma by small margins and Nebraska was won by Roosevelt due to its Populist and Heavy Republican Nature and Kansas went to Clark due to disaffected Republicans and a extended home state advantage with a massive win in
Kansas City and Rural Areas.

All in All the 1912 Election would be remember as one of the most intense and Scandalous in United States History.
Theodore Roosevelt's third term
The Third Term of Theodore Roosevelt


Roosevelt at his desk looking at the latest bills from the house

Roosevelt was notified at 10 AM on November 11th, 1912 by a staff member in his Sagamore Hill House. He was told that Arizona had finally been counted and should that he won Arizona by a slim margin. He was then told that Clark was calling for more recounts in the State. Due to this the presidency would fall into limbo until November 25th when the final recounts showed Roosevelt won the State. He would be the 28th President of the United States after a grueling and a surprisingly close election with the Socialist performance not making that any better. He was swift. He Exited Sagamore and waited a couple of minutes to take in as much as the area before he would be put back into the White House. With a Ford Model T automobile; he was driven to New York City to address his supporters. On his way he was spotted and was greeted by many passersbyer's as he was driven. It is reported that Roosevelt gave his hat to a group of those Passerbyer's on his way around the Queens area and was reported to have said "Take my Hat. I wont be needing that were i'm going".

He arrived in the City welcomed by almost everyone the car passed. He was driven to Battery Park were he was going to speech of the cuff to his supporters on his victory. He was remembered by members of the audience as surprisingly vigorous. He went to the Audience to shake each of there hands to thank them. For someone who only slept 3 hours that night he was very energetic. Key Moments in that Speech include"America for the last 4 years have been lead by false prophets. They have said that he work for the best interests of the American People but in truth work for Big Business. They fail to understand the true tenement of Republicanism which is the idea that elected representatives should rule in the interests of the people. The people demand accountability, the people demand honesty, the people deserve respect. They have gotten none of these and the elected representatives get off scar free"." William Howard Taft was a dear friend of mine. Back on that inauguration day in 1908 i prescribed him all the policy's i had enacted and should be continued for the sake of the people. He promised he would continue the peoples work. I trusted his judgement. But he betrayed everyone; he betrayed me and you.
He did this when he decided that the masters of him were not the people but Big Business. He is a good man but is no peoples champion so i decided to come back and here i am."

"In the First 100 Days of my President i shall have enacted many policy's and means to enact my policy's that will help the people. I shall of made sure that no worker succumb to horrible conditions should labor in those conditions and longer. We shall make sure that no elderly man be succumb to disease and die on the sidewalk due to the fact that he cant afford to go to the hospital due to the fact that its too expensive. We shall make sure that Women understand that they deserve the same voting rights as men". He finished by saying that America has Returned to the people after 4 years of a False Republican (Taft). He spoke for almost 2 hours and was sporadic and decisive.

Meanwhile over in Washington DC Champ Clark had overslept and was sleeping in his Washington home.When he did wake up he immediate knew he wasn't the President. The first fact was he was never woken to be told he was the president. He left his room and left his house to get the morning paper. The tittle on the Paper reads "Roosevelt pulls it off, Still counting in Arizona". Disgruntled he returned the next day to his post as Senate Majority Leader in the House of Representatives with a continued Democratic Majority. However he did see there was still some chance he could be elected the President due to the fact that Arizona was too close to call.

On November 11th the State was called for Roosevelt but Clark called for another recount but that failed to elect him. He finally gave up his aspirations to be President but knew he would be a powerful kingmaker in the House with Roosevelt back in charge and would continue on this path til his eventual defeat later that decade. On March 4th, Roosevelt was set as President. He drew a large crowd and said his prepared speech. The speech would later be dubbed "The People are back in power".

This inauguration was in Jacksonian fashion as his supporters drove into Washington even causing disorder at times resembling the 1829 Inauguration when the same occurrence happened as his supporters stormed Washington DC to see his speech. These disorderly supporters in both cases were put down of course but it showed both as having support from the people. This would set a precedent for presidents to come as before him the inauguration was usually a small event with the exception for his 1905 Inauguration and the Inauguration of Other Famous Presidents. From then on the inauguration would come to become a important political event.

Then he entered the White House. He meet Former President Taft; Shook his hand and went into the oval office. The first order of business where to face several past problems from the Taft administration before he could get with his own policies But before that he would have to build a cabinet which he did. Within the first month of his Presidency he created his cabinet which was quickly approved and went to work.

For Secretary of State he Choose former Secretary of State Robert Bacon. A fairly uncontroversial pick, he was a Diplomat and ambassador to France and by most accounts a moderate and was approved by most of the Republican Party. For the Treasury he choose progressive senator from Idaho William Borah. A fellow populist progressive who was good friends with Roosevelt and agreed with most of his policy's minus his isolationism. He received challenge from more conservative republicans and democrats, he received praise from may Progressive and Moderate Democrats and Republicans and was selected to the post.

For Secretary of War he choose Henry Cabot Lodge. Member of the wealthy Lodge family of New England, he was Senator from Massachusetts and a Moderate to Liberal Republican. A staunch interventionist he caught Teddy's eye and was easily selected. The Attorney General was former Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte. Related to the Napoleon Family; he was a Liberal Republican and was easily chosen. Postmaster General became Clarence Mackay without much controversy. For Secretary of Navy he again choose the former Secretary of Navy Truman Handy Newberry. For the Interior he choose Democrat James Cox which caused some stir among Republicans. Cox a Progressive Representative from Ohio, he was liked by liberals from all sides but more hard-line republicans had a problem with a democrat in Roosevelt's cabinet. Though he was passed slim'ly. Then came the legislation.

First on April 8th he passed out the Seventeenth Amendment which made Direct election of Senators a things, Second he put down a uprising in the Philippines over the Moro Rebels, and with Democratic support he stated that a works on a Women's Suffrage Bill was under way. Secretary of Agriculture became businessman Herbert Hoover. A more conservative republican he was bone to the republican establishment. Secretary of Commerce and Labor were separated and became two cabinet with Secretary of Labor becoming friend and Senator from Wisconsin Robert M. La Follette Sr. and Commerce became Labor Union leader Samuel Gompers who were both passed easily.

Theodore Roosevelt's Cabinet
Secretary of State - Robert Bacon
Secretary of the Treasury - William Borah
Secretary of War - Henry Cabot Lodge
Attorney General - Charles J. Bonaporte
Postmaster General - Clarence Mackay
Secretary of the Navy - Truman Handy Newberry
Secretary of the Interior - James Cox
Secretary of Agriculture - Herbert Hoover
Secretary of Labor - Robert M. La Follette Sr.
Secretary of Commerce - Samuel Gompers
Third Term Continued

With the Cabinet done he then went to work trying to fix the lingering problems from the Taft administration. On April 8th, 1913 he approved the Seventeenth Amendment with a coalition of Moderate and Liberal Byranite Democrats and Progressive and Moderate Republicans. The amendment made it so senators were to be elected directly from the people. The Issue was made big by William Jennings Bryan three campaigns when he called for it and it finally passed. Second, he put down the lingering uprising in the Philippines by the Moro Rebels and then completely annexed the Islands.

Then with Democratic support he stated that work on a Women's Suffrage Bill was under way. He then raised the Tariff rate from 25% to 56% with full Republican support and reinstated the Corporate Tax and with Democratic and Republican support created a Progressive income tax which was first proposed in 1909. Then on January 3rd, 1914 reinstated the power of Sherman Anti Trust Act with a majority of Republicans of Democrats in the House and Senate which had been dormant for much of Taft's administration. This would end the Taft Era of going a blind eye to Trusts and Monopoly's. Throughout 1914 and 1915 saw on the domestic front many new changes.

The first came in late 1914 with the Implementation of a National Minimum Wage law to $0.60 per hour. Public reception was mostly positive was the act was praised by Labor Unions as a positive increase in Workers quality of Life. However receive public backlash from the Conservatives in the Democratic and Republican Party calling it a overreach of the US Government and not how the Government should function. Up to that point the Government hadn't been given so much power and was seen as a tool to get out of the lives of people.

However the Progressive era brought a new meaning to government that directly clashed with the old view. The Bill barely passed the house with a bare 51% majority of Democrats but a 75% of Republicans and passed the senate very slightly with 46% of Democrats and 64% of Republicans.

Though with a strong backlash from conservatives he continued with a end to child labor with the Implementation of the Workers Right Act which made it illegal to hire employees in a company legally under 16 years of age in which they are paid. The bill also set out a list of guild lines which made it so a 8 hour work day would be implemented by law and workers condition would be properly checked by officials to see if there below standards. The bill was proposed by the President on December 12th, 1914 and was debated for some time.

The first time the bill came up to vote it failed with only 46.8% in the House. The second time for vote came on March 4th, 1915 and very slightly passed the house 51.0% due to a persuasion of more moderate Democrats to come to voting for the bill. Clark Champ who was the House speaker who voted against it before preferred the new bill which was more moderate and voted for it. The Senate lead by Liberal Democrat John W. Kern was more friendly then the House and the bill passed with 55.0% of the Senators vote due to strong republican support combined with support from democrats. The bill would be enacted and come into law on January 2nd, 1916.

