Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings [Finished]

Here is the completed version of Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings. It can be discussed here.


“The English court held their collective breaths as both the Prince and Princess of Wales fell ill sometime during March of 1502, probably with the sweating sickness that was commonly found in England at the time. Prayers were said, doctors were summoned, and then early in April, both would recover.”
A. E. Bell, “The Early Tudor Years”

“Riding high from the miracle that was his son and daughter-in-law’s survival, Henry VII turned his attention to his younger children. Having arranged for his heir’s marriage to one of the most eligible brides of Europe, Henry VII would accept no less for his three younger children.”
Dr. Marella Howard, “The First Tudor King”

“Not much is known about the childhood of the man who would come to be known as the Greatest Prince in Christendom by some and the Great Heretic by others. Then Prince Henry Tudor, Duke of York, was his father’s spare and as such did not often appear in public. It is known that he was extremely close with his mother, Elizabeth of York.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“Early in the year 1503, the King of Navarre, John III of Albret died of what we now believe to be cancer. This triggered the series of events which eventually would bring the Tudor Spare to the forefront of European Politics.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“…. I find myself not in need of a son by marriage, but a son of my own body.”
Fragment of one of the letters exchanged between King Henry VII and Queen Catherine of Navarre

“Shortly after the death of John III, King Henry VII wrote to Queen Catherine of Navarre about the possibility of a betrothal between his son, Prince Henry Tudor, and Queen Catherine’s eldest daughter Anne of Navarre. The Princess Anne was a very eligible young lady: the heir of the many titles of her grandfather, Alain I of Albret, as well as the current heir of the Crown of Navarre. The Queen’s response was completely unexpected.

Queen Catherine wrote back suggesting not a betrothal between Prince Henry and her eldest daughter, but a marriage between Prince Henry and Herself.”
A. E. Bell, “The Early Tudor Years”

“The marriage of Queen Catherine of Navarre and Prince Henry Tudor is perhaps one of history’s more interesting anecdotes. The young Tudor Prince was barely a year older than Queen Catherine’s eldest daughter, and the Queen was only a few years younger than Prince Henry’s parents.

For centuries scholars, histories, politicians, and intellectuals have argued the reasoning behind this particular union. Navarre gained an ally who committed to military assistance in the face of Aragon’s encroachment and a king that belonged to none of the factions of the Navarrese Court. King Henry VII gained further acknowledgment of the legitimacy of the Tudors. But these things weren’t exclusively found only in Navarre or England, either party could have found allies elsewhere. So, why did this marriage take place?

It is of this author’s opinion, that the marriage occurred simply because King Henry VII was the first to offer a groom, albeit for Princess Anne. Queen Catherine must have been very aware of her mortality with her first husband’s death, and also very aware of her declining years of fertility. She needed to act quickly to secure the succession so that Navarre didn’t suffer the upheaval that occurs with a female heir for the second generation.

In this dissertation I will…”
“Prince Henry Tudor, King Father of Navarre, What Were They Thinking?” Thesis Project by doctoral candidate, Elijah Baker

“The young English Prince is fair of face and form and though his youth is evident, he comports himself with the dignity of one who has had it thoroughly instilled in them the proper behavior expected of a king.”
Journal entry of a Navarrese Nobleman

“As busy as King Henry VII was early in 1503 cramming in the years of lessons in statecraft that Prince Arthur got but Prince Henry missed out on and then sending Prince Henry to Navarre, he made time to oversee the marriage of Princess Margaret to James IV of Scotland. Queen Elizabeth would accompany now Queen Margaret north and spend several months assuring that her eldest daughter settled in her new home. While Queen Elizabeth would return to England and spend much of the rest of her life there, she would return frequently to Scotland, especially after the death of King James IV. It is believed that much of her daughter’s excess was curbed by the presence of Queen Elizabeth.”
Dr. Marella Howard, “The First Tudor King”

“…. the English Queen continues to call for her mother, more lords would object, if not that the presence of the Queen Elizabeth is a great boon to the behavior of the English Queen.”
Fragment of a letter to an unknown nobleman from one of Queen Margaret’s ladies

“1503 was a roller-coaster year for the Tudor family. The beginning of the year saw the marriages of Princess Margaret to King James IV and Prince Henry to Queen Catherine bringing to number of Tudor monarchs to three.

The end of the year saw the death of the young Prince Hal, son of Prince Arthur and Princes Catherine, at the tender age of three. The death was a great blow to Princess Catherine and is believed to have been what sent her into early labor. Prince Arthur and Princess Catherine’s second child, Prince Arthur, would not survive the trauma of his early birth and would die the day after he was born.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”


“Several letters and journals indicate that the Navarrese Court was charmed by their new young king. King Henry, by all records, was a bright and cheerful teenager. While grossly unprepared for his role as king, this wasn’t readily apparent because little to no responsibly was given to the young King at first. It was only after the birth of their first son and as King Henry made important friends, that Queen Catherine began to allow King Henry to wield power as King of Navarre.”
A. E. Bell, “The Early Tudor Years”

“It is thought that is it was here, in the quiet few months of his marriage with few friends and in a strange land, that Henry Tudor began to question the strongly held religious beliefs of the day. He was mostly left to his own devices. Perhaps in these months of reflection, Prince Henry Tudor sought God in his quiet secluded rooms.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“The relationship between Prince Henry Tudor [1] and his son Henri Tudor, King of Navarre is perhaps the strongest and longest lasting relationship Prince Henry Tudor would have. Only thirteen years old at his birth, Prince Henry Tudor doted on his eldest son. We have multitude of records of Prince Henry carrying his young son around and taking him to court functions, one courtier commented that Prince Henry made a fine nursemaid.

There is a school of thought that this was a ploy by Prince Henry to bolster his situation at court by reminding everyone of his position as the father of the heir. But, other records illustrate that Prince Henry’s attentiveness as a father didn’t end when the public eye did. Prince Henry personally choose his son’s nurses and tutors and would often write them requesting reports and instructing them on the care of his son. In modern vernacular, a helicopter parent.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

[1] While Prince Henry was King of Navarre for 14 years, he was known as Prince Henry for a much larger portion of his life and is the name by which he is most commonly known. It is by this title he will be referenced in this tome.

“…. I find my new father by turns bright and cheerful and then solemn and still. I don’t believe I have ever met a more lonely person.”
Journal of Princess Anne of Navarre, she died shortly after writing this


“Princess Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Prince Arthur and Princess Catherine, was born a mere month after the death of her great-grandmother Margaret Beaufort. It was for her that the young princess was named, at the insistence of her royal grandfather. She would be followed by a brother, Prince Henry Tudor, in 1509 who would live only hours and another brother also named Prince Henry Tudor, in 1511 who would live only a month.

At the age of 8, shortly after the birth of her sister Princess Mary, Princess Margaret would be betrothed to her cousin Prince Francis Tudor, second son of her uncle King Henry II Tudor of Navarre, by her grandfather King Henry VII Tudor. This ensured that if she remained her parent’s only heir, the thrown of England would remain with the Tudors.

The betrothal was protested by Princess Catherine of Wales who feared Prince Francis might share of his father’s religious views. “
A. E. Bell, “The Early Tudor Years”

“As King Henry VII Tudor dealt with issues of succession, he also arranged the betrothal of the elder Princess Mary. King Henry VII had spent the last five or so years suggesting a betrothal to one monarch, backing out and suggesting a different betrothal to a different monarch. It was at the suggestion of Princess Catherine to her sister Maria of Aragon, that King Manuel I of Portugal would write to King Henry VII about his youngest daughter.

Princess Mary, daughter of King Henry VII and Queen Elizabeth, not to be confused with Princess Mary, daughter of King Arthur and Queen Catherine, is known to have hotly protested her betrothal to Prince Jon Avis, heir to the crown of Portugal; the young prince was six years younger than her. But, her father had spoken, and people did not argue with King Henry VII.”
Dr. Marella Howard, “The First Tudor King”

“Towards the end of 1511, Ferdinand II of Aragon would present Queen Catherine and King II Henry with a set of demands. The demands would be refused, and Spanish troops would march on Navarre. There would be a series of skirmished between the forces of Navarre, led by the young King Henry II and the Spanish forces, led by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo over the next several years. The war, named The War for the Soul of Navarre by dramatic historians, would cumulate in the Battle of Donibane Garazi where King Henry II would decimate the Spanish forces leading to a retreat and peace talks.

It is said that the peace talks went exceptionally quick because King Henry II remarked that they did not wish to make him miss the birth of his son. The Treaty of Iruñea would be composed in record time and ratified by the Cortes of Navarre where the pro-Spanish Beaumont party had shrunk significantly over the past few years. And King Henry II would indeed make it back to Queen Catherine’s side for the birth of their third son, Prince Charles Tudor.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

“The marriage of King James VI and Margaret Tudor took a great hit at the death of their son Prince James at age three in 1510 only a short time after the stillbirth of Prince Arthur Stewart. The Queen Margaret was said to be despondent and required a visit from her mother Queen Elizabeth before returning to court life. Shortly after Queen Elizabeth’s departure back to England, Queen Margaret would fall pregnant for the third time. King James VI and Queen Margaret would name their third child for the son they recently lost. Prince James Stewart, future King of Scotland would be born early in 1512. It would be the only time in his long life he would not be overshadowed by his yet unborn younger brother.”
Paisley Jones, “Alexander Stewart, Was It All True?”

“Queen Catherine of Navarre would pass away early in the year 1517, leaving her eldest son Prince Henri Tudor as King Henri III Tudor of Navarre. Prince Henry Tudor, never to be called King again in his lifetime, [1] would be named regent for his thirteen-year-old son.

The regency of King Henri III was one of the smoothest regencies of European history. Father and son worked in tandem to coordinate the ruling of Navarre. Several diplomats recorded that it was impossible to play the King against his father. The two refused to commit to anything without consulting the other and would never contradict the other in public.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

[1] Henry Tudor would not be granted his title of King Father, the counterpart to Queen Mother, by his grandson King Henri IV Tudor until several decades after his death.

“It was during the regency of King Henri III that the religious attitudes of Prince Henry began to be known throughout Europe. Prince Henry’s opinions were already known to his family, we have a letter from Princess Catherine to her father-in-law about Prince Henry’s owning a Wycliffe Bible. But, shortly after Martin Luthor nailed his Ninety-five Theses to the door of All Saints' Church in Wittenberg, Prince Henry Tudor released Ut Legitur in Verbis Dei(“May We Read God’s Words”) in Latin, English, French, and Basque.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“While we don’t have all the communications between Pope Leo X and Prince Henry Tudor, several letters have survived. They paint a picture of Prince Henry’s enthusiasm for the vernacular bible and then his confusion and frustration when the pope did not share his enthusiasm. It is perhaps after the realization that the church would not support his undertaking that Prince Henry first began his break from the Catholic Church.”
Vanessa Corey, “The Tudor Bible, Translation and Conception”

“To say Europe was surprised would be understating it. Prince Henry was from a very devote family, his sister Queen Maria of Portugal was especially known for her devotion, and here he was speaking out against the common belief that the bible should remain in latin. The modern equivalent would be if President-Elect Trump announced that he was actually a Democrat and planning on banning guns.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“.. one might think the Tudor Prince is a madman (which Tudor Prince you might ask, my dear? You should know there is only ever one Tudor Prince) but having read his work, I must say he writes with conviction and fervor not often found in holy word.”
Part of a letter found in the possession of Princess Marguerite de d’Angouleme

“The Tudor family’s reactions to the antics of Prince Henry were myriad. King Henry VII would not comment one way or the other and Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, followed his father example. A lady in Queen Margaret Tudor of Scotland reported that Margaret Tudor could care less about, in her words, her younger brother’s ‘antics.’ Queen Elizabeth, not known for having a political opinion, surprisingly requested a copy of her son’s work to read for herself. Though she did specify she would like a Latin copy.

In contrast, Princess Catherine would quite vocally speak out against her brother-in-law and frequently requested and demanded that the betrothal between Prince Francis Tudor, only ten years old, and her eldest daughter sundered. When she was refused by both her husband and father-in-law, Princess Catherine would begin keeping the young Princess Mary away from Prince Francis. The young Prince Francis, recently made the Duke of Calais by his grandfather, is recorded to have spoke out against his aunt for maligning his father’s good name.

Princess Mary Tudor, now known as Princess Maria of Portugal responded with a letter that has been lost to time and a vow to never speak of her brother again. She never did.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“There was actually little to no repercussions, for this Prince Henry’s first foray into heresy. While the Pope wished to order consequences or sanctions, the truth was there was no one willing to face Navarre in battle. Spain was still smarting from their loss in the War for the Soul of Navarre; the King of France numbered Prince Henry among his closest friends; and several powerful Italian nobles, including Cesare Borgia who was currently in Navarre as the personal guest of Prince Henry, admired the fiery Prince.

In the end, all the pope did was send a strongly worded letter. And while this may seem like no great hardship, it was actually a great struggle for Prince Henry. He saw himself as a good catholic and was greatly concerned that the Pope didn’t agree with him. But, he felt he had been inspired by God, and would not back down.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“At this point, Prince Henry viewed himself as a good catholic, just one that had a few problems with the Pope. But, Prince Henry was aware enough to know that the release of Ut Legitur in Verbis Dei may have lost him a few friends. So, Prince Henry went looking for new friends and found Frederick III.

It is through conversing with Frederick III that Prince Henry found a bride for King Henry III. Frederick III’s niece, the eldest daughter of his brother John, was a year older than King Henry III. The publication of Ut Legitur in Verbis Dei caused a betrothal between King Henri III and Princess Louise of France to fall through, and the young king was in need of a bride.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

*OTL She was born a he and was Johann Frederick I, Elector of Saxony.

“The relationship between Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales and Henry Tudor, Duke of York was a troubled one. During their childhood, Prince Arthur received the lion’s share of his father’s attention: in instruction in statecraft, in arranging betrothals, and in simple time. Prince Henry, in turn was the apple of his mother’s eye. It is thought that it was here that their troubles began.

For many years it is thought than the root of their disagreements was the sudden disparity between their positions. It must have galled Prince Arthur to address his younger brother as a king while he was but his father’s heir.

But, research indicates that it was actually envy not jealousy that drove the quarrels. Prince Henry would have three sons, healthy strong sons, by the time he was twenty years old. In comparison, Prince Arthur would take over ten years of marriage to have two daughters, both of which were delicate of health.”
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

“King Henry VII Tudor, King of England and of France and Lord of Ireland, passed away in his sleep late in the year 1521. His eldest son, Arthur Tudor, was crowned King Arthur I with his wife Catherine of Aragon. Now Queen Catherine, would try to break the betrothal between Princess Margaret and Prince Francis. The argument is allegedly the only time King Arthur would raise his voice against his wife.

Not only would King Arthur keep the betrothal, but he chose to move up the wedding so that Princess Margaret and Prince Francis would be appointed Princess and Prince of Wales together.

In an effort to placate his wife, King Arthur reached out to her nephew, Charles V, about a betrothal between Princess Mary and himself.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“It is believed that Prince Henry met the women who would be his second wife at the wedding of his son King Henri III Tudor to Princess Jeanne Sophie of Saxony. The Lady Anne Boleyn is not listed among the members of the French Court that attended the marriage, but it is shortly after the wedding that the first letter sent from Prince Henry to Lady Anne is dated.

It is in a letter of Anne Boleyn, that we have the only account of the start of Prince Henry’s religious feelings. He recounts to Anne the loneliness and isolation that he felt as a young husband and father in Navarre, that he turned to the Word of God for comfort and guidance. And, he describes to Anne, while he found consolation in the Latin translation of the bible, he found greater consolation in the English Wycliffe Translation of the Bible. He knew that, in this land where none spoke his tongue, God spoke his language; he wasn’t alone.

This chronicle must have resonated with Anne Boleyn, for the two would continue to write for several months. They spoke of their hopes for the vernacular bible just as much as their love for each other. It would be Anne, who would comfort Prince Henry as he expressed to her his concerns with defying the Pope. Then, several months later, instead of returning to England as her father wished, Anne Boleyn would head south to Navarre when she would marry Prince Henry Tudor.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“Even as the world reeled from Prince Henry’s revelation, he began to act on his beliefs. William Tyndale would take sanctuary in Navarre and began to translate the bible into English. The translation we know today as the Tudor Bible.”
Vanessa Corey, “The Tudor Bible, Translation and Conception”

“Princess Mary Tudor, known to history as Queen Maria, would marry her boy-groom early in the year 1517. Their first child, Beatrice, would be born around Christmas that year. A second child, Maria, would follow two years later. Records indicate that Maria Tudor and her husband, Prince John were not close during these years.

It was not until 1519, when both of their children fell sick and their eldest, Infanta Beatrice, passed away that the couple grew close. The young family would retire from court for several months, where Maria Tudor would come to care deeply for her husband.

It was also here that Queen Maria would develop the strong religious feelings that would drive many of her actions for the rest of her life. Ironically, these feelings would be just as strong and the entirely the opposite of her brother, Prince Henry’s opinions.
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“Emilia Clarke has been cast as Princess Mary Tudor, in Tom Hooper’s “Mary and John.” She will be acting opposite Tom Holland as John and Rachel Weisz as Eleanor, John’s stepmother. Manuel I of Portugal has not yet been cast.”
Casting Update

“Ferdinand II of Aragon passed away in 1519 from what was probably pneumonia. This left his youngest son and only child with his second wife, Germaine of Foix, as King of Aragon. Ferdinand III Trastamara was but six years old. His father had left the ruling of Aragon in the hands of a regency council that excluded Queen Mother Germaine of Foix. The first order for the council was finding the young King a new betrothed. Ferdinand III having been betrothed to his great-niece Infanta Beatrice of Portugal since her birth. “
Carolyn Masey “Ferdinand III the Old Didn’t Start That Way”

“King James IV of Scotland would die in an accident with his horse, in July of 1520. He would leave behind his widow, Queen Margaret, as regent for the now King James V Stewart, and Prince Alexander Stewart, the already notorious Duke of Ross.

Queen Margaret wasn’t a popular regent, though it appears she handled the contending parties well. It was during this time that, Elizabeth York, Queen Mother of England, would spend considerable time in Scotland. It is believed that is was Elizabeth’s influence that curbed some of Queen Margaret’s more unwise impulses.”
A. E. Bell, “The Early Tudor Years”

“Prince Alexander, at only six years old, began his long career of overshadowing his elder brother at James V Stewart’s coronation. Young Prince Alexander managed to escape his minders and climbed the wall of the cathedral because, in his words, he wanted a better view. According to many reports, Prince Alexander reached some thirty feet up, and refused to come down. The eight-year-old King James apparently threw a temper tantrum in response to Prince Alexander’s antics. “
Xander Tallmar, “Alexander Stewart, Was it All True?”

“Princess Jeanne Tudor, eldest daughter of King Henri III Tudor and Queen Jeanne Sophie, was born late in the year 1521, only a few months before her eldest aunt, Lady Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Prince Henry and Lady Anne. The two, would be extremely close all through their childhood.

In England, the Princess and Prince of Wales would welcome their daughter only a year later. The young princess would be named for both her grandmothers, though she would spell it Kathryn throughout her life. Shortly after the birth of Princess Kathryn, Margaret Tudor, Princess of Wales, would pass away due to complications in childbirth.

The country of England suffered a bit of whiplash, as Queen Catherine delivered a living son who was named John. (The name Henry she viewed with some suspicion, having buried four sons named Henry, and holding a great dislike for her brother-in-law Henry.)”
Harper Wayne, “Keeping Up with The Tudors, Your Guide to Who’s Who”

“The 1520’s were a quiet time for Tudor England. King Arthur I was a well-liked by many and handled the growing religious division with finesse. He would finally welcome a son in 1524. He would succeed in securing a betrothal between Princess Mary and Ferdinand I, recently named King of the Romans.

While not Queen Catherine’s first choice, the current Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, she was very pleased. She saw it as a way to gain allies to help defend the rights of young John Tudor, the new Prince of Wales. Queen Catherine believed that Prince Henry would seek to elevate his granddaughter Princess Kathryn. This fear was fed by Prince Francis who kept his young daughter with him at court. This allowed courtiers to see the bright intelligent young princess. In contrast, Prince John was secluded, as Queen Catherine greatly feared for his health.”
Melantha Jones, “1520s Tudor England, the Calm Before the Storm”

“Prince Francis is a devoted father. If he is not visiting the young Princess Kathrine, he will bring her to court. Carrying the young princess around. She is truly a charming child.”
Letter from English Noblewomen to her family

“The nineteen years of King Arthur’s reign, nicknamed the Camelot Era, were one of the most peaceful periods for the Tudors. He ably kept peace between his reformist brother, moderating quite a bit of Prince Henry stronger Reformist tendencies, and his staunchly Catholic wife. He oversaw the marriage of his second daughter to Ferdinand I, King of the Romans. Under his rule, the relations between Scotland and England improved considerably, though that might have been more because of Queen Mother Elizabeth’s actions.

The status of his heir, Prince John of Wales, was perhaps the source of greatest concern for King Arthur. Prince John was not quite as sickly as his mother feared, but he wasn’t of completely sound health either. What’s more, Queen Catherine had kept him rather isolated from dissenting views, which unfortunately was a significant fraction of the court.

In contrast, Princess Katheryn practically grew up at court. Escorted to functions and parties by her father from a very young age, the entirety of the court knew and valued King Arthur’s only grandchild. While nothing overt seems to have been communicated, those with Reformist and Awakening views appear to have viewed Princess Katheryn as the preferred inheritor of the English Crown.”
A. E. Bell, “The Early Tudor Years”

“Though the quote has never been substantiated, Anne Boleyn, wife of Prince Henry, is perhaps most famous for saying, ‘They must read.’ This line became the tagline for the Awakening. And while this exact line is not found in any letters or journals of hers or those who knew her, in cannot be denied that Anne Boleyn, did in fact hold to the ideal that even the common people should read the bible in their native tongue.”
Walter Owens, “Lovely, Lovely Anne”

Henry VII Tudor, (1457-1521) King of England m. Elizabeth of York, (1466-1531), Queen of England

A) Arthur I Tudor, (1486-) King of England m. Catalina Trastamara (1485-), Infanta of Aragon​
1) Henry Tudor, (1501-1503)​
2) Arthur Tudor, (1503-1503)​
3) Margaret Tudor, (1506-1523) Princess of Wales m. Francis Tudor, (1507-), Prince of Wales, then Duke of Calais​
1) Katheryn Tudor, (1523-), Princess of England​
4) Henry Tudor, (1509-1509)​
5) Henry Tudor, (1511-1511)​
6) Mary Tudor, (1514-) Princess of England m. Ferdinand I, (1503-1564) Holy Roman Emperor​
7) Henry Tudor, (1518-1518)​
8) John Tudor, (1524-), Prince of Wales​
B) Margaret Tudor, (1489-) m. a) James IV Stewart, (1473-1520), King of Scotland; b) James Hamilton, (), 1st Earl of Arran​
1a) James Stewart, (1507-1510)​
2a) Arthur Stewart, (1509-1509)​
3a) James V Stewart, (1512-1542), King of Scotland​
4a) Alexander Stewart, (1514-1560), Duke of Ross​
5b) Elizabeth Hamilton, (1529-)​
C) Henry II Tudor, (1491-), Duke of York and Richmond m. a) Catherine of Navarre (1483-1517), Queen of Navarre; b) Anne Boleyn, (1501-1530)​
1a) Henry III Tudor, (1504-), King of Navarre m. Jeanne Sophie Wettin, (1503-), Princess of Saxony*​
1) Jeanne Tudor, (1521-), Princess of Navarre​
2) Henry Tudor, (1522-), Prince of Navarre​
3) Anne Sophie Tudor, (1525-), Princess of Navarre​
2a) Edward Tudor, (1505-1505)​
3a) Francis Tudor, (1507-), Duke of Calais m. Margaret Tudor, (1506-1523) Princess of Wales​
See Margaret Tudor​
4a) Elizabeth Tudor (1510-1510)​
5a) Charles Tudor, (1511-), betrothed Leonora Borgia (1513-)**​
6b) Elizabeth Tudor, (1522-)​
7b) Anne Tudor, (1524-1531)​
8b) Thomas Tudor, (1526-1526)​
9b) Eleanor Tudor, (1527-)​
D) Mary Tudor, (1496-1531) m. John III Avis, (1502-), King of Portugal​
1) Beatrice Avis, (1517-1520)​
2) Maria Avis, (1519-), Infanta of Portugal​
3) John Manuel Avis, (1521-), Infante of Portugal​
4) Anthony Avis, (1524-), Infante of Portugal​
5) Isabel Avis, (1528- ), Infanta of Portugal​

*OTL Johann Frederick I, Elector of Saxony

**daughter of Cesare Borgia and Charlotte d’Albret, since Cesare Borgia didn’t die in 1507.

“One of the darkest periods of Prince Henry’s life began in fifteen-thirty with the death of his second wife Anne Boleyn in childbirth. Prince Henry would retire from court to spend time with their three daughters: Elizabeth, Anne, and Eleanor. Then, a mere six months after the death of his second wife, his second daughter Anne Tudor, died at age seven from an unnamed childhood illness. Subsequently, in what must have seemed a perfect storm of loss, Prince Henry received word of the death of his beloved mother, Queen Elizabeth of York.

While Prince Henry was a prolific writer, leaving behind letters, journals, and publications, we have almost nothing from Prince Henry from this time. In fact, we have only three records in Prince Henry’s own hand from this time: a letter to Prince Francis requesting news of Princess Kathryn, one page in a journal expressing his concerns over continuing to defy the pope, and a letter to William Tyndale about the progress of the translation of the English Bible.

He left almost all his official duties to his three sons. In fact, the betrothal of Prince Charles Tudor to Lady Leonora Borgia, [1] was arranged by King Henri III. This would be the only one of Prince Henry’s children’s marriages that he would not arrange himself.

This deep melancholy would last almost for several years and would take a war to bring Prince Henry out of it.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”
[1] Leonora Borgia is the second daughter of Cesare Borgia and Charlotte d’Albret, since Cesare Borgia didn’t die in 1507.

“Conversely, Prince Henry absenting himself from the Court of Navarre in all probability was the making of King Henri III. For years, King Henri had depended upon his father for advice, guidance, and comfort. But, Prince Henry’s retreat left the twenty-six year old king space to grow and truly come into his own.

During this time, King Henri strengthened ties with the Protestant German princes’ and the growing French Huguenot presence. He arranged the betrothal of his youngest brother and Leonora Borgia, known in Navarre as Lenore.

While King Henri would always be his father’s favorite and perhaps the single closest relationship Prince Henry would ever have, certainly the longest lasting, never again would King Henri III Tudor depend quite so much on his father.”
Patrick Wendal, “The First Navarrese Tudor King”

“The fifteen thirties began with two important Tudor marriages. The first was the marriage of Princess Mary Tudor, daughter of King Arthur and Queen Catherine (not to be confused with Queen Maria, daughter of King Henry VII and Queen Elizabeth), to Ferdinand I Habsburg, King of the Romans and Archduke of Austria.

