I think it is criminal how little attention your TL is getting, there should be more likes and comments. It is really good, you know your history and it is just plain interesting. As I said I think it is mostly your bad English that is holding you back. If you care to increase the number of readers it might be a good idea to go over it all with an editor and repost the edited pages in a new thread as they come while this one goes on as usual. I can volunteer myself but I will work slowly with all my own engagements so more of us helping you would be better. Let me know what you think.

As for the story while I still enjoy it as my likes show nothing huge has happened yet so not much to add. The war itself could be big, if Charles is as capable a leader ITTL as OTL though as I said before that seems unlikely, we will see I guess.
you know i might think about it and even so thanks for your support
 
the shame of constantine
When spring arrived The khazar khagan got involved in the war and had a new war strategy , he was a capable commander himself he knew that facing Constantine was quite a risk , The emperor knew all the nomadic tactics , and as his name said it all , he was the slayer of khans.

So the khan changed his strategy he would plunder cities take a portion of the loot and flee using the nomad’s superior nobility and make the romans chase him , and then he could harass them like the themata did to his troops before , with this he could sent the brunt of his troops against the bulgars .

This strategy worked in the Bulgarian front. The khazar entered northeastern Bulgaria was raided, as the bulgarians

Telerig responded advancing to khazar lands . Here the details of the battle are shrouded but most sources agree that telerig forces advanced defeating slavic and khazar forces unit he reached the dnieper river.

Here they engaged and routed the khazar forces who fell and crossed the river loosing many .

But many men of telerig men gave chase, the men were angry to these “huns” that not only destroyed the land of their ancestors, but attacked them and had killed or sold their families to slavery, telerig tried to stop this , but even his son moved .

The disorganized troops where barely arriving to the other side of the river . But seeing this the khazars returned and massacred the one who crossed and rained arrows on those crossing, among them

According to a later roman source, the khan saw his son corpse floating around the river.

The same source said that the khan began to wept for his son and had to be dragged out by his troops in fear that his death might lead to the Bulgarian state falling in to the horrible civil war period that it just left 20 years ago.

Constantine heard the news, then bad news arrived from italy , after he read the letter, he knew now who the real enemies where, Constantine knew the decisive battle with the khazars make take years .

Even so they were just a nuisance to him, but he could not allow this raid counter raid, cat mouse chase go on. In late 772 Basileus , constantine v and the khazar khagan kaban II met

And peace treaty was enforced, the emperor would allow the khagan to take the wealth he plundered from and the emperor would further pay him for the next 5 years his orders where just to leave imperial territory including the Bulgarian territory that were considered a roman protectorate.

The peace treaty was not popular but Constantine saw it as necessary evil . Since the emperor had to face the real threat that was Charles .
 
Ghost of past invasions
Early 772

Charles had taken.Carantania

Then he moved and attack the Slavic principalities , taking the country side but having trouble with the forts .
This was since a part of the thematic army was harrasing him and attacking the supply chain . The sieges dragged out , here the thematic forces harrased them .

This continued for months .

During one of these sieges, of one of the important fortress the defenders with the help of the thematic force made a sortie killing at least a few hounded Franks .

It seem like someone important officers died and rumors began to circle that Charles had died .

This news reached the bulk of The armies of the 3 themes which where marching to Italy .

The franks heard this and began to flee . Even though Constantine had giving specific orders for then not to engage . strategos said to follow but the third said that we would not , he continued his march towards italy .

The 2 thematic armies , began a chase ,
The chase coninuted for 9 days. Until they where found near Wachau.


On the last day of chase the Roman armies
found the Franks crossing the river , soon the Romans began to cross as well .

The franks waited that 1/3 of the Roman force crossed And then he attacked .
the Romans tried to figth , and one stratrgos was given soon room and nearly turned the tide of battle , but he died by an enemy archer and soon the roman force routed .
Charles then sent his archers,many where killed by them but most drown.