Roosevelt also in late 1915 proposed a bill which would institute national healthcare for all citizens. On the bill he said "A Nation cannot be strong if its people are sick and poor". Most Liberals, Progressives, and Socialists supported the bill and Roosevelt fought hard for it to pass. In November it passed the House but failed the Senate with a 51-49 Majority on its vote there in February of 1916. 55% of democratic senators were opposed while 44% of republican senators were opposed. He would continue to fight for this bill however for the rest of his term although unsuccessfully.

In March of 1916 he passed Women's Suffrage as a National Amendment making it so Women could vote in Presidential and Congressional Elections with bipartisan support and the amendment was easily passed in the house and senate and to be first enacted in 1918. On Racial Issues, Roosevelt wanted to make changes to the current system but he knew it would never pass a Democratic House and Senate and never made it a Priority.

One reform that did pass however was a attempt to ban Lynching by making it illegal in Certain parts of the Day. That however took the Senate 3 Years to Approve. He made no other visible attempts besides this though did make it public that he support equal rights among both races personally. However no matter how Important his domestic changes brung to the United States, His Foreign Affairs were perhaps more important.

Roosevelt was fascinated with war and was a war hawk and it showed in his foreign policy. He had continued off his other administration in consolidating his gains in the Pacific and Latin America. He further industrialized the fairly rural Cuba which had been conquered by Spain in 1898. He wanted to further integrate Cuba into the United States but after the Havana Riot of 1913 and the Riot of Santiago De Cuba in 1914 he knew he could not make it a state which he desired. Meanwhile he saw the instability in Mexico and saw a chance to secure US interests there.

He supported the Federalists in the Civil war and he knew a war with Mexico wouldn't pass congress so he instead secretly instigated a coup in Mexico City on August 15th, 1915 which put Ramon Corral in power as Dictator with the backing of the Military. He was Vice President up until 1911 when he was resigned from power with the starting of Civil war in Mexico. Corral with Roosevelt's backing gradually took back Mexico and by 1916 the last pockets of resistance fell to him.

He would establish a 20 year long Regime in Mexico until his death in 1935. In Latin America like in his other Administration; so called ''Banana Republics" were established in places like Honduras with the attempted Assassination of Manuel Bonilla averted. In the Pacific and in the Caribbean he kept a tight grip on the territory's. The Philippines were the center of this debate and Roosevelt wanted to keep it, make it a Commonwealth and in the end either make it a State or Independent.

This was supported by many but to many Democrats and Progressives alike his imperialist behaviors were abhorrent for a nation that brings Freedom and Liberty around the world. He faced opposition to many of his foreign behaviors however his progressive social changes didn't seem to cause a uproar in the Republican Party. In Mid 1915 a group of Isolationist Republicans and Democrats
formed a successful coalition built around the continued isolationism of america. Although they were successful at some time for example keeping Roosevelt from allowing america to invade Mexico to help Corral; they were still mostly unsuccessful and the coalition fell apart by 1918.

However the most important of all of these endeavors was Germany. He kept a aggressive policy towards Germany and a aggressive alliance with Britain and France. He knew a war could roar up the Populous but at the same time his aggressiveness towards Germany would make war inevitable. His aggressiveness and public Anti-Germanism was accepted by many and Anti-German Propaganda was rivet in the mainstream. However his calls for war were answered in 1914 when Germany declared war on France and Invaded Belgium which made Britain Join. Both were American allies which meant America should be at war. Roosevelt called this out and called for congress and for the public to avenge both of there allies and to defeat the "German Menace".

However public support was against foreign entanglements and favored to continue on American isolationism. Congressional support was also not with the war and the numbers among so called war democrats and war republicans were in the Minority. Secretary of War Henry Cabot Lodge also called for war and advised the president to go to war without congressional approval.

However without public support he would need something more to justify something like that and thought it was to risky. So in the meantime he secretly supplied allied forces with weapons and ammunition's along with technology. Roosevelt's wish came true when on May 7th, 1915 the RMS Lusitania was sunk by German U-Boats. It would be revealed later that the ship actually carried weapons but the sinking overshadowed that.

Of the Roughly 1100 dead, 139 were Americans. He thought this was enough. The Public support was now with the war as rally's in favor of war and banners reading "Avenge Lusitania" were flown through the streets. With Public support in support of the war, the number of war democrats and Republicans reached a Majority.

With that a Declaration of War was passed on the Central Powers and passed easily among both houses though the Isolationist coalition put up a fight. Thus Bringing America into the First World War. And while all of this Happened the 1916 Campaign was under way.
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1912 Election results with shaded percentages for the states
In case anyone is wondering here is the 1912 Presidential Election with percentages


Theodore Roosevelt (R-NY)/Hiram Johnson (R-CA) - 266 EV 41.35%

Champ Clark (D-MO)/Woodrow Wilson (D-NJ) - 215 EV 39.61%

Eugene V. Debs (S-IN)/Emil Seidel (S-WI)
1916 Republican Primary
1916 Republican Primary's


Senator George W. Norris leaning against the Capital building for a Picture.

In January of 1916, the New York Times released there annual poll on the approval rating of the President, Vice President, and there Policy's. In a Sample of 1500 People the Times found that President Theodore Roosevelt held a high 68.5% Approval rating up 5 points from that time last year in 1915. Vice President Hiram Johnson though largely inactive in his seat as Vice President held a even higher rating at 71.2% though it was mostly due to the fact that his quietness and progressive agenda had not shown as much as he took the new job with much selectivity.

As for his policy's they were polled too but with a much larger sample of 3000 participants. The times found that Roosevelt's overall economic and domestic agenda held a 61.3% approval rating. Of those who professed themselves to be wealthy only 49.6% approved of his agenda while those who professed to working in a Factory or Hard Labor Job approved his agenda the most at a 77.9% rating. His Universal Healthcare Bill which was going to the senate at that time showed a overall 61.0% approval rating. Those who considered themselves wealthy held the bill at a 43.9% approval rating while those who worked in Factory or hard labor Jobs approved the Bill with 75%.

Meanwhile a overall approving rating of Roosevelt's War in Europe which had started in June of 1915 when america declared war on the central powers after the sinking of the Lusitania and it showed overall the war stood at 60% approval rating with those calling themselves isolationists supporting the war 45%.

The final policy they polled was the Workers Right Act which came into effect the the day before the poll took place on January 4th, 1916. The Bill was much more decisive with a steady 55.5% Approval rating. With Wealthy voters it polled at 31.5% Approval and with those in Hard Labor or Factory Jobs at 84%. The divide was strong however the times also polled those who professed themselves to be Progressive and those to being Conservative on the Bill. Of those saying they were Progressive the bill held a 68% Approval rating while among those who called themselves Conservatives the bill held a stead 39.8% Approval rating. With this poll showed the state of the Presidency on the Third Year of the Term as President as very good.

After reading this poll the Roosevelt Administration started to tout it as proving that the overwhelming majority of the people supported the legislation being pushed by President Roosevelt. With this he pushed through in March of that Year his next legislation which would give Women the right to vote and with many congressmen and senators fearing they may lose there jobs the bill passed the House and Senate quickly and easily. Also he got congress to increase funding to the war effort in Europe and on February of 1916, the first 1000 troops landed in the United Kingdom to fight in the trenches of France.

Meanwhile around this time the 1916 Presidential Election was nearing and was to be held in November of that year and before that there would first be the Primary's. With Roosevelt as a Popular President the primary's were expected to be uneventful. Roosevelt decided not to campaign and instead focus to the general where he started campaigning in crucial swing states and started to hold rally's to tell people about his accomplishments as president so far and how he helped the people and how to help them more.

He also called a pond the people to stand up to the evil German menace and fight for your country to avenge the 130 Americans that died on the Lusitania and also to free millions of Germans from Oppression. He also talked about how the Democratic Party had become the party of a weak nation and a weak people.

However his rampant Anti-Germanism didn't make him much friends with the crucial swing block of German Americans in the Midwest and West and is reported to have been thrown at a giant barrel of hay at a rally in heavily German Central Wisconsin. As he was doing these rally's unexpectedly people began to join the Republican Primary seeing Roosevelt's weaknesses.

The once powerful Conservative Faction of the Party decided to be the one to put up a candidate against him. This came in Staunch Isolationist and Rhode Island Senator Nelson Aldrich who however died in April of 1915 before the primary's ever started. The next prominent name that many in the conservative wing of the party wanted to run was Freshmen Senator from from Ohio, Warren Harding. However he refused this accusation and said in a speech in November of 1915 that he had "a duty to represent the people of Ohio in the congress and to represent there interests at best". However he did say after that the he would never rule at a presidential run at all in the future which lead some to believe that he had future presidential ambitions. The Washington's Post top headline the day after read "Harding says he might run in Future, Not now".

After him in December of 1915 the next challenger came in the form of Senator from Nebraska George W. Norris. He was a Progressive Republican who was first elected in the tumultuous election of 1912. Although he agreed with Roosevelt on most Domestic Policy issues, he was a staunch isolationist and called the Presidents blatant imperialism disgusting and horrible. While not there ideal candidate, the conservatives in the party decided to back him as the lesser of too evils and also do to the fact that no other conservative republican wanted to or could run.

With that faction putting him as there man and combined with some disgruntled progressives who saw him as saner on foreign policy and less aggressive then Roosevelt who they felt was warmongering and had become a Imperialist. Although he sounded strong on paper he proved to be not much of a challenger as he was swept aside by Roosevelt in all of the 20 Primary's. He only won his home state of Nebraska with 75% of the vote but he dropped out after his 33% Performance in the California where he gained only 13 delegates and failed to win a majority of the conservative and moderate delegates from Roosevelt.