The second, arranged by King Henri III, was the marriage of Prince Henry Tudor to Sybylle Von der Mark, Princess of Cleves. King Henri hoped that a new bride would bring his father out of his depression, as well as provide his younger half-sisters with a mother.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“… decided to open the movie with the marriage of King James V to Princess Louise of France. We thought it would be especially potent to see that not even on his wedding was James V free from the shadow his younger brother casts. (Ewan McGregor) really captures the rambunctious headless energy of a young Prince Alexander. This isn’t a young man who has set out to eclipse his brother at every turn, but a boy who can’t help but be just a little too extreme.

Interviewer: And James V?

Director: Robert (Carlyle) is an amazing King James V: in turns frustrated, envious, and sometimes adoring of his younger brother. Rob really gets into his head.

Interviewer: And what about the decision to end the movie before…”
Interview with the Director of Prince Alexander Stewart (1993)

“The young Princess was so beautiful in her bridal gown. She spoke to me in my own tongue with nary an accent. Mama, I am so excited to serve as one of her ladies.”
Letter from a young Austria noblewoman to her mother

“Prince Henry has suffered a deep melancholy these past years. He continues to spend all of his time with the Ladies Elizabeth and Eleanor. I have spoken to him about Your Majesty’s wish that he remarries. He expressed no opinion beyond obedience to his King’s will. I am deeply concerned for ….”
Fragment of a letter from Prince Henry’s secretary to King Henri III

“It is as if my husband is a sleep, even when he walks about. I feel as if there is a great gulf that separates us two. The only time I see that there might be a living man behind my husband is when he reads from the Bible to his daughters.”
Journal Entry of Sybelle of Cleves from early in her marriage to Prince Henry

“With his father mired in grief, King Henri III stepped to the forefront of the movement that would soon be called the Awakening. Many of the rulers of Europe assumed that King Henri would slowly back away from the association with the reformers. Instead the young Tudor King continued to participate in Awakening: communicating with Martin Luthor and Frederick III and offering sanctuary to the French Huguenots.

It was the continued practices of King Henri III that prompted Pope Clement VII to take action. The young king of Aragon, Ferdinand III was encouraged to claim the title of King of Navarre by dint of his mother Germaine of Foix’s claim. The forces of Aragon would muster late in the year of fifteen thirty-four and war would break out early in fifteen thirty-five.

Navarre was initially caught unware and lost several small towns to the advancing forces of Navarre. King Henri III would respond quickly himself and his youngest brother, the only one in Navarre, would march out with Army of Navarre. Several battles would follow as the two armies clashed.

While King Henri III made an admirable showing, the Aragoneese forces continued to advance. Then, in what must have felt like the death nell of Navarre, King Henri III was injured in battle.”
Patrick Wendal, “The First Navarrese Tudor King”

“My lady wife has brought me news of the injury of my dear Henri. Oh my boy, my wonderful son. You have always been all that could be desired in a son, God please don’t take him from me like thou took Anne.

Hast your face been turned from me, Oh Lord in Heaven? Is this a punishment? If my path is just, why are we left alone to face the forces that would have us turn from your Holy Word?
The Entry in the Journal of Prince Henry right before the entry that would come to be known as the Declaration of the Awakening.

“The Declaration of the Awakening in its earliest conception is found in the Journal of Prince Henry. Later, Prince Henry would edit and publish it as almost a manifesto. He recounts his melancholia he suffered after the death of his wife Anne, and the comfort found in the Bible. Then he speaks out against those would, in his words, ‘veil and conceal the Word of God behind the language of pagans.’ Prince Henry narrates how he received word of his eldest son’s injury, of turning to God in prayer. Then…”
Lise Marie Peters, “The Awakening of Europe”

“I feel like I am Awakening from a long sleep or throwing off great chains. None stands between me and the Lord of Heaven. I read His word, I obey His will, not the will of some foreign prince who styles himself the vicar of Christ. And His will is that Navarre is freed to follow Him.”
The most well-known line of the Declaration of the Awakening and what gave the Awakening its name.

“The Declaration of The Awakening is perhaps the most honest account of depression found in the Renaissance. Prince Henry pulls no punches as he describes the deep darkness that he found himself mired in after the death of his wife and the anxiety he suffered in defying the pope. In this essay I will describe how the Declaration shaped the discussion of mental health in the fifteen, sixteen, and seventeen hundreds.”
“Mental Health in Europe” Theisis Project by doctoral candidate William Matteson

“While Navarre would not formally break with the Catholic Church until several months after the end of the second War for the Soul of Navarre, the Declaration was seen by many as the start of true Protestantism in Navarre. ”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“While Prince Henry entrance into the Second War for the Soul of Navarre was heralded as the turning point, Prince Henry actually contributed very little martial assistance to the war. He would only participate in two battles, one of which he lost. His return to the politics of Navarre did serve as a great moral booster to the army, many of the leaders having served with Prince Henry in the First War for the Soul of Navarre. But Prince Henry’s greatest contribution to the war effort would be the publication of the Declaration of Awakening.

The Declaration of Awakening inspired the forces of Navarre: sections were set to music as hymns or marching tunes [1] and it was often read in its entirety directly before a battle. While the Declaration was strongly national, speaking of the need for Navarre to throw off the yoke of foreign princes, many other protestants identified strongly with ideas encapsulated in the Declaration. While no foreign assistance would arrive in time to affect the War, the Declaration did much to bind Navarre to the cause of protestants.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

[1] In fact the National Anthem of Navarre currently include two verses that borrow strongly from the Declaration. The inclusion of these verses is currently being debated in the Cortes.

“The Navaresse fight as if possessed by demons, we have already lost the land gained and we continue to retreat chased by these singing chanting soldiers.”
Letter from an Aragonese frontline officer to his commanding officer

“One year and three months after the forces of Aragon marched into Navarre, all Aragonese forces had been expelled from Navarre and territories that hadn’t been part of Navarre for quite a while had been taken by the advancing Navarese forces. Young King Ferdinand and his mother, Germaine of Foix, would both renounce their claim upon the Crown of Navarre. The Second War for the Soul of Navarre would end in an even stronger win for Navarre than the First War for the Soul of Navarre did.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“King Henri III Tudor would recover from his wounds in time to oversee the Treaty of Vitoria where he officially declared Navarre a protestant country.”
Patrick Wendal, “The First Navarrese Tudor King”

“The marriage of Infanta Maria Aviz of Portugal to Prince Francis Valois, Duke of Brittany occurred late in the year of fifteen thirty-five. It was said that there was never a handsomer couple. The new Dauphine, now called Marie, greatly resembled her mother excepting the dark hair she inherited from her father and Dauphin Francis was considered one of the finest princes of Christendom.

The young couple appeared quite happy with each other. They would spend rather large of time in Brittany early in fifteen thirty-six but would return to court at the request of King Francis. It would be there, shortly after a ride through the countryside, that the Dauphin would collapse after drinking from a glass of wine.

Prince Francis III Valois, Duke of Brittany, would die later that night. The Dowager Duchess of Brittany would accuse the new Dauphin, Prince Henri, of poisoning her husband. In an effort to avoid the growing scandal, Marie of Portugal would be sent back to Brittany where it was hoped that the familiar surrounding would allow her to compose herself.

Once she reached Brittany, it was discovered that she was with child. The country waited wondering whether Marie would deliver a boy, the new heir to France, or a girl.”
Karen Talls, “Marie of Portugal”

“The Infanta has delivered a daughter whom she has named Marie Francoise. The child bears strong resemblance to her father and shows all signs of living.”
Letter from the midwife of King

“The French Court was surprised when the young Marie Francoise Valois was named Duchess of Brittany, the successor of her father. It was known that King Francis I had intended to unite Brittany with France. In all probability the appointment was less for the young Marie Francoise and more for her mother. It appeared that in exchange for Marie Francoise inheriting Brittany, Marie of Portugal would cease accusing the new Dauphin of poisoning her husband. In all likelihood, King Francis believed he could betroth the future son of the new Dauphin to Marie Francoise and so unite Brittany with France in that way.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“Kathryn Tudor was described by her contemporaries in a variety of different ways: her allies described her as striking and handsome, her enemies called her mannish. What we do know is that Kathryn Tudor was tall, easily six feet one, possibly taller, with the famous Tudor hair [1] and her grandmother Catharine of Navarre’s strong nose.

While this combination of characteristics could have left Kathryn Tudor feeling awkward and unsure, by all accounts the young Tudor princess was self-assured, confident, and sometimes brash.”
Elizabeth Tudor, Duchess of Calais, “Kathryn Tudor”

[1] Due to a plethora a Tudors with red hair, Tudor hair means red hair, much like Titian hair means red hair in our timeline.

“Would that the Princess (Kathryn) had been born a man, she would make the finest Prince. Truly sometimes she seems like a prince instead of princess. She strides through crowds as if she was unhampered by skirts, does not glide like other ladies. And so tall, the good princess is taller than all in court except perhaps her father.”
Letter from a lady in the service of Princess Kathryn to her family

“Catherine of Aragon and her eldest granddaughter did not get along. Later in life, Queen Catherine would claim that Kathryn Tudor was not her granddaughter, but a devil wearing her granddaughter’s face. For, she said, one of her line could not be so completely heretical.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

"Queen Catherine spent much of the fifteen thirties shoring up her only son’s position. She would broker the betrothal of John of Wales with Maria Habsburg, daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor and Isabella of Portugal, sister of King John III of Portugal. Catherine would also insist that Prince John travel to Wales and begin governing there. This, more than anything else, is what strengthened John of Wales’s position.

While of dubious health, John Tudor of Wales was said to be quite charismatic and due to his governance of Wales, most of the south of England was strongly supportive of King Arthur’s only son.”
Walter Owns, “The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon”

“Lady Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of Prince Henry and Anne Boleyn, would travel to England to visit her mother’s family at age thirteen. It is widely thought that the main purpose of her visit was to smuggle English Bibles into England. It would be shortly after Lady Elizabeth’s arrival that the Tudor Bible began to appear in England.

Lady Elizabeth would stay to become one of the chief lady-in-waiting’s of her cousin, Princess Kathryn Tudor. The two would grow extremely close over the next few years, likely bonding over shared religious beliefs, sharing the enmity of Queen Catherine, and their common Tudor hair.”
A. E. Bell, “The Early Tudor Years”

[1] Due to a plethora a Tudors with red hair, Tudor hair means red hair, much like Titian hair means red hair in our timeline.

“Late in the Fall of 1539, King Arthur traveled to Wales to visit Prince John of Wales. There in what is one of the more ironic historical anecdotes, King Arthur and his son contracted the sweat. The same deadly disease Arthur Tudor had escaped almost 40 years earlier.

The news that both King Arthur and Prince John of Wales were ill sent the court into a tizzy. For, if both passed, the next in line was Princess Kathryn Tudor. While the 17-year-old princess was the eldest daughter of King Arthur’s eldest daughter, she was also known to consort with Awakeners, and Awakeners were in the minority in England at the time.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“The tension continued to rise between the two court factions, Queen Catherine’s faction and Princess Kathryn’s faction. After several days of no news, Prince Francis announced his intent to travel to Wales to see for himself the state of his Uncle and Nephew. It was then that things reached a breaking point.

Prince Francis and his traveling companions were waylaid but what appeared to be highway robbers. In the ensuing fight, Prince Francis was killed.

As this news reached the Royal Court, Princess Kathryn accused her grandmother of assassinating her father. There was scuffle between Princess Kathryn and her ladies and the royal guards, and Princess Kathryn was escorted to her rooms and guards were posted outside.

It was then that the news officially reached the Royal Court, both King Arthur and Prince John were dead.”
Everett Jacobs, “Catherine and Kathryn”

“It seems odd to me that the Spanish Queen would secure the young Princess as such, unless the Spaniard believed King Arthur and the Princes of Wales to be dead. If they are both dead, we must act quickly to secure the safety and future of our new Queen.”
Letter from Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex to his son Gregory Cromwell

“Sybylle Von der Mark, wife of Prince Henry Tudor, would die in fifteen thirty-nine giving birth to John Tudor the new Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg. John Tudor inherited the Dukedom from his elder brother Arthur Tudor who had died some three months previously. Arthur Tudor had inherited the Dukedom from his uncle William. Prince Henry would retire from court in deep mourning. Like with the death of Anne Boleyn, it would take a war to shake Prince Henry from his grief.

John Tudor, Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg, would be escorted to his new lands by his elder half-brother Charles Tudor, Duke of Calais.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“Cardinal Henry Aviz would travel to Rome late in the fifteen thirties to speak with Pope Marcellus II about the possibility of a Portuguese Inquisition. While the Portuguese Inquisition would not be created at this time, Cardinal Henry’s journey would not be in vain. While in Rome, he would find his nephew, John Emmanuel, a bride, Caterina de Medici.”
Melina Navos, “Caterina, Mother of Iberia”

“Maria Tudor ended the fifteen thirties a happy wife and mother. She had given her husband a son and three daughters, showing she didn’t share her mother’s infertility or her elder sister’s health. She was Queen of the Romans, and she must have been looking forward to the day she would be addressed as Empress. It would be shortly after the birth of her third daughter Catherine, that Maria Tudor received word of the death of her father and brother and that her mother had declared her, Maria Tudor, Queen of England.”

King James V of Scotland ended the fifteen thirties as he always was, exasperated with and overshadowed by Alexander Stewart. The twenty-six-year-old prince had once again outshined his elder brother by…”
Harper Wayne, “Keeping Up with The Tudors, Your Guide to Who’s Who”

(stillborns have been removed from this tree)
Henry VII Tudor, (1457-1521) King of England m. Elizabeth of York, (1466-1531), Queen of England

Arthur I Tudor, (1486-1540) King of England m. Infanta Catalina Trastamara of Aragon (1485- )​
1) Margaret Tudor, (1506-1523) Princess of Wales m. Francis Tudor, (1507-1540), Prince of Wales, then Duke of Calais​
1) Katheryn I Tudor, (1523-), Queen of England​
2) Mary Tudor, (1514- ) Queen of England m. Ferdinand I, (1503- ) Holy Roman Emperor​
1) Elisabeth Habsburg, (1531- )​
2) Magdalena Habsburg, (1533- )​
3) Charles II Habsburg, (1537- )​
4) Catherine Habsburg, (1540- )​
3) John Tudor, (1524-1540), Prince of Wales​
Margaret Tudor, (1489- ) m. a) James IV Stewart, (1473-1520), King of Scotland; b) James Hamilton, (1475- ), 1st Earl of Arran​
1a) James V Stewart, (1512- ), King of Scotland m. Louise Valois, (1515- ), Princes of France​
1) Mary Stewart, (1534-1540), Princess of Scotland​
2) Margaret Stewart, (1536- ), Princess of Scotland​
3) James VI Stewart, (1539- ), Heir to the Throne of Scotland, Duke of Rothesay​
4) Charles Stewart, (1540- ), Duke of Ross​
2a) Alexander Stewart, (1514-1560), Duke of Rothesay m. Katheryn I Tudor, (1523- ), Queen of England​
3b) Elizabeth Hamilton, (1529- )​
Henry II Tudor, (1491- ), Duke of York and Richmond m. a) Catherine of Navarre (1483-1517), Queen of Navarre; b) Anne Boleyn, (1501-1530); c) Sybylle Von der Mark, (1517-1539), Princess of Cleves​
1a) Henry III Tudor, (1504- ), King of Navarre m. Johanna Sophia/Jeanne Sophie Wettin, (1503- ), Princess of Saxony*​
1) Jeanne Tudor, (1521- ), Princess of Navarre​
2) Henry IV Tudor, (1522- ), Heir to the Throne of Navarre​
3) Anne Sophie Tudor, (1525- ), Princess of Navarre​
4) Francis Tudor, (1534- ) Prince of Navarre​
2a) Francis Tudor, (1507-1540), Duke of Calais m. Margaret Tudor, (1506-1523) Princess of Wales​
See Margaret Tudor​
3a) Charles Tudor, (1511- ), Duke of Calais m. Leonora Borgia (1513-)**​
1) Charlotte Tudor, (1531- )​
4b) Elizabeth Tudor, (1522- )​
5b) Anne Tudor, (1524-1531)​
6b) Eleanor Tudor, (1527- )​
7c) Arthur Tudor, (1534-1538)​
8c) John Tudor, (1539- ), Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg​
Mary Tudor, (1496- ) m. John III Aviz, (1502-), King of Portugal​
1) Maria Aviz, (1519- ), Infanta of Portugal m. Prince Francis Valois (1518-1536), Duke of Brittany​
1) Marie Francoise Valois, (1537- ) Duchess of Brittany​
2) John Emmanuel I Aviz, (1521- ), Heir to the thrown of Portugal​
3) Isabel Aviz, (1528- ), Infanta of Portugal​
4) Maria Aviz, (1531- ), Infanta of Portugal​

*OTL Johann Frederick I, Elector of Saxony

**daughter of Cesare Borgia and Charlotte d’Albret, since Cesare Borgia didn’t die in 1507.

“The death of King Arthur I and John of Wales shook the nation. King Arthur I was one of the most loved English monarchs, and Prince John was especially revered in Wales. But, more than the loss of two beloved public figures, the nation worried at the uncertainty surrounding the succession. For, while Kathryn Tudor was the eldest daughter of the eldest daughter of King Arthur I, rumors abounded that John of Wales had lived several hours longer than his father and had left a will, a will that by-passed Kathryn Tudor.”
Everett Jacobs, “Catherine and Kathryn”

“With the official news of King Arthur and John Tudor’s death reached London, Queen Catherine swiftly took control. Kathryn Tudor had already been confined to quarters the day before, so no attention was paid to the young princess. This was to be Queen Catherine’s only mistake.”
Walter Owens, “The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon”

“It has been a day since we learned of the death of the King and Prince of Wales. Queen Catherin has been named Regent, though by who and regent for who, I am unsure. Nothing has been seen of the Princess [Kathryn] for two days now. Many people have begun to worry for her safety.”
Journal of a courtier

“It would not be till the evening of the second day of Queen Catherine’s regency, that she visited Kathryn Tudor’s quarters. There it was found that Princess Kathryn, Lady Elizabeth, and several other of her ladies were all gone.

An investigation ascertained that it had been Sir Thomas Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex who had arranged for the escape of Kathryn Tudor. Orders were given to detain the two, but neither could be found. It was believed that Kathryn Tudor and her companions were heading to the coast to take a ship to Navarre.”
Vanessa Corey, “Glorianna”

“Maria Tudor, Queen of the Romans, was named the new Queen of England by her brother’s will. The reliability of the will has been long been contested. To this day, historians can’t agree on whether John of Wales truly designated Maria Tudor as his heir or whether Catherine of Aragon forged the will to keep the throne out of the hands of Kathryn Tudor.

Whether the will was real or not it was initially accepted, due to John of Wales support in the South of England and the popularity Catherine of Aragon had gained as Queen of England. Additionally, Maria Tudor was seven years older than the young Kathryn Tudor and married.”
Everett Jacobs, “Catherine and Kathryn”

“Queen Catherine’s declaration that her daughter, not her granddaughter, would be the next Queen of England was less accepted as established. People were simply used to listening to Queen Catherine. But, due to a variety of circumstances outside Queen Catherine’s control, momentum was lost, and England devolved into a civil war, those supporting Kathryn Tudor verses those supporting Maria Tudor.

Among the circumstances that shook Queen Catherine’s control on England was Kathryn Tudor’s escape. Forces had been sent to intercept the Kathryn before she reached the shore. Unfortunately for Queen Catherine, Kathryn Tudor hadn’t headed for the shore and Navarre, but North for Scotland.

The other contributing factor to Queen Catherine losing control of England, was Maria Tudor inability to quickly arrive in England. Standing between the Holy Roman Empire and England was France and Navarre. Navarre obviously was against Maria Tudor as Queen of England; Kathryn Tudor was King Henri III’s niece. France was the surprise. King Francis had watched as religion was used as an excuse for the rights of a monarch to be subverted in Navarre, and now he saw it happening again. He saw supporting Kathryn Tudor as a way to curb the power of the pope over monarchs in their own country.”
Walter Owens, “The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon”

“Kathryn Tudor’s party, composed of the Boleyns, the Cromwells, several Howards, and a few of her ladies would reach Scotland where they were granted sanctuary but not assistance, by King James. Kathryn Tudor had hoped that her cousin would support her claim to the throne, but King James was torn between a concern about the irregularity in inheritance and his own religious principles.

But, the young Queen Claimant found an ally in Prince Alexander.”
Xander Tallmar, “Alexander Stewart, Was it All True?”

“Interviewer: And what about the decision to end the movie before Prince Alexander and Queen Kathryn meet?

Director: We struggled with that choice. But it was felt that including Kathryn Tudor would change the focus of the movie. Instead of a story of two brothers, it would be the tale of a Queen and her husband.

Interviewer: Could there be a sequel that tells that story?

Director: It’s been considered. Ewan (McGregor) has let us know he would love to do a sequel to Prince Alexander.”
Interview with the Director of Prince Alexander Stewart (1993)

“Lucy Lawless: Here we are at the castle where Kathryn Tudor would live while in Scotland. It was here that she be Prince Alexander and the two fell in love. This is Vanessa Corey, author of Glorianna.

Vanessa Corey: I wouldn’t say the two fell in love, at least not right away. More than anything I think the two saw in each other someone with the same drive and, as my grandmother would say get-up-and-go.

Vanessa Corey: Both Kathryn Tudor and Prince Alexander were very determined people; they wanted to accomplish things. In fact, I’d say that many of Prince Alexander’s earlier problems with his brother were due to the desire to do something, and nothing to do, and…

Lucy Lawless: Thank you. So, you would say the two fell in love later?

Vanessa Corey: I don’t know if we can definitively say the two ever fell in love. The Tudor family is full of great love stories; we all want to include Kathryn and Alexander in that. But, I just don’t know if we can number them among the great love stories.

Vanessa Corey: The two were faithful to each other through war and infertility, Prince Alexander was Kathryn Tudor’s greatest defender, but were they ever in love? We don’t know. The two weren’t demonstrate people and neither were great letter writers or journal keepers.”
Selections from the documentary Kathryn Tudor

“Those few months in Scotland must have been extremely difficult for Kathryn Tudor. Conflicting reports would have been constantly arriving: Queen Catherine has complete control of England and Maria Tudor just landed, France and Navarre were keeping the Hapsburgs back, revolts are spring up all over England calling for Kathryn’s return, and many more. It must have been here that Kathryn Tudor realized one of her greatest advantages; she was here.

She was here, her aunt was trapped on the continent. But, if this was to be part of her rallying cry, an English Queen, she needed to be in England. So, gathering her companions, Kathryn Tudor made the journey back to England. She would spend the next several years, hiding in various keeps and castles of supporters, appearing before crowds, and basically living her claim to being an English Queen.”
Vanessa Corey, “Glorianna”

“Prince Henry received the news of the death of his second son Francis, Duke of Calais, and of the brewing Civil War almost six months after the death of his third wife. King Henri III considered keeping the information from Prince Henry, fearing that the news of Prince Francis’s death would drive his father further into his depression. But, in the end, Prince Henry was told.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

“Prince Henry would speak before Cortes, requesting military assistance on behalf of his granddaughter. This speech linked the growing English civil war [1] with the Second War for the Soul of Navarre. Once again, Prince Henry claimed, papist forces attacked the sovereignty of a nation. Those dammed Catholics think they can just subvert the true heir, he would rage.

Selections of this speech would be sent to various European leaders. One of which was the newly crowned King of France, L'autre Henri. [2]L’autre Henri must have felt that Prince Henry had a point. Perhaps L'autre Henri felt uncertain upon the thrown. Or many L'autre Henri simply sought to reawaken the old enmity between France and the Holy Roman Empire. Whatever the reason, France would stand with Navarre in support of Queen Kathryn and in keeping the empire’s forces from reaching England.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

[1] The Civil War would shortly be named Katies’ War.

[2] Henry II Valois would never escape his nickname “the other Henry” or “L'autre Henri.” There were just too many Henry’s running around during this period.

“Ferdinand I had intended to march his forces to the coast and from there sail to England. But, both Navarre and France would refuse him passage. War between the Empire on one side and France and Navarre on the other would break out early in 1540 and would last several months longer than Kathryn’s War.

The actual Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, wouldn’t be serious involved in the war due to a border conflict between the newly separated Castile and Aragon.”
Oliva Martin, “Katies’ War”

“Fifteen forty ended with England deep in Katies’ War. Queen Kathryn Tudor had control of a good section of the north of England as well as lands near Norfolk. Queen Catherine of Aragon still had control of London and pretty much everything south of London.

Queen Catherine’s position was suffering damage due to the continued absence of Maria Tudor; Queen Kathryn Tudor was in England. More and more, Queen Catherine of Aragon was viewed as a forging usurper. By March of fifteen forty-one, several of the Catholic nobles would reach out to Queen Kathryn Tudor.”
Oliva Martin, “Katies’ War”

“It is my greatest fear that to see faithfulness to God’s church, England will fall. Queen Catherine has ruled for almost a year with no sign of Queen Maria. News has reached us that the Spaniards are forming an armada. Queen Catherine assures that the fleet comes in support of Queen Maria, but is not Queen Maria bound by her husband’s will? And her husband is brother to the Spanish King. Where is God’s will in this?”
Letter from Sir Thomas More to his wife, Alice

“Initial communication between Queen Kathryn Tudor and Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk and a leader among the Catholic nobles, was slow and short. She was distrustful of his motives, and probably suspected a trap. But, after several letters exchanged by trusted messengers, the two would meet.

While what exactly was discussed during this meeting has been lost to history; we have no record. What we do know is whatever Queen Kathryn said convinced Norfolk. He would begin meeting with the other Catholic lords speaking on behalf of Queen Kathryn.”
Walter Owens, “The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon”

“With more and more Catholic nobles switching sides, Queen Kathryn Tudor began advancing on London. In light of the changing tides, Queen Catherine of Aragon made the choice to meet Queen Kathryn Tudor in person. The two met under a flag of truce in a field near Cambridge. It would be the last time grandmother and granddaughter would see each other.”
Oliva Martin, “Katies’ War”

“Kenny_Art_my_boi: How about tonights episode! Kathryn and Catherine together again!

Kath&Cat: that is not what happened! my girl kath was never that attached to gramma. that’s why the two are fascinating. the whole tudor family could get caught up in ‘there my family/can’t hurt them’ and the kath & cat are like, ‘kingdoms to rule, people to execute.’

Malwavery: you’re just ticked you didn’t get to say Kathryn puts the cute in execute.

Kenny_Art_my_boi: Hey, just cause Kathryn and Catherine tended towards country and duty over family, doesn’t mean they didn’t care for each other.

Malwavery: didn’t Catherine later say Kathryn was the devil in disguise?

Malwavery: whatever, the speech was super cool. anyone know how accurate the speech is?

Kath&Cat: kath’s line ‘I am to be Queen of All England’ is a quote, but it’s from a later address about religion.