The defeat allowed Charles to sudue the Slavic principalities and many submitted willing , with the exception of some and the avar remant .
Even so now frankish raiding parties pushed in to Bulgaria and Roman territory.
But Charles set his eyes for nother italy .
He crossed the Alps in September .
And there he defeated a local force then in October Charles then layed siege to Milan .
At the same time The Peace was singed by the emperor with the khazars and now he moved to deal with the frankish king.
 
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battle of Velika Kapela New
Late 772

Constantine moved he would stick to the coast as the route of the Danube was

On the way he found 2000 Bulgarian horse men, sent by telerig who had done his best dealing the Frankish raid but he knew the emperor would need them more than him and this he showed that he still supported the emperor.

Charles then sent his uncle Bernard, they did not know this was the emperor and his excubitors , they though it was imperial reinforcements to Italy .

Charles strategy was to provoque the armies to attack him, since he knew that he could not take Milan by assaults, but if he could provoque the imperial armies to attack him, and if he crushed them then the defenders would surrender and other forts would have less men .

The idea was good but emperor Constantine prohibited any army to engage the franks , except for harassment and killing scouting and foraging party, so if he killed their reinforcements maybe it could provoque the battle he so desperately wanted .

After 2 weeks both armies encountered each other .

They met near the Dinaric Alps near valley of Velika Kapela , The Frankish lord had 18 000 men compared to 9 000 the emperor But the emperor chose the terrain which had a narrow entrance.

The emperor placed infantry in the first line, archers in the second line in the flanks. With himself and the excubitors in the center of the second line, He also hid the catapharcts and Bulgarian cavalry in forest near by.

constantine V2.png


The Frankish lord sent their cavalry to break the roman center, but the romans held the line and pushed them back, now it was time Constantine sent the signal.


The Bulgarian cavalry moved, to an unsuspecting Frankish cavalry. By the time the Frankish infantry had entered most the cavalry had been killed.
battle 2.1.png

The reason why they took so long it’s because they had to pass their troops in small area, here the Bulgarian cavalry tried to attack.

But the Frankish lord already knew about the bulgars and managed to divert a force to stop them, as the Frankish infantry engaged the roman infantry and began to push them back.

It seemed like they were going to break, but the emperor maintained the discipline, but then Constantine gave another signal.

Now the catapharcts came and attacked from the right, this attacked crushed the Frankish lines, now Bernard retreaded before his whole army died.

But still the infantry and cavalry surrounded a Frankish pocket.

battle final.png

Still the franks lost anywhere from 12 000 to 15 000, while the emperor lost less than 3 000

Charles who was still besieging Milan, he heard the news but he was surprised and waited for his uncle when he returned he explained the events

When Charles heard the story, he did not rebuke his uncle rather he was surprised that he whole army had not die, he knew who was responsible for this, for only one could have committed this massacre with minimal casualties

Charles knew it was a matter of time would now face his biggest threat, the roman emperor Constantine V.
 
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well here comes the fun basileus constantine V vs frankish king Charles

iam kinda curious how you the 5 people who read the series will think how the byzantine frankish war will be and end so i wanna hear your prediction
 
Hmm. Well I still can't get a read on this would be Charlemagne, is he as good as OTL or not. Leaning on yes. Which would seem to hand him victory by virtue of badassitude alone. Constantine isn't coming in with overwhelming numbers either, many armies have been smashed already. OTOH the Empire already took its licks, this is restoration time.

I am guessing Charles gets kicked out of Italy and Panonia but keeps Caranthania then probably mows down the Saxons per OTL. Bavaria too if he hasn't already. Setting up a long term rival for Rome.

Alternatively he goes for a sweep, all of North Italy and gets the Pope to declare him Emperor instead.

EDIT: When the war with Charles is over a map of the world would be nice.
 
Hmm. Well I still can't get a read on this would be Charlemagne, is he as good as OTL or not. Leaning on yes. Which would seem to hand him victory by virtue of badassitude alone. Constantine isn't coming in with overwhelming numbers either, many armies have been smashed already. OTOH the Empire already took its licks, this is restoration time.

I am guessing Charles gets kicked out of Italy and Panonia but keeps Caranthania then probably mows down the Saxons per OTL. Bavaria too if he hasn't already. Setting up a long term rival for Rome.