In the end, Roosevelt walked into the convention with little to no challenge and quickly became the Republican Nominee. The convention was known for a famous speech by Senator Harding in which he coined the phrase 'Founding Fathers'. With the economy in drive and up, Inflation down, and a Declared war in Europe; Roosevelt had high hopes for reelection.



Theodore Roosevelt - 19 States 71.93%

George W. Norris 1 state 21.87%
1916 Democratic Primarys
1916 Democratic Primary's


Wilson Button introduced during the Primary Season of 1916 showcasing his support for peace

Like through the rest of the 20th century up til that point, the Democrats were at a disadvantage in winning the Presidency. With a popular republican president and the country in a good state, Roosevelt was likely to win reelection. The country was also in war and historically presidents that started wars that were popular usually gained re-election to finish the war. Connections to the Civil war became prevalent.

In fact there was a call within some in the democratic party to not host a candidate that year. The more Liberal Democrats supported many of Roosevelt's Policy's and with him supposedly invisible they thought they should just cross endorse Roosevelt himself or some other Republican Candidate that could have a better chance. There was a Draft Norris Campaign in the Democratic party after his primary loss to Roosevelt to elect him as a "Neo-Liberal Republican Party" and from there the election could continue.

However the idea of the democratic party just giving up was not convincing to anyone outside that movement and was quickly abandoned. In fact there was optimism by many democrat politicians that they can pull it off. With a war in Europe that had maxed in popularity at 79% and slowly decreasing with ratings at 60% in February of 1916 and with Roosevelt mass alienated the crucial German Swing Voting block, there could be a upset. So because of this like in 1912 candidates began to enter the race. And with that democratic politicians began to join the race.

Most of the Juggernauts of the party refused to enter the race. The idea of a victory was in the minority and many didn't want to risk losing there seat due to a failed presidential run. People like Secretary of the Interior Jame Cox who was sighted as a powerful democratic opponent refused sighting personal reasons and a duty to serve Roosevelt in the Cabinet (And also due to the fact of risking his cabinet seat in case of a future run) and also sighted personal issues.

He officially declared this in January of 1916. Meanwhile the powerful Stevenson family of Illinois, family of former vice president Adlai Stevenson I, also refused to run any family member. Secretary of State for the State of Illinois 46 year old Lewis Stevenson who also held potential refused calling for unity among the democrats and to unite among a moderating voice.

But there was one remaining oddity which was shown; Woodrow Wilson. He had been a challenger to Clark in 1916 during the democratic primary's but failed after losing the all important California Primary. Seeing potential too win the nomination he decided to throw his hat in the ring and declared his candidacy in the Summer of 1915.

Most democrats wanted a United Party against Roosevelt so most important Governors and Senators and Congressmen refused to run. Wilson being the favorite in the race so far was able to win many endorsements from key Governors and Senators from important states and began to collect delegates to make the convention quick and non scandalous.

He would to be inevitable until however he did face opposition in Thomas Marshall, more progressive governor from Indiana. He was to run on the Liberal side of the democratic party and gained the endorsement of the all important William Jennings Bryan who even offered to run as VP if he gained the nomination. He was able to gain traction and by the Primary's they were neck and neck.

There would to be 19 primary's in California, New York, New Hampshire, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, New Jersey, Oregon, Massachusetts, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Indiana, Maine, Iowa, West Virginia, and Vermont. In the First Primary of Iowa he won 55-43%. In New Hampshire Wilson won there 51-44% and in the following Indiana Primary Marshall won his state 73-27%. Wilson would go on to win New Jersey, Vermont, California, West Virginia, Massachusetts, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New York and Maryland plus Wisconsin. Marshall would take the Rest.

Going into the convention Wilson held a lead in 350 delegates and had won 4 more states then Marshall. However the delegate league Wilson had gotten not from the Primary's would put a end to Marshall as by the 4th ballot of the convention Marshall conceded to Wilson. In exchange Wilson gave Marshall the Vice Presidency and out of that the Wilson/Marshall ticket was born.



Woodrow Wilson 11 States 635,569 57.35%

Thomas Marshall 8 States 405,537 40.61%
1916 Socialists
Socialist Party 1916


Eugene Debs speaks to a crowd of 25,500 People at the 1916 Socialist Convention were he was nominated for president

The election of 1912 proved too be a one of the biggest upsets in polling in American political history. It didn't have to do with upsets relating to the Republican or Democratic but to do with the amount of electoral college votes the third party Socialist party would get. The Socialists that year got 50 Electoral Votes that year. 50 more then expected.

The Party failed to win any polls in any statewide polling during the campaign and the highest that was recorded was 33% in one Iowa Newspaper Poll. But as the results came in, the Socialist Party headed by there candidate Eugene V. Debs who was one of the founding members of the party and a 1 term Member of the Indiana Senate from the 8th district, was in for a delighted surprise. The party won Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Oklahoma which had been historically friendly to them, and Oregon. They came close in most mountain west states and some Great Plains and Midwest States too including also historically socialist friendly Wisconsin.

The Party proclaimed victory and the next day the official party Newspaper, The Worker, based out of New York's title proclaimed "Victory for Worker as Socialist Party wins record amount of Electoral and Popular Vote". Eugene Debs also commented when asked by reporters the following days about the result and the Washington Post Recorded him saying "We may not have been declared victorious yesterday but we have shown bourgeois class that the workers have had enough of two party politics".

The result itself sent shortwaves through the congress as with the election 10 more members of congress entered it and they weren't democrats or republicans. They were Socialists. They formed a "Socialist Caucus" and with some membership from more progressive democrats and republicans soon became a powerful left wing organization. The following 3 Years would prove rather quite for the socialist party. They spent that time continuing organizing in the states they won and more states to try to replicate and duplicate there victory in 1912.

In Late 1915 it was declared the Socialist convention would be held in Milwaukee, a city which went to the Socialists by 21% in 1912 and also a crucial swing state. The Socialists didn't have Primary's and instead the nominee would be chosen at the convention. The convention would be convened on April 2nd, 1916 to a crowd much larger then either the Republican or Democratic Party.

The crowd was estimated at the time by a reporter of a local Milwaukee newspaper at 25,500 people which was about 1,000 more then the estimated amount for the second largest convention which was the republican one. The Main contenders for the Nomination were Eugene Deb who was the 1912 Nominee and more moderate and nativist Allan Benson of Michigan. He declared that Class Struggle could be fought within a capitalist System alongside extreme nativism and isolationism and often used demagogic actions to show his point.

Debs disagreed and declared that no Capitalist System will ever be benefit able to the workers. He also was a extreme isolationist and nativist which took much steam from Benson. He however denounced his demagogic-try tactics. The Convention them began to vote and in the end the party showed overwhelming support for 5 time nominee of the party and one of the founders Eugene Debs.

It was settled on the third ballot with Debs well over the amount need to win and thus he was nominated. Debs in his speech to the convention declared that "never again shall the proletariat be subjugated to oppression and unnecessary wars from the ruling class".

The war he was talking about was World War One which by know was very unpopular among a overwhelming amount of Socialist and Left Wing Activists but still held a 57% Approval Rating. The Vice Presidential nominee was more of a mystery and there was wide spread debate.

The Main Contenders were Anti Militarist Writer and Activist George Ross Kirkpatrick and Emil Seidel who was the 1912 Nominee and former mayor of the city the convention was being hosted in. The decision was decided on the 10th ballot and George Ross Kirkpatrick was selected. The Debs/Ross Ticket was Born
1916 United States election campaign
1916 Presidential Campaign


Propaganda Stamps like these were used during the war to boost volunteership into the war


American Troops in Verdun preparing for Battle.

The presidential campaign pitted Republican president Theodore Roosevelt against Democratic candidate and 1912 Democratic primary and Vice presidential candidate Woodrow Wilson. The third party Socialist ticket of Eugene Debs also had become a major candidate after he and his party garnered 50 electoral votes and 19% of the popular vote in the 1912 election 4 years prior. The election was at the backdrop of World War 1 in which American Troops had started fighting in the fronts of the French and Middle Eastern Fighting Zones aiding the British and French in important battles and sieges.

In the Iraqi Front in which Roosevelt sent via enlistment and partial draft 35,000 troops to fight the Ottoman alongside British forces. American and British troops from the Homeland and British India pushed back the Ottoman Empire to Kut 99 miles southeast of Baghdad. The combined forces siege the area on December 1st, 1915 and fought several battles with the Ottomans there is try to take Kut and use that as a opening to occupy Baghdad and try to push to the Ottoman Homeland in Anatolia and kick them out of the War. American Forces finally breached the city and on March 10th after 4 days of open street to street fighting the combined allied forces took the city after a estimated 5,500 American Troops were killed. Several smaller battles also occurred in this area and Mesopotamia by Election Season in the United States had been mostly pacified. Baghdad was clear for the taking and would fall to British and American forces in September of 1916 and was seen as a Major victory for the Roosevelt Administration.