Malwavery: cool”
Tudor Chatroom

“Both Kathryn Tudor and Catherine of Aragon apparently offered to accept the other’s surrender at their last meeting at Cambridge. And both did have strong positions. Kathryn Tudor’s army had grown considerably in the last several months, but it still wasn’t as large as Catherine of Aragon’s mercenary augmented army. What’s more, Catherine of Aragon had walls to wait behind.

The reunion would end without any significant agreements or concessions from either party. Catherine of Aragon would return to London and Kathryn Tudor would prepare for battle.”
Everett Jacobs, “Catherine and Kathryn”

“Lucy Lawless: This field would have been just like this, foggy and unclear, that August morning three hundred years ago when the forces of Kathryn Tudor attacked Queen Catherine. Where would Prince Alexander been? He was one of the general right?

Vanessa Corey: Prince Alexander wasn’t attached to any of the companies or battalions, nor was he a general. In fact, he didn’t have any official authority. Formally, he was a guest of Queen Kathryn.

Lucy Lawless: But he did fight?

Vanessa Corey: Yes, he did, what’s more, he somehow found himself in command of one of the larger contingents after their commander died. He apparently talked them into following him.

Lucy Lawless: And that sort of thing happened a lot?

Vanessa Corey: All the time, Prince Alexander had this habit of not stopping, or pausing to think. Just, forging ahead. Most of the time that worked out for him. People are still arguing if it was luck or not.”
Selections from the documentary Kathryn Tudor

“The battle wage for several hours without either side gaining ground. Sometime around noon, reinforcements arrived. An army composed of Navarrese and French soldiers led by Prince Henry arrived during the Battle for London taking Queen Catherine completely by surprise. The tide of battle had changed.”
Oliva Martin, “Katies’ War”

“Queen Catherine left London forcibly escorted by several of her allies. She apparently had wished to fight to the last, but with forces abandoning them by the hour, several of her supporters retreated and took her with them. Ambassador Chapuys had arranged for a boat that would get them down the River Tames and to a ship waiting to take them to Castile. She would never return to England.”
Walter Owens, “The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon”

“In Katies’ War, there were three other parties besides the titular Kathryn and Catherine. Three men who claimed the throne of England in their own name.

The first of the would-be kings was Edward Fitzroy, the only bastard son of King Arthur I. Lord Edward would gather but few supporters and would be captured by allies of Kathryn Tudor. She would order his execution on account of treason sometime in June of fifteen forty-one.

The second would-be King was Henry Pole, 1stBaron of Montagu. A descendent of both Edward III and Edward IV, Henry Pole appeared to think that the time of the Tudors had passed and with two women as the main claimants to the English throne, he had a chance to become king. He didn’t. Catherine of Aragon’s forces captured him and much of his family and they were all executed.

The last would-be King was Welshman by the name of John Owen ap Tudor Fychan, claiming to be the deceased John of Wales. John Owen was a distant relation of the royal Tudors. John Owen would gain a decent following and was the only claimant to outlive Katies’ War. After the Battle for London, the official conclusion of Katies’ War, Kathryn Tudor’s forces would continue south to face John Owen where he would be killed in battle.

In a traditionally male dominated century, these three men are barely footnotes in Katies’ War. What was it about Kathryn Tudor and Catherine of Aragon that allowed them to lead and rule as women?

In this thesis I will…”
“The Three Kings of Katies’ War” Thesis Project by Women Studies doctoral candidate, Piper Nears

“James V Stewart sat out most of Katies’ War feeling rather put out. For Prince Alexander was winning great renown as a soldier and tactician, and once again King James was in his younger brother’s shadow. Throughout the early part of fifteen forty-one James V continued to waffle: should he enter the war, should he enter the war on Kathryn Tudor’s side or on the side of Catherine of Aragon. The Scottish forces were marshalled, but if they were going anywhere, no one knew.

Then, in early in July of forty-one, several Scottish ships were attacked by Irish pirates, the Irish pirates having grown bold in the face of English’s inattention. James V was itching for a chance to prove himself, had already marshalled his armies, and had just been given an opening. It was a dangerous combination.

Scotland invaded Ireland on July twenty-fourth. The few English forces left in Ireland fell quickly. The Scottish forces would engage in combat with the Irish forces continuously over the next few months, and it must be said that they didn’t do worse than the English forces had been doing previously.

At the end of Katies’ War, after Kathryn Tudor had been crowned Queen, diplomats from England and Scotland began to meet to speak of Ireland. It was eventually agreed that Scotland could keep Ireland; Queen Kathryn is recorded to have remarked that Ireland was more trouble than it was worth.

For James V, Ireland would prove more trouble than it was worth. For, only nine months after conquering Ireland, James V would be killed during an official visit to Ireland. This ironically, would be the death nell of independent Ireland. For the assassination of King James V enraged the Scottish. They may not have been particularly fond of James V, but he was their king. If anyone was going to kill him, it would be them.

The regents for young King James VI would send the full might of the Scottish army against the Irish.”
Rosa Kent, “Overshadowed, James V of Scotland”

“Catherine of Aragon and her party would make it safely to Castile where she would dock at Santander. Her nephew Charles V would not be able to greet her as he was still embroiled in the border dispute between Castile and Aragon. Arrangement would be made to convey Catherine of Aragon to her daughter’s side.

She would arrive to find that Ferdinand had made peace with France and Navarre and would not be pursuing the English throne. He assured her that the cease fire was temporary, until the day which faithful Catholics would call for Maria Tudor. That day would never come.”
Walter Owens, “The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon”

“England waited with baited breath to see how Kathryn Tudor would handle the religious question. For, the majority of England was still Catholic, but it had been the Awakeners that had backed her from the beginning. Now that she had the crown, which side would be rewarded?

Initially, it appeared that Kathryn Tudor would be supporting the Awakeners; her grandfather, Prince Henry perhaps the Awakener, was appointed Lord Chancellor. But then Sir Thomas More was appointed Lord Privy Seal. Sir Thomas More was a great opponent of the Awakeners. Next, Thomas Cromwell, newly made Duke of Suffolk and an Awakener, was made Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Appointments continued in this vein; one appointment for the Awakeners, and one for the Catholics. When questioned about the selections, Kathryn Tudor is recorded to have said, ‘I am to be Queen of ALL England. The Catholic and the Awakener alike.’

Ironically, Sir Thomas More who previously had been one of the great persecutors of the Awakeners, became one of her greatest backers in her policy of religious tolerance. Legend goes that she told him she greatly enjoyed Utopia and wish to see some of its practices in real life, namely religious acceptance.

While this policy was seen as madness at the time, it was probably what allowed her to keep her throne is the face of her various challengers. None of the parties, Catholics, Awakeners, or the growing population of protestants, were favored enough to gain power over the other nor were they unfavored enough to truly get riled up over it.”
Vanessa Corey, “Glorianna”

“Interviewer: So which book is the movie actually based on? ‘Catherine and Kathryn’ by Everett Jacobs, from which the film gets its name, or Walter Owens’ ‘The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon?’ Because I see plot points in the movie that can be found in both books.

Richard Gray: We drew inspiration from both books. Jacobs does a wonderful job of showing how similar both women were and Owens depiction of the collapse of their relationship is truly heartrending.

Interviewer: Do you feel the ending was oversimplified? That Kathryn Tudor won the war simply because she was willing to compromise on religion?

Richard Gray: No, I don’t. While there were a lot of complicated factors, the simple fact is Kathryn Tudor was more pragmatic than her grandmother.”
Interview with Richard Gray director of “Kathryn and Catherine”

“The tragedy of Catherine of Aragon is this book! The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon is an overblown, misogynist, drama fest. So, what that Catherine didn’t get along with her eldest granddaughter? The others adored her! So, what if she lost Katies’ War? She won others!

Catherine of Aragon was an amazing woman: she ruled as co-regent of England for almost two decades; she raised three children to adulthood, all of which were extremely well educated; she herself was one of the most educated women of her time; she was a significant influence upon her grandchildren, Maria Tudor’s children; and after her death she was canonized as a saint! A saint!

But all that is remembered of Catherine of Aragon is that she lost a war to her granddaughter; not her interest in academics and the education of women nor the wars she won. This book perpetuates the horrible chauvinist modern misconception of Catherine of Aragon.”
Review of Walter Owens’ “The Tragedy of Catherine of Aragon”

“Before traveling on to meet with her daughter, Catherine of Aragon stopped to speak with her sister-in-law, the elder Maria Tudor, Queen of Portugal. The two women had grown very close before Maria Tudor left England for Portugal. Catherine would stay in Portugal to witness the marriage of John Emmanuel, heir to the throne of Portugal, to Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de Medici.

After leaving Portugal she would pay a visit to Aragon to meet her youngest brother, Ferdinand III, for the first time. She would also be present for Ferdinand’s marriage to Margaret Valois the youngest daughter of the recently deceased Francis I.”
Ulysses Park, “Catherine of Aragon, the After England years”

“Catherine of Aragon would be reunited with her last surviving child late in the year fifteen forty-one. The younger Maria Tudor, Queen of the Romans, had not seen her mother for almost ten years and none of her children had met Catherine of Aragon.

Catherine of Aragon would spend much of the last few years of her life with her grandchildren. Of the four of Maria Tudor’s children to reach adulthood, the eldest daughter and the youngest son were particularly close to Catherine. Elisabeth Habsburg would inherit her grandmother’s religious fervor and would become a very influential Abbess.

But, this book is about the youngest, Arthur Habsburg.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

“Fifteen Forty-Two was the year for weddings in Tudor England. The first and most glorious wedding was that of Queen Kathryn to Prince Alexander. Queen Kathryn, while not pretty, was an impressive woman, especially bedecked in a gown of cloth of gold with embroidered Tudor roses. Prince Alexander also cut a very dashing figure. The marriage was performed by Thomas Cranmer, a known Awakener, but in most respects the wedding echoed traditional catholic weddings.

The second wedding was between the Lady Elizabeth Tudor, eldest daughter of Prince Henry and Anne Boleyn, to Gregory Cromwell, Earl of Essex and son of Duke Thomas Cromwell the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The two had apparently grown close during Katies’ War. With his father’s advancement, Prince Henry deemed Gregory Cromwell worthy of Elizabeth’s hand.

The third marriage was that of Prince Henry Tudor to Lady Mary Howard. It would be Prince Henry’s forth marriage. The two had met at Queen Kathryn’s wedding. Prince Henry was apparently charmed by the Lady and pleased that she would listen to his opinions on religion; Prince Henry always liked it when people listened to him. Lady Mary would officially convert towards the end of November and the two would be married in December.”
Harper Wayne, “Keeping Up with The Tudors, Your Guide to Who’s Who”

“Lucy Lawless: Here is where Kathryn and Alexander would spend most of their married life, and..

Vanessa Corey: Actually, Kathryn and Alexander would spend very little of their married life together. Shortly after the end of Katies’ War, Alexander began organizing an expedition to what they called the New World. Colonizing the Americas would be Alexander’s great mission in life and it would keep him away from Kathryn’s side for most of their married life.

Lucy Lawless: But, when they were both in England, they would live here?

Vanessa Corey: Alexander would have. Kathryn almost never left court.

{Lucy Lawless is visibly frustrated by this point}

Lucy Lawless: If they weren’t in love and never spend time together, what did they share? Letters?

Vanessa Corey: Neither of them were letter writers. Almost all of their correspondence would be through third parties. In fact, we only have one letter written in Kathryn Tudor’s own hand to Alexander. It was shortly after…”
Selections from the documentary Kathryn Tudor

“Prince Charles Tudor, the new Duke of Calais, would arrive with his younger half-brother Duke John Tudor of Julich-Cleves-Berg, in what is now the State of Rhine in the German State, late in the year of fifteen thirty-nine. Initially, the German lords were opposed the Navarrese prince as regent for Duke John. But, Prince Charles earnest and hard-working nature would win them over.

Prince Charles, the oft forgotten third son of Prince Henry and Queen Catherine of Navarre, flourished in Julich-Cleves-Berg. In Navarre he had been overshadowed by his elder brothers; he had none of King Henri’s magnetism nor had the recently deceased Prince Francis’s charm. But, here in Germany his forthrightness was admired.

Princess Leonora, Prince Charles’s wife, would spend the next several years traveling back and forth between Calais and Julich-Cleves-Berg. Calais would be left almost entirely in her hands, while her husband was immersed in ruling Duke John’s section of Germany.”
A.E. Bell, “The Birth of German State”

“Queen Maria Tudor of Portugal* died late in the year of fifteen forty-one shortly after the wedding of John Emmanuel of Portugal and Caterina Maria de Medici. She left behind her two sons and three daughters and one granddaughter. Her death would hit King John III especially hard; he would retire from court for several years and would never remarry.

This left John Emmanuel and Caterina Maria at court. These years were the proving ground of John Emmanuel and Caterina Maria. They would never share the immortal love of John and Maria, but the two would come to trust and rely on each other greatly.”
Melina Navos, “Caterina, Mother of Iberia”
* Daughter of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, not daughter of Arthur I and Catherine of Aragon

“Elizabeth Hamilton, the only daughter of Margaret Tudor, Queen of Scotland, to survive to adulthood, was a mere thirteen-years old when her elder half-brother, James V died in Ireland. But the strong-minded young lady, with support from her father, James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran, and her betrothed, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, would emerge as a powerful player in her nephew’s regency.

Though she held no official position, it would be at her urgings that the full might of Scotland would turn toward Ireland to avenge the death of her brother.”
Walter Owens, “Bossy, Bossy Bess”

“The Irish, used the English methods of warfare, were unprepared for the Scottish forces. The Scottish, unlike the English, had a much better understanding of Irish politics and how to manipulate them. In this, the similarities between the Scottish and the Irish served to quicken the war and then ensure the peace.

The English had tried to conquer Ireland for almost four hundred years. It took the Scottish two years.”
Richard Kent, “The Birth of Muir Magi”

“Fifteen forty-three was the birth year of three influential Tudors or Tudor descendants.

The first birth was that of Philip Avis, eldest son of John Emmanuel of Portugal and Caterina Maria. While Philip Avis would die at age at age seventeen, the sheer number of madrigals, hymns, and voice solos ensure that his influence is still felt today. Many believe that Mozart drew inspiration from Philip Avis for his operas.

The official cause of death of Prince Philip Avis would be accidental fall from his horse, many historians now believe the true cause of death was suicide. By several accounts, Prince Philip suffered from the same melancholia that afflicted his great uncle Prince Henry.

The second birth was of Lord Thomas Tudor, son of Prince Henry and his fourth wife Mary Howard. Lord Thomas would hold the singular distinction of being the only Archbishop of Canterbury without a particular church. The preceding Archbishop would be of the Catholic faith and Thomas Tudor’s successor would be an Awakener.

Lord Thomas Tudor would join the ranks of Kathryn Tudor’s Toms and would be numbered among such men as Sir Thomas More, both Thomas Cromwells, and Thomas Crammer. He would serve the crown as Archbishop for over thirty years, and his mediation would serve to quell much of the religious strife between the different churches that had found a home in England.

The last birth was that of Helena Habsburg, daughter of Ferdinand, King of the Romans, and Maria Tudor, Queen Claimant of England. The Lady Helena was widely regarded as the most beautiful women of her time. She would go onto become Queen of France, when her husband’s cousin died unexpectedly.”
Harper Wayne, “Keeping Up with The Tudors, Your Guide to Who’s Who”

“Lady Elizabeth Hamilton would jilt her betrothed, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, late in fifteen forty-seven and marry Gerald FitzGerald the 11th Earl of Kildare. Lord Gerald possessed the one quality Lady Elizabeth desired in a husband above all else: obedience.

To appease Lord Matthew, Lady Elizabeth was banished from the Scottish court and would spend much of the next decade in Ireland. This wasn’t really a punishment, for she was still her nephew’s favorite aunt. She served as the voice of her nephew the King while there and was, in many ways, the final authority in all Irish matters.

She would surround herself with several other strong ladies, one of which was Grainne O’Malley, or as she would come to be known by in the history books, Grace O’Malley. The two were within a year of each other and grew quite close.”
Walter Owens, “Bossy, Bossy Beth”

“France experienced much religious upheaval in the fifteen forties due to influence from Navarre and England. While France would never be protestant like Navarre, nor practice religious acceptance like England, France would be more tolerant of awakeners and protestants than the other Catholic nations. Many Catholics blamed this upon Prince Henry, and it must be said, they weren’t wrong.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“Early in the Spring of fifteen forty-five, King Francis II and his wife Isabella of Poland finally had a son. The couple had been married for four years and this would be the first pregnancy to come to term. The dauphin would be named Charles.

Many expected King Francis II to betroth the young Dauphin to his cousin Marie Francoise notwithstanding the age difference; Marie Francoise, Duchess of Brittany, was seven years older. But, King Francis II particularly despised Marie Francoise’s mother, Marie of Portugal, and had no desire to betroth his son to her daughter.

Instead both Scotland and Aragon were contacted about their princesses. King Ferdinand III of Aragon had a two-year old daughter named Juana and King James of Scotland’s youngest sister was three.”
Dr. Marella Howard, “Brittany”

“King Henri III of Navarre would call a Convocation to discuss the religious future of Navarre. For twenty years, Navarre had gone through the process of severing themselves from the Pope, but besides a strong nationalist feeling and a desire to read the Bible, actual doctrine was lacking.

For several months, the different religious leaders debated. Principle among them were John Calvin and William Tyndale. The end result was the Awakened Church of Navarre, the head of which was God. That point they very strongly insisted. The Lord’s spokesperson on earth would be titled Deacon due to the Greek meaning of messenger.

The Awakened Church of Navarre still shared many rituals with the Catholic church and some Lutheran ideas, but for the most part was founded on John Calvin’s theories and the preeminence of the Bible. This last point would spark a culture of religious lawyers, for if you could find it in the Bible you could argue that you were allowed to do it.

It is commonly believed that the line, ‘Anytime someone asks, what would Jesus do? Remember whipping people and over turning tables is an option’ originally came from Navarre.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“The first Deacon of Navarre was Andoni Eneko, an elderly man who at one point had been an abbot. He set the standard for the humbleness of the station, for he would continue to reside in the small former abbey he had once governed and refused all opulent ornamentations offered.

All Navarrese Deacons after Deacon Andoni would dress and live simply, following his example.”
Samso Subiri, “Deacon Andoni”

“King Henri III would arrange the marriage of his heir, Prince Henri, to Christina Oldenburg who had was the daughter of the deposed King of Denmark, sometime in fifteen thirty. The wedding would be delayed due to Katies’ War. The couple would go on to have one of the most tumultuous relationships of the century: sometimes they would be particularly close, lavishing attention and affection upon each other to the discomfort of those around them; other times they would rage and fight, often in public also to the discomfort of those around them; and still other times one would be angry with the other who was trying to regain their affection, often with grand public gestures this really discomfortedd people.

The first marital fight would be about religion, for King Henri and his son expected Princess Christina to convert to the newly formed Awakened Church of Navarre. She initially refused. We know from her journal that she actually came to believe in the awakened principles as early as three months after the marriage, but she held out from sheer stubbornness and wouldn’t convert until the birth of their son, named Antoine in honor of Deacon Andoni, some three years later”
Ephraim Pollock, “Henry and Christina, They May Have Tried to Kill Each Other”

“The marriage of Prince Henry, Duke of York, and Lady Mary Howard only lasted about three years. The conflict seems to have arisen when Prince Henry discovered that Lady Mary had no particular religious feelings; she had not truly converted to the Awakened faith.

This appears to have triggered one of Prince Henry’s melancholic episodes. This episode was punctuated by load outbursts where he and the Lady Mary raged at each other. After several months, Lady Mary would renounce her conversion and retire to a nunnery.

This loud religious disagreement between two prominent people appears to have upset the current delicate religious balance in England, so it was suggested to Prince Henry that he might want to visit his son Duke John of Julich-Cleves-Berg. Prince Henry would take the hint. In a rather large spectacle at court, he would announce that he had been too long away from his children (ignoring that half of them were in England) and must leave England. He would also resign as Lord Chancellor at this point.

In the wake of Prince Henry’s absence, Sir Thomas More was selected to fill the office of Lord Chancellor. To counter act this appointment, Thomas Cromwell was promoted to Lord High Treasurer.”
Melantha Jones, “Religious Acceptance in Renaissance England”

“One of the more significant historical fallacies from the 1500s is the merging of Protestants and Awakeners. The two movements are actually separate. The later refers to a specific group and ideology that spawned the Awakened Church and its fourteen official branches. The Protestants refers to all those that disagreed with the preeminence of the Catholic Church. The amalgamation of these two movements come from the fact that the Awakeners were definitely the loudest group (this was mostly due to Prince Henry Tudor) though not the largest.

Additionally, several prominent Protestants would use the the ideology of awakening to describe their own religious experiences. As such it is appropriate to refer to both of the movements as the Awakening.”
Lise Marie Peters, “The Awakening of Europe”

“Prince Henry first heard of Princess Renée’s heresy trial while visiting his son Duke John Tudor. Having recently gotten divorced due to his ex-wife’s false conversion, hearing of a woman who was standing by her principles must have inspired him. For, instead of returning to Navarre at the end of his visit, Prince Henry traveled to Ferrara.

There Prince Henry, in what has been immortalized in three movies, two plays, and sundry books, staged a prison break. Acting with the assistance of his old friend Cesare Borgia [1], Prince Henry would spirit Princess Renée and her children out of the country.

Upon reaching Navarre, Prince Henry and Princess Renée were married.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

[1] No one quite knows why Cesare Borgia assisted Prince Henry. The best guess is that the ensuing upheaval was beneficial in some way, or at least amusing.

“Rumors have circulated throughout history on how Prince Henry rescued Princess Renée and her children. Popular ones include that the small group swung from rooftop to rooftop, that Prince Henry and Princess Renée dressed as old women to escape, and that Cesare Borgia would hold off pursuers single handedly to allow them to escape before succumbing. This last one is completely false, for his bones were recently examined and the causes of death is definitively old age.”
William Richards, “Italy and the Awakening”

“The whole of Ferrara is in uproar. I have always thought that Prince Henry’s reputation had outgrown the man, but I must say now that I do not think the tales have grown loud enough. “
Letter from Italian nobleman to his father

“It wasn’t until the late fifteen-forties that the general population of England began to realize that an heir wasn’t forthcoming. Queen Kathryn and King Alexander had been married for over seven years, and not once had a pregnancy been announced. The first view years had been excused due to King Alexander’s absence from court, but over time there had been periods where the two resided together and nary a pregnancy.

It is now believed that continued prolonged periods of separation between Queen Kathryn and King Alexander were used to conceal Queen Kathryn’s fertility issues. It gave an official reason for the lack of an heir.”
Vanessa Corey, “Glorianna”

“King Henri III of Navarre, by some accounts second in line to the English throne behind his father Prince Henry, officially excepted himself from English succession to preclude a union between Navarre and England late in the year 1547. It is believed that this was the first step in naming another heir. The possibilities for another heir were endlessly debated and we still don’t know who Kathryn might have named.

Some argued that Maria Tudor should be welcomed back to England as the heir of Queen Kathryn, or that one of her sons should be sent to be named Prince of Wales. Others argued that Prince Henry was the only option as a successor, but as he was Queen Kathryn’s grandfather not many expected him to outlive the Queen. Still others suggested Prince Charles, Prince Henry’s second eldest surviving son, or one of his daughters. As surprisingly popular suggestion was Countess Elizabeth’s eldest son Gregory Cromwell.

Young Lord Gregory had the benefit of being younger than the Queen, which Prince Henry and Prince Charles did were not, as well as definitively English, which Maria Tudor’s sons and Prince Charles’s daughters were not.”
Paisley Jones, “The Balancing Beam, The Early Years of Queen Kathryn’s Reign”

“Do to the dissolution of Spain, the ownership of the Spanish colonies was disputed through much of the first half of the 1500s. Both Castile and Aragon claimed title of the land in the Americas. King Alexander I would take advantage of this sometime in 1540s.

Using the uninhabited islands called the Bahamas [1] as a launching place, the English forces would slowly begin to take over many of the Spanish colonies in what is now Glorianna Domains using a combination of intimidation, force, and bribery. Many of the colonies had been without support for several years due to the war between Aragon and Castile and as such weren’t particularly inclined to put up a fight.

By 1549 the English has control of….”
Lise Marie Peters, “Early Glorianna”

[1] The Spanish had abandoned the Bahamas after they sold the entire population of the native people as slaves.

“The earliest accounts of English settlers heading west occurred in fifteen forty-two, but these settlers were heading to the unoccupied Bahamas. Because of the sandy soil, there was minimum farming done which left the lush forests untouched. The little farming that was done occurred on the island of New Providence. Instead the colonists depended on the sea for their substance.”
Oliver Kent, “Mother Sea, The Marine Living of the Early English Colonists”

“It is unclear when Alexander Stewart first began the seizure of the Spanish colonies; he kept the information flow east under tight control. But eventually the news reached Europe where King Charles of Castile took it rather personally considering those colonies were among those ceded to Aragon in the peace treaty.