Alternatively he goes for a sweep, all of North Italy and gets the Pope to declare him Emperor instead.

EDIT: When the war with Charles is over a map of the world would be nice.
i kinda of always make maps after a war either way nice prediction
 
Third battle of Verona New
Novmeber 772

After the victory, the emperor continued his march, and regrouped with the strategos of western moesia, he and his thematic army joined the emperor alongside with Slavic, avars and bulgars loyalist to the romans.

Now he entered the Alps to cross to Italy.

By this time Milan was taken by the franks, having lasted moths of siege , but finally with no food , a failed thematic and sortie attack ,and anti-roman slavs , avars and bulgars that had joined the Frankish king , the city surrendered .

Charles was then informed of the emperor crossing, but was not sure if he wanted to intercede as he causcios of Constantine V.

Saying that the emperor would inspire the roman troops in the south, and with his leadership they might win .

But if he captured or killed the emperor, the war could be over .

Charles was convinced by these words and marched his armies to meet Constantine , leaving a garrison in the captured city.



Late November 772

Constantine had crossed the Alps and was marching to the south; here his scouts told him that the Frankish army was near, he put his army in a box formation where the most armored forces where on the exterior and the light armor where in the interior .

Not far from the city of Verona , the Frankish army descended upon the romans

The nomads allied to Charles, began to shower them with arrows, especially in the left flank where they got closer and closer

Constantine set up a shield wall with the interior forces , and the catapharcts and the exterior where saved by their amour .

Many of them where eager to figth ,
But Constantine denied any order to do so.

It took the khan slayer immense will to keep some of his troops especially the non Romans to keep marching under arrow fire.
Any break in the gap or anything that would give the franks an advantage would be fatal .

Still Many romans though this would be a second carrhae, but the tegmata and the troops that where in velikia trusted the emperor .
And continued marching , for the franks it seemed like the Romans tried to get to the city , so they ordered the nomads and foot archers to get closer and deal more damage to the Roman army .
They did inflicting more casualties .

But then when all hope seemed lost ,The nomads had run out of arrows, the frankis cavarly now began to move .

But Constantine was quick and in the right flank the emperor order to charge, and the emperor himself charged with them

The nomads and franks where increidible close to the roman lines due to this , they where smashed by the catapharcs and began to route .

The emperor despite his age killed many , filling the sword of Heraclius with avar , bukgar and frankish blood.

In the left under the command of the strategos of western mosesia , something similar happen but not as large scale ,as they were not as close.

In both flanks bulgar riders attacked this sides and avar horse archers fired on the retreating soldiers .

Still Charles had reunited many in to a defensive formation .

The emperor how his enemies where almost in to the Forrest behind them , moved to attack Charles formation , so did the stratrgos .
It was a risk since the frankis force could return and surround them .
Still this attacked destroyed charles cohesion and forced many to flee .

But the emperor stopped his army , before they got to close the nearby forest as he feared an ambush.

Still it was victory.the emperor had lost 3 000 men while Charles had lost 11 000

The victory lifted morale, and the Frankish king was surprised, But Charles numerical losses where recoupable and he began to send message to his territories requesting for reinforcements

The romans saw this a massive victory, as they saw how this barbarian king tried to destroy the emperors army and failed.

But Constantine knew this was not the end, as the romans moved Milan waited for their arrival .
 
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4th battle of pavia New
November 772
With the victory many implored the emepror to March towards Milan .

But Constantine knew that puting the faith of this campaign On besiging a city, with shaky supply lines and a frankish army near by was not the best idea , instead Constantine moved to the coast where he continued his March towards revena .
but this affected moral for his troops .

They had just won only to flee in complete disgrace .

Even so winter had arrived , Constantine regrouped with itlian army and moved from revena to Rome.

May 773

Months passed the siege of pavia draged on and the emepror was ready to move with an army of 40 000 leaving 20 000 troops behind .

then Constantine moved against Charles in pavia .

But Charles has taken precuation , putting wooden spikes and put carts in a defensive formation while some other areas had a wall to cover the frankish camp , in addition to this reinforcement came from frankia putting his strength at 50 000.