Meanwhile on the other front American Troops were deployed in the Northeast of France, there was a little less success. The first departure of American troops were to the United Kingdom to be sent to separate Trenches in different northern French city's to be armed and sent to battle. Roosevelt sent 59,000 professional armed forces and after a voluntary draft was set up and after some successful war propaganda on the part of his administration with famous posters like "Remember the Lusitania" and "Avenge the Dead" (With a Picture of the Lusitania and the number of Americans dead from that incident) more then 278,000 volunteers signed up and up to 210,000 American Troops were Trained and equipped and sent to the United Kingdom in February of 1916 to fight in Northern France.

They arrived in time for the mass ceasefire Late 1915 and Early 1916 had brought to France conflict and a official dead count of Americans produced on January 1 of 1916 showed only 526 had died, 437 from disease. The Major conflict to face the troops was in Verdun when on February 21st of 1916 German forces entered the ancient and strategic city of Verdun to try to force French forces into submission. The beginning German offensive would bring some success with German forces taking Fort Douaumont in the City of Verdun but French Troops proved to put up a fight and street fighting occurred as both sides then dug into trenches and German high command was shown that the capture of Verdun would not be easy. American troops were soon deployed to the area and helped the French receive up to 75,000 Men.

Back at home more then 50,000 American troops were being shipped to France by the Month mostly Voluntary. And in Verdun that helped the allied forces more then double the number of German troops in the City. But the Germans wouldn't budge and the Numbers of Americans Dead would reach the Tens of Thousands which wouldn't do so good for his approval ratings.

At April 25th, 1916 Poll by the Washington Post showed Approval for the War only at 54% down almost 20% since the start of the war and with that the Democratic Ticket of Woodrow Wilson called this out saying if elected president he would bring back American boys from the trenches and end the slaughter. He decided to buck the norm and instead actively campaign and did so most in the Midwest and Mountain West were Isolationism was still dominant.

The Socialists under Eugene Debs also took the growing unpopularity of the war and echoed many of the same sentiments. In a speech to a Detroit crowd, Debs fired up saying "And we have seen for almost a year now that Roosevelt doesn't care for revenge of any RMS Lusitania. He only cares for more imperialism and suit what he thinks a American Empire should be. Why should Tens of Thousands of More Soldiers die on Foreign soil because less then 2,000 died in the sinking of the Lusitania. Why should more Soldiers die then the number of American citizens that died on the Lusitania which caused the war in the first place. This i say is just another old capitalist war fought by and for the Bourgeois."

But Roosevelt would take none of this and campaigned just as hard on his support for the war then as the other candidates campaigned the opposite. He called for a swift and patriotic end to the war and said that the war would be over in less then 2 years and pointed in Mesopotamia to show to a quick end to a war front. He called the other candidates unpatriotic and wanting of the Americans in France to died in Vain. The War showed that Roosevelt had a deepening unpopularity with the swing block of German Americans in the Midwest and West in whole. This was due to his provoking of Anti-Germanism in the Beginning of the war to provoke it in the first place and also to many due to his still unjustified war on Germany.

This was a opening for Democrats and Socialists and especially the Socialists who took the most extreme Anti-War Stance and Debs campaigning throughout the Midwest brought tens of thousands to his campaign. It was June by now and the battle in Verdun was still at a stalement. German High command seeing the number of troops on the allied side sent 110,240 more troops to the Verdun battle which evened it out a little. Roosevelt in a speech in New York City said the Battle was a losing one for the Germans. And he was correct. The Germans had lost up to 103,000 more Troops too death then the allied forces and had retreated from there max territory in Verdun from 71% total control of Verdun to 50% by Mid June.

By this time Polls were being produced left and right. The Polls for President as of the most recent by then showed Roosevelt Averaging 42% of the Total Popular Vote to Wilson's 38% and Debs 16%. This was a worrying sign for Roosevelt and it wasn't helped when another one from the Washington Post showed Wilson in the lead with 43% to Roosevelt's 41%. He realized campaigning solely on the war and making the campaign solely about that would not make his chances any better. So instead he also started to campaign on his domestic policy's. His Progressive domestic policy's were very popular with America and he realized if he focused solely on that replicate his Domestic only 1904 and 1912 campaigns he could.

This was a very strange election in which the Democratic and Republican candidate but accepted the same Domestic Policy's. Wilson a Liberal himself supported many of the same policy proposals as Roosevelt and only offered improvements to the already existing policy's as did Roosevelt's. The Socialist platform also stated they agreed with many of Roosevelt's domestic administration however stated it was too moderate to benefit the worker and offered a radical agenda of a Full blown Social Democratic System bordering on Socialist itself.

Roosevelt campaigned on his record and also stated that he needed a congress to work with his other proposals like a Universal Healthcare System and called upon the people to elect with there new right to directly elect senators which was passed by the Roosevelt Administration to elect politicians who would fight for the people. And this brought his numbers back up. He stated in a August speech that the biggest fear Big Business had was 4 more years of his presidency stated the Democrats would bend over backwards to Big Business though not mentioning the Socialists. In a follow up speech Wilson rebuffed that and also stated how Roosevelt wanted to become a king with his unprecedented 3 terms and him wanted another and Debs noticed how he wasn't mentioned and stated that Roosevelt is a Pseudo Progressive. He and the Socialists were the real deal in terms of radicalness.

Back in France another battle had opened up at the Somme. British and American Forces faced off against German forces. The battle would prove to be deadly with up to 75,000 Americans Dead within the first 2 months to the outrage of many Americans. But that was offset went Roosevelt received a major victory when on September 15th, 1916 American and French Forces finally captured all of Verdun after about 8 months of fighting and hundreds of thousands dead. American death toll numbered about 180,500 though they like Roosevelt said did not die in vain as the allies captured the area as a major blow to Germany. It was mid October now and with the election just a few week left all that was left was vigorous campaigning.

However big news came in the victory at the Somme in Late October after 200,000 Americans Dead. With multiple major victory's at heavy prices the wars popularity bounced back to 57% and Roosevelt proclaimed victory was near. He even began to negotiate with some of the German High command on some sort of truce of peace deal with the Germans now definitely on the defensive though the Germans so far had refused any such peace deal.

He stated on October 30th that by Christmas next year American Soldiers will be celebrating Christmas in the squares of Berlin and Germany by that time next year will be free from the oppression of monarchy along with Austria and Hungary.

The final polls took place the day after Roosevelt stated that. The Washington Post showed Roosevelt in the Lead 43.3% to Wilson's 37.1% and Debs 19.2%. The New York Times showed 47.2% for Roosevelt to 36.9% for Wilson and 14.8% for Debs. The average of 11 newspapers showed Roosevelt on average 42.8% to Wilson's 36.8% to Debs 19.9%. And with that Election night of 1916 started.
1916 Presidential Election


1916: A Woodrow Wilson campaign truck offers New York City voters a summary of the 1916 Democratic platform.

The election for the President of the United States in 1916 occurred on a Tuesday on November 7th. A sunny but cold day throughout the United States; the re-election of President Theodore Roosevelt, who had already served 3 terms throughout the last 16 years, would be decided that day with the Democratic Challenger Wilson and Socialist third party candidate Eugene Debs both having hope on being elected president and were backed up by the polls with Wilson down on average but not by much and Debs polling higher then in 1912 and hoping for a Deadlock in the electoral college to elect him as a compromise candidate or better yet come first or second in the popular vote so by 1920 his party could either knock out one of the other major party's to become the official opposition party or hold enough popular support to grow off of a major socialist gain in 1916.

Early voting that year started in September in select areas in New England and Mid Atlantic. The small amount of votes that were indeed collected were enough to show that Roosevelt held the lead so far but this was to be expected as New England and the Mid Atlantic had been Republican leaning strongholds for decades now and for a matter of fact since the founding of the party in the 1850's with John Fremont winning all of New England plus New York in his 1856 run on the newly created republican party on which he call for "Free Men, Free Soil, and Fremont" a allure to his last name which as the word "Free" almost in the first part of his French-Canadian last name and also due to the fact that he call for staunch abolitionism.

Though he lost staunchly that election, the Republican Party would continue to grow and thrive and ever since those areas had been republican controlled and won at the Presidential and Congressional levels.

And both opposition party's knew this and rarely campaigned in the Mid Atlantic or New England besides a few visits to New York City or in Debs case holding 3 rally's in Boston, 5 in New York City, and 1 in both Hartford and 1 in Providence hoping his party could become the opposition to the Republicans in New England kicking out the democrats though knowing he would never win those New England states.

As Debs held the last rally of the Season in San Francisco midday on November 7th, polls began to close out east and by 7:30 PM the polls officially closed first in the country in Northern New England. The primarily use of transportation of information of election results this night like 1912 would be through radio, phones, and telegraphs which would be broadcasted on nearly all Radios and in Public Squares in many big city's and towns including New York City in Times Square and in the Wall Street Sector, Washington DC in many of it squares and multiple city's out west including San Francisco which were getting delayed information.

The First results came in 15 minutes after poll closing and it was reported by counters in the Northern New England states that Roosevelt had won them bigly. The Final Results for the Three States would be: Vermont 76.5% for Roosevelt to 21.8% for Wilson and 11.4% for Debs. In New Hampshire the final count was 63.8% for Roosevelt, 32.5% for Wilson, and 3.9% for Debs. In Maine the count was the Highest in the Nation for Roosevelt with 80.0% for Roosevelt, 11.2% for Wilson, and 7.9% for Debs.

The Results so far were unsurprising as all states were heavily republican strongholds and that didn't change tonight though with some Roosevelt gains. The States would be put on a giant piece of board put up in time square to track each candidates states they won and was 3-0-0 for Roosevelt.