What’s more, Queen Kathryn had been in contact with King Ferdinand of Aragon and had purchased the colonies, retroactively authorizing the English seizures of the colonies. King Ferdinand had few other options then to allow the English possession, due to the long war with Castile he no longer had the resources to retake the colonies. In all probability, King Charles knew of Aragon’s current condition and had planned to take the colonies for Castile.”
Tammie Waltherson, “Ramp Up to the Second Succession War”

Henry VII Tudor, deceased King of England m. Elizabeth of York, deceased, Queen of England

Arthur I Tudor, deceased m. Infanta Catalina Trastamara of Aragon, age 65​
1) Henry Tudor, deceased​
2) Arthur Tudor, deceased​
3) Margaret Tudor, deceased m. Francis Tudor, deceased​
1) Kathryn I Tudor, age 27, Queen of England m. Alexander I Stewart, age 36, Duke of Ross​
4) Henry Tudor, deceased​
5) Henry Tudor, deceased​
6) Mary Tudor, age 36, Queen Claimant of England m. Ferdinand I, age 47, Holy Roman Emperor​
1) Elisabeth Hapsburg, age 19, Abbess of Nonnberg​
2) Magdalena Hapsburg, deceased​
3) Charles II Hapsburg, age 13​
4) Catherine Hapsburg, deceased​
5) Arthur Hapsburg, age 9​
6) Helena Hapsburg, age 7​
7) Henry Tudor, deceased​
8) John Tudor, deceased​
Margaret Tudor, age 61, m. a) James IV Stewart, deceased; b) James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran​
1a) James Stewart, deceased​
2a) Arthur Stewart, deceased​
3a) James V Stewart, deceased, m. Louise Valois, age 35, Princes of France​
1) Mary Stewart, deceased​
2) Margaret Stewart, age 14, Princess of Scotland​
3) James VI Stewart, age 11, King of Scotland and Ireland​
4) Charles Stewart, age 10, Duke of Ross​
5) Mary Stewart, age 8, Princess of Scotland​
4a) Alexander Stewart, Duke of Ross m. Katheryn I Tudor, Queen of England​
See Katheryn Tudor​
5b) Elizabeth Hamilton, age 21, m. Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare​
1) James/Seamus FitzGerald, age 2​
Henry II Tudor, age 59, Duke of York and Richmond m. a) Catherine of Navarre, deceased, Queen of Navarre; b) Anne Boleyn, deceased; c) Sybylle Von der Mark, deceased, Princess of Cleves; d) Mary Howard, divorced; e) Renee of France, age 40, Duchess of Chartres​
1a) Henry III Tudor, age 46, King of Navarre m. Johanna Sophia/Jeanne Sophie Wettin, age 47, Princess of Saxony* age 47​
1) Jeanne Tudor, deceased, Princess of Navarre m. René I, Viscount of Rohan​
1) Anne de Rohan, age 6​
2) Henry IV Tudor, age 28 m. Christina Oldenburg, age 29, Princess of Denmark​
1) Antoine Tudor, age 7​
3) Anne Sophie Tudor, age 25, Princess of Navarre m. Francis, Duke of Guise age 31​
1) Henri of Guise, age 2​
4) Francis Tudor, age 16, Prince of Navarre​
2a) Francis Tudor, deceased, Duke of Calais m. Margaret Tudor, deceased, Princess of Wales​
See Margaret Tudor​
3a) Charles Tudor, age 39, Duke of Calais m. Leonora Borgia age 37**​
1) Charlotte Tudor, age 19​
2) Eleanor Tudor, age 3​
4b) Elizabeth Tudor, age 28, m. Gregory Cromwell, deceased​
1) Gregory Cromwell, age 7, Earl of Essex​
2) Anne Cromwell, age 4​
3) Thomas Cromwell, newborn​
5b) Anne Tudor, deceased​
6b) Eleanor Tudor, age 23 m. Frederick Albert, age 22, King Claimant of Denmark***​
1) Margaret Wittelsbach, age 3​
2) John Albert Wittelsbach, newborn​
7c) Arthur Tudor, deceased​
8c) John Tudor, age 11, Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg​
9d) Thomas Tudor, age 7​
10d) Margaret Tudor, age 6​
11e) Cecily Tudor, newborn​
Mary Tudor, deceased, m. John III Aviz, age 48, King of Portugal​
1) Beatrice Aviz, deceased, Infanta of Portugal​
2) Maria Aviz, age 31, Infanta of Portugal m. Prince Francis Valois, deceased, Duke of Brittany​
1) Marie Francoise Valois, age 13, Duchess of Brittany​
3) John Emmanuel I Aviz, age 29, King of Portugal m. Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de Medici, age 31​
1) Philip Aviz, age 7​
2) Sebastian I Aviz age 4​
4) Anthony Aviz, age 26, Cardinal​
5) Isabel Aviz, deceased, Infanta of Portugal​
6) Maria Aviz, age 19, Infanta of Portugal​

*OTL Johann Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
**daughter of Cesare Borgia and Charlotte d’Albret, since Cesare Borgia didn’t die in 1507.
***son of Albert, Duke of Prussia and Dorothea of Denmark, OTL none of their sons lived to adulthood

“Late in the year fifteen fifty-five, Frederick Albert*, King Claimant of Denmark, would travel to Navarre to visit his aunt, Queen Christina. There he would meet Lady Eleanor Tudor, daughter of Prince Henry and Anne Boleyn. Without consulting his parents but with the approval of Prince Henry, the two would marry.

While Frederick Albert was undoubtedly enthralled with his new bride, the same couldn’t quite be said for Lady Eleanor. But all accounts, Lady Eleanor was more interested in the Crown of Denmark. It wasn’t until later that she would come to care for her husband.”
Quentin Lloyd, “Frederick Albert, Never King”

*son of Frederick II, Elector Palatine and Dorothea of Denmark, OTL none of their sons lived to adulthood

“Gregory Cromwell, Earl of Essex, would pass away late in 1558. 10 months later, his widow, Countess Elizabeth, would give birth to a son, who would be named Thomas. At the time, everyone tactfully agreed to pretend young Lord Thomas wasn’t a month late. But, for years, people have wondered at the paternity of Thomas Cromwell.

My thesis project will be to do DNA analysis of Lord Thomas’s decedents as well as confirmed decedents of the rumored fathers in an effort to answer the question of Thomas Cromwell’s paternity once and for all.

Already, Duke William Cromwell has agreed….”
“DNA Knows All” Doctoral proposal by Danica Anderson

“Interviewer: What was it like playing Tom?

Christian Bale: Well it was a real struggle to get into his head. On one hand he’s got that tremendous Tudor self-confidence and on the other hand he is weighted down by this question. Who is he? He’s very detached because of that.

Interviewer: And his relationship with his mother?

Christian Bale: It’s very complicated. In many ways she’s his sole human connect but he also resents her, resents her a lot.”
Interview of Actor Christian Bale, staring in Tom(1992)

“Early in the fifteen fifties, the clamor for the succession to be addressed grew to a point where Queen Kathryn would act. After much deliberation the Succession Act was released. The Act removed Maria Tudor and her children from succession due to treason. But, no one was named as heir.”
Elizabeth Tudor, Duchess of Calais, “Kathryn Tudor”

“I have a child; his name is England.”
Historically this was Queen Kathryn Tudor’s response to questions about her bearing a child.

“A secure succession was a particularly large carrot to dangle, and Queen Kathryn did it very well. By hinting to one person or the other that one of the potential heirs was particularly favored, she kept the court on its toes. This kept the different factions from growing large enough to challenge the other. This was the same strategy that Queen Kathryn would employ to secure peace between the conflicting religious parties.”
Paisley Jones, “The Balancing Beam, The Early Years of Queen Kathryn’s Reign”

“Around fifteen fifty, England would enter the what is now called the Golden Era, even though Queen Kathryn still hadn’t addressed succession. Queen Kathryn was quickly growing to be one of the most beloved monarchs of England’s history. King Alexander ensured that wealth continued to stream from Glorianna. Even the Catholics and the Awakeners began to peacefully coexist.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“The Kingdom of Scotland and Ireland spent the better part of the fifteen fifties in rather odd position of pseudo acknowledging both Kathryn Tudor and Maria Tudor as Queen of England. It appears to have been motived by a combination of hedging their bets and King James VI having inherited his father’s issues with Alexander Stewart.

So, while Scotland dealt with Kathryn Tudor in regards to trading and other issues, ambassadors were also sent to Maria Tudor, and sometime in the mid fifteen fifties Princess Margaret Stewart, eldest sister of James VI, was betrothed to Charles Hapsburg, eldest son of Queen Claimant Maria Tudor.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

“Once Marie of Portugal was sure that L'autre Henri did not wish to marry his son to her daughter, she began to look for other suiters for her daughter the Duchess of Brittany. Several different grooms were considered, but in the end Marie of Portugal would choose Prince Francis Tudor, second son of King Henri III of Navarre.

The two would have a much more dignified marriage then Prince Francis’s elder brother.”
Karen Talls, “Marie of Portugal”

“Prince Charles Tudor, second eldest surviving son of Prince Henry Tudor, had been six-years old when his mother died and nine-years old when his father married Anne Boleyn. He would quickly come to view Anne Boleyn as a mother; in his journals he refers to her as ‘little mother.’ [1] It is probably because of this connection that he chose Thomas Boleyn, son of George Boleyn and Anne Boleyn’s nephew, as the husband of his eldest daughter and, thanks to an alteration of the patent granted by Queen Kathryn, the heir to the Duchy of Calais.
Karl Smith, “The Tudors and Calais”

[1] Prince Charles would have surpassed Anne Boleyn in height by his eleventh birthday.

“Prince Christian Tudor, second son of Prince Henri Tudor and Christina Oldenburg, would be born in 1552. His birth heralded the end of a five-month dispute between Prince Henri and Princess Christina. The argument appears to have been started shortly after the pregnancy was announced due to King Henri III being unwilling to commit Navarre’s forces to retaking Denmark for Princess Christina’s nephew.

Initially the quarrel appears to have been one-sided, with Prince Henri doing his utmost to regain Princess Christina’s favor. The prompted several ostentatious acts that greatly discomforted the Navarrese court. Then as her disdain continued, Prince Henri grew angry and the instead of trying to win back her favor Prince Henri returned her ire in many large arguments that also discomforted the Navarrese court.

It was during this time that Prince Henri was the target of an assassination attempt. While there are several theories to the author of the attempt the most popular is that Princess Christina ordered the assassination of her husband. If this is true she must have changed her mind later for during the attempt it was Princess Christina’s actions that would save Prince Henri’s life.”
Ephraim Pollock, “Henry and Christina, They May Have Tried to Kill Each Other”

“The failed assassination of Prince Henri is indicative of the unrest that plagued Navarre during the latter half of the fifteen hundreds. For why King Henri III Tudor was almost universally respected and almost adored, the same cannot be said for Prince Henri, his son. Many seek to blame Princess Christina for the assassination attempt, but the truth is she would not have had access or funds to arrange such a thing.

In all likelihood the assassination attempt was arranged by a noble in the court who was not only concerned about Prince Henri and Princess Christina’s agitated marriage but by Prince Henri disinterest in the nobles and court life. For, Prince Henri seemed have little use for the more powerful nobles in Navarre and instead his closest confidents were philosophers, musicians, and artists, many of whom were of common stock.

Though Prince Henri may have been out of favor with the Navarrese nobles, he was particularly admired by the common people of Navarre. He and his eldest son—Antoine who was more commonly known by the Basque translation of his name, Andoni—would often travel through the more rural parts of Navarre with the bare minimum of retinue. What’s more the young Prince Andoni was more comfortable conversing in Basque than French, the language of the court.”
Ethan Davidson, “Henry IV, the People’s King”

“I went into see Anne and Reneé expecting the movie to be super tacky but it’s not. For those of you who haven’t watched the trailer, the movie is set during Prince Henry’s marriage to Reneé of France and during the movie Prince Henry flashbacks to his marriage to Anne Boleyn. The movie should be a tasteless campy drama fest. Instead, this film is actually quite moving.

The flashbacks depict the almost decade long marriage between Prince Henry and Anne Boleyn. Callum Turner, though much too young to play Prince Henry (who would have been in his late thirties), captures the depth of the relationship between Anne and Prince Henry: their shared religious devotion, their love for their children, and Prince Henry’s extreme dependence upon Anne Boleyn.

Hailee Steinfeld as Anne Boleyn was hard one for me, but that was mostly because she wasn’t Anne Hathaway, who after Lovely, Lovely Anne(2002) is my one true Anne. But, Steinfeld does a wonderful job capturing Anne’s determination to further the Awakened cause. As much as it pains me to admit, Steinfeld may have done a better job than Hathaway at capturing the women who, if the Awakened Church had saints, would have been the first saint of Navarre.

Jennifer Garner was never one of my favorite actresses, but after this that may change. She is a wonderful Reneé of France. Garner does a wonderful job with the of intricacies of Reneé’s character. This was a woman who faced a heresy trial, escaped from a heresy trial, and basically eloped with the father of a monarch. A very forceful woman. But there is also quite a bit a vulnerability as she’s comes to discover that marrying Prince Henry may be more than she bargained for.

But who really steals the show is Jeff Goldblum as Prince Henry. He beautifully illustrates how, even after almost thirty years, Prince Henry was still hung up on Anne Boleyn and how that damaged his relationship with Reneé. What’s more Goldblum instils Prince Henry with that intense energy that defined this iconic man throughout his entire life.

The film takes this interesting route and doesn’t show us either the deaths Anne Boleyn or Reneé of France (which is totally cheating us out of the beautiful death scenes both Garner and Steinfeld would have done). Instead, all we see is Prince Henry’s reaction to their deaths. Cutting between Turner’s Prince Henry and Goldblum’s Prince Henry we are gifted with one of the most poignant emotionally charged scenes I have ever seen.

So, go see Anne and Reneé! It is an amazing movie. P.S. shout out to Mckenna Grace as an amazing young Elizabeth Tudor!”
Review by Hailey Lane, the definitive Tudor Reviewer

“Princess Reneé would die giving birth to Francis Tudor, late in 1557. Predictably, this would send Prince Henry into a depressive episode. King Henri III would send his father and youngest three half siblings to England to grieve. And to probably get his father out of his hair. For as beloved as Prince Henry was by all of his children, especially King Henri III, the helicopter parent thing got old real fast once you were an adult.”
Harper Wayne, “Keeping Up with The Tudors, Your Guide to Who’s Who”

“I hear that Prince Henry comes to England like a great storm descending on our shores. For everyone’s happiness, I suggest finding him a bride. For history tells us that a married Prince Henry is less likely to break people out of prison, start wars, or challenge accepted religious principles.”
A fraction of a letter found at the English Court. Everyone denied knowledge of the letter.

“Catherine of Aragon would die in fifteen fifty-three at age sixty-five. She would leave behind the two schools for girls she started in the Austrian Habsburg lands, her only surviving child as Holy Roman Empress, three granddaughters among which was the future Queen of France and the most celebrated Abbess of Nonnberg, and two grandsons one of which became the most celebrate Holy Roman Emperor of history.

And with her death, the last strings holding Charles of Castile, Ferdinand I, and Ferdinand III together were severed.”
Ulysses Park, “Catherine of Aragon, the After England years”

“The relationship between Kathryn Tudor and Catherine of Aragon was always a complicated one, this is never more evident than at Catherine of Aragon’s death. What should have been a triumphant moment for Kathryn Tudor, the greatest threat to her reign was dead, was not greeted with festivities or joy. Instead Kathryn Tudor would retire from court for almost a month during which she was only visited by those closest to her.

This is a fraction of the evidence we have that Kathryn Tudor and Catherine of Aragon were closer than the war they fought indicates. During Kathryn Tudor’s childhood, Catherine of Aragon would have been the closest thing she had to a mother. At one-point grandmother and granddaughter must have been close. But religious differences and a crown would tear these two apart.”
Everett Jacobs, “Catherine and Kathryn”

“While many people joke about the necessity of finding Prince Henry Tudor a bride, the truth was the unknown letter writer wasn’t too far from the truth. The more daring stunts that Prince Henry pulled, calling for a vernacular translation of the Bible, prison breaks, the invasion of Denmark, all these happened while Prince Henry was single.

Comparatively, when Prince Henry was married his time appears to have been taken up with writing songs and religious tracks. Barring his first marriage to Catherine of Navarre, Prince Henry appears to spend much of his married life simply to enamored of his current wife to cause trouble.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“It appears that Papa is under siege. Not a day goes by that he is not beset by someone or other seeking to introduce him to their daughter, sister, or maiden aunt. Yesterday, Lord {smudge} introduced Papa to his widowed mother. I do believe Papa wishes to acquit himself of England for a while, he is still morning the loss of the Princess.”
Letter from the Lady Elizabeth to her half-brother Prince Charles

“Prince Henry left England shortly after he arrived. He appeared to have planned to travel to Julich-Cleves-Berg to visit his son, Duke John. But, while traveling he would change his plans. He would travel instead to the Electorate of the Palatinate to visit his daughter Eleanor. There he would become embroiled in the plans to retake Denmark.

Frederick Albert, husband of Eleanor Tudor, had a claim to the throne of Denmark through his mother Dorothea the daughter of Christian II the last King of the Kalmar Union. While Christian II was particularly disliked in Denmark, he was called Christian the Tyrent, the marriage of Frederick Albert to Eleanor Tudor had done much to endear him to the Danish people. This was due to the growing presence of Awakeners in Denmark. The largest denomination was still the Lutherans, but they also greatly admired Prince Henry and Anne Boleyn, the parents of Eleanor Tudor.

Prince Henry was an experienced campaigner, having lead both Wars for the Soul of Navarre and had been a principle player in Katies’ War. His assistance would be indispensable for the King Claiment Frederick Albert.”
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

“Since Prince Henry joined the rebels, their forces have grown considerably. Several of his sons have sent funds and Duke John sent soldiers and munitions. We expect their forces to arrive shortly.”
Report from a spy to King Christian III

“The forces of King Christian III, current King of Denmark, and his second cousin twice removed King Claimant Frederick Albert clashed early in the year of fifteen fifty-eight. Unfortunately for the rebels, Frederick Albert would be killed early in the first battle. The role of King Claimant would fall to his eight-year old son, John Albert, and the leadership of the war would fall to Prince Henry.

What would follow would be some of the premier battles of the fifteen hundreds. Prince Henry was an experienced General, having fought in wars over the last fifty years, and was gifted with an intensity that inspired soldiers to listen to and follow him. King Christian III had some of the most skilled German mercenaries on his payroll and wasn’t too proud to listen to their advice. The two would clash a total of four times.”
Yasha Petrov, “A Study of the Great Battles of the Fifteen Hundreds”

“If there was a chance for us, it was lost when the English arrived. A fleet of them led by that Alexander, arrived in time to reinforce the rebels and King Christian was killed. If we though the Prince was terrifying, the King is more so.”
A letter from a Germany mercenary

“Besides advising the betrothal of Princess Dorothea, daughter of King Christian III, to King John Albert, Prince Henry was not overly involved in the process of consolidating King John Albert’s rule. Prince Henry spent much of his time in Denmark amongst the Danish Awakeners. He would leave quite the impression for the number of Awakeners in Denmark grew extremely fast during and right after his time in Denmark. Upon his leaving Denmark, the Awakeners there would organize themselves into the Awakened Church of Denmark.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

“Many expected Prince Henry to return from Denmark with a bride. It would have been the longest he had gone without a wife since the death of Queen Catherine of Navarre. But, Prince Henry would leave Denmark with the English fleet and return to England to once again be harassed by would-be princesses.

It was one of the women not throwing themselves at the prince, that Prince Henry would find his sixth and last wife. Katherine Willoughby, Baroness Willoughby de Eresby, was twice over a widow, with no children and independently wealthy. The redhaired lady wasn’t looking to get married.

But, Prince Henry was smitten, and though approaching seventy years old, was still very charming.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“The wedding of Prince Henry to Baroness Katherine Willoughby de Eresby was one of the larger events of the decade. Prince Henry couldn’t resist the chance to be the center of attention. The couple would be married by Thomas Crammer in an Awakener ceremony. It is probably here that Prince Henry would finally, after years of ignoring the Pope and speaking out against the Catholic Church, ceased referring to himself as a Catholic. In all probability this was due to Katherine Willoughby’s influence.”
Isaac Laab, “Henry Tudor, Heretic and Father of Kings”

“We will have a new brother soon. Our father’s new wife is expecting, Papa is sure it is a son. I would call it folly, but he was right about all three of my children. Papa is still considering names, but I believe the boy will be named Edmund for Papa’s grandfather.”
Letter from the Lady Elizabeth to her brother Prince Charles

“It was as Queen Kathryn approached her fortieth birthday with still no confirmed heir that Ferdinand I, the Holy Roman Emperor, was galvanized into gearing up for war. Unfortunately for him, the decade of ruling had done much to endear Queen Kathryn to her subjects, and he would have little to no support from England.

With France and Navarre still standing between the Austrian Habsburg holdings and England, Ferdinand hoped to launch the invasion from Castile. King Charles, still smarting over the loss of the colonies would not only allow Ferdinand to muster his troop and launch from Castile but would augment the invasion fleet with Castilian forces.”
Tammie Waltherson, “Ramp Up to the Second Succession War”

“The English received the news of the planned invasion sometime in December of fifteen fifty-nine. Preparations began immediately: weapons were secured, and the colonies alerted.

It was decided to meet the invasion fleet at sea instead of letting them land on the shores of England. The English fleet had grown strong over the past two decades, mainly due to Alexander Stewart’s frequent journeys and colonization efforts.

Alexander would lead the English armada out to battle in August of fifteen sixty.”
Oliver Kent, “The Great Sea Battles of the Fifteen Hundreds”

“As you sail to your war, I will stay home abed with mine.”
Fragment of a letter between Kathryn Tudor and Alexander Stewart. The only confirmed record of personal communication between the two

“The Awakened Church of England was formed in fifteen fifty-nine. It echoed many of the same organizational qualities of the Navarrese and Danish Awakened Churches. The head of the Awakened Church was nominally God, but the church was led by a Deacon. The first Deacon of the English Awakened Church was Thomas Bilney. Thomas Bilney, one of Queen Kathryn’s many Toms, was one of the earliest Awakeners as he had had his own experience with the Bible that echoed Prince Henry’s.

As with the Danish Awakened Church, the English Awakened Church was not beholden to the Navarrese Awakened Church nor did they always agree on doctrine. [1] Membership in the Awakened Church of England would swell as Prince Henry put his full support into the movement.”
Paul Eltham, “The English Awakened Church”

[1] It would not be until 1792 that the twenty-three Awakened Churches would agree to unification of Doctrine and that all further doctrinal decisions would be made by a council of Deacons.

“Thomas Cranmer would continue to hold the position of Archbishop of Canterbury even after he officially joined the organized English Awakened Church solidifying the position as one under the control of Crown of England not the Catholic Church. The appointment of Archbishop of Canterbury would become a nondenominational national position where the current holder of the commission would act as the religious advisor to the throne and spiritual leader of the nation.

The Pope would decide against objecting, apparently due to considering England something of a lost cause.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“Prince Henry’s activity in the English Awakened Church sparked a change in his writings and composings. Previously Prince Henry had composed several songs, the most well-known would be Lovely, Lovely Anne,after his officially joining of the Awakened Church Prince Henry would compose several beautiful hymns. While none of his hymns would reach the popularity of Lovely, Lovely Anne, the sheer number of hymns composed ensure that everyone has sung a Prince Henry song. The more popular hymns include the Christmas carol Starlit Stable and the musical arrangement of Isaiah 54.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”
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(Skipped numbers are children that died young)

Arthur I Tudor, deceased m. Infanta Catalina Trastamara of Aragon, deceased
3) Margaret Tudor, deceased m. Francis Tudor, deceased​
1) Kathryn I Tudor, age 37, Queen of England m. Alexander I Stewart, deceased​
6) Mary Tudor, age 46, Queen Claimant of England m. Ferdinand I, age 57, Holy Roman Emperor​
1) Elisabeth Hapsburg, age 29, Abbess of Nonnberg​
2) Magdalena Hapsburg, deceased​
3) Charles Hapsburg, deceased m. Margaret Stewart, age 24, Princess of Scotland​
No issue​
4) Catherine Hapsburg, deceased​
5) Arthur Hapsburg, age 19​
6) Helena Hapsburg, age 17 m. Louis Valois, age 20​

Margaret Tudor, age 61 m. a) James IV Stewart, deceased; b) James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran
3a) James V Stewart, deceased, m. Louise Valois, age 45, Princes of France​
1) Mary Stewart, deceased​
2) Margaret Stewart, age 24, Princess of Scotland m. Arthur Habsburg​
See Arthur​
3) James VI Stewart, age 21, King of Scotland and Ireland m. Juana Trastamara, age 18​
4) Charles Stewart, age 20, Duke of Ross​
5) Mary Stewart, age 18, Princess of Scotland m. Charles Valois, Dauphin of France, age 15​
4a) Alexander Stewart m. Katheryn I Tudor, Queen of England​
See Katheryn Tudor​
5b) Elizabeth Hamilton, age 31, m. Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare​
1) James FitzGerald, age 12​
2) Margaret FitzGerald, age 8​
3) Gerald FitzGerald, age 3​

Henry II Tudor, 69, Duke of York and Richmond m. a) Catherine of Navarre, deceased, Queen of Navarre; b) Anne Boleyn, deceased; c) Sybylle Von der Mark, deceased, Princess of Cleves; d) Mary Howard, divorced; e) Renee of France, deceased, f) Catherine Willoughby, age 41 Baroness Willoughby de Eresby
1a) Henri III Tudor, age 56, King of Navarre m. Johanna Sophia/Jeanne Sophie Wettin, age 47, Princess of Saxony* age 57​
1) Jeanne Tudor, deceased m. René I, Viscount of Rohan​
1) Anne de Rohan, age 16​
2) Henri Tudor, age 38 m. Christina Oldenburg, age 39, Princess of Denmark​
1) Antoine Tudor, age 17, deceased​
2) Christian Tudor, age 8​
3) Anne Tudor, age 1​
3) Anne Sophie Tudor, age 35, Princess of Navarre m. Francis, Duke of Guise age 31​
1) Henri of Guise, age 12​
2) Jeanne Elizabeth of Guise, age 7​
4) Francis of Guise, age 2​
4) Francis Tudor, age 26, Prince of Navarre m. Marie Francoise Valois, age 23, Duchess of Brittany​
1) Anne Marie Tudor, age 5​
2) Henri Tudor, age 1​
2a) Francis Tudor, deceased m. Margaret Tudor​
See Margaret Tudor​
3a) Charles Tudor, age 49, Duke of Calais m. Leonora Borgia age 47**​
1) Charlotte Tudor, age 29, Duchess of Calais m. Baron Thomas Boleyn​
1) Charles Boleyn, age 9​
2) Eleonore Boleyn, age 6​
3) Anne Boleyn, age 3​
2) Eleanor Tudor, age 13​
4b) Elizabeth Tudor, age 38, m. Gregory Cromwell, deceased​
1) Gregory Cromwell, age 17, Earl of Essex​
2) Anne Cromwell, age 14​
3) Thomas Cromwell, 10​
5b) Anne Tudor, deceased​
6b) Eleanor Tudor, age 33 m. Frederick Albert Wittelsbach, deceased ***​
1) Margaret Wittelsbach, age 13​
2) John Albert Wittelsbach, 10, King of Denmark​
3) Anna Dorathea Wittelsbach, age 5​
7c) Arthur Tudor, deceased​
8c) John Tudor, age 21, Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg​
9d) Thomas Tudor, age 17,​
10d) Margaret Tudor, age 16​
11e) Cecily Tudor, age 10​
12e) Madelyn Tudor, age 7​
13e) Francis Tudor, age 3, Duke of Chartes​
14f) Edmund Tudor, newborn​

Mary Tudor, deceased m. John III Aviz, age 58, King of Portugal
1) Beatrice Aviz, deceased, Infanta of Portugal​
2) Maria Aviz, age 41, Infanta of Portugal m. Prince Francis Valois, deceased, Duke of Brittany​
1) Marie Francoise Valois, age 23, Duchess of Brittany m. Francis Tudor, age 26, Prince of Navarre​
See Francis​
3) John Emmanuel I Aviz, age 39, King of Portugal m. Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de Medici, age 41​
1) Philip Aviz, deceased​
2) Sebastian I Aviz age 14​
3) Maria Isabella Aviz age 9​
4) Maria Joanna Aviz, age 3​
4) Anthony Aviz, age 36, Cardinal​
5) Isabel Aviz, deceased, Infanta of Portugal​
6) Maria Aviz, age 29, Infanta of Portugal​

*OTL Johann Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
**daughter of Cesare Borgia and Charlotte d’Albret, since Cesare Borgia didn’t die in 1507.
***son of Albert, Duke of Prussia and Dorothea of Denmark, OTL none of their sons lived to adulthood

“The Second Succession War, named such even though even though the first war over English succession wasn’t called the First Succession War, began August 30 in the year 1560 when the English Armada met the combined Castilian and Austrian forces off the South coast of Brittany. It would be fought entirely at sea.