Constantine was not willing to attack such a fortified possition .

So a double siege Began with the frankish forces besiging pavia while the emperor besiged their camp .
Now they both waited .

Early August
As the months passed Food remained limited,epedemics broke out and many Franks died , Charles himself got sick .
Yet the siege continued.
Charles wonder why the city didn't stink of the starved or not shown any sings of disease.

Charles discovered why . the byzantine navy in the midst of nigth where resupplying the defenders .

The emperor intention was to starve them out , those attacks in to the camps where a diversion.And Charles had wasted months on nothing. Now the Franks began to assult the walls .

September
Due to the attacks on the city , the military commanders urged the emperor to attack . At first he didn't want to but Fearing the worst and convinced by this commanders .
they attacked .

September 14th
The carts where destroyed by siege engines . And the stakes where taken out .

The Roman army then charged the camp .
The franks tried to figth but their situation became more and more hopeless .

And during the battle Constantine was struck by an arrow but his armour absorbed most of the impact .

As rumors spread that the emperor had been taken away from the battlefield as he was wounded , many feared a collapse would occur .

Suprisgly the Roman discipline was not shatered and they continued to press the advantage.Then the franks fleed the battlefield .

But after a quarter of an hour passed the Roman discipline expired as they where convinced they had won and so began to raid the camp.

Charles then returned and a masacre began .

The emperor had to flee crossing the Po river , here many drown out of his 40 000 army 25 000 died .

But some franks attacked crossing the river once they crossed the river Constantine forced killed the hasty Franks dealing massive casualties and then fled .

Still Charles had won , Despite his success It was not a total victory for charles as he lost more than 28 000 of his 5 0000 force to hunger dease , but he had regained the initiative with the slaughter of the imperial troops , the siege engines he captured and Charles convincing them that more reinforcement where comming they surrendered .
 
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battle of pisa New
As winter arrived, Charles went to take the rest of northern Italy.

Constantine would know ignore his commanders, and He brought the navy to the po river.

Charles ignored this and kept this campaign in conquering northern Italy.

Instead of attacking, Constantine began to construct more forts, in the po river .

By late January Charles knew what Constantine was doing

But in the midst of winter, the conditions were not optimal.

Charles army suffered from malnutrition and in some case starvation, and not having enough reinforcements, and with no navy he had no choice the biggest thing he could do was sending his nomadic warriors to harass the constructors .

In these attacks Constantine would throw himself in the midst of fighting, despite the caution of his officials, Who worried that if he were to die , the whole of Italy would fall.

When spring arrived, Charles received more reinforcements; he was not the only one as the navy began to bring more troops from the imperial territories especially Anatolia.

By early June, both armies had 50 000 men, But for Charles the lack of a navy meant that he could still not cross the river .

And Constantine did not only bring soldiers but more engineers and did a herculean task to build these forts.

By late November , the engineers and workers had make a line of key forts alongside the po river

Then winter arrived again And conditions became worst, the byzantine navy kept the byzantine army well , but Charles army where not doing so well and some deserted others starved . not only that but from the west bulgar and avar cavalry had burned the fields of northern Italy and then harassed their troops.

Charles knew he could not win a war of attrition, against the romans , he need it his decisive victory



Mid April 774

The western part of the navy left their post and the emperor order the forts to not attack the franks.

Which allowed , in normal circumstances charles would have hessitated but was desperate and crossed to move against the romans



25th of april

Both armies net near pisa.

The emperor organized his troops in standard formation with archers and cavalry behind and roman and spelean infantry in the center

While the Charles organized his troops, in weird way , with the strongest forces to the Frankish left , and the weaker troops in the left , since he did because he did not want to put the strongest near the trees , since he suspected , that in that forest had a roman reserve but his scouts found nothing
battle of pisa 1.png


the battle began with benard and the heavy cavalry, this was effective and pushed the roman right back and caused massive casualties but as the cavalry momentum died , and with the attack of the archers the franks where suffering many casualties as well , seeing this Charles sent the infantry but told them to stop in a designated location.