At 8 PM the rest of New England was reported in the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. All of these were considered states the Roosevelt would win and they were right. By 8:30 PM all three states were called for Roosevelt by smaller then expected margins but still good for the President. Connecticut was 51.3% for Roosevelt, 42.1% for Wilson, and Debs way back at 6.2% for Debs. Massachusetts was 47.9% for Roosevelt 40.1% for Wilson 10.2% for Debs. Rhode Island was 45.3% for Roosevelt, 39.2% for Debs, and 14.3% for Debs.

The reaction from the results when reported was seen as a major blow to the Debs team as they failed to get anything close to second place in the popular vote in any of the three states and his rally's in the states seemed to have no result in fact getting lower results in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1912. It was 6-0-0 so far.

By 9:45 PM the Mid Atlantic Polls closed and by 10 PM first results came in from New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. New York which was a crucial swing state at with more then a quarter coming mostly from downstate showed Roosevelt leading 54% to Wilson's 30% and Debs 16% which was a large lead for Roosevelt but the areas to come in down state were favorable to Roosevelt as a Republican in the suburbs.

In Wilson's home state of New Jersey he was leading 45% to Roosevelt's 43% and Debs 10%. In Pennsylvania Roosevelt was leading 59% to Wilson's 27% and was called for Roosevelt and had not been a contested swing state. In the end the state would go to Roosevelt 43.1% to Wilson's 30.4% and Debs 25.9%. In Delaware, a swing state, the results came in fast due to its small size and was actually called by 10:10 PM with Roosevelt winning 45-40% over Wilson and Debs at 15%.

At 10:30 PM the Souths extremely segregated polls closed in both the upper and lower south. The States of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Maryland were all called instantly for Wilson all by different margins with Wilson winning 93% in South Carolina while winning by 50% in Maryland. Missouri, Kentucky, and West Virginia were too close to call at that moment.

Meanwhile at 10:45 PM it was announced Wilson would Carrie his home state of New Jersey which was a partial blow to Roosevelt wanting to absolute crush Wilson everywhere including his home state to make sure he would never make it to the presidency or dare rune again. He won 41% to Roosevelt's 38% and Debs 20%. 10 minutes later the state of Missouri was called for Wilson while Kentucky was called for Roosevelt in a gain from 1912.

At 11 PM he also won the State of West Virginia as another gain. And a half hour later he won the crucial swing state of New York which was his home state 42% to Wilson's 32% and Debs 25%. Also at 11 PM the states of the Midwest closed there polls too in the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. All states were too close to be called and weren't called. It was seen in early exits that Debs had made some gains with German American and Isolationist Midwestern voters in the region which made it that close. The tally board at that time in Time square was 14-11-0 as Wilson had won 3 more states then Roosevelt though that was due to the states from the south coming in for Wilson. The vote total right now was 166-151-0 for Wilson-Roosevelt-Debs.

At 11:30 PM the state of Ohio was called for Roosevelt at 40.1% to Wilson's 32.0% and Debs 27.1% with the Electoral votes now at 175 to 166 for Roosevelt who was now in the lead. The results so far looked good for Roosevelt and his campaign team in New York City were hoping for good returns out west and in the Midwest to finish the election and give it to them.

Wilson's team in Virginia meanwhile were also optimistic and were happy they won New Jersey and Maryland which were contested though not so much with Kentucky and West Virginia which they though they had in the bag. But they thought it would be over after the west in William Jennings Bryan fashion in 1896 went to Wilson overwhelming due to the war and wrap it up for Wilson. Debs team in Milwaukee meanwhile were excited about the great gains they have been reported about in the Midwest which they think they can gain electoral votes from 1912.

At 11:45 PM the Great Plains States had done reporting and were greatly contested by all campaigns. The first states to be called was Nebraska, the home of George W. Norris which was his primary rival and which was reported to have stuck with Roosevelt like in 1912. At 12 PM on November 8th, the states of Indiana and Michigan again stuck with Roosevelt after fierce contention in both states by Eugene Debs who made a big appeal in both states with the first being his home state. He made gains in the state coming second in both. The electoral college was now at 213 for Roosevelt and 166 for Wilson with Roosevelt ever so creeping towards the 266 mark to win the election.

At 12:13 PM the states of Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin were called for Debs by varying margins. Debs won Minnesota 44% to Roosevelt's 33%, Iowa 41% to Roosevelt's 35%, and Wisconsin which was a gain from 1912 39% to Roosevelt's 31%. At 12:30 PM the states of Kansas and Oklahoma were called for Wilson. A gain of one state, Oklahoma, from the Socialists who lost some ground here and lost the state to Wilson 37%-35% and when reported was a loss for the Debs campaign in Milwaukee. 10 minutes later Illinois was called for Roosevelt 34% to Debs who surprisingly came in second place and won Cook County's 33%.

Illinois had been a state the Socialist party had been aiming to win or make gains in and tonight was clearly a gain in Illinois for the Socialists. And in more good news the Socialists in the Legislature in Illinois gained massively. So far the Election was 242-186-38. The tally in Times square was 16-16-3 for Wilson-Roosevelt-Debs.

At 1 am the Dakotas were called and North Dakota went to Debs like in 1912 and South Dakota in a upset went in Roosevelt with 42% of the vote to Debs 40%. A gain of 1 for Roosevelt and minus 1 for Eugene Debs.

At 1:30 AM out east the polls in the mountain west were polled. This had become a swing region due to the war and the two opposition party's fully capitalized on that. Instantly Colorado fell to Wilson in a gain from 1912 and so did New Mexico which was a swing state. A half hour later Utah was called for Wilson at 39% for him to Roosevelt's 38%. With there being few remaining states and Roosevelt at only 247 electoral votes a replay of 1912 played. Could Roosevelt or Wilson secure the necessary 266 Electoral votes to win or will it be contested due to Debs. This was put to the test. In Wyoming, Roosevelt won there .

At 3 am Roosevelt won Montana and 25 minutes late Wilson won Idaho.
1916 Election results
1916 Election continued

The Final set of states to be called were the west coast states. Nevada was instantly called for Wilson. Oregon which went for Debs in 1912 went to Roosevelt this time and Washington which went to Roosevelt last time went to Debs in a reversal of Northwestern states. The electoral college was now at 259-206-50 for Roosevelt-Wilson-Debs and it was now 6 AM and Morning was being set up over New York City and Boston.

California and Arizona were outstanding and too close to call and Roosevelt won California then he wins. If he loses California but wins Arizona its a contested election. If Wilson wins both its a contested election. California was the home of his running mate Hiram Johnson and Roosevelt had personally campaigned in San Francisco and Los Angeles. He thought he had it in the bag but was still too close to call due to Debs amazing performance there.

The Election in California was 37% for Roosevelt to Wilson's 36.5% and Debs at 26.1%. 2 hours later the state of Arizona was called for Wilson with 90% in and Wilson at 41% to Roosevelt's 40% and Debs 19%. With California as the only state left many recounts were put into the state and there was no winner.

Finally in Early December of 1916 the final count was published and Roosevelt was in the lead with .29%. Roosevelt was declared the winner of the state and then the election. Wilson and Debs then conceded. Roosevelt won the election 272-209-50 over his Rivals and won a fourth term in a seemly crazy election.

Theodore Roosevelt (R-NY) /Hiram Johnson (R-CA): 272 Electoral Votes, 40.46%

Woodrow Wilson (D-NJ) /Thomas Marshall (D-IN): 209 Electoral Votes, 37.92%

Eugene Debs (S-IN) /George Ross Kirkpatrick (S-NJ): 50 Electoral Votes, 20.19%
1916 Congressional results
Congressional Elections 1916

United States Senate elections, 1916

Democratic Party: First Majority Leader and Senator from Indiana John W. Kern - 50 Seats -5 from 55 Seats

Republican Party: Unofficial leader Jacob H. Gallinger - 40 Seats +2 Seats from 38 Seats

Socialist Party: Minority Leader Upton Sinclair - 6 Seats +3 from 3 Seats


- New York to Republican William M. Calder 39%-35%
- New Jersey to Republican Joseph S. Frelinghuysen 45%-41%
- Arizona to Socialist W. S. Bradford 34%-32% over Democratic incumbent Henry F. Ashurst
- Nevada to Socialist Ashley G. Miller over Democratic incumbent Key Pittman 45%-32% over Democratic rival
- Montana to Socialist Henry La Beau over Democratic incumbent Henry L. Myers 37%-35% over Democratic rival

- Ohio to Republican Myron T. Herrick over Democratic incumbent Atlee Pomerene 43%-42%
- Utah to Democrat William H. King over Incumbent Republican George Sutherland 42%-39%

United States House of Representatives elections, 1916

Democratic Party: Champ Clark - 223 Seats -8 Seats from 230

Republican Party: James Mann - 199 Seats +3 Seats from 196

Socialist Party: John Reed - 12 Seats +11 Seats from 1

Prohibition Party: Charles H. Randall - 1 Seats +0 Seats from 1

Summary - Socialists gain moderately in the Senate and the House of Representatives moreso then any other party's. Republicans win very slightly in both branches of Congress but not more then 10 seats/states. Big Democratic losses in the Senate due to Socialist and Republican kicking out of 5 Democratic incumbents. Democrats lose 8 seats in the House but are still a majority party there, though weakened and less able to properly control the house vote.
State of the Political Party's and their wings by 1916
State of the Party's (Procrastination until next official update tomorrow):

Republican Party: Officially Centrist. Strong progressive wing lead by President Theodore Roosevelt and Robert La Follette Sr. among others. Republicans of this form had been around since the founding of the party with many Radical Republicans being of such Progressive nature. Lincoln could of been argued to being a progressive type due to his big government actions in his term and statements including:

""Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration. Capital has its rights, which are as worthy of protection as any other rights."
- December 3rd, 1861 Message to Congress

However besides him, these people did not gain much power within the party as the prevailing consensus of the party in that time of Unionism and Classical Liberalism. This only came crashing down when the Panic of 1893 brought more progressive thought to america in both major party's. In the Democratic party, they had absorbed the populist party and with that nominated William Jennings Bryan. While in the Republican Party they nominated William McKinley, a conservative in a attempt to return to a status pre-panic quo. However he was forced to appeal to all of the Party and so nominated more progressive and reform focused governor of New York Teddy Roosevelt in 1900. This was perfect opportunity for his faction and with his death he became president in 1901. He soon instituted his progressive agenda and the faction became one of the dominant in the party. He would later win in 1904 and his Progressive republican friend William Howard Taft would win in 1908 and finally TR would win again in 1912 in his fourth bid for the presidency.