Over the next two months, the two fleets would meet time and again, fighting and retreating. Twice the English Armada returned to England to restock on ammunition and food. The definitive battle of the Second Succession War occurred early in November. The English Armada found the invasion fleet moored due to a storm. The English sailors, trained on the tropical storms of Glorianna, harried their opponents until the Castilian forces cut their anchors and fled. The now divided enemy fleet was quickly routed and many of the Austrian ships burned.”
Yasha Petrov, “A Study of the Great Battles of the Fifteen Hundreds”

“King Alexander Stewart was killed in the Anchor Battle, last skirmish of the Second Succession War. He had been on the Rose that found itself surrounded and boarded by several a last desperate bid for victory from the Castilian ships, and then as the Rose was swarmed all four ships exploded. Alexander had set the remaining ammunition on the deck alight.

Aboard one of the Castilian ships, was Charles Habsburg, the eldest son of Maria Tudor. The newly married young man was twenty-three. He would accrue several severe burns to the burning ships. Young Charles would be evacuated with the retreating invasion fleet. He would die several days later.”
Paisley Jones, “Alexander Stewart, Was It All True?”

“The official end to the Second Succession War transpired on the second of January fifteen sixty-one. The Austrian forces were decimated, and the Castilian forces were almost all the bottom of the sea. It would have been an irrefutable victory for the English but for death of King Alexander.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“The English Court entered a period of morning after the death of King Alexander Stewart that was only ended by the announcement that Queen Kathryn Tudor was expecting. After almost twenty years, there would be an heir to the throne.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“The Queen brings to mind the expectant Madonna in her appearance. Never before has the words gentle or sweet been applied to the Queen, but now as she grows closer to welcoming her child into the world.”
Journal entry of Sir Thomas Moore

“England rejoiced with the news that Kathryn Tudor would at last bear an heir to the throne. From her bed [1] Kathryn Tudor would sign the Second Succession Act. This act named her unborn child, boy or girl, as heir to the English Throne and if she died in childbirth a regent council composed of Prince Henry Tudor; Thomas Cromwell, Duke of Suffolk; and Sir Thomas Moore.

Kathryn Tudor would spend her last two months of pregnancy cloistered in her rooms with her cousins Elizabeth Cromwell, and Charlotte Boleyn, and step-grandmother Kathrine Tudor.”
Elizabeth Tudor, Duchess of Calais, “Kathryn Tudor”

[1] Kathryn Tudor was prescribed bedrest due to her advancing age.

“The Queen has delivered a bonny little princess. Both mother and child are in good health”
Notice from the Queen’s midwife to the English Court

“Princess Margaret Stewart of Wales was born seventh of April fifteen sixty-one. Never before, and never again would the birth of an English princess be greeted with such great joy. Her birth was treated as the heralding event that indicated the continuance of Kathryn Tudor’s line and Kathryn Tudor’s Golden England.

Princess Margaret would be established at Eltham Palace where Queen Kathryn could visit frequently. Mary Carey, nee Boleyn, would be placed at the head of the little Princess of Wales’s household. In all likelihood the appointment would be due to the trust Queen Kathryn had in the Boleyn family, their being one of the earliest families to support her reign.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Stewart Queen”

“Prince Antoine, eldest son of Prince Henri and Princess Christine, would die at age seventeen from cholera. It is believed that Prince Antoine contracted cholera from the unclean water he drank while consorting with the lower classes that he kept company with. His death would herald a great period of mourning for Navarre, for while not particularly loved by the upper class, Prince Antoine was adored by the lower class.

While most of the attention was taken up by Prince Henri and Princess Christine, this would be a particularly hard year for King Henri Tudor: he had just lost his eldest grandson and his beloved wife was ailing. While King Henri and Queen Jeanne Sophie didn’t have the loud demonstrate marriage that their son did, no historians contest the depth of their relationship. The two had co-ruled for almost forty years by this point and the court documents are full of small indicators of the strength of their marriage. One set of council meeting minutes record that King Henri arranged for an ambassador that Queen Jeanne Sophie acutely despised to arrive while Queen Jeanne Sophie was away so that she wouldn’t have to interact with him.

But, believed to be triggered by her grandson’s death, Queen Jeanne Sophie’s health began to deteriorate in fifteen sixty.”
Patrick Wendal, “The First Navarrese Tudor King”

“Antoine Tudor’s death would spark one of the largest and longest arguments between Prince Henri Tudor the Younger and Christina Oldenburg. Both blamed the other for the death of their favorite child. Not even the birth of the daughter, named Anne, would reconcile the two. In fact, Prince Henri Tudor would not even see his daughter until after she had been placed in the royal nursery and he would make a point to visit when Princess Christina was not there.

The placed an immense strain on their surviving son, Christian Tudor. The eight-year old prince suddenly found himself, not only much closer to the throne of Navarre, but also functioning as a go-between for his parents.”
Ephraim Pollock, “Henry and Christina, They May Have Tried to Kill Each Other”

“The pope would grant a dispensation for Arthur Habsburg, son of Maria Tudor and Ferdinand I, to marry his brother’s widow, Princess Margaret Stewart of Scotland and Ireland. Ferdinand I had been in negotiations with his uncle, Ferdinand III, for his daughter Beatrice Trastamara, but Arthur Habsburg appears to have asked that he be allowed to marry Margaret Stewart upon his brother death.

The two had apparently grown close while Charles Habsburg had been at war, sharing a similar attitudes and preferences.”
Clark Underwood, “The Habsburgs and the English Throne”

“Maria Tudor had chosen her cousin’s daughter as her eldest son’s bride due to Margaret Stewart’s Tudor ancestry. With Arthur Habsburg inheriting from his brother his mother’s hopes for the English throne, he also inherited his brother’s bride.

Opinions conflict on the reason for the marriage of Arthur Habsburg and Margaret Stewart, many historians site the documents that indicate that Arthur requested the marriage, but many believe that Arthur Habsburg requested the marriage at the prompting of his mother. The reason for the postulation is the lack of any romantic actions between the two. In fact, the two wouldn’t spend any significant time together until the Third Succession War.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

“Late in 1560 Cesare Borgia would arrange the marriage of his eldest son and heir, Alessandro Borgia, [1] to Prince Henry’s granddaughter, Anne de Rohan. Cesare Borgia had attempted to arrange the marriage of Alessandro to a daughter or granddaughter of Prince Henry multiple times over the last two decades.

Despite the strong relationship between Cesare and Prince Henry, Prince Henry would refuse to betroth any of his daughters to Alessandro Borgia due to Cesare Borgia’s attitudes toward religion and marriage. Prince Henry appeared to have disapproved of Cesare’s tendency to treating the Catholic Church as a political endeavor not a spiritual endeavor as well as his illegitimate children. What’s more Alessandro had several illegitimate children himself.

What’s interesting is Cesare Borgia’s refusal to consider a bride not of Prince Henry’s line for his son. This decision has sparked several rumors about Prince Henry and Cesare Borgia’s relationship that continue to today.”
William Richards, “Italy and the Awakening”

“The only child of the eldest daughter of King Henri, Anne de Rohan, married Alessandro Borgia early in fifteen sixty-one. Anne de Rohan was the fourth decedent of Prince Henry that was considered for Alessandro Borgia. We have records indicating that Elizabeth Tudor, Cecily Tudor, Charlotte Tudor were all considered and set aside for various reasons.

At age seventeen, Anne de Rohan would travel to Italy. There she would be known as Anna Borgia.”
Queenie Evens, “Anna and Alessandro”

“The suggested reasons for Cesare Borgia’s choice for his son’s bride vary from the risqué to the absurd. In all probability Cesare Borgia predicted the rising of the Tudors and so sought them out as allies. And if he did predict the Tudor’s rise to power, he was right; by 1560 two countries were led by a Tudor monarch, and for two more the consort of the monarch was a Tudor. The other commonly accepted theory is that Cesare’s admiration of Prince Henry guided him to seek a bride with similar drive.

But, is it possible that the historians are wrong? And that the two most accepted reasons are wrong? If so could there be more to Cesare Borgia and Prince Henry Tudor’s relationship that what was known at the time?”
Hanna Iverson, “The Two Princes”

“Late in 1561 L'autre Henri, King of France, would be forced to acknowledge that he successor would probably not be his only living son Charles Valois. The sixteen-year-old Dauphin was in frail health and no one really thought he would live or be able to have a son with his Scottish bride. If L'autre Henri were to outlive his son, his traditional heir would be his nephew Louis Valois.

The twenty-one-year-old Prince of the Blood had recently married Helena Habsburg. This was the latest gambit in Louis Valois’s movement to move France away from its alliances with Navarre and England toward more traditionally Catholic countries.

The likelihood of Louis Valois becoming the next King of France greatly concerned L'autre Henri. L'autre Henri had spent much of his reign strengthening the ties between France, England, and Navarre. It was in the early months of 1562, that L'autre Henri began speaking of his daughter, Princess Margaret Valois as if she was in the line of succession. [1]

This was met by not quite as much commotion as would have been expected and the twelve-year-old Princess might have been the Queen of France if not for L'autre Henri death in March of 1562.”
Charlotte Stanton, “L'autre Henri”

[1] France strictly abided by Salic law, women could not inherit the crown.

“Charles IX Valois came to the throne of France knowing he wasn’t long for the world. He had always been of ill health, but upon becoming King, the symptoms worsened. He had often experienced a lack of energy and appetite, but by May of 1562 would suffer from regular vomiting, muscle cramps, diarrhea, and discoloration of the skin. We now believe that Charles IX suffered from Addison’s disease. Another symptom of Addison’s disease, reduced libido, could be a contributing factor to Princess Marie Stuart’s childlessness.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Other Margaret Stewart”

“A quiet and unobtrusive boy, many expected Charles IX to be a quiet and unobtrusive King. And while it can be said that Charles IX was quiet, he was certainly not unobtrusive. The young king appears to have held firm on the subject of succession and spent the majority of his reign shoring up his sister, Princess Margaret, as his heir.

Privileges and favors were granted to several important French nobles…”
Leon Davenport, “Charles the Ninth of France”

“To strengthen his sister’s position as his preferred heir, Charles IX would betroth Princess Margaret Valois to Prince Charles Stuart, Duke of Ross. The twenty-two-year-old prince would travel to France early in May of 1562 to meet his betrothed. Prince Charles was charming and charismatic and did much to strengthen Princess Margaret’s position though she still hadn’t been named Dauphine.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Other Margaret Stewart”

“Is history to repeat itself? Will we suffer as England has suffered? A catholic monarch set aside for a Stuart backed queen? Do all the Dukes of Ross have some ability to make queens?”
fragment recovered from a journal dated to be from this period, author unknown

“It is possible Charles IX would have succeeded in seeing his sister named Dauphine. She was a singularly exceptional Princess, skilled in all the things princesses were supposed to be able to do, and her husband-to-be was all that could be asked for in a king. If Charles IX could have had a little more time to get the French people used to the idea, France might have had its first reigning Queen. But, like his father, Charles IX ran out of time.”
Leon Davenport, “Charles the Ninth of France”

“Charles IX died July 26th, 1562. At his death things began to really happen. Princess Margaret and Prince Charles, on site in Paris, would quickly marry and Princess Margaret would be smuggled to Scotland and safety, leaving Charles Stuart, claiming to be Charles X, to lead their forces. Prince Louis, claiming to be Louis XIII, would connect with his brother-in-law, Arthur Habsburg, and the Austrian forces that would supplement his army.

There should have been a war, there should have been a long drawn out war. The sides were evenly matched; the Traditionalists [1] had the well-trained Austrian army augmenting their forces and a majority of the population, the Compassionists[2] had almost the entirety of the French army—Charles IX having focused on securing their allegiance—and an heir on the way. This last detail was particularly significant, for Louis Valois had been married to his Habsburg bride for three years and they still didn’t have a child, and here Margaret Stuart is with child after only the wedding night.

There should have been a war, but there wasn’t.”
Duane Irwin, “Marie Stuart”

[1] Louis Valois’s faction was called the Traditionalists due to their support of the traditional Salic law.
[2] Margaret and Charles’s faction was called the Compassionists due to their support of the compassionate treatment of reformers and awakeners.

“August twenty-eight fifteen sixty-two, the Compassionists’ forces were surrounded and routed. Charles Stuart would be killed in the fighting. The complete and total victory of the Traditionalist and the quickly crowned King Louis XIIIwas due to communications between Marie Stewart, Queen-Dowager of France and Louis Valois that revealed movements and strategies of Charles Stuart. It is unknown if Queen Marie was aware of the way her letters would be used; she had always been rather flightily and appeared to grieve her brother’s death greatly.

The communication between Queen Marie and Louis XIII was the result of an affair between the two that appears to have started before either of their marriages.”
A.E. Bell, “Louis XIII”

“Marie Stuart first came to France at age thirteen. She appears to have been singularly underwhelmed upon meeting her husband-to-be. Dauphin Charles was a sickly ten-year-old more interested in watching people than parties. Compared to the Dauphin, Louis Valois, then a handsome fifteen-year-old, must have been an attractive alternative.

Many people believed that the Dauphin would not grow old enough to marry Marie Stuart and that his cousin, Louis Valois, would inherit both the position of Dauphin and the Dauphin’s perspective bride.

So, was Marie Stewart’s relationship with Louis Valois a cold calculated attempted to hedge her bets? First trying to ensure that if her husband died she would still be Queen of France, then an attempted to end up on the winning side? Were her letters to Louis Valois just a whimsical teenage girl writing love letters to a paramour, or a calculated risk to ensure the side she favored would win?

For, if she purposefully sabotaged the Compassionists to ensure Louis’s victory, Marie Stuart must have weighed the benefits and consequences very carefully. The consequences of her letters were the denouncement of her home country; she would be banned from ever returning to Scotland and the name Mary was almost completely abandoned in Scotland.

But, because of her actions, Marie Stuart had one of the most charmed lives of the fifteen hundreds. She became the Maîtresse-en-titre of King Louis the Thirteenth and would be granted estates and funds that she herself controlled. She would wield untold power in the French Court. Looking at all she accomplished in her life, it’s hard to believe she unknowingly betrayed her brother. In all likelihood, Marie Stuart made the judgement call and choose the winning side.”
Duane Irwin, “Marie Stuart”

“The Scottish Court was shocked and greatly grieved at the death of Prince Charles Stewart. They would cut practically all ties with France and the Habsburgs, and, due to their disinclination to deal with protestants, most of the rest of Europe. Scotland and Ireland would enter a period of isolation that would only be broken by the Third Succession War.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

“Margaret Valois would spend her pregnancy in the Scottish Court pleading with her brother-in-law for more troops to take back her country. She would go into labor April 20 of 1563. At some point during labor she became unresponsive and the decision was made to surgically remove the baby. The baby, a girl to be named Margaret Stewart, would be successfully delivered, but Margaret Valois would never wake up.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Other Margaret Stewart”

“England and Navarre stood with L'autre Henri and Charles IX in the determination that Margaret Valois was to inherit the crown of France. If Margaret Valois became Queen of France, the existing treaties between the three countries would be honored and what’s more the protestants and awakeners in France would be allowed to continue to practice their religion. [1]

So, at the death of Charles IX, Kathryn Tudor ordered the English fleet to gather and prepare for war, and King Henri gathered Navarre’s forces and placed his son Henri at the head. If the reinforcements had been able to reach the Compassionists, Margaret Valois may have won the day. But, before the English fleet had even set sail, Charles Stuart was dead, and Louis Valois was King of France.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Other Margaret”
[1] While France was the protestant country Navarre was, nor was France the bastion of religious tolerance that England was, France did allow protestants and awakeners to practice their religion. Though protestants and awakeners were not allowed to build churches and had to pay a tax among other infringements on their rights.

“Marie Francoise, Duchess of Brittany, and her husband Francis Tudor were placed in a precarious place by the succession issues of France. For if daughters were now in the line of succession, Marie Francoise had a strong claim as daughter of Prince Francis Valois. Kathryn Tudor made it clear to the couple that she would love to support her cousin’s wife’s claim to France. King Henri III, the King of a country that shared a border with France, was more circumspect.

Marie Francoise and Francis Tudor stalled for several months, prevaricating and hesitating. With Navarre and England, they might have a chance. They certainly would find support from the protestants currently living in France. [1] But, Louis XIII was backed by a majority of the French Nobles and the Habsburgs.

In the end Marie Francoise and Francis Tudor would choose not to claim the Throne of France in return for Louis XIII unconditionally recognizing the autonomy and sovereignty of Brittany. [2] It was said that Francis Tudor remarked that France was not worth the trouble. This choice seems to have been heavily influenced by Marie of Portugal. Marie Francoise’s mother was a firm woman who believed strongly in being cautious.”
Dr. Marella Howard, “Brittany”
[1] One of the first acts of Louis XIII was revoking the privileges granted to the protestants. Many were burned as heretics the first few months of his reign.
[2] Brittany had existed in something of a limbo for the last few decades. While Brittany had been intended to be united with France it had never actually happened.

“Amongst the larger than life Prince Henry, the commanding Kathryn Tudor, the charismatic King Henry III, Elizabeth Cromwell, and the many other celebrated Tudors, it can be easy to discount Marie Francoise and Francis Tudor. They didn’t win wars or flout convention, nor were they particularly well known in their own time, at least compared to their many many relatives.

But, it’s perhaps their inconspicuousness that we should find conspicuous. They managed to wrest Brittany from France, keep peace with England and Navarre as they refused to seek the throne of France, all without garnering any particular ill-will. During their reign, war never touched Brittany’s land. They lived happily and peacefully in a time where war was commonplace. Also, they were hideously wealthy, Brittany having gained several beneficial trading agreements during their reign.

But instead of the economical and pollical successes, all that Marie Francoise and Francis Tudor are known for are their lurid love letters. [1] This book seeks to fully capture the couple Marie Francoise and Francis Tudor. Yes, they were apparently ridiculously in love, but they were also successful rulers of Brittany.”
Solomon Lee, “Marie Francoise and Francis Tudor”
[1] For those of you who don’t know, almost a century after the death of Marie Francoise, the love letters she and Prince Francis Tudor exchanged were found amongst her papers. The letters ranged from some beautiful original poetry to rather risqué sentiments.

“The marriage of James VI, King of Scotland and Ireland, to Juana Trastamara, Infanta of Aragon, occurred shortly before the French Queen War—as it was called in Scotland—and it also served as an excuse to recall Elizabeth Hamilton, aunt of James VI, to Scotland from her banishment in Ireland.

Elizabeth Hamilton would return with several ladies she had befriended in Ireland. One of which was Grainne O’Malley or, as history calls her, Grace O’Malley. Grace and the other Irish ladies would seek to represent Irish interests in the way the Irish lords had been not allowed to. Several of the Irish ladies would make prominent marriages, doing much to strengthen the relationship between Scotland and Ireland.

But, Bossy Bess hadn’t brought Grace O’Malley to Scotland to marry a Scottish lord.”
Walter Owens, “Bossy, Bossy Bess”

“Queen Joan, as Juana Trastamara was known in Scotland and Ireland, would give birth within the year after the wedding to a daughter who was named Marjorie, the name Mary being all but banned. Several miscarriages and stillborn would follow until in fifteen sixty-seven, Queen Joan, would die giving birth to boy who would be named James.”
Maximillian Green, “Scotland, the Isolation Years”

“The idea that Elizabeth Hamilton brought Grace O’Malley to Scotland specifically to seduce James Stewart has been floated again and again throughout history. But if Elizabeth Hamilton did bring Grace O’Malley to Scotland to seduce her nephew, she played a long game. We have no record of any relationship between Grace or James Stewart during Queen Joan’s life, though the affair does appear to have begun very quickly after her death.

Grace O’Malley and James Stewart never did get married but they would have two children, Seamus and Maeve.”
Aidan Robinson, “Seamus to James”

“Charles Tudor, second oldest surviving son of Prince Henry Tudor, spent almost twenty-five years in Julich-Cleves-Berg from fifteen forty to fifty sixty-five: first as regent to his younger half-brother Johann Tudor and then simply as an advisor. He would only rarely return to Calais, having left the governing in the hands of his wife, Leonora Borgia. [1] Charles Tudor was particularly beloved by the people of Julich-Cleves-Berg. Records indicate that the Karl, the German version of Charles, became the number one name during this time period.”
Lila Kelly, “Charles Tudor and Johann Tudor”

[1] Their second daughter, Eleanor Tudor, would be conceived upon one of the visits. She would not meet her father until age three at his next visit. This gives you a hint on just how often Charles Tudor was in Calais.

“Prince Charles Tudor, son of Prince Henry Tudor and Catherine of Navarre, would oversee the marriage of Duke John to Marie Elizabeth, Princess of Saxony, [2] early in fifteen sixty. The couple would appear to have a congenial marriage; they would have thirteen children though only eight would live to adulthood.

After the marriage, many thought Prince Charles would leave Julich-Cleves-Berg. And while Prince Charles would relinquish the regency, he would remain in Julich-Cleves-Berg as an advisor for almost four years.”
A.E. Bell, “The German State”

[2] Since in this timeline OTL Johann Frederick I was born a girl, Jeanne Sophie, John Ernest second son of John, Elector of Saxony, is a much more important person. John Ernest would inherit all his father’s lands and the electoral dignity. He also lives longer than OTL and has three children, the eldest of whom is Marie Elisabeth.

“In all probability, Charles Tudor was closer to John Tudor than he was to his two daughters. Charles Tudor would raise John Tudor from almost infancy. In comparison, Charles Tudor spent next to no time with his two daughters. It must have been extremely hard to leave Julich-Cleves-Berg and John Tudor to return to his own lands.

On the journey from Julich-Cleves-Berg to Calais, Prince Charles Tudor, Duke of Calais, would sicken and die. It is believed that he was infected by contaminated food, cleanliness being extremely difficult on the road.”
Lila Kelly, “Charles Tudor and Johann Tudor”

“The question on everybody’s mind after watching Regent is, ‘Is this a tragedy?’ Regent, referring to both Prince Charles as regent of Julich-Cleves-Berg and Leonora Borgia as regent of Calais, covers the marriage Prince Charles and Leonora Borgia. But, the movie spends very little time on the actual marriage. Instead, the movie primarily focuses on the almost completely separate lives of Leonora Borgia and Prince Charles. In fact, the two only get three scenes together.

By far my favorite scene is the one where Prince Charles has returned unexpectedly, and Leonora Borgia wishes to know why he has returned, saying, ‘The secret to our marriage is distance, I would know why you have jeopardized it!’ The scene does an amazing job highlighting the intense gap between the two.

And there couldn’t be two more different people. Prince Charles was a brusque straightforward penny pincher. Leonora Borgia was loud, a bit of a spend thrift, and devoted to the arts. They certainly weren’t happy together. This brings us back to the question, is this a tragedy? If the movie is about the relationship between Prince Charles and Leonora Borgia it most certainly is. The two never really understood each other nor even particularly cared for each other.

But, if it this movie is about two people who just happened to be married to each other, I’d say this movie couldn’t possibly be a tragedy. While it’s true that Prince Charles and Leonora Borgia didn’t have a happy marriage, they both led happy lives. They each made their own families: Prince Charles with the brother he raised, Leonora Borgia with their daughters. Both lived tremendously successful lives, Calais continues to be center of arts and music that Leonora Borgia created, and Prince Charles left Julich-Cleves-Berg debt free and secure.

It’s the dichotomy between the lives of Prince Charles and Leonora Borgia and their marriage, that leaves Regent bittersweet, a question without an answer.”
Review by Hailey Lane, the definitive Tudor Reviewer

“Mary Carey, head of Princess Margaret’s household, would die late in 1564. Queen Kathryn would take the opportunity to completely reorganize and transfer Princess Margaret’s household. The household would be moved to Iredale Palace. [1]

Baroness Grace Borough, a childless widow, [2] would be appointed as head of Princess Margaret’s household. Over the next few months, various children would be sent to Iredale to be companions to three-year-old Princess Margaret: seven-year-old Lady Anne Boleyn, daughter of Duchess Charlotte Tudor and her husband Baron Thomas Boleyn; three-year-old Cecily Stafford, granddaughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham; and four-year-old Beth Seymore, daughter of Sir Edward Seymore, were among the most influential.
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Stewart Queen”
[1] Queen Kathryn disliked the travel time between London and Eltham Palace and had ordered the building of a Royal Residence closer to London. The origin of the name is unknown.
[2] Daughter of Kathrine Parr and her first husband Sir Edward Burgh.

“Marriage offers for Margaret Stewart, Princess of Wales, flooded into England from almost the moment of her birth. The most prominent was Charles Trastamara, second son of King Ferdinand III of Aragon. Particularly interesting was upon the death of Ferdinand Trastamara, eldest son of King Ferdinand III, the marriage offer was not rescinded.

But, the marriage offer was never seriously considered by Queen Kathryn Tudor.”
Carolyn Masey “Ferdinand III the Old Didn’t Start That Way”

“It appears that Kathryn Tudor took it rather personally that her daughter was a Stewart not a Tudor. It is most likely for this reason that only Tudors were considered as husbands for Margaret of Wales. The top contenders were Jean Francis Tudor, son of Prince Francis and Marie Francoise of Brittany, and John Tudor, son of Duke Johann Tudor and Marie Elisabeth. Both boys were several years younger than Margaret of Wales and several steps from inheriting anything of real import.

It appears that Kathryn Tudor wanted a match that would leave her grandchildren Tudors and giver her daughter a husband who wouldn’t challenge her as a Queen.”
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

“Thomas Tudor, one of Queen Kathryn’s many Toms, was what we would call an Odd Duck. Growing up he was one of Prince Henry’s quieter children, so pretty much everyone was shocked when, at age nineteen, he announced that he wasn’t an Awakener, nor was he a Lutheran, Puritan, or Catholic, thank you very much.

He would still identify as a Christian, something Prince Henry Tudor would undoubtedly be grateful for, who knows what Prince Henry would have done with an atheist for a child, but Thomas Tudor would never align himself with an organized religion.

A prolific writer, Thomas Tudor would write scores of treatises on the various religions found in England at that time, praising certain points of doctrine and critiquing others. For the time period it was all very shocking.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“Thomas Tudor would remain apart from the many religions found in England at the time throughout his life. This would prove to be a boon to both Queen Kathryn and Queen Margaret; he was often consulted on religious matters since he offered an impartial position. It was probably for this reason that Thomas Tudor was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury at age twenty-six. An able administrator and diplomat, Thomas Tudor would serve the English crown the rest of his life. “
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“In all likelihood, Archbishop Thomas Tudor would inherit Prince Henry’s mental disorder. [1] The two would share the cycle of depression and almost manic energy that plagued Prince Henry throughout his life. Due to Prince Henry’s forthrightness and tendancy to overshare, Archbishop Thomas would find Europe in the late fifteen hundreds more conducive to mental health and would have a much more stable life than his father.”
“Mental Health in Europe” Thesis Project by doctoral candidate William Matteson
[1] Prince Henry’s diagnosis has been debated ad infinitum: bipolar disorder, cyclothymic disorder, or some sort of post-traumatic stress disorder have been postulated to name a few. As this article address the public treatment of mental health in the 1500s, Prince Henry’s diagnosis will be sidestepped.

