To quote wikipedia: And a video about it: The last chinese empire (or at least the last that ruled all China, since Manchukuo only controlled manchuria) Was Yuan's Shikai chinese Empire that lasted from 1915 to 1916, until it was crushed in the national protection war. I already made some threads about it here and it's survival, but the thing is that we all (the community) lack the knowledge of China at the time and usually goes with "He wins, then what?". I want to ask something different: How can Yuan Shikai keeps his empire? The main problems that I see on the road is that he wanted a absolute kind of monarchy, of which alienated his supporters from the progressive party (the main adversary to the Koumitang), the massive corruption that he led during his government, his focus on the beyiang army itself and not on the other armies in China, as he expected that the Beyiang army alone would be enought to keep him in power (it didn't for the reasons on the quote above, the soldiers were starving). Based on these points, what could Yuan Shikai could have made for his empire to survive? The PoD is the Xinhai revolution, so he could start a better planning before the coup that made him emperor. I think that one possible way to fix some of the problems would have him garantee to the progressive party that the country would be a constitutional monarchy on the german style, with him and the parliament sharing the power instead of a absolutistic one. What do you think?