Meanwhile the also prevalent but weakening conservative faction lead by Elihu Root and Philander C. Knox was trying to regain control but couldn't and so many retreated to the Democrats. They were the original dominant faction of the party since its founding. They advocated Classical Liberalism, Unionism, and Stability which was delivered for most of the Late 1800s and Early 1900s under there rule. They were defeated at the ballot by Roosevelt in 1904 who formed his faction and continued defeat in 1908 when the progressive and maybe a little more establishment friendly William Taft was nominated and won in a 8.6% and 159 Electoral Vote routing. During his term he would bust more trusts then his predecessor did. They wouldn't have any more success in 1912 as TR was nominated again in a contested convention and 1916 no different as TR was renominated with ease and re-elected. They hope for a do or die comeback in 1920.

Democratic Party: Officially Centrist. Party divided between Democratic Liberals lead by Populist and three time party nominee William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson and among others. These people first appeared in 1896 under the guise of WJB Populist revolt within the party. They would soon become the dominate faction within the party and turn the party into one of progressive populism and nominated three times WJB who was defeated at all three attempts each worse then the other. They faced decline with the rise of the conservatives in the party and the nomination of Champ Clark who wasn't exactly like WJB showed this. Wilson's nominated gave this faction a sigh of relieve.

The other factions were the Conservatives to Moderates in the Party lead by more moderate leaders including Speaker Clark of Missouri and most of the Southern league of the party along with most Northeastern Democrats were they are known as Bourbon Democrats. These democrats first appear after the Civil War and accumulated in control of the party between 1876 and 1896. The takeover first happened when Samuel Tilden of New York took the party by storm to be nominated. A reformer he promised change within the party and backed it up with his time as New York Governor. Although he held the backing of labor (And with that Big City Machines) and many liberals within the party his reform was not of any big governmental change in the system instead of to decrease governmental regulation in the average citizens life to increase business activity and he was a multi millionaire himself. He would lose in somewhat shady ways (See 1876 compromise) but his new faction would soon dominate the party and every candidate after him till Cleveland was a part of his faction.

The faction reached its peak under Grover Cleveland himself when he won two nonconsecutive terms by large margins segmented bourbon democratism as one of the major ideology's of the nation. Towards the end of his second terms ruffing began within the party from the more populist and progressive factions of the party who wanted to nominated a populist democrat with both democrat and populist party approval. This was after the Panic of 1893 as Progressive policy's began to become more popular over the consensus classical liberalism of the country since well its founding. These people got there way and in 1896 the Party nominated total unknown dark hoarse Nebraska congressmen William Jennings Bryan who soared the convention that year with his now famous cross of gold speech in which he called for bimetallism as a way out of depression. Some Bourbon Democrats that year known as Gold Democrats then voted for William McKinley who was the Republican nominee and some even bolted to the third party John Palmer (Former Governor of Illinois) candidacy running under the National Democratic Party.

He would lose the election that year decisively that year but it became known from then on out that faction of Bourbonism that had controlled the party since 1896 would be coming to a end as the Liberals and Populists under WJB would win the Party's nomination in 1900 and 1908 with a exception of 1904 when the final gasp of the Bourbon faction nominated Alton Parker. He won lose handily to then one term president Theodore Roosevelt in a big landslide and so the faction died with him. The faction seemed dead forever until 8 years later when Champ Clark revived them with his victory in the party primary's and nomination. He ran on a more Progressive Platform however very obviously was alluded to being a Bourbon Democrat due to his moderate ways and also he campaigning of return to the days of Democratic rule in the United States and Presidents like Grover Cleveland and actively positioned himself against Roosevelt as the Candidate of Classical Liberalism and Moderate Social Progress.

The Conservative and Moderate Democrats in the North and South saw this and reconvened and in congress formed different caucuses of democrats of these ideology's with the largest being the "Bourbon Caucus" of over 13 Senators in the Senate and 94 members in the House. And they were growing too due to the fact that many republicans in that campaign switched to the democratic party including many congressmen and senators. After Roosevelt's third term and the increasingly progressive nature of the Republican Party many didn't return and so the faction mentioned was growing rapidly.

They received a small bump in 1916 when Liberal Wilson was elected but versus the Liberal Roosevelt Republicans and Socialists who were off the scale in leftism to these people, these congresspeople and senators saw a chance for the democrats to return to the party of Jackson and limited government to position themselves as the true economically conservative party of all three major current party then. They saw this as the best way for there party to remain being absorbed into the other party's and have a identity. Three left wing party's in the United States which occurred in 1916 would mean the death of a party or two into one left wing party and they knew it.

Socialist Party: The Socialists were a newly formed party first formed in July 29th of 1901 succeeding Socialist Labor and the Social Democratic Party. They were founded on the idea of American Socialism and represented or at least hope to represent the factory workers, labor unions, and farmer against the bourgeois ruling class which they thought had ruined the country for a long time. They say both party's as being ruled by them and called themselves the true Left wing alternative. They were lead by co founder and many time party nominee Eugene V. Debs of Indiana. In there short time of existence they have gained many seats in the house, mayorships in places like Milwaukee, and also senate seats in many Midwest and western states.

After failing to get much of the vote in 1904 and 1908 they had there big break in 1912 when a favorable climate allowed them to win 19% of the vote and 50% in multiple states. They gained much of there congressional representation after this and repeated this with a good performance in 1916 with about the same electoral votes and slightly bigger popular vote. However they have a problem going forward which is to find a way to break through 20% of the vote and kick out either republicans or democrats too become a second party or better yet a majority party however they will need new leadership to move into the 1920's and as will be shown into the future will not appear.
1917 in World Politics
The Year was 1917


1916 United States Congress in Session

After a grueling election season Theodore Roosevelt was re-elected with 40% of the vote and 272 electoral votes. Though far from a popular and electoral mandate, it was enough and so he won yet another term. In the House and Senate, there was good news for Roosevelt as the obstructionist Democratic senate and house which had plagued him oh so very much for a large part of his third term was ever so weakened in favor of slight republican gains.

However that wasn't the real reason he had gained from those elections, the senators and house members that lost were mostly of the Bourbon Democratic kind while mostly liberal democrats were able to secure victory. This was helpful in his building of a coalition of Liberals and Progressives from all sides of the political world. This along with 2 more republicans which were both guaranteed Republican voting no matter what was able to create almost enough for a so called 'Roosevelt Coalition" which would pass all the legislation he desired.

The real people who pushed him over the edge were the Socialist Party who gained 11 seats in the house and 3 senate seats. Although there numbers proved small, they were valuable in a government this close in party membership. Every sing one of them were on the left as the party name would imply however they proved to be more flexible in providing votes to left wing causes in the house and senate. In December of 1916 after the election for example John Reed who had just been elected as Socialist Minority leader for the House declared officially that the almost all new socialists members that would be coming into office the next March of 1917 when the inauguration would happen would support Roosevelt's Universal Healthcare bill which was still in limbo at the moment.

The bill which was almost dead resurfaced post election given the results and a new vote would be expected in April of 1917 following the inauguration of house members and senators to Government. Roosevelt was very much pleased by this decision and would soon begin to have meetings with top socialists in the house. Although he wasn't a socialist an in fact despised many, he knew he needed there votes and they came to many agreements all in a whole saying that the president was guaranteed most socialist votes on all bills and legislation that they deemed would help the worker and raise there living standard. This agreement would later go down in history as a important part of the Roosevelt administration known officially as the "Congresspeople and Senators for the betterment of the living standards of the proletariat" and included all socialist party members but one and stated they would agree to the terms reached by Roosevelt and Socialist party leaders.

This officially occurred around New Year and 1917 was a new year which was expected to bring even more struggle to america. All of this was happening while congress was still not in government yet so this was not known publicly yet. Meanwhile over in conservative circles there was talks of the fact that congress and the senate could not be controlled any more due to the majority of the Left wing in both houses. The senate could only be controlled if the Democratic party became the party of themselves and voted all the same way. However they controlled only 50 seats and it was almost impossible for them to vote all the same way with nearly half of there members being of the Bryanite wing. All speaker Champ Clark was glad about was due to the fact that he kept his job as the speaker of the house.