“One of the many Tudor family dramas was the marriage of Cecily Tudor to Edward Stafford, 5th Duke of Buckingham. Young Edward Stafford was the second son of Henry Stafford, 4th Duke of Stafford, and as such wasn’t particularly important in the grand scheme of things. His elder brother, Alexander Stafford, was married with a child on the way. But, when Lord Stafford died in a riding accident and Lady Stafford would miscarry, Edward Stafford would go from mildly interesting to the inheritor of one of the most important titles in England.

We have several records that indicate that Edward Stafford was sweet on Madelyn Tudor, Cecily’s younger sister, the two having met at a few smaller family affaires. But, with young Edward’s quick ascension, he drew the attention of the elder, more sophisticated sister. He didn’t have a chance.

Then, when the Duke his father passed away, the new Duke of Buckingham would choose Cecily Tudor as his bride.”
Harper Wayne, “Keeping Up with The Tudors, Your Guide to Who’s Who”

“Interviewer: So, what makes Sisters and Suitors than any other teen movie? It’s certainly got the romantic triangle.

Anya Taylor-Joy: Well I think the big thing is for Cecily it isn’t a romantic triangle. It simply business. She really doesn’t understand why Madelyn is taking it so hard.

Interviewer: Cecily Tudor really is a cold fish then?

Anya Taylor-Joy: I wouldn’t say that. She cares for Madelyn and even Edward in her own way, she just doesn’t see why it’s a big deal. She would obviously make the better duchess and that all she sees.

Interviewer: What’s it like working with Millie [Bobby Brown] and Thomas [Brodie Sangster]?

Anya Taylor-Joy: They are both really quite wonderful. There’s this one scene with the three of us where….”
Interview with Anya Taylor-Joy about Sisters and Suitors(2018)

“The marriage of Henri and Christina would change tone late in the fifteen sixties. The two, after over twenty years of marriage, would run out of steam. No longer would they discomfort the nobles of Navarre with their excessive displays of affection or their explosive arguments. Instead Henri and Christina were almost civil and decorous.

Far from lessoning the strain on Prince Christian, his parents’ new dynamic appears to have amplified the pressure he felt. During this period, the adolescent prince was known to begin to cry or sometimes hyperventilate several times a day.”
Ephraim Pollock, “Henry and Christina, They May Have Tried to Kill Each Other”

“The old adage, ‘the opposite of love isn’t hate but apathy,’ is most clearly demonstrated in the marriage of Henri Tudor and Christina Oldenburg. Their marriage would recover from the horrific arguments but not the complete lack of care. The last few years of their marriage would full off stilted conversations in public, and as near as anyone can tell, nothing else.”
Ethan Davidson, “Henry IV, the People’s King”

“The late fifteen sixties are the clearest example of King Henri III competence and aptitude toward ruling. Still in morning from the death of his beloved wife, King Henri would adroitly manage the growing political unrest, the changing association with France [1], and his own family issues.

The aging king had ruled Navarre for the past fifty years, and would…”
Patrick Wendal, “The First Navarrese Tudor King”

[1] King Louis XIII, the new King of France, would not hold to the religious moderation that his predecessors had and this caused significant tensions with Navarre.

“France’s ‘Two Queen Period,’ named for the presence of both Queen Helene and Queen Marie, is one of the more interesting periods in French History. The two queens would push competing agendas, with King Louis XIII often serving as a simple pawn or piece in their schemes, the entirety of King Louis’s reign. [1]

Queen Helene, Queen of France, would head the Traditionalist Party committed to returning France to the ‘good old days.’ A significant focus would be eradicating the presence of Awakeners and Protestants in France. The party would mostly be composed of the higher-ranking members of the nobility and the Catholic clergy.

Queen Marie, Maîtresse-En-Titre, was something of a figured head for the opposing unnamed party, mostly, it appears, due to the desire to spite Queen Helene. She would not inconvenience herself often with the politics of France, preferring to participate in parties, hunts, and other diversions. When she did act, she would do so with a directness that only worked due to her support from the King.”
Hannah Everett, “Helen and Marie, Queens of France”

[1] Both women would find their influence sharply checked at the beginning of King Francis’s reign.

“Louise Stuart, daughter of King Louis and Marie Stuart, would be born early in fifteen sixty-three. She would predecess her younger half-sister by two years. During the first two years of her life, she would be feted and couched almost as a princess. This would change at the birth of Marie Louise Valois, daughter of King Louis and Queen Helene. Never again would she hold the favor and attention of her father.

The pattern would continue at the birth of Francis Valois, son of King Louis and Queen Helene. At the birth of the Dauphin, Princess Marie Louise would lose her father’s attention, just as Marie Stuart had two years before.

And parental inattention was not unique to King Louis. Both Queen Helene and Queen Marie ceased maternal attentiveness as soon as the child was no longer useful in their struggle for dominance.

This left the seven children of King Louis to form many of their own connections and opinions free from their parent’s influence. All three, King Louis, Queen Helene, and Queen Marie, would come to regret that later in their lives.”
Nancy Raymond, “The Unloved”
Arthur I Tudor, deceased, King of England m. Infanta Catalina Trastamara of Aragon, deceased

3) Margaret Tudor, deceased, Princess of Wales m. Francis Tudor, deceased, Prince of Wales, then Duke of Calais​
1) Kathryn I Tudor, age 47, Queen of England m. Alexander I Stewart, deceased, Duke of Ross​
1) Margaret I Stewart, age 9, Princess of Wales​
6) Mary Tudor, age 56, Queen Claimant of England m. Ferdinand I, deceased​
1) Elisabeth Habsburg, age 39, Abbess of Nonnberg​
5) Arthur Habsburg, age 29, Holy Roman Emperor, King Claimant of England m. Margaret Stewart, age 34, Princess of Scotland and Ireland​
1) Charles Habsburg, age 9​
2) Catherine Habsburg, age 2​
6) Helena Habsburg, age 27, Queen of France m. Louis Valois, age 30, King of France​
1) Marie Louise Valois, age 5​
2) Francis Valois, newborn​

Margaret Tudor, deceased, m. a) James IV Stewart, deceased, King of Scotland; b) James Hamilton, deceased, 1st Earl of Arran

3a) James V Stewart, deceased, King of Scotland m. Louise Valois, deceased, Princes of France​
2) Margaret Stewart, age 34, Princess of Scotland and Ireland m. Arthur Habsburg, age 29, Holy Roman Emperor​
See Arthur​
3) James VI Stewart, age 31, King of Scotland and Ireland m. A) Juana Trastamara [1], deceased; B) Grainne O’Malley, age 40​
1a) Marjorie Stewart, age 9​
2a) James Stewart, age 3, Duke of Rothesay​
3b) Seamus/James Stewart, age 2​
4b) Maeve Stewart, age 1​
4) Charles Stewart, deceased, Duke of Ross m. Margaret Valois deceased, Queen Claimant of France​
1) Margaret Stuart, age 7​
5) Mary Stewart, age 28, Maîtresse-En-Titre x Louis Valois, age 30, King of France​
1) Louise Stuart, age 7​
4a) Alexander Stewart, deceased, Duke of Ross m. Katheryn I Tudor, age 47, Queen of England​
See Katheryn Tudor​
5b) Elizabeth Hamilton, age 41, m. Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare​
1) James FitzGerald, age 22​
2) Margaret FitzGerald, age 18​
3) Gerald FitzGerald, age 13​

[1] Eldest daughter of Ferdinand III Trastamara

Henry II Tudor, age 79, Duke of York and Richmond m. a) Catherine of Navarre, deceased, Queen of Navarre; b) Anne Boleyn, deceased; c) Sybylle Von der Mark, deceased, Princess of Cleves; d) Mary Howard, deceased; e) Renee of France, deceased, Duchess of Chartres; f) Catherine Willoughby, age 51, Baroness Willoughby de Eresby

1a) Henry III Tudor, age 66, King of Navarre m. Johanna Sophia/Jeanne Sophie Wettin, deceased, Princess of Saxony [1]
1) Jeanne Tudor, deceased, Princess of Navarre m. René I, Viscount of Rohan
1) Anne de Rohan, age 26m. Alessandro Borgia, age 40, Duke of Romagna [3]
1) Isabella Borgia, age 8
2) Cesare Borgia, age 5
3) Enrico Borgia, age 1​
2) Henri Tudor, age 48 m. Christina Oldenburg, age 48, Princess of Denmark
1) Antoine Tudor, deceased
2) Christian Tudor, age 18
3) Anne Tudor, age 11​
3) Anne Sophie Tudor, age 45, Princess of Navarre m. Francis, Duke of Guise, age 51
1) Henri of Guise, age 22
2) Jeanne Elizabeth of Guise, age 17 m. Francois de Bourbon, age 28, Duke of Montpensier
3) Frances of Guise, age 12​
4) Francis Tudor, age 36, Prince of Navarre m. Marie Francoise of Brittany, age 33, Duchess of Brittany
1) Anne Marie Tudor, age 15
2) Henri Tudor, age 11
3) Jean Francis Tudor, age 7
4) Charles Tudor, age 1​
2a) Francis Tudor, deceased, Duke of Calais m. Margaret Tudor, deceased, Princess of Wales
See Margaret Tudor​
3a) Charles Tudor, deceased, Duke of Calais m. Leonora Borgia, age 57 [2]
1) Charlotte Tudor, age 39, 2nd Duchess of Calais m. Baron Thomas Boleyn, deceased
1) Charles Boleyn, age 19 m. Catherine Courtenay, age 20 [8]
2) Eleonore Boleyn, age 16
3) Anne Boleyn, age 13​
2) Eleanor Tudor, age 23 m. Gregory Cromwell, age 27, 2nd Duke of Suffolk
See Gregory​
4b) Elizabeth Tudor, age 48, m. Gregory Cromwell, deceased
1) Gregory Cromwell, age 27, 2nd Duke of Suffolk m. Eleanor Tudor, age 23
1) Thomas Cromwell, age 5
2) Henry Cromwell, age 2​
2) Anne Cromwell, age 24 m. Thomas Cecil, age 28, Earl of Salisbury [6]
1) Henry Cecil, deceased
2) Anne Cecil, age 1​
3) Thomas Cromwell, age 20​
6b) Eleanor Tudor, age 43, m. Frederick Albert, deceased, King of Denmark and Norway [4]
1) Margaret Wittelsbach, age 23
2) John Albert Wittelsbach, age 20, King of Denmark and Norway m. Dorothea Oldenburg, age 24 [5]
3) Anna Wittelsbach, age 15​
8c) Johann Tudor, age 31, Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg m. Marie Elisabeth, age 29, Princess of Saxony
1) Karl Tudor, age 9
2) Mathilde Tudor, age 8
3) Johann Tudor, age 6
4) Henry Tudor, age 5
5) Elisabeth Tudor, age 4
6) Sybylle Tudor, deceased
7) Sydonie Tudor, age 2​
9d) Thomas Tudor, age 27, Archbishop of Canterbury
10d) Margaret Tudor, age 26, m. William IV, age 38, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
1) Anna Sofie of Hesse-Kassel, age 7
2) William Henry of Hesse-Kassel, age 3
3) Renata of Hesse-Kassel, age 1​
11e) Cecily Tudor, age 20 m. Edward Stafford, age 16, 5th Duke of Buckingham [7]
1) Edward Stafford, newborn​
12e) Madelyn Tudor, age 17
13e) Francis Tudor, age 13, Duke of Chartes
14f) Edmund Tudor, age 10
[1] OTL Johann Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
[2] daughter of Cesare Borgia and Charlotte d’Albret, since Cesare Borgia didn’t die in 1507.
[3] son of Cesare Borgia and his second wife, Livia Osanna Gonzaga
[4] son of Frederick II, Elector Palatine and Dorothea of Denmark, OTL none of their sons lived to adulthood
[5] daughter of Christian III and Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
[6] OTL was Earl of Essex
[7] grandson of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham, without OTL paranoid Henry VIII as king the Staffords are still doing okay
[8] daughter of Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon

Mary Tudor, deceased, m. John III Aviz, deceased, King of Portugal

2) Maria Aviz, age 51, Infanta of Portugal m. Prince Francis Valois, deceased, Duke of Brittany
1) Marie Francoise Valois, age 33, Duchess of Brittany m. Francis Tudor, age 36, Prince of Navarre
See Francis Tudor​
3) John Emmanuel I Aviz, age 49, King of Portugal m. Caterina Maria Romula di Lorenzo de Medici, age 51
2) Sebastian I Aviz, age 24 m. Bianca of Savoy, age 31 [1]
1) Maria Manuela Aviz, age 9
2)Catalina Aviz, deceased​
3) Maria Isabella Aviz, age 19
4) Maria Joanna Aviz, age 13​
4) Anthony Aviz, age 46, Cardinal​
[1] The daughter of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, and Eleanor Habsburg. Eleanor Habsburg is the daughter of Maximillian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his second wife Bianca Mara Sforza. OTL they didn't have any children.

“Early in 1571, Kathryn Tudor would arrange the betrothal of Margaret Stewart [1] with John Tudor, the second son of Duke John of Julich-Cleves-Berg. The seven-year-old boy would shortly be sent to England to allow him to learn more of England and its customs.

There he would be granted his own household and companions, among which were Thomas Cromwell, son of the Second Duke of Suffolk and Edmund Tudor, Prince Henry’s youngest son.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

[1] Margaret Stewart, Princess of Wales, not Margaret Stewart, daughter of the Once Queen of France.

“The little Princess is quite peculiar. To my complete and utter frustration, she will sit so still that I will forget that she is even there. Several times she has overheard things she is not meant to because of this. I am just grateful that she has not informed her mother the queen of the things she has learned. Nor has she told any of her ladies.”
Journal entry of Baroness Grace Borough

“I find I don’t know what to make of the Princess. Her hair is a wonderful red-gold and she looks just like a princess ought. But she is so peculiar. When she looks at me I feel like she is looking through me straight to my soul. As we sit together and sew, she can go hours without speaking.

She will often slip away, and no one will even notice. It seems so strange to me that the heir to the throne can be misplaced. When she is found, she is often up in a tree, writing in her little book.”
Journal entry of Beth Seymour

“We have little to no real information about young Princess Margaret. In contrast to her forceful mother, Princess Margaret was quiet and reserved. She appears to have learned at a young age to keep her own council. Due to several journals and letters we know that she was an avid writer from as early as age eleven. Unfortunately, the only surviving work of Margaret Tudor is Camelot.

Princess Margaret appears to have formed no close relationships with her early companions. None of them record any confidences shared or special privileges. It would not be till later that she would befriend her cousin Eleanor, Duchess of Suffolk, who was fifteen years her senior.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Stewart Queen”

“Charlotte Tudor, Duchess of Calais, would shock the English Court when, late in fifteen seventy, she would remarry Sir Thomas Brandon. Sir Thomas Brandon was a widowed courtier whose name had been connected to several different prominent ladies including Elizabeth Tudor, Charlotte Tudor’s aunt.

Sir Thomas Brandon was the only son of Sir Charles Brandon, a childhood friend of Prince Henry and is now believed to be the father of Thomas Cromwell the Younger. The marriage was wildly regarded as unequal and unsuitable. But, the Duchess of Calais was one of the more powerful members of the English Court and had Queen Kathryn’s favor.”
Elizabeth Tudor, Duchess of Calais, “Kathryn Tudor”

“Even with the Prince’s advancing age, it is the Queen’s will that if She were to die before the Princess’s majority, her grandfather will be regent. Truth be told, I would not be surprised if the Prince outlives us all.”
Journal entry of Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger

“Early in fifteen seventy-one, Prince Henry would leave England to visit his various children and grand-children scattered through Europe. The party would be small, just him, his youngest son ten-year-old Edmund Tudor, and a few trusted retainers.

The first stop would be Navarre where Prince Henry was greeted joyfully by the country that once called him King. There, King Henri III and Prince Henry would be reunited for the first time in years. Prince Henry and his party would stay in Navarre for several months.

The visit seems to have done much to rejuvenate King Henri III. The normally unflappable king, worn by the loss of his wife and the struggles of his heir and eldest son, had been in something of a funk for the past few months. Father and son would spend almost the entirety of the visit riding through woods or speaking together of religion, what we now call quality time.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

“It was during Prince Henry’s last visit to Navarre that Prince Christian, son of Prince Henry and Princess Christina, would die. The twenty-year-old prince had been fond seeking peace and quiet by abandoning his companions to ride out by himself. Then one day his horse came back without a rider. Search parties were sent out. Prince Christian’s body was found four days later.

Modern forensic anthropologies now believe that Prince Christian was simply thrown from his horse and down a ravine where, with a broken leg, he was unable to seek help. But, at the time, Prince Christian’s death was seen as foul play. Several different people were arrested and probably would have been executed but for Princess Christina being found dead in her rooms with her journal.

The last journal entry was almost completely unintelligible: full of nonsense and mad ramblings, but the theme of culpability and guilt was prevalent throughout. The general consensus was that Princess Christina had somehow arranged for the death of her son and then killed herself out of guilt.

In all likelihood, Princess Christina accidently overdosed on laudanum. The few records the Navarrese Court doctor kept indicate that Princess Christian had been taking it in greater and greater amounts since the death of Prince Antoine.”
Ephraim Pollock, “Henry and Christina, They May Have Tried to Kill Each Other”

“The dual death of his only son and wife would cause Prince Henri, son of King Henri III, to retreat from court to one of the more secluded properties of the crown of Navarre. This would leave King Henri III and his father Prince Henry alone to handle the ensuing crisis. Almost as if fifty years hadn’t passed, the two fell back into the pattern of King Henri’s regency; in tandem the two would work together to calm and quiet Navarre during this precarious time. [1]

The next few years would generally be regarded as some of the best of King Henri’s reign.”
Patrick Wendal, “The First Navarrese Tudor King”

[1] Though it must be acknowledged that Prince Henry was less assistance than he was fifty years earlier with very few nobles that remember the regency left alive.

“Just as Niccolò Machiavelli’s The Prince was inspired by Cesare Borgia, Julian Jakes’ The King was inspired by King Henri III. The Navarrese born, Italian raised, philosopher would rocket to fame after the publication. The treatise specifically addresses Machiavelli’s points and seeks to discount them, citing King Henri and his handling of the death of Princess Christina and Prince Christian.”
William Richards, “Italy and the Awakening”

“The death of Prince Christian, grandson of King Henri III, would leave the inheritance a little shakier than it had been before. The only living child of Prince Henri was thirteen-year-old Anne Tudor. There were several prominent nobles that would have preferred for her to disinherited in favor of her uncle Prince Francis Tudor.

But, Prince Francis and Marie Francoise of Brittany, continuing in their pattern of avoiding conflict where possible, put their support behind Princess Anne being left in the succession.”
Solomon Lee, “Marie Francoise and Francis Tudor”

“To reinforce Princess Anne’s claim, she was betrothed to René de Lorraine, the grandson of Magdalena d’Albret, the elder half-sister of King Henri III. [2] The two wouldn’t actually marry until Princess Anne reached the age of fifteen.”
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

[2] Princess Magdalena d’Albret, was the eldest surviving daughter of Catherine of Navarre would marry Jean de Lorraine. Their son, Jean Gaston de Lorraine, Lord of Albret and Count of Castres would marry Renée of Guise. Their only son was René de Lorraine.

“After almost a year, a full four months longer than planned, Prince Henry and his party would leave Navarre, heading towards Hesse-Kassel to visit Margaret Tudor, the mother of William Henry, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.”
Irene Whent, “Prince Henry’s Last Trip”

“Landgravine Margaret Tudor was the second child from Prince Henry’s marriage to the Lady Mary Howard. Landgravine Margaret would grow quite close to her father’s next wife, her step-mother, Renee of France. In fact, Landgravine Margaret’s second daughter would be named for Princes Renee; Renata being the German form.

Landgravine Margaret Tudor had married William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, early in fifteen sixty-two, at age eighteen. The two shared a love of the heavens and stars that would propel Hesse-Kassel into the forefront of astronomical study and discovery. Even after the death of William IV, Landgravine Margaret would continue funding and sponsoring astronomical research.”
Clara Bently, “Margaret and the Heavens”

“Prince Henry would arrive in Hesse-Kassel only several months before Tycho Brache. The famed astronomer hadn’t intended to stay long in Hesse-Kassel; he only wished to see the observatory that William IV had built. But with dwindling support from King John Albert of Denmark and Norway, and the offer of patronage from William Henry, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, [2] Tycho Brache would remain in Kassel.

He would move his family to Hesse-Kassel several months after the end of Prince Henry’s visit.”
Clara Bently, “Margaret and the Heavens”
[2] Though in truth the offer was probably the notion of Dowager Landgravine Margaret.

StarCrossedis about what you’d expect: drama filled, campy, and historically inaccurate. I almost strained my eyes rolling them so hard. After I was done being baffled I got mad. Tycho Brache and Landgravine Margaret Tudor (Prince Henry’s daughter, it’s hard to keep Tudors straight, I know) did not have some sort of Romeo and Juliet love affair!

For one, Tycho Brache was happily married (he and his wife would have, like twelve kids) and two, anytime Landgravine Margaret Tudor and Tycho Brache were in the same room they apparently spent the entire time nerding out about the stars! No romance! Is it really so hard to believe two people can be close without it becoming romantic?!?!?

But, credit where credit is due, the costuming was amazing! Completely accurate. Alyssa Milano, as Margaret Tudor, was dressed in the English fashions Margaret must have brought with her from England. This kept Milano distinct in every frame. And everyone, down to the extras, was dressed period typical. It was amazing!

But, it did not make up for the aweful plot. I almost felt like a friend of mine was being slandered! Margaret Tudor should be remembered for the advances to astronomy she made personally and the advances she financed and for the amazing job she did as regent for her young son. Not, this b-movie drama plot.”
Review by Hailey Lane, the definitive Tudor Reviewer

“Prince Henry seemed to be aware that he would never again be able to return to Hesse-Kassel. He spent the majority of his time with his daughter and grandchildren, eschewing most parties and other engagements. This was particularly unusual, as Prince Henry had always loved the spotlight.”
Irene Whent, “Prince Henry’s Last Trip”

“Lord Edmund Tudor, youngest son of Prince Henry, would be just ten years old when he left England with his father for Prince Henry’s last trip. This journey would introduce Lord Edmund to several older siblings he had never met, give the young man a breadth of experience unusual for his age, and a bevy of connections that rivaled Prince Henry’s. For, throughout the journey, Lord Edmund would make a lot of friends.

Among the most prevalent would be his grandnephew Henri Tudor, son of Francis Tudor and Marie Francoise of Brittany; Julian Jakes, the Navarrese-Italian philosopher; his distance cousin Louise Stuart, the bastard daughter of the King of France; Lorenz Mul, the great playwright; Pierre Charron, theologian and philosopher; and Irmele Schade, the portrait painter. [1]

Lord Edmund Tudor shared his father’s charisma and the unique ability—for the Tudors—to allow another to take center stage. This would endear him to the many important people.”
Harper Wayne, “Keeping Up with The Tudors, Your Guide to Who’s Who”

[1] Schade is primarily known for her portraits of the Tudor Family. The project would start late in 1589 and encompass the living children of Prince Henry Tudor and their descendants. It would take thirty years.

“Hansen: Not everyone is a familiar with the Tudors as I am, but even those who don’t religiously study the 1500s and all the **** the Tudors got up to, will reference Tudor’s all the time. They just don’t know it.

Lawless: Like calling red hair Tudor hair?

Hansen: Yep, or, you know the phrase, ‘Edmund knows them’?

Lawless: I have heard it a time or two.

Hansen: It means a person worth knowing. It’s because way back when, if there was anyone worth knowing, Edmund Tudor knew them. It came into popularity at the end of the FitzTudors, when everyone was Tudor crazy.”
Selection from interview with Henry Hansen, author of Tudors, Wettins, and FitzTudors: The Last Three Dynasties of England

“While the relationship of Prince Henry with his youngest son Edmund would never compare with his relationship his eldest son Henri, it is undoubtedly one the stronger relationships of Prince Henry’s life.

And old man when Edmund Tudor was born, Prince Henry had outlived all his siblings, most of his generation, and several of his children. He was intimately aware of the fragility of life. It appears to be for this reason that Prince Henry insisted that young Edmund Tudor accompanied Prince Henry on his last trip. Prince Henry knew that he was running out of time and wanted his youngest son by his side.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

“One of the largest consequences of Prince Henry’s last trip would be the spread of the Awakened Church. While there were three organized Awakened churches, the Awakened Church of Navarre, the Awakened Church of Denmark, and the newly formed Awakened Church of England, [1] there had not been much growth in the last few years. But, where Prince Henry went so did converts.

Though the Awakened Church of the German State would not be formally organized for several decades, it’s birth can be traced back to Prince Henry’s visit to Hesse-Kassel and Julich-Cleves-Berg.”
Lise Marie Peters, “The Awakening of Europe”

[1] Unlike the Awakened Church of Navarre and the Awakened Church of Denmark, the Awakened Church of England was not the national religion of its country.

“A lot of people have asked about the title of this book. They think it’s too laidback for a history text book. But, who said history has to be uptight? History is fascinating! Full of love affairs and religious riots, family drama and feuds, war and death. Most textbooks managed to turn this fascinating tapestry to a dull boring timeline.

People also think that recounting European history through the lens of the Tudors is partisan or biased. Is it? Maybe. But it sure is interesting. Prince Henry fathered two Kings, a Queen; grandfathered another handful of monarchs; started a religion; personally feuded with a pope (some of their letters literally boiled down to ‘no you’); held a Italian Duke hostage for almost two decades; married six of the fifteen hundreds most influential women and was apparently madly in love with five of them (sorry Catherine of Navarre); and kept the shenanigans going all the way into his eighties. And that’s just one Tudor. The rest of them were almost as outrageous.

This is The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault. The fifteen hundreds really were crazy, and it was mostly the Tudors’ fault.”
Matheo Henrikson, introduction to “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault,” textbook for History 235 at CLU.

“The mid 1570s saw Prince Henry finally begin to slow down; he had finally begun to feel his age. Knowing his days were numbered, Prince Henry set out to visit his living children one more time. For Eleanor Tudor, he wouldn’t make it in time.”
Irene Whent, “Prince Henry’s Last Trip”

“It is rather ironic that the worst day of King John Albert’s life was the dawn of the best years of his reign. For over a decade, John Albert had struggled to govern Denmark and Norway. He faced opposition in religion, foreign affairs, and pretty much everything else. While he was the grandson of King Christian II of Denmark, many viewed John Albert as a usurper. His marriage to his cousin Dorothea, daughter of King Christian III, had done little to sooth those feelings. His establishment of Awakening as the national religion, while initially popular, had been viewed with greater and greater resentment over the years.

In all likelihood, it was Queen Mother Eleanor that was really responsible for John Albert’s continuing reign. The second surviving child of the marriage of Prince Henry and Anne Boleyn, she had the singular ability to be universally loved. Charming and kind, Eleanor Tudor endeared herself to all sides and factions in the growing conflict.