Charles then sent the rest of his infantry to the byzantine left , and Constantine cavalry had to move to prevent a flanking maneuver , while benard kept pushing under heavy fire.
battle of pisa 3.png


Then Charles charged, killing the spolotean center, and reaching the emperor and his force. While this happened the frankish infantry moved closer to the forest



battle of pisa 4.png

After some fighting Then Frankish king and the roman emperor saw each other eye to eye.

Both got of their horses and slowly walked to each other, many people where still fighting but In a matter of minutes the fighting had stopped, as both watched the emperor and the king who were still circling each other.

Charles was the first to swing, as Constantine responded, and they both could hear, the cheers of both armies .

While Constantine had experience, Charles more athletic.

Just as Charles was preparing a stab to the face, Constantine used his shield to knock him of , it failed but it did Sending him stumbling back

Around the same time the roman cavalry came out of the forest But where stopped by the Frankish infantry.

Minutes passed but no one was winning as they were both Evenly matched the emperor and the king tried desperately to end their duel.

The emperor nearly made a cut to his throat but the Frankish king moved

After nearly 6 minutes of duel, both men were exhausted especially the emperor, and both got more desperate to kill each other.

Then the emperor saw and opening and managed to cut Charles knee.

The king fell in pain, as Constantine raised the sword of Heraclius to end the duel, he dropped his sword, and then collapsed from exhaustion, but Charles was in no condition to finish him off, as he was reeling from the pain.

Seeing this both excubitors and Charles guard, launched each other to save their respective lords

But for Charles he knew he had to treat his wound, but rumors then began to circle on both sides that both emperor and king where dead.

But when the franks saw that Charles leaving the battlefield they began to fear the worse do did the romans but the center made sure to inform that the emperor was still alive.

Now the second in command being the exchart of revena gave the signal, to the duke of Spoleto in couple minutes bulgar horseman and avar horse archers entered from the byzantine right surprising the franks. The navy had transported them near and then they waited for this moment.

seeing this the buglars and avars who where figthing for the franks left the field

Seeing this and believing that their kings had left them or was dead , and the franks fled . Then the bulgar , roman cavalry and the avars horse archers perused them

The battle became a slaughter the roman casualties where high but the franks had lost more than 2/3 of their force.


Charles managed to survive as no artery was cut , but fled towards the north again , with the situation getting worse , the local Frankish lords especially the duke of aquatine rebelled against Charles and he had to send part of his forces to subdue these

Having no real options Charles then sued for peace.

The 3 year long Frankish roman war was over.
 
@Goldensilver81 excellent update as always! This really shows the states of the fighting. King Charles and Emperor Constantine are likely seen as the great titans of the era.

What's the Roman strategic position regarding North Africa? I feel like once the Franks are defeated and humbled, Rome needs to turn Southwards to crush the upstart Berber Empire. Maybe Constantine can hearken back to old propaganda playing it off as a sort of Neo-Punic War.
 
Loving the pace of these updates.

Lets see how close to being right my prediction is.

Not sure if I said it before but I hope ultimately Rome regains Mare Nostrum, so having Spain, coastal North Africa (Berbers will probably keep the hinterlands and further Morocco), Egypt, Southern France (Occitaine and Gascony, Northern France is unlikely to be reconquered) and other things they hold already. Also they may expand towards the Black Sea and Eastern Europe.
 
Treaty of Milan New
The peace treaty was done in Milan , concluded that the romans would have carinitia and baveria as free states .

But like the bulgarians , Constantine saw a potential ally , despite all the bulgarians have proven their worth as friends of rome .

In return for the peace, the emperor would not cover a war indemnity, and as sing of good will Constantine recognized charles rule as legitimate, charles biggest problems was the he was not seen as legitimate and some say that he killed his brothers , who only ruled because he was the strongest , but this was a shaky foundation .

But with this new imperial title charles rule was seen as legitimate ,he was to be lord protector of the west the emperors enforcer in the west.
and like odoacer and thedoric charles recognized the authority of the roman emperor . and as a last gift , constantine gave her daughter to be married to the frankish king.

So that all parties would benefit , charles would gain the legitemecy that he need it and some other things , while Constantine would gsin. Powerful ally to help hmi against the berbers.