On March 20th, 1917 was Roosevelt's fourth inauguration to the white house. Like his other ones, he wanted to make it big and he make it a official event allowing anyone to come to watch. And because of this thousands flooded the streets of Washington DC to hear what he had to say. He was sweared in by Republican Willis Van Devanter (The supreme court is a 7-2 Republican Super Majority) and so was his Vice President Hiram Johnson. He had prepared a speech that day. Although the audio recording which had taken place is loss to history, his script still remains. To the audience he declared "Last year you saw it all unfold. Every single Big Money interest was against me and they still lost by a fair amount. They lost however the people win again and will keep winning by much under my administration. In my last term we saw the average living standards of the industrial worker and farmer and factory worker go up by amounts never seen in the history of our great country. In my last term we saw women getting universal suffrage of which they so desperately deserve and demand in a free nation as which we are in. In my last term cooperate business lost timeless amounts of control over the government and control over the civilian in the worker-ship of that business. In my last term you saw victory across the Atlantic ocean in the war in France in Verdun and the Somme. We will continue to avenge the men and women who died in the Lusitania and in the trenches with a continued victory in the french land under my new term. We will continue to grow the living standards of the citizens under my new administration too." The speech went on for about 34 minutes which was much shorter then his last one in 1912. He also appeared visibly tired and held short term breath however he declared he was fine after the speech to newspapers.

So he got to work as he returned to the White House. His first order of business was to reevaluate his cabinet and to decide if he were to change it. He decided too do so. He had kept his cabinet as it was for all of terms which was very rare in presidential politics. He found them to be effective at there jobs and non-controversial. However with more public support from the other parts of government he decided to kick out appeasements to the establishment and replace them with his own picks instead. In secretary of agriculture he replaced Herbert Hoover with Henry C. Wallace (Henry A. Wallace Father). He replaced Secretary of War Henry Cabot Lodge with Military General John J. Pershing more in line with his interventionism. He replaced Secretary of State Robert Bacon win Julius Kahn who was also more in line with military use and for the war.

Theodore Roosevelt's Cabinet
Secretary of State - Julius Kahn
Secretary of the Treasury - William Borah
Secretary of War - John J. Pershing
Attorney General - Charles J. Bonaporte
Postmaster General - Clarence Mackay
Secretary of the Navy - Truman Handy Newberry

Secretary of the Interior - James Cox
Secretary of Agriculture - Henry C. Wallace
Secretary of Labor - Robert M. La Follette Sr.
Secretary of Commerce - Samuel Gompers

The changes were quick and the Senate quickly confirmed all the picks with no major backlash except from the isolationist caucus which disliked the use of a active general in the cabinet. They were squashed though. With that out of the way he could get to work with the 65th United States Congress. As planned the first major legislation to come up was Roosevelt's almost 3 year old Universal Healthcare bill.

The bill had failed at all times in his third term due to a coalition against it however with the Socialists in the mix, he felt like he could push it through and out the senate and house doors into mainstream life. In September of 1916 he decided to revive the bill and so pushed it into committee. It stalled for some time due to the election however finally went through and expected to be voted on in the house 1 month after inauguration on April 5th, 1917. The bill was finally voted on for the third time in the House first. During the second time it had passed the house but not the second. He was hoping the senate was more friendly this time. The votes came in and in finally the official tally was 246 For to 187 against with 2 abstaining.

With a clear majority it went into the Senate on May 13th, 1917 after soon delays by conservatives in the senates who said the bill was unamerican and should stop in the house and die there. It was unsuccessful and in a coalition of Liberal Democrats, Republicans, and all Socialists it came too 53 for the bill against 47 against the bill. With success there and in the house the President signed the bill into Law on June 10th and would be enacted in Mid 1918. The bill faced harsh criticism by conservatives for giving the government too much power but with no power in his government or in congress they couldn't do anything. 10 days later he pushed in H.R 284 also known as the Espionage Act.

It would stated: "To convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies will be punishable by death or by imprisonment for not more than 25 years or both. To convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies when the United States is at war, to cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or to willfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States is punishable by a maximum fine of $25,000 or by imprisonment for not more than 20 years or both."

This would make criticism for the war null and would quite radicals which he said were trying to destroy the war effort and actively subverting our soldiers in France. This ill faced wide spread criticism from many left of center calling it a disgrace to free speech along with the Daily Worker which was the official Socialist Party Newspaper saying its "A suppression of the rights we hold dear".

Many conservatives also disproved of it with members echoing what many on the left were saying. But these were the fringes and most on the left and right supported the bill along with most Americans. Roosevelt said it didn't suppress free speech but instead protected american soldiers interests overseas of winning the battles. The bill passed the house 289-146 and the Senate 55-44-1 and was enacted on July 1st, 1917.
The Year was 1917 continued

Robert La Follette a member of his cabinet called Roosevelt out on the bill calling it "unprogressive". Roosevelt who still was his friend respected his opinion but still shot back saying "Its the only way towards a honorable peace". He didn't receive a single Socialist vote in the House or Senate during the voting of the bill and failed to receive a majority of Liberal Democrats either but did with Republicans.

A August through October recess occurred and during this Theodore Roosevelt approved via executive action and power many national and statewide parks in his quest for conservation of national resources in the form of government protected national parks. After that from October to December his next major piece of legislation was a strengthening of the Sherman Anti-Trust act which he wanted to also insure protection of consumers non-monopoly corporations setting standards on what corporations (not small business) could do regarding the treatment of its workers making it illegal to work in conditions which would cause death due to health risk and also he intended to close loopholes which corporations had used with the Act in the presidency's before his and others not including in the preceding Workers rights act which did its good but Roosevelt thought not enough. It entered the house named "Strengthening and Ensuring of Consumer Protection in the Sherman Anti-Trust Act". It was well receive by most moderates and liberals in all party's and when it went to the house in October 3rd it passed 316-119 and the Senate on October 8th 64-32-4 and was signed into law on October 10th.

In November and December multiple minor legislation was passed mostly as revisions or as acts in local affairs and this time was only known in the congress except for on December 18th when a amendment to declare the sale, manufacturer and consumption of alcohol was passed and it was added as a 18th amendment on December 18th, 1918 after the state of Nevada ratified it.

Meanwhile during this the war was still occurring. In the Western Front the Americans, French and British launched a all around offensive on German positions in north France. It was a decisive allied victory and Germans retreat miles in northern France. British forces at the Battle of Messines defeat German forces in Flanders, Belgium. At the Third Battle of Ypres, Americans, British, Belgium, and French forces fight the German forces for three months from July 31 - October 23 when the Allied forces finally break the German lines and force then out. In October the French defeat the Germans at the Battle of La Malmaison but allied forces are defeated by a massive German army of 216,000 at the Battle of Cambrai.

In Mesopotamia which was the other front in which allied forces had been fighting, in early 1917 American-British forces enter Baghdad in Iraq after big resistance. For the rest of 1917 the allied forces would advance around Baghdad not advancing north towards Mosul which was heavily fortified which was too much for the force which was in Mesopotamia. A top American general in Late 1917 call upon Roosevelt to sent more Troops to this front which he did with 55,000 more soldiers.

In Late December of 1917 it was cold and partial snowy in Baltimore when Theodore Roosevelt was giving a speech on the effects and enactment of his successful Universal Healthcare bill. Half way through the speech he became noticeably shaky and short term in breathing. He collapse 17 minutes in on the stage he was standing on. He was rushed in a Ford T. back to Washington to get him to his Doctors. It was January 1st, 1918.
1918 in World Politics
The Year was 1918


Mass German defections in the First World War

The President was down. It was 1 day after New Year 1918. Theodore Roosevelt had not been seen for a whole day. The nation was in shock. The President was in the White House being operated on by his doctors. His personal physicians were some off the best in the country at that time and did everything they could to revive him. Which Roosevelt unable to act out his job, it was decided by top cabinet members that Hiram Johnson, the vice president should take over and command the nation as Roosevelt was unable to do so. Around noon January 2nd, Hiram Johnson was briefed on the President's condition.

It was found that the President had developed a moderate form of Pulmonary embolism or Blood clot in the Lungs. It was very lethal at the time however did to his presidential status and the ability to host a whole team of physicians to operate on him lowered mortality. Hiram Johnson was also told of a experimental procedure by German Surgeon Friedrich Trendelenburg on the treatment of Pulmonary embolism. He first created it in 1872 and although all of his patients still died within 36 hours, he had perfected in the last 40 years and was almost sure it could last. He would told of this condition and the surgeon who was in England at the time was rushed over by boat to Washington DC. He brought over with himself pupil Martin Kirschner and together they thought this could work for the first time.

After consuming all of this, Hiram Johnson stood up out of his chair he was sitting in and was greeted by three men who walked into his office. He was told he was to be sweared in as temporary president as the real president was being operated on. He put his hand on the bible and like oh so many presidents before him he swore to defend and protect the constitution of the United States. At age 51, he was a fairly young president though not anywhere near the likes of age compared to TR who was in his early 40's when he took office when William McKinley was shot by a Polish anarchist. In his first act of President he declared all public government buildings to be shut down for a day due to TR condition.