It’s why her death so shook the country.”
Catelyn Narson, “Birth of the Kalmar Union”

“The Queen Mother was found this morning by her ladies, dead. I find that I feel as if the stars have refused to shine or the wind has swept the breath from my lungs. That the most gracious lady will no longer be with us, is the utmost tragedy. What’s more she was not taken in God’s time, but by man’s hand.

There were marks on her throat indicating she was strangled. The news sent the King into a fury. Too often I have felt the King ineffectual or irresolute, but as he paced I was reminded of his grandfather the Prince. This may be the making of our King.”
Letter from Christoffer Valkendorff to his younger brother, Erik

“Prince Henry would receive word of his daughter’s death during the fourth month of his visit to Hesse-Kassel. Leaving his youngest son Edmund with Landgravine Margaret, Prince Henry would travel with minimum companions to arrive in time for Eleanor Tudor’s funeral.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

“After the death of Queen Mother Eleanor, King John Albert would act quickly, several prominent nobles would be arrested and charged with conspiracy. Initially the suspects denied their culpability, but, after the arrival of Prince Henry, many would confess to their involvement in the murder of Eleanor Tudor.

What once would have been contested was now welcomed by a country in morning. Rumors floated that Queen Dorothea may have been party to the death of her mother-in-law, and the marriage was annulled.”
Catelyn Narson, “Birth of the Kalmar Union”

“The trial is ongoing, the ACCUSED is standing and trying to yell their innocence.

JOHN ALBERT [yelling] : Silence, I will have silence! You have been called here to answ—

ONE OF THE ACCUSED [hysterical] : Never would I harm the Queen! Never could I even thi—

The large door at the end of the hall swings open, PRINCE HENRY enters. There is a hushed silence.

PRINCE HENRY [full of grief] : Who killed my daughter?

JOHN ALBERT [a little whiney] : These men here, conspired and murdered Mother.

ACCUSED begin again to cry their innocence.

PRINCE HENRY [quiet] : Silence

The ACCUSED fall silent.

PRINCE HENRY [even quieter] : You dare raise your voice! My daughter is dead! Your Queen is dead! At your hands!


ONE OF THE ACCUSED begins to speak

PRINCE HENRY [loud] : No, I will not hear excuses nor pleas. I’ll hear naught but admissions.


ONE OF THE ACCUSED [manic] : As if at my own hand, the Lady fell, and I cannot recall her


JOHN ALBERT [calm] : From their own lips, we hear their guilt. Take them away. Grandfather, would you see justice done?

PRINCE HENRY [tired] : Justice would have been no harm befalling my beloved daughter. But I will see the guilty punished.

PRINCE HENRY, the ACCUSED, and company leave

JOHN ALBERT [gleeful] : Grandfather can always be counted on, to draw the eye, to cow the fearful. Oh how he’d mourn to know in what ill way I have used him.”
Selection from the English translation of ELEANOR first published in 1875

“The possible motives for the murder of Eleanor Tudor, are many and varied. Some suspect that she had a secret lover—she had been widowed for years—and a lover’s quarrel resulted in her death, others believe that she was killed due to the politics of the day—a measure she supported or didn’t support. While several prominent nobles would be arrested, tried, and executed for their role in her death, most historians now agree that it is very unlikely that one of the executed was responsible for Eleanor’s death.

If not them, then who?

The answer may shock and horrify you; Eleanor Tudor was murdered by her only son.”
First recorded instance of the Eleanor Tudor’s Murderer conspiracy theory. Published in a newspaper on the anniversary of Eleanor Tudor’s death.

“Kenny_Art_my_boi: Wait, did John Albert really kill his mom?!?!?!?!?!

Kath&Cat: Could be. The theory showed up in the 1800s when the dudes who were executed where officially cleared.

Kath&Cat: And if it’s true, Prince Henry terrified like 20 innocent people into confessing!!! Isn’t that epic!?!?!?!

Malwavery: John Albert did not kill his mother. Also, the whole scene was totally wrong. Prince Henry didn’t get there during the trial, he was there a couple days before, for the funeral.

Kath&Cat: JA totally could have killed her! JA really cashed in on Eleanor’s death. Like stone cold, turned it to his advantage. Also, the whole scene is a tribute to this old Kalmar play called Eleanor.

Malwavery: John Albert killing his mom is on the same level as saying the moon landing never happened. wackadoodle. And I did know about the play, it doesn’t change to the that it’s historically inaccurate.

Malwavery: And they did not confess because they were scared of Prince Henry, but because they actually did it.

Kenny_Art_my_boi: If you two are just going to argue, can you pm so I don’t have to watch?”
Tudor Chatroom

“Doctor Evelyn Vassily: Do I think John Albert killed his mother? No. I do think that having heard of how King Henri III handled the murder/suicide of Prince Christian and Princess Christina, John Albert knew that his mother’s death could be used to strengthen his position. And he did use it. But did he engineer it? I don’t think so. (Doctor of European Awakened History)

Yancy Beltane: Yes. Read my book. (Author of John Albert, Deal with the Devil)

Catelyn Narson: Murdered by John Albert? Do people still believe that? No, I don’t think Eleanor was killed by her son. John Albert couldn’t have predicted how the fallout would have gone. As far as he knew, his mother was the only reason he was still King. (Author of Birth of the Kalmar Union)

Professor Jims Oliver: It’s entirely possible. The two had a complicated relationship. Eleanor Tudor doted on her son, because as King he had so much power over her. We see this pattern in Eleanor Tudor’s life: she tried to regain control by charming those who have power over her. And that’s a very byzantine dynamic to have with your mother. (Professor of History of Psychology)

Harold Cathar: We really don’t know. The theory started in the late 1800s when historians began to question the culpability of [list of those sentenced cut due to length]. Documents were found indicating their probable innocence. But, even if they were completely innocent, John Albert wasn’t letting them off once he got them. These were some of his greatest opponents. The question isn’t why John Albert had them executed, it’s why did he stop looking for a murderer? That’s when people began to suspect John Albert. (Youtuber and History Mystery enthusiast)”
Introduction to the documentary The Death of Eleanor Tudor (2009)

“While we may never be sure who killed Eleanor Tudor, it should be said that Prince Henry must have been satisfied at the guilt of those executed. For, after the execution, Prince Henry would turn his attention to his newly eligible grandson. John Albert having taken the opportunity to set aside Queen Dorothea.

As Prince Henry neared the end of his life, he desired to see his large family settled. Which for him led to the odd desire—for our time anyway—for his grandchildren to marry each other. [1] He would suggest several of his granddaughters, John Albert’s cousins, as brides to his grandson.

In the end, John Albert would choose Mathilde Tudor, Princess of Julich-Cleves-Berg, daughter of Duke John Tudor, as bride due to her exceptionally large dowry. [2] While the marriage wouldn’t take place for a few years, due to Princess Mathilde’s age, the two would meet for the first time during Prince Henry’s visit.”
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

[1] At every stop in Prince Henry’s last trip, at least one match would be suggested. Most of Prince Henry’s children ignored his advice through long practice.

[2] Duke John Tudor being one of the richest men in Europe.

“The contrast between the first two decades of John Albert’s reign and the last two decades, is extreme. During the first twenty years, John Albert was ineffectual and without support. But after the murder of his mother, John Albert would take advantage to gain momentum and he would never relinquish it. Taking his cue from his new father-in-law, John Albert would alter certain tariff and tax laws. Denmark and Norway would see greatly increased trade as a result. Additionally, John Albert would push for a more national feeling, doing much to unify Denmark and Norway.

But, for all the accomplishments of the latter half of his reign, John Albert would never quite escape the first half. To this day, he is most commonly known, not for any of his own acts, not even the purported murder of his mother, but as the father of Queen Mathilde.”
Catelyn Narson, “Birth of the Kalmar Union”

“Prince Henry would spend several months in Denmark before returning to Hesse-Kassel to retrieve Edmund Tudor. Then Prince Henry’s party would travel onto Julich-Cleves-Berg to visit Duke John Tudor.

The reunion between Prince Henry and Duke John was perhaps the least emotional of Prince Henry’s last trip. The two had never been close, Duke John having been raised by his elder brother, Charles Tudor. In many ways, Prince Henry and Duke John were strangers.”
Irene Whent, “Prince Henry’s Last Trip”

“Even more so than the verses morning the deaths of Anne, (daughter of Anne Boleyn and died at age seven), Francis (son of Catherine of Navarre and possibly assassinated), Arthur (son of Sybylle of Cleves and died at age three), and Eleanor (daughter of Anne Boleyn and murdered), the verse of A Father’s Lossdedicated to Duke John is perhaps the most poignant. While the lyrics of Little Love, Little Boy Sleeps, Lament of Mine, and Unlived and Unanswered[1] all speak of death, Yesteryearspeaks of lost chances.

Yesteryear deals with the realization that there were words that should have been said, and the chance to say them has passed. The raw grief and loss found in the lyrics continues to haunt me.”
Celine Dion’s answer as to why she insists on including Yesteryearin her cover of A Father’s Loss. [2] Parenthetical details added for publication.

[1] All fourteen verses of A Father’s Losshave received colloquial titles to differentiate them.
[2] Due to the length of the individual verses, very few recordings include all fourteen verses. Among the most commonly chosen verses are Bright Bride, Little Boy Sleeps, Beyond Me, Merry Margaret, and In Step about Elizabeth Tudor, Arthur Tudor, Thomas Tudor, Margaret Tudor, and Henri Tudor respectively.

“John Tudor, more commonly known as Johann, was one of the more important players in the early history of the German State. While he himself would not live to see the organization of the German State, the foundation he laid, the sense of nationality he left his sons, would be instrumental in the in birth of the German State. In fact, his grandson Karl Tudor [1] would be one of the principle writers of the Constitution of the German State.”
A.E. Bell, “The German State”

[1] Karl Tudor is perhaps the most common name in German. Charles Tudor was particularly beloved of the people of Julich-Cleves-Berg after his many years as regent, and this popularity prompted an upsurgence of boys named Karl. Then, Johann Tudor’s six sons and forty-seven grandsons would ensure the prevalence of the surname Tudor. This would combine to make Karl Tudor, much like John Smith in Glorianna, serve as a placeholder name.

“In contrast with the previous stops in his Last Trip, Prince Henry would spend most of his time in Julich-Cleves-Berg deeply involved with the growing Awakened presence in Julich-Cleves-Berg, not with family. This would cause some friction between the religious majority—the Lutherans—and the religious minority—the Awakeners.

Three of his most well-known sermons, include the Christian Struggle, would be given during this time. Initially thought lost to time, the content and doctrine was religiously [1] speculated. But, several German clerks had diligently record Prince Henry during his visit. Due to religious tension, the transcripts of these sermons would be zealously guarded until the organization of the Awakened Church of the German State, upon which the German Awakeners felt secure enough to publish them.

Initially, the authenticity of the sermons would be doubted but further analysis would cause the seven Awakened Churches to accept the sermons as doctrine. Now, almost no one remembers the uncertainty that surround the original publishing.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

[1] Pun intended

“Possibly the most well know of Prince Henry’s sermons, The Christian Struggle, discusses both his own mental and emotional concerns and the trials of the Christ. There was a distinct comparison between the two, for Prince Henry oft compared himself to the Christ, subtly of course, as he wouldn’t want people to think he is prideful.

The Christian Struggleis traditionally read at Easter, though it is a popular lesson topic throughout the year. Originally read by clerics to their specific churches, for the past several decades, due to technological advances, the reading has been done by the individual Deacons and broadcast by country. But, in the spirit of cooperation, this year the reading will be done by Deacon Endika Mendoza, Deacon of the Awakened Church of Navarre. It will be broadcast live, with re-broadcasts for those whose time zone made the live broadcast difficult.

Before Deacon Endika was chosen, Deacon Thomas Brandon, Deacon of the Awakened Church of England, and Deacon Petelo Alaatatoa, Deacon of the Awakened Church of the Samoan Islands, were considered.”
Press Release for the Coalition of Awakened Churches

“By the 1575 it was clear to the English court that John Tudor would not be the next King of England; he wouldn’t live that long. We now believe that John Tudor was diabetic, a condition the 1500s had no hope of treating. His health would continue to fail, and he would pass a way early in 1576.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“Duke Johann received news of his son’s death shortly before the departure of Prince Henry. Prince Henry’s journal indicates that he offered to push back his departure, to stay and support his son. But, Duke Johann would decline Prince Henry’s offer, sending him on his way. It would be the last time Duke Johann saw his father.”
Irene Whent, “Prince Henry’s Last Trip”

“It is believed that the verse Yesteryear was written directly after Prince Henry’s visit to Julich-Cleves-Berg. While Yesteryear is a particularly melancholy verse, this is not the reason for its lack of popularity. Many other popular verses of A Father’s Loss are melancholy. No, it’s because the grief found in Yesteryear isn’t a clean grief: no justice has been served [1] and there is no assurance the lost one is in better place. [2]

There is just something broken, and there isn’t anything anyone can do to fix it. Yesteryear does an amazing job showing that not truly being Duke Johann father was one of Prince Henry’s greatest regrets in life.

Perhaps the saddest words found in A Father’s Loss are found in Yesteryear, ‘For all the misplaced yesterdays, and all the careless yesteryears.’”
Everett Jacobs, “A Father’s Loss: An Analysis of Each Verse”

[1] Little Boy Sleeps and Unlived and Unanswered, the verses for Prince Francis and Queen Mother Eleanor respectively, both speak of Prince Henry’s quest for justice for their deaths.

[2] Little Love and Lament of Mine, the verses for Lady Anne Tudor and Duke Arthur respectively, both speak of the deceased children as if they were in heaven with angels and that Prince Henry would see his children again. Additionally, both Little Love and Lament of Mine are commonly sung at funerals.

“The death of John Tudor left Kathryn Tudor with a problem. Once again Margaret of Wales had no betrothed. What’s more, the pool of potential husbands that met Kathryn Tudor’s exacting criteria [1] had shrunk considerably. [2] It was at this point that Arthur Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor, sent an ambassador to England. It would be the first time since Katie’s War that the Holy Roman Empire’s ambassador had been welcome in England.

The ambassador came with a simple compromise: the marriage of Charles Habsburg, the teenage son of Emperor Arthur and Empress Margaret, and Margaret of Wales. This would officially put an end to the decades old hostility between England and the Holy Roman Empire and tie the two claims together. Religious matters were studiously unmentioned.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

[1] Of the House of Tudor, close in age to Margaret of Wales, and not likely to inherit anything of importance
[2] Both of Duke Francis’s sons were spoken for and after Duke Johann’s heir his next son was still a very young child.

“While Kathryn Tudor entertained the Emperor’s ambassador, personal records indicate she had no desire to accept the Emperor’s proposal. For Charles Habsburg met only one of Kathryn Tudor’s requirements, and the lesser one at that. What’s more, she had every reason to suspect that the Habsburgs would push for England to rejoin the Catholic Church, something the Awakened Kathryn would not abide.

It appears that despite Kathryn Tudor’s intention to refuse the Emperor’s offer, she hoped to use the visit as a stepping stone to peace or at least a cessation of hostility. She may have succeeded if she hadn’t announced Margaret of Wales betrothal while the Emperor’s ambassador was still in residence, expecting a response to the Emperor’s proposal.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“We know Queen Kathryn turned from looking among her cousins for a groom for Princess Margaret, to looking among her uncles, on the third of April fifteen seventy-five. Or around that time. We know this because that is when she went to speak to Archbishop Thomas Tudor about a dispensation and Archbishop Tudor kept a detailed journal.

Unfortunately for Queen Kathryn, Archbishop Tudor did not immediately assure her that her would grant her a dispensation if she wished; he was one of the few people who didn’t live in awe and a little fear of Queen Kathryn. Instead he turned from speaking with Queen Kathryn and began to pull books of the shelf: Tyndale’s Bible, the Tudor Bible, several of his father’s writings, some writings of Luthor’s, and more.

Luckily for him, Queen Kathryn was more amused than offended, though she would organize an impromptu garden gathering right outside his window. According to Archbishop Tudor’s journals this was a common tactic of Queen Kathryn’s when she wanted to annoy him.”
Nathan Hampson, “Keeping it Tudor, Queen Kathryn’s quest for a Tudor Dynasty”

“If my most illustrious niece wishes a judgement, perhaps she would grant me the peace to judge?”
Line from Archbishop Thomas Tudor’s journal

“In the end, it would be the genealogy of Moses that would decide the issue for Archbishop Tudor. According to the Sefer HaYashar, a Hebrew text that the Archbishop had acquired, Moses’s parents were nephew and aunt. According to the Archbishop’s notes, this was excused due to the necessity of only marrying within God’s people. The next several pages of Archbishop Tudor’s notes cite several other sources before concluding that just like it was important for Moses to be born of God’s people, it was necessary for the next Prince of England to be born a Tudor.

Kathryn Tudor would get her dispensation.”
Leslie Wallace, “Archbishop Thomas Tudor”

“Queen Kathryn Tudor had four unmarried uncles. Two were never considered: King Henri of Navarre was to old and Queen Kathryn had no wish to risk the union of England and Navarre and Archbishop Thomas Tudor had no wish to marry. That left Duke Francis of Chartes, the son of Princess Renee, and Lord Edmund Tudor, the son of Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. Duke Francis was four years older than Princess Margaret and Lord Edmund was but a year older.

Duke Francis was eighteen years old, tall and of dark hair. He was charming and widely regarded as an exemplary young man. Duke Francis had not spent much time in England, having taken possession of the Duchy of Chartes at a young age. So, to get to know her potential son-in-law, Queen Kathryn Tudor sent for her uncle, inviting him to visit England.
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

“Francis Tudor, Duke of Chartes would spend almost two months in England. It appears that, Duke Francis was too much like Queen Kathryn. Both forceful and determined to be right, they didn’t get along and so, after several months he returned to Chartes and Kathryn Tudor sent for her grandfather and Edmund Tudor, requesting they return to England.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“Throughout April, May, and June [1] of 1575, as Kathryn Tudor waited for the return of her grandfather and young Edmund Tudor, the Imperial Ambassador continued to press the suit of Charles Habsburg. The eldest son of Emperor Arthur Habsburg was the same age as Princess Margaret, and according to the ambassador, the most Christlike young man.

The marriage would put to rest the claim of Mary Tudor, Kathryn Tudor’s Aunt, and would ease the tension that had existed between England and the Holy Roman Empire for the past few decades. But to Kathryn Tudor the marriage felt too much like capitulation.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

[1] It took a while for Prince Henry to return to England, he kept getting distracted.

“The prevailing theory is that Kathryn Tudor entertained the Imperial Ambassador as an effort to disguise her evaluation of her young uncles. That if they didn’t know they were being, she would be able to determine their true characters.”
Elizabeth Tudor, Duchess of Calais, “Kathryn Tudor”

“Prince Henry and Edmund Tudor would arrive in England early in July of 1575. Very quickly young Edmund Tudor charmed Kathryn Tudor. His unique (for a Tudor) ability to allow another center stage made him a favorite of the court. What’s more, he managed to befriend Princess Margaret of Wales.

The young heir to the throne had few close companions. But the two had been close before Edmund Tudor accompanied his father on Prince Henry’s tour of Europe; Edmund Tudor had been part of the household of young John Tudor (Princess Margaret’s first betrothed). The shared childhood appears to have allowed Edmund Tudor and Princess Margaret to grow close.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“A through study of the literature of the time indicates that Margaret I of England suffered from severe social anxiety and was constantly plagued by doubts regarding the intentions of those around her. The fact that it was probably a good idea to doubt these intentions must not have helped.

But, several key members of the Tudor family, her great-grandfather Prince Henry, her cousin Eleanor Duchess of Suffolk, Edmund Tudor her childhood friend and husband, to name a few, were trusted to deal candidly with her. As such, it is from their writings that the true Princess Margaret is discovered.”
Jims Oliver, “The Tudor Diagnostic”

“Psychology Historians have been arguing over the mindset of Margaret Stewart for almost as long as they been arguing over Prince Henry’s diagnostic. The fact that they have been debating it this long does not add any credence to their claims. Psychology History is still very much the quack subject that is has always been, no more accurate than astrology.”
Karl Tudor, Internet Demagogue

“Queen Kathryn Tudor would announce the betrothal of Princess Margaret Stewart of Wales to Edmund Tudor late in August of fifteen seventy-five, while the Imperial Ambassador was still at the English Court championing the cause of Charles Habsburg.

This would cause some problems.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

“Alone the betrothal of Princess Margaret of Wales and Edmund Tudor may not have been enough to spark the Third Succession War; the Hapsburgs had few allies. Only a few die-hard Catholics wished to see Arthur Hapsburg as King of England. The Castilian Hapsburgs had their own problems and the Trastamara’s weren’t currently getting along with the Hapsburgs on the whole. [1] Even France, with Queen Helene as Arthur Hapsburg’s beloved sister, was rather done with the whole thing.

So, if it had only been the betrothal there might not have been a third Succession War. But, it wasn’t only the betrothal.
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

[1] A rather long story, and can be found in Chapter Twenty-Three, but the short version is they aren’t talking.

“November 1575, Prince James Stewart died leaving King James of Scotland in something of a bind: no obvious heir. But, never fear, King James had a plan. His son by Grace O’Malley, Seamus, was a bonny charming fellow. And his legitimacy could be dealt with by swearing, that yes, King James and Grace O’Malley were totally married….. secretly. With Grace O’Malley having passed away the year before, there was no one to naysay.

To shore up the claim of young Seamus, now called James (I know it’s confusing), he was betrothed to his cousin Princess Margaret Stewart (the daughter of Queen Margaret of Fance, not Princess of Wales). Princess Margaret had a pretty good claim herself.

There were only two other claims. Princess Marjorie, King James’s eldest daughter had recently died giving birth to a daughter, Infanta Catalina Habsburg of Aragon, and King Ferdinand the Old was too busy finding a bride for his heir to bother with Infanta Catalina’s claim.

It was the claim of King James’s sister that was the problem.”
Maximillian Green, “Scotland, the Isolation Years”

“Empress Margaret, wife of Holy Roman Emperor Arthur Hapsburg, viewed herself as her brother’s rightful heir what with his only legitimate son dying and his only legitimate daughter being dead. So, when King James VI declares his, in her mind, bastard son his heir, she blows her top. This combined with the slight her husband’s been stewing over [1] the Holy Roman Emperor and Empress declare that they are the rightful rulers of England, Scotland and Ireland.

This causes Queen Helene of France, an eminently practical woman when she isn’t pulling Marie Stuart’s pigtails [2], to look sideways at her brother. Helene has long since decided England was more trouble than it is worth and has suggested multiple times to her brother that perhaps the claim to England could be settled by claiming a few of those Gloriana Colonies that have been making so much money for England.

Now, instead of snagging a couple of those money makers, Emperor Arthur is claiming the whole of the British Isles. Which in Helene’s mind is a backward heretical land, and not worth it.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

[1] The slight in question is Queen Kathryn Tudor choosing someone other than his son as her daughter’s groom.
[2] A good fraction of Psychology Historians believe the conflict between Queen Helene and Queen Marie derives from a tendre they had for each other.

“The official declaration of Emperor Arthur and Empress Margaret’s claim to the whole of the British Isles would be issued early in 1576. The fact that claims came from sidestepping closer claimants was neatly ignored. It is actually quite an impressive document describing the duty a ruler has to his subjects and has been continually sited as one of the more impressive ethical and philosophical treatises of its time.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

“We don’t know what Margaret of Wales thought of the uproar surrounding her future wedding. She was not close to any of her ladies and her journals didn’t survive. Many Psychology-Historians have tried to analyze the portion of Camelot that was written during this time, but results have been inconclusive. [1]

We do know that there was an increase of tree climbing (which, it must be said, is extremely impressive considering the dresses teenaged Margaret of Wales wore), make of that what you will.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Stewart Queen”

[1] The fact that both historians and psychologists find, psychology-historian’s findings suspect at best and nonsensical at worst, doesn’t dissuade the psychology-historians from trying.

“With war brewing on the horizon, Queen Kathryn wished to settle once and for all the issue of her only daughter and heir’s marriage. Shortly after The Monarch’s Duties[1], late in July of the year fifteen seventy-six, Princess Margaret of Wales would wed Lord Edmund Tudor. Then the two would be sent North away from where the fighting would be.

We still have no conclusive evidence regarding how Margaret of Wales viewed her husband. They never publicly quarreled, an impressive feat, but that doesn’t necessarily mean they never quarreled. They were rarely parted, but that doesn’t mean they didn’t wish to part.

And so with the dearth of any real substantiation the psychology-historians have continued to run wild with theories.”
Doctor Veronica Westerwood, “The War for a United Island”

[1] The Monarch's Duties is the title of Emperor Arthur's published claim to England, Scotland, and Ireland.

“The first draft of The Engagement of Lyonesse is believed to have been written shortly after the marriage of Margaret of Wales, showing that art imitates life. In it the titular Lyonesse [1] has been banished from Camelot by the dreadful Morgause [2] and after a series of adventures finds true love in Sir Gareth, the youngest nephew of King Arthur. [3]

The significance of this writing has long been argued. Due to the few minor parts the character of Lyonesse plays, only a minority of psychology-historians believe Lyonesse to be based on Margaret of Wales herself. Many argue that if Margaret of Wales constructed the character of Lyonesse referencing herself, the character would play a more significant part in the narrative.

But, it is the smallness of Lyonesse’s part that shows great insights into Margaret of Wales state of mind. Even in the section named for the character Lyonesse, Lyonesse is a background character. This shows us that Margaret of Wales felt as if she was a background character in her own story.”
Doctor of History of Psychology, Mathias Kent, “Camelot and the Mind of Margaret of Wales”

[1] The character Lyonesse in Camelot appears to be a combination of the Lady of the Lake, and the sisters Lynette and Lyonesse from the original Arthurian legends.
[2] Many of the characters of Camelot appear to be based upon the members of the Tudor family, Morgause appears to have been based on Catherine of Aragon.
[3] King Arthur of Camelot appears to have been based on Arthur Tudor and Prince Henry in combination.

“The Scottish Isolation Years ended with a bang. The invading Imperial Forces skirted English shores and landed on Scotland’s beaches. This took everyone by surprise; after all the Hapsburgs’ main complaint was with England and the Tudors, not Scotland. The English forces were all in the south and the Scottish had barely mustered.

While the English divided their forces, part to stay south and part to head north, and the Scottish mustered their forces, a significant source of concern for both England and Scotland was the safety of Princess Margaret and Prince Edmund—for the English—and Prince James and Princess Margaret—for the Scottish and Irish. With the Imperial forces so close to both young couples’ locations, arrangements would need to be made.

After some quick negotiation, Princess Margaret & Prince Edmund and Prince James & Princess Margaret were sent to Ireland, where the four young future monarchs would wait out the war with Countess Elizabeth FitzGerald. [1]
While there was certainly an age difference—Princess Margaret of Wales was fifteen, Prince Edmund was sixteen, Princess Margaret was thirteen, and Prince James was eight—the four would form close bonds that ensured Scotland would never return to complete isolation.”
Maximillian Green, “Scotland, the Isolation Years”

[1] Born Elizabeth Hamilton, the Countess was the aunt of Margaret of Wales through her father and the great-aunt of both Prince James and Princess Margaret through their shared grandfather.