775
Constantine made it back to constantinople where he was seen as a hero .Then he reunited with his wife and daughters , then he revived the news that Tiberius was dead.

Constans was now 16, then the emperor and his family had diner.

Constantine then asked , how would you deal with the grain shortages that the empire had sufered ever since the 700 aD when they had lost west of north africa.

constans replied I would exploit the grane source found in anatolia to compensate and use it more so that we dont relly to much in egypt just in case the berbers take most of the country side like they did in 740.

Constantine then asked and how would he keep peace with the persians?

he replied , keep a good relationship with them , and giving some sort of preferenatial trade agreement , if the persians get to agresive then , speak with the chinise ,
and make them look like we want to be their ally , this would scare the persians to keep our alliance .



The exchart of Mesopotemia died recently did he not ? said constantine to one of his advisors

His advisor replied Yes he just died a couple of days ago , Why do you ask my Lord .

Iam making constans exchart of Mesopotemia
said the emperor

The advisor replied but sir an Exchart as such a young age ?

Constantine said : I was not that older when I became emperor
The advisor tried to insist that he had no experience to govern a province much less the hardest province in the empire.

Constantine with an anoyed tone said :
I belive I have the authority to point Whomever I please .

Constans replied iam greatfull but I would make a horrible exchart.
Her mother quickly said : Nonsense he will make a great exchart , she looked at constantine and said he would make a great exchart
Constantine smiled ,he trusted the boy but here he would prove if we was to be or not .
 
mediterrenian 775

frankish kingdom (blue)
great berber empire (pink)
roman empire (purple)
khazar khaganate
bulgaria (green)
slavic principalities , avar remanat , caranitia and baveria .

mediterenian 775.png
 
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This map is excellent!
I can't believe the Romans got Pannonia back. Though one question I do have is that how Latinzed are the Franks here ittl? They're referred to by the French pronunciation of names which is a Romance language. The Germanic version of Charles is Kar, and the Latin word would be Carolus (though the early Franks spelled it with a K on their coinage). Would the Romans refer to the Frankish Kings as Carolus since with Italy being retained, Rome is likely a bi-lingual Latin/Greek speaking Empire.

Is Latin the lingua Franca of the Berber Empire with the majority of their population being composed of Cyrennaic Greeks/Coptic Egyptians, Ibero-Romans and Afro-Romans? Are the Berbers Donatist here? Do the Franks still divide lands up among sons? If so, could the Romans use this to secure lands like Provence/Marseilles which allows them a land route into Hispania? Would the Franks fight alongside the Romans against the Berber Empire?
 
This map is excellent!
I can't believe the Romans got Pannonia back. Though one question I do have is that how Latinzed are the Franks here ittl? They're referred to by the French pronunciation of names which is a Romance language. The Germanic version of Charles is Kar, and the Latin word would be Carolus (though the early Franks spelled it with a K on their coinage). Would the Romans refer to the Frankish Kings as Carolus since with Italy being retained, Rome is likely a bi-lingual Latin/Greek speaking Empire.

Is Latin the lingua Franca of the Berber Empire with the majority of their population being composed of Cyrennaic Greeks/Coptic Egyptians, Ibero-Romans and Afro-Romans? Are the Berbers Donatist here? Do the Franks still divide lands up among sons? If so, could the Romans use this to secure lands like Provence/Marseilles which allows them a land route into Hispania? Would the Franks fight alongside the Romans against the Berber Empire?
The franks are latinized even so it's mostly vulgar Latin despite that with concections to italy there as for now not a big divergence in to what he would call proto french.


The berbers rule the people you mentioned with Latin , Berber and punic being the most spoken languages , there is still coptic , rigth now the languages seem to be evolving more to romance berber with tints of punic.