On that same day he picked up on where he had left off in the congress trying to push through the bills TR had proposed to congress that were being stalled. On of these was the creation of a act to, along with the direct election of elected officials which was covered in the 17th amendment, was the addition of the initiative, referendum, and recall to the national vocabulary and to give the people more power over there democracy in Johnson's words. The bill entering the House as H.R 94 was quickly supported by a overwhelming majority of the senate including many unfriendly faces to the administration including Champ Clark and a "Rally behind the president" effect occurred. The bill was voted on January 5th and passed 374 yea to 60 nay and 1 abstaining. Only the hardliners lead by Philander Knox were against it calling it "against Jeffersonian Principals". It entered the senate too days later and passed 64 to 36 nay with none abstaining. It was signed into law a day later and was quickly accepted by most people.

Hiram also took this time as president in a incredibly popular time to get some of his own isolationist agenda done. He withdrew up to 10,000 "Unnecessary" soldiers in the middle east and up to 20,000 in France. He then asked congress to lower spending into the war effort but failed the House 51-45 on January 9th as these moves were considered contrary to what Roosevelt wanted who was still incredibly popular in america even if he wasn't the president. A New York Times poll showed that 73% of participants responded a positive attitude to the Roosevelt administration. The Hiram Johnson administration was also polled and still received a good 67% positive approval. With his defeat in his isolationist agenda he was resigned to sit in the shadow of the former president who had been done with surgery for 2 days now and had been unconscious for those two days in a coma.

In all account, surgery for that time had been a overwhelming successful with Roosevelt still responding physically with breathing but in a potato state. Martin Kirschner would later recount in his 1932 memoir "The Breslau Surgeon" "The President [Theodore Roosevelt] had been inactive and in a vegetable like state for all i can count 120 hours. He was not responding to basic stimuli including speech, sensations to the skin, wetness [ext..]. He did however allow for the consumption of water who however wasn't able to drink the water, was able to consume it. Consumption's of food could not be done". The President would wake up 5 days (120 hours) after operation on January 9th. He was extremely weak and could not stand and so was bedridden. But the story of his survival from the surgery was a major medical success becoming the first successful patient of the operation since its inception. News got out to the press and the next days top headlines read "Roosevelt Alive!".

He would be bedridden for the next 2 weeks and was still incapable of performing the official job which was still being done by Hiram Johnson. Roosevelt was briefed on all the legislation and executive actions the temporary president had done. He was mostly impressed with his work but was distressed by Hiram's supposing backstabbing on the war trying to cut funding too it. Though it failed, he did not like he tried in the first place. He knew they did not share the same opinion on the war but he expected while there was a chance he was alive to act like he was in regards to the war. After some talk the too reached a understanding agreeing too not take any action against Johnson when he was take in the top job.

And that happened in the first week of February. In the second shortest presidency 3 days longer then William Henry Harrison's Hiram Johnson resigned back to the Vice Presidency and Roosevelt was back in charge. He took no time to get used to the job and quickly got to his first act: A 50% increase in war funding in both fronts of the first world war which was passed with the congress with some isolationist and all Socialist members opposition and also the senate with the same situation.

On February 25th, Mosul was captured by Allied forces in Mesopotamia. With this and allied forces take all of the Hejaz and Palestine and the talk of a major allied offensive through Greece, the Ottoman Empire realized they were on a losing side and began to talk with American and British ambassadors on a good peace for them if they leave the war and aid the allied effort. Meanwhile on the French front the German High Command decided to go all or nothing on one last Spring offensive with the most troops in the war 370,000 on the offensive alone.

The Germans pushed back the allied front lines by miles catching them by surprise and advancing all the way to the Marne River. The second battle of the Marne occurs between April 19th and May 11th. The Germans are absolutely decimated by the allied coalition of up to 150,000. The Germans lose up to 210,000 men and retreat to the trench lines behind the ones at the Marne however the army faces mass defection of the German lower ranks. They are defeated battle after battle and retreat all the way to Belgium by June. Central Power hopes were not helped when the Ottoman Empire after months of negotiation agreed with the allied ambassadors at the Treaty of Cairo. The Ottoman accept the British administration of a new Iraqi colony along with a new colony in Palestine. The Hejaz would be declared a independent Arab State. The Ottoman's would give reparations to British, French, American, and Russian Governments and alow for free allied movements throughout there lands. In exchange the allies end any more advances and accept Ottoman rule over remaining lands. Allied forces poured through Ottoman Thrace and Bulgaria would be overrun through Greece and Thrace and surrender to allied forces on May 27th.

Austria-Hungary faced massive rebellion in Hungary and Slavic territory's and the Yugoslav Kingdom was declared in Croatia and Slovenia. Allied forces advance to Sarajevo and took it on June 15th. Facing a military coup the Empire surrender to allied forces on June 21st. Germany was now all alone but the Germans would not surrender. Out east while Germany defeated Russia which had entered rebellion in Early 1916 by the Bolshevik party under Vladimir Lenin, rebellions in Poland, Ukraine, and the Baltic's weakened Germany Greatly. Out west the Empire had been pushed from France and was not trying to protect Brussels from Allied attack.

The relations at home between the Emperor and the People were worse the those conditions. British imperial blockade lead to massive inflation and a poor economy and revolutionary activity was abundant through the major city's. A spark occurred in July 19th when the imperial guard killed 19 protesters protesting the war in Berlin. This was the last straw and revolution occurred through the streets of Berlin. All of Berlin was occupied by this and the Revolutionary Germans Army was formed based in Berlin. It seized the Reichstag and killed most of the remaining delegates and representatives. The Emperor retreated to the Netherlands and Germany was in anarchy.

The Allies took Brussels on July 17th. On July 22nd the German High Command surrendered and Germany surrendered to the allies. World War I was over but the impact it left in Europe was devastating. Not only had it left all country's left of the Rhine in Rebellion, it was the deadliest in European history killing close to 25 million and wounding 35 million others. This was a major boost to the President and wrote to the press how he had kept his promise that the war would be over within his second term. He declared it to be the Unites States Patriotic duty to win the war and now that it did declared that deaths of those hundreds of thousands of Americans dead had been avenged.

The wars popularity boosted back up to 75% now that it had been won and Roosevelt's critics of the war went quiet. The president due to his weak condition was not seen alot but that was made up to his outbursts to the press as seen here. Now that it was over Europe would be decided by the allies and he sent a delegate over to London (since he was too weak) in a meeting with all allied powers to see how the peace should happen. It was decided that a peace treaty would be in order by January of next year too be decided in Paris which had been a major battle for during the war and had been bombed partially.
1918 Congressional Races
Roosevelt celebrated the wars victory with a a few rally's in the major Northeastern city's and the Midwest. He was much less of a bull moose then usually and sat down quite a lot and breathed slowly. He was okay but less energetic which should be expected from age and a major surgery that Roosevelt had endured. He passed a spree of acts though like the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, Suspected "Radicals" immigration act, and Child Labor Strengthening act, ext.. He also made the Grand Canyon a official national park on September 29th, 1918. But his health then began to visibility decline again. He was reported to have fainted multiple times every two days, was much less energetic, and visibly ill. And he also had trouble breathing.

Many men in Washington knew his death was coming and that started to call Hiram Johnson the President again. A Washington Post sub headline even read "Can we say President Johnson again?". He went to sleep on October 10th only to never wake up the next day. He had developed another blood clot over night and died from it. He was awoken only not to be. He was dead and news of this spread like wildfire. At the age of 59, the Aging Bull Moose had given out. 1912 Democratic Vice Presidential running mate Thomas Marshall said "Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been a fight."

Hiram Johnson was sweared in the President of the United States again after his 33 day reign earlier that year. Mass mourning occur and like earlier declared a national public holiday and closed all government buildings in morning. All sides of the political spectrum payed there respects with the Daily Worker saying "Theodore Roosevelt and the plight and the worker is a difficult connection however he was definitely no enemy" and Philander Knox saying "I respected him as a person". November went by fast as the country was in a state of limbo after the presidents death. The country did not know much without TR as president.

For the last 16 years, he had been president for 12 and had much sway over Taft. Some people were born under TR and were going into college under TR. The county did not know which direction the country would be going after this. Hiram said however that he would continue the "Progressive agenda and what TR would want". However the big news that month was the Midterm Congressional Elections that year. The Elections occurred on November 5th:

United States Senate elections, 1918

Republican Party: Senator from Connecticut Frank B. Brandegee - 51 Seats +11 Seats from 40 Seats

Democratic Party: Senator from Virginia Thomas S. Martin - 33 Seats -17 from 50 Seats

Socialist Party: Minority Leader Upton Sinclair - 12 Seats +6 from 6 Seats

United States House of Representatives elections, 1918

Republican Party: Frederick H. Gillett - 234 Seats +35 Seats from 199

Democratic Party: Champ Clark - 177 Seats -46 Seats from 223

Socialist Party: John Reed - 23 Seats +11 Seats from 12

Prohibition Party: Charles H. Randall - 1 Seats +0 Seats from 1

Republicans returned to the Senate and House after almost a decade of Democratic dominance. The republicans held a slight 1 majority in the Senate while held a good majority in the House and Representatives. The Socialists also were the big winners that day with continued gains in the senate reaching double digits and 11 more seats in the house. The Democrats were devastated and needed to positioned itself somehow as electable. The year ended with this question and the question over Europe. It was January 1st, 1919.