The berber empire while having many religions, with their conquest chirstianity has expanded and yes the Main group are donatist
Even so the chalcedonians are big group especially in hispania
and the franks do divide lands umong their sons
the rest i cant say you know spoilers
 
The franks are latinized even so it's mostly vulgar Latin despite that with concections to italy there as for now not a big divergence in to what he would call proto french.
The Modern French language didn't really exist until the French Revolution and Third Republic when the government forcefully standardized the French language around the Parisian dialect in France. The peasants spoke a variety of different dialects due to the fragmentation within the various medieval states, and geographic isolation. This isolation resulted from the transition to a "feudal society" where mannoralism and agriculture was the main economic engine. The classical world and Eastern World differed from this because they still had intact cities with their traditional urban infrastructure and systems in place. Italy though a shadow of what it was during the Middle Ages, was still arguably the Wealthiest part of Western Europe. The Italian communes and townships sprang up from the somewhat intact towns and Roman era infrastructure present. French was fragmented into various dialects like Occitan, Gascon, Burgundian, Norman, Breton, Limousin, etc. I feel with an intact Italy under the Roman world, there would be a cultural hegemon/leader for the Latin speaking world. Though France lost control of its colonies in otl, it still has control over the French language with the Académie française. In otl the vulgar Latin dialects all diverged independently of each other into becoming the Romance Languages. With the old agreements between the Romano-Germanic Kingdoms being reinstated like with the Franks, Rome is also positioned to have itself as the nominal overlord of these Kingdoms. With the Roman Latin still in use, its likely that the other European states are influenced by the Empire since it controls Italy and most of the Mediterranean world which was the center of commerce and trade during this era.

tints of punic.
I though the Punic languages disappeared with the Carthaginians. Roman North Africa was the second most Roman place in the Empire second to Italy itself due to how early it was conquered, and its proximity to Italy.

@Goldensilver81 how do you craft these battle scenes they are very well done? Where do you get those images from? I find I have such difficulty writing about battle scenes.
 
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The Modern French language didn't really exist until the French Revolution and Third Republic when the government forcefully standardized the French language around the Parisian dialect in France. The peasants spoke a variety of different dialects due to the fragmentation within the various medieval states, and geographic isolation. This isolation resulted from the transition to a "feudal society" where mannoralism and agriculture was the main economic engine. The classical world and Eastern World differed from this because they still had intact cities with their traditional urban infrastructure and systems in place. Italy though a shadow of what it was during the Middle Ages, was still arguably the Wealthiest part of Western Europe. The Italian communes and townships sprang up from the somewhat intact towns and Roman era infrastructure present. French was fragmented into various dialects like Occitan, Gascon, Burgundian, Norman, Breton, Limousin, etc. I feel with an intact Italy under the Roman world, there would be a cultural hegemon/leader for the Latin speaking world. Though France lost control of its colonies in otl, it still has control over the French language with the Académie française. In otl the vulgar Latin dialects all diverged independently of each other into becoming the Romance Languages. With the old agreements between the Romano-Germanic Kingdoms being reinstated like with the Franks, Rome is also positioned to have itself as the nominal overlord of these Kingdoms. With the Roman Latin still in use, its likely that the other European states are influenced by the Empire since it controls Italy and most of the Mediterranean world which was the center of commerce and trade during this era.


I though the Punic languages disappeared with the Carthaginians. Roman North Africa was the second most Roman place in the Empire second to Italy itself due to how early it was conquered, and its proximity to Italy.

@Goldensilver81 how do you craft these battle scenes they are very well done? Where do you get those images from? I find I have such difficulty writing about battle scenes.
i did not know that about french i mean , i mean i did know how there was many types of french , but i migth change something .

in terms of punic By around the fourth century AD, Punic was still spoken in what is now Tunisia, other parts of Northwest Africa, and the Mediterranean. The Neo-Punic alphabet also descended from the Punic language. By around 400, the first meaning of Punic was used mainly for monumental inscriptions, replaced by the cursive Neo-Punic alphabet elsewhere. Examples of Punic literary works cover the topic of Mago, a Punic general with great notoriety, who spread Carthage's influence as much through writing books as he did fighting. Mago wrote 28 volumes about animal husbandry in punic , there is also romannic punic .

the images that i use are based on BazBattles army drawing squares and put images of comanders like constantine in these rectangles
in terms of battles i know a lot of medieval tactis
if you want some for your timeline reasearch about your time perdiod and here

 
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