“While not a particularly popular trend, the Third Succession War was dubbed Margarets’ War by a selection of Scottish nobles, and “In Defense of Princess Margaret” was a rallying cry used by both English and Scottish. [1] This was due to a not insignificant fraction of Scottish nobles viewing Princess Margaret Stuart as the true heir of James VI, as the only child of his brother. These individuals believed that James Stewart (formally Seamus) was truly a bastard. But as he was betrothed to who they viewed as the true heir (no one wanted Princess Marjorie’s Spanish daughter as heir) no one truly complained.”
This section is found in both Professor Laura Anderson’s text “The Stewart Queen” about Margaret of Wales and another of her texts “The Other Margaret Stewart” about Princess Margaret Stuart.

[1] The Irish did not fight in the war, nor did they particularly care about the outcome. It would not be until partway through his reign that James VII Stewart would win the love and respect of the Irish.

“There are three Albion wars that were named after a pair of important women: Katies’ War, [1] Margarets’ War, [2] and Bridgets’ War. [3] Each of these wars were deeply affected by six of Albion’s most influential women. Even the titular Margarets, while in their teens, would impact their war. The treatise seeks to understand how these women held so much way in a time traditionally dominated by men.”
“Women Wars” Thesis Project by doctoral candidate Margaret Lawson, with Doctor Piper Nears advising

[1] Also called the First Succession War. This war was led by Queen Catherine of Aragon on one side and Queen Kathryn Tudor on the other.
[2] Also called the Third Succession War. This war defended the rights of Princess Margaret Stuart and Princess Margaret of Wales.
[3] Also called the Last Rebellion. This war was between those who wished to divide Scotland and Ireland led by Brighid FitzGerald and the crown during the reign of Queen Bridgit Stewart.

“England and Scotland were both caught off guard by the Imperial landing site. England’s forces were marshaled in the south and Scotland had only just begun to gather forces (they had attempted to gather in the harvest before sending the men to war).

As such, the Imperial forces would accrue several quick victories.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

“A significant fraction of the Tudor family’s efforts early in the war were directed, not at the war, but at keeping their father/grandfather from going off to war. Prince Henry, all of eighty-six years, was determined to lead the English forces. After all, he argued, had he not led Navarre twice before, he had fought in the earlier English Succession Wars, and he was instrumental in the securing his grandson as King of Denmark and Norway. In his mind he was the best option.

The rest of the Tudors were of a different mind.

An extremely well-organized campaign staffed with the majority of the English Tudors and led by the Dowager Duchess of Suffolk [1] sought to keep him in London through a combination of flattery, bribery, and blackmail directed at the various members of Prince Henry’s household.

The Duchess of Buckingham [2] took another route and requested Prince Henry's help in managing her two eldest sons’ education. This successfully diverted Prince Henry. He fired the boys current tutor and would set about tutoring them himself while interviewing potential tutors. No tutors made it past the interview.”
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

[1] Elizabeth Tudor, Prince Henry’s eldest daughter, a very formidable woman.
[2] Cecily Tudor, Prince Henry’s second youngest daughter, a very shrewd woman.

“Maggie’s War was Lord Thomas Cromwell’s time to shine. An afterthought at best and a dirty secret at worst, [1] Lord Thomas had spent most of his adult life bouncing between the households of his relations. But, due to a set of circumstances to bizarre to cover in this chapter [2] Lord Thomas was in the far North of England at the beginning of the war.

He would rouse the local nobles and form ad hoc companies to meet the oncoming Imperial armies. In the beginning his taking command was not questioned due to his connection to the Tudors; Princess Margaret was after all his niece, and his aunt. Then later as other military leaders showed up, his command was never challenged. He would lead England throughout Maggie’s War.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

[1] Remember Thomas Cromwell was born 10 months after his purported father’s death. Among the suspected list of fathers are Thomas Brandon the jure uxoris Duke of Calais and the late King Alexander Stewart. It would actually be Thomas Cromwell’s performance in Maggie’s War that would lead to the theory of King Alexander as his father.
[2] Thomas Cromwell’s Decade is found in chapter 19. It is fabulous, and I can totally recommend it. The fact that I wrote it doesn’t make me biased at all.

“Thomas Cromwell’s luck was just as singular as his famous Grandfather, Prince Henry, just not as reliable. To put it simply, Lord Thomas had either truly spectacular good luck or extremely awful bad luck.

He was appointed Governor of Glorianna five times, and dismissed from the same position seven times; [1] his first wife was startlingly out if his league, but the marriage would quickly end with her death in childbirth; he would receive Queen Margaret’s blessing to marry his second wife despite racial issues of the time; he completely disappeared off the face of the earth for three years from 1587-1590; [2] and sundry other events that will be covered in this chapter. [3]”
- Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

[1] this is due to the fact that he was once dismissed from the position when he didn’t actually have it. He was acting as Governor of Glorianna after the death of Lord George Boleyn (Lord Boleyn was appointed Governor of Glorianna after Lord Thomas’s second dismissal from the position. Lord Boleyn would contract a fever and die leaving Lord Thomas the best option as interim Governor.) But Queen Kathryn was still rather ticked at her cousin and so dismissed him again.
[2] We don’t have a confirmed account of where he was during this time. Lord Thomas himself would only explain that he was shipwrecked, but where and how he got back he never explained. These three years have sparked many a book and movie.
[3] Thomas Cromwell would be one of the three Tudors that received their own chapter in this book. The other two being Queen Kathryn Tudor and Prince Henry Tudor.

“While Lord Thomas Cromwell, harried the Imperial forces, Queen Kathryn oversaw the arrangements to send the majority of the English army north. As with much of her reign she had to balance appearing strong and filling the traditionally kingly role with not offending the traditional gender sensibilities of the day. As such she ensured that the army was funneled past London, so that she would be able to visit each company as they passed.

It was here that the “English Woman” speech was given and many a historian credits these visits and the speech with the…. [1]”
- Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

[1] Spoilers

“These say that because I and my heir have the bodies of meek women, that this Spanish prince is more suited to rule this our home. But is not any English Woman the match of any Prince of Europe?”
- The most famous line from Queen Kathryn Tudor’s “English Woman speech

“While Thomas Cromwell harried the Imperial forces, stalling so the Scottish and English armies could assemble, the various governments turned to allies in search of financial and military support. Scotland, due to its isolation for the past decade or so, found few willing to lend money. In the end, England would lend Scotland funds. [1]

With most of England’s hard cash going North, they too were in need of capital as most of England’s wealth was tied up in the colonies and trading fleet at this time. By no means was England a poor country, but they had limited spending money. Thankfully, Queen Kathryn had several extremely wealthy relatives. Her uncle, Prince Francis Tudor jure uxoris Duke of Brittany would oversee a very generous loan as would her great-uncle Duke John Tudor of Julich-Cleves-Berg. [2]

Emperor Arthur would try to turn to his relatives for funds. But, King Louis of France would refuse further assistance. [3] At the time there were no diplomatic relations between the Trastamaras and Habsburgs, and Castile was unable to provide support. So, Emperor Arthur was forced….”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

[1] These funds would never be repaid, and it time the dept would be remitted. This would act as Princess Kathryn Tudor’s dowry.
[2] Perhaps fifty percent of Europe’s economy of that time was controlled by these two men.
[3] Having already allowed the Imperial forces to cross France and use French shores to launch the invasion.

“For years people have argued on the motivations of Queen Marie the Mistress. Her actions led to the death of her brother and insured her position in the French Court. But then during Maggies’ War, she would wield her considerable influence [1] to encourage King Louis to stay out of the fight.

She had pushed to forbid the Imperial forces from traveling across France, but in this, Queen Helene was able to argue her brother’s case. But after the crossing, no further assistance would come from France.”
Duane Irwin, “Marie Stuart”

[1] At this particular time, Marie Stuart, as the mother of the King’s youngest child, was the undeniably the most prominent member of the French Court. But as young Jeanne Stuart would age, Queen Helene’s would wax and Queen Marie’s influence would wane. This echoed the pattern of King Louis’s elder children: he was only interested when they were young. And the two Queen’s influence was dependent on the King’s interest in their children.

“It would not be until early 1578 that the English and Scottish forces would truly engage with the imperial forces. [1] But once they three armies met it, Maggie’s War was all over. The Imperial Army would suffer several debilitating loses, mitigated by two pyrrhic victories [2] and would depart England and Scotland by late May.

While the official peace talks wouldn’t occur until late September, Queen Kathryn was satisfied that England was once again safe for her daughter. She would send for Princess Margaret of Wales and her husband in June.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

[1] Due to the Imperial Forces not attacking the South of England, and instead landing near Eyemouth, it had taken the two armies that long to marshal.
[2] The Battle of the Whore and The Battle at Kelso.

“The Habsburg’s had learned their lesson when it comes to their heirs and war; neither Arthur nor Charles Habsburg had traveled with their forces to war. This probably saved their lives, as several ships fleeing England would be sunk by the English Navy.

While they would never again use military might to push their claim to England, it would not be until seventy-six years later that would the claim be dropped. Emperor Arthur Habsburg would spend the rest of his life claiming the title of King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. This had an immense impact on the Imperial Court.

The prevalence of English in his court would see a rapid spread of the language. Many historians credit Emperor Arthur with starting the process that would lead to English as a lingua franca.”
Oliver Gotham, “Arthur and the Throne of England, Scotland, and Ireland”

“Lord Charles Boleyn [1] was sent by Queen Kathryn to fetch her daughter home. He would find Princess Margaret unable to travel.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

[1] For those of you still trying to keep track, Lord Charles Boleyn was the eldest son of Charlotte Tudor, Duchess of Calais and her first husband Baron Thomas Boleyn. That would make him Prince Henry’s great-grandson, and Queen Kathryn’s first cousin-once removed.

“It is with great joy that I write with the news that the Princess of Wales will make your exhalted person a grandmother sometime near Michaelmas. The Lady FitzGerald's doctor assures me that the Princess is in excelnt health and.... ”
Letter from Lord Charles Brandon to Queen Kathryn, first known recording of Princess Margaret Stewart’s pregnancy

“Princess Margaret of Wales was in the middle of a difficult pregnancy at the end of Maggie’s War. Suffering from constant fatigue in addition to extreme nausea, many worried for the life of England’s only heir. Due to the danger of travel during these times, Princess Margaret and her husband, Edmund Tudor, would stay in Ireland with their aunt, Lady FitzGerald.

Queen Kathryn would send her personal physician to attend to her daughter, but the Queen herself would stay in London for the majority of the pregnancy.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Stewart Queen”

“While the English Heirs will avail themselves of my hospitality for the remainder of the Princess’s time, the Scottish Heirs will be returning home. I will miss the little Prince, for he is in the express image of his mother, my deerest friend.

Though the childe doeth try my patience, he reminds me greatly of my departed brother Alexandre, and for that I can not begrudge him.”
Letter from Elizabeth FitzGerald to her only daughter, also a Margaret

“Upon hearing of his great-granddaughter’s pregnancy, Prince Henry would at last hire a tutor for the sons of his daughter the Duchess of Buckingham. He would travel to Ireland to support his son through this difficult time.

Edmund Tudor may have found Prince Henry’s presence reassuring, but most of the rest of the FitzGerald household found Prince Henry trying: persnickety about Princess Margaret's health, ready to debate every he saw Catholic and to spread the Awakened word, and just exacting in general. Thankfully, his wife, the Baroness de Wiloughby was there to serve as a buffer.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“The Imperial Habsburgs found themselves in something of an embarrassing situation. For the third time, the might of the Empire had failed to cow an unimportant isolated island. They handled it in the way that many monarchs of Europe handled these things: by pretending it never happened.

This did make the peace talks rather difficult, but in the end, for the first time in almost four decades, an official peace would exist between England and the Holy Roman Empire. Arthur Habsburg would have to make several concessions, but he wouldn’t officially renounce his claim.

In turn, Queen Kathryn would make only one concession—England had, after all, won the war. Queen Catherine of Aragon would be buried beside her husband with the full honors owed her as Queen of England.

In a move that would surprise many, Dowager Empress Maria, daughter of King Arthur and Queen Catherine, would be escorting her mother’s bones home.

In what many would now call a ‘Power Move’ Queen Kathryn would insist on delaying Dowager Empress Maria’s visit. But in reality the reason was much simpler: Queen Kathryn was not in England to receive her. She was in Ireland awaiting the birth of her first grandchild.”
Clark Underwood, “The Habsburgs and the English Throne”

“The 1570s were a difficult time for the French members of the House of Tudor. While France had not officially been at war with either England or Navarre, there were moments of tension, especially during France’s Cousins’ War. Then with the reign of Louis XIII, these Tudors, as protestants would find themselves almost constant danger.

Dowager Duchess Anne Sophie, also known as Princess Anne Sophie Tudor of Navarre, had been in France for over thirty years. She was a devote awakener, and her three children were avid protestants. Though, through her son as the Duke of Guise and her own friendship with Marie Stuart [1] the Dowager Duchess was able to weather the reign of Louis XIII and emerge on the other side.

The younger Tudors would not find themselves so lucky.”
A. E. Bell, “Louis XIII”

[1] Anne Sophie Tudor would take an almost motherly role in Marie Stuart’s life.

“Madelyn Tudor, daughter of Princess Renee of France, was the wife of the Marquis de Elbeuf, Charles de Lorraine. A quiet gracious woman, many were surprised when she refused her husband’s command to convert to Catholicism. (The Marquis having decided that having an Awakener for a wife, was no longer politically expedient). What would follow was a period of intimidation and harassment.

Thankfully for Madelyn Tudor, it was also no politically expedient to harass the sister to the King of Navarre or the aunt of the Duke of Brittany. So, no final solutions would be used. But she would find herself separated from her children and sent to stay with her nephew, the Duke of Brittany.

There she would discover she was pregnant and give birth to her third child, a son she would name Francis for her nephew. He would be her last child.”
Melantha Jones, “Religious Acceptance in Renaissance England”

“Francis Tudor, Duke of Chartes, the only son of Prince Henry and Princess Renee Valois, found himself in a difficult situation late in the fifteen seventies. A confrontational fervent protestant, Duke Francis found himself on the outs in the French Court.

Alerted to the danger by the treatment of his sister Madelyn, Duke Francis knew he could very easily lose quiet a lot. Therefor he announced his intentions to travel and visit his various relatives. This took him out of the country (out of sight, out of mind) and placed him in locations where, were anything to happen to his lands, powerful relatives would be right on hand to help.

While he would live functionally in exile, he would retain his title.”
Harper Wayne, “Keeping Up with The Tudors, Your Guide to Who’s Who”

“Prince Henri Tudor, heir to Navarre, shocked his family by remarrying, and a morganatic marriage at that. He would wed the Deaconess of Longchamp, a former Abbess, named Garbiñe. Deemed completely unsuitable by the majority of the Navarresse court due to her rough French—Basque being her first language—and that she continued in her position as Deaconess.

In contrast the commoners enjoyed the romance and story tale nature of the marriage, and King Henri III appreciated her influence on his son. For, Deaconess Garbiñe did much to affect Prince Henri’s behavior. After their marriage he returned to active court life—something he had avoided since the death of his first wife.”
Ethan Davidson, “Henry IV, the People’s King”

“The marriage of Prince Henri Tudor of Navarre and Princess Christina Oldenburg of Denmark left scars on the Navarrese branch of the Tudor family. Their frequent quarrels are considered to be the reason for the rift between Prince Henri and Prince Francis Tudor, Duke of Brittany. The deaths of their two sons, Prince Antoine and Prince Christian, left the family reeling. And the suicide of Princess Christina was just the last straw. In many ways the family was numb. They had lost so much and even before the loss the family had been fragile.

It was into this family that Deaconess Garbiñe married. Born a poor child from a family with too many mouths to feed, she had grown up in the local Abby. When the Awakened movement swept through Navarre she had converted. One of the few Deaconesses, she was a remarkable woman. While she would be instrumental in his rejoining to court, more importantly she was instrumental in his rejoining his family.”
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

“It is from Princess Margaret’s time in Ireland that we get her first surviving letters; she would frequently write her cousin Eleanor, Duchess of Suffolk. Throughout her pregnancy she requested advice regarding childbirth and childrearing. It is interesting to note that we have only one letter between Princess Margaret and Queen Kathryn during this time: the letter announcing her pregnancy.”
Professor Laura Anderson, “The Stewart Queen”

“After over four decades of uncertainty, the first of October of 1578 saw the Tudor reign secure. Princess Margaret of Wales would not only safely come through childbirth but would deliver twin sons: Arthur and Alexander Tudor. The two boys were viewed by all as handsome and healthy babes, and England rejoiced.

Archbishop Thomas had traveled with Queen Kathryn to Ireland to perform the Christening of both princes, as it was decided to delay returning to England until the twins and Princess Margaret could safely travel.”
Thomas Nelson, “Kathryn Tudor and the Golden Era”

“As I have shared my mother with the whole of England, I find myself unsure on the practices of mothers that are not Queen before God and man. For this time, and many more God willing, I find myself a mother foremost.

In all things Edmund is a comfert unto me, though he confesses he is quite unsure to the care of our sons, for they are quite small, though my Aunt the Lady of FitzGerald assures me that they are of healthy size for babes.

For all his unsurity my dearest husband is much more knowledgeable than I in regard to the babes. He tells me his knowledge comes from prince James, who rembered his sister as a babe. I find it amusing that the youngest of us four was the most…”
Selection of a letter from Princess Margaret of Wales to her cousin, Duchess of Suffolk

“I find Ireland the perfect place for babes. Without a court I have naught a claim on my time but my darling sons. Ereyesterday, I found Edmund laying on a blanket with the two of them, all three upon their fronts, their heads together. It appeared they were staring into each others eyes. It was the most peaceful scene. I myself will often just set and hold one or both for hours, just holding them.

I find I dread that they will someday have their own household and be so far from my side…”
Fragment of a letter from Princess Margaret of Wales, presumed to be to her cousin, Duchess Eleanor Cromwell

“The doctors thy illustrious person has sent have assured me that my own person and both little princes are of health sound enough to travel and return to England.”
Selection from letter to Queen Kathryn from Princess Margaret of Wales

“Princess Margaret of Wales, Prince Edmund Tudor, and their sons Arthur and Alexander would arrive back in England in the spring of fifteen seventy-nine along with their household, including Prince Henry Tudor. There would be a series of feasts and celebrations for the two princes, who continued in good health.

With the return of Princess Margaret to England, Queen Kathryn was left without an excuse to delay the visit of Dowager Empress Maria and the state funeral of Queen Catherine.”
Elizabeth Tudor, Duchess of Calais, “Kathryn Tudor”

“Negotiations regarding the Imperial Visit proceeded quickly. Dowager Empress Maria would be proceeded by the Imperial Ambassador by two months to ensure all details were overseen.

Empress Dowager Maria landed on English shores the 4thof August 1579. From there she would travel to London. She would be welcomed by Queen Kathryn and her daughter Princess Margaret of Wales.

The English Court would celebrate the ending of tensions with hunts and feasts and other celebrations. Three weeks after Empress Dowager Maria’s arrival, Queen Catherine would be interred with her husband, King Arthur Tudor, and only son, Prince John of Wales.”
Ulysses Park, “Catherine of Aragon, the After England years”

“The celebration for the first birthday of Prince Arthur and Prince Alexander saw a unique sight: the presence of five generations of Tudors. A son, a granddaughter, a great-granddaughter, a great-great-granddaughter, and two great-great-great-grandsons of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York were gathered together.

While there would be further conflicts, this day signified the beginning of the reconciliation of the Tudor family.”
Tammie Waltherson, “For the Tudors’ It’s All About Family”

The Death of Prince Henry

“Shortly after the visit of Dowager Empress Maria, Prince Henry would pass away in in sleep. He would be found by his groom, early on the morning of November the eleventh in the year fifteen seventy-nine. The courts of England, Navarre, Denmark and Norway would enter into mourning. In the Awakened churches, Deacons would hold special services, reading from his writings. Europe mourned.”
Irene Whent, “Prince Henry’s Last Trip”

“The death of Prince Henry Tudor shaped the decade. For so almost a century, Prince Henry had walked the earth, and for many it seemed he would continue for a century more. But as the people mourned a prince and a religious leader, his nine living children grieved a father.”
Rachel Rowell, “Father of the Reawakening, and a Good Father”

“For near forty years, my father has been a shadow that stretch o’re all the earth. Like the sun in the sky, all-encompassing but far. I would have thought I would mind not his absence for he hath always been absent to me. And in truth, I did grieve the loss of my dear brother Charles more, but I find the world is lessor for lack of his presence.”
Selection from the journal of John Tudor, Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg

“Father was never proud of me. I had not Francis’s fire nor Cecily’s wit. Charles [her husband] wants me to convert, and almost I stumbled. But now Father watches from above, in this I will make him proud.”
Journal entry from the journal of Marquise Madeleine of Elbeuf

“In all things I have always been is my father’s son, but what can I be with him gone? For what is a son without a father? ”
Selection from a letter from Prince Edmund Tudor to his wife, Princess Margaret of Wales

“It is strange how grief hits. I find what I will mourn most is his memory of Mother. For all others when called upon to speak of the Lady Anne Boleyn speak of her faith and dedication. With my sister gone, father was the last to speak of her temper and wit. In a way, I have lost my mother again.”
Selection from the journal of Dowager Duchess of Suffolk Elizabeth

“Father is dead. There are no words.”
Entirety of journal entry for Francis Tudor, Duke of Chartes. It would be five months before the journal was continued

“How many times have I grieved him? It always felt like he died when we parted, for time and again I thought I would never see Papa again. When he and mother parted, when he left for Denmark, when I left for Hesse-Kassel. But always we would meet again. I find I can not convice myself that he is truly gone. In my very bones I feel as if one day soon, he will be here, and I will have Papa again.”
Selection from the journal of Dowager Landgravine Margaret of Hesse-Kassel

“Dear sister, I know how we have quarreled, but I find in this moment I want nothing more than your presence. For I can not grieve the father Elizabeth knew nor the one that Edmund had. All I had was the father he was to you and I. Come visit me that we may grieve together and that I may know that we are sisters still.”
Part of a letter from Cecily Tudor, Duchess of Buckingham to Madelyn Tudor, Marquise of Elbeuf

“Never before have I found the words of scriptures wanting. But now I have no surety at the fate of Father or whether we will ever again stand together. And I find I want nothing more than to know that I will see his face again.”
Notation found in the Archbishop Thomas Tudor’s Bible Translation

“He who has been father to us all, has gone to the gates of the Father in Heaven”
Selection from the address King Henri III gave announcing the death of Prince Henry

“King Henri III of Navarre would not long survive his father. Shortly after announcing his father’s death, he would fall victim to a winter chill and die. His final request was to be buried beside his father.”
Patrick Wendal, “The First Navarrese Tudor King”

“Perhaps, Aunt, if thou intercede, Grandfather’s remains might be more rapidly sent home? For it was the last wish of Aita[1] to be buried by his father. Having failed so many times, I would not wish to fail again.”
Letter from the newly crowned King Henri IV to his aunt, Dowager Duchess Elizabeth of Suffolk

[1] The Basque word for papa. King Henri IV was much more familiar with the Basque language—the language of the common people of Navarre—and this is one of the contributing reasons for his title, The People’s King.

“One of history’s sad/funny anecdotes is the fight over Prince Henry Tudor’s body. Prince Henry would die in England and his youngest son and widow would oversee his magnificent funeral. Then the Navarrese Ambassador, on behalf of the newly crowned King Henri IV of Navarre, would request that his body be sent to Navarre. After all it had been Navarre that Prince Henry had ruled as King.

For the next three hundred years, Navarre would regularly request Prince Henry’s body back. It would be King Alexander FitzTudor that would finally send Prince Henry’s body to Navarre.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“As letters continued to fly back and forth between England and Navarre, it became evident to King Henri IV that Prince Henry’s remains might not return in his lifetime. So, to honor his grandfather, King Henri IV would posthumously award Prince Henry the title King Father as counterpart to Queen Mother.”
Ethan Davidson, “Henry IV, the People’s King”
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Alternate Media

Top Seven Prince Henry Tudor Movies, in no particular order, a review by Hailey Lane, the definitive Tudor Reviewer

The Prince and His Princess (1949)

Most people think of the Broadway play since they haven’t seen the original movie, but Prince and His Princess is a stellar musical and rollicking good fun. It was actually the Prince and His Princess that got me started on Tudors. Danny Kaye, playing a dashing Prince Henry, sings and swings a sword in what was probably great choreography for the day (but now looks just a little silly). But you can tell Kaye is having just as much fun as the audience. Additionally, Basil Rathbone plays a wonderfully debonair Cesare Borgia and Barbara Bates is sweet as Princess Reneé.

And yeah, it’s campy, the Father’s Loss le motif is a little overused, and all the downer parts of Tudor history are totally ignored, but damn, you can’t help smiling after watching it.

The Decade of Anne Boleyn (2013)

Carey Mulligan has always been a problematic Anne Boleyn for me. Mulligan does a stellar job and watching her you get swept up in the story. But, for me, she comes off just too harsh to be Anne Boleyn. All of her contemporaries agree, for good or ill, that Anne Boleyn was charming. And Mulligan’s Anne Boleyn is just too sharp.

But the sharpness fits to the story. Unlike other movies about Anne Boleyn, her marriage to Prince Henry doesn’t take center stage. Instead the movie focuses on the religious efforts of Anne Boleyn and all she accomplished during the last decade of her life. Mulligan’s Anne Boleyn is driven and committed to the cause.

On the whole a very textured movie, and even with the conflicting interpretations of Anne Boleyn, I really enjoy this movie.

Lovely, Lovely Anne (2002)

Somewhere between a RomCom and a Historical Drama, Lovely, Lovely Anne is probably the most watched Tudor film of all time. Anne Hathaway has always been my favorite Anne Boleyn. Hathaway works well with Kenneth Charles Branagh who plays Prince Henry. Poignant and funny, thoughtful and playful, the movie straddles the cheer and joy of the courtship of Anne Boleyn and Prince Henry with the stress struggles from Prince Henry’s responsibilities as Regent for his son.

The film does pretty much drop the religious struggles of the day, choosing to focus on the Tudor family and exaggerate the disproval regarding Anne Boleyn and Prince Henry’s marriage. But it’s got great dialog and amazing costuming. All around great movie.

Anne and Reneé (2019)

Anne and Reneé simultaneously portrays two of Prince Henry’s marriages: his second to Anne Boleyn and his second to last with Princess Reneé.

Callum Turner wonderfully portrays just how dependent Prince Henry was on Anne Boleyn. Hailee Steinfeld does a wonderful job capturing Anne’s determination and religious fervor, really really intense religious fervor.

Jennifer Garner captures the balance between Princess Reneé’s fighting spirit and a sort of dignified fragility. But the best is Jeff Goldblum as Prince Henry. There’s one point during the movie where Prince Henry and Princess Reneé are talking religion and Prince Henry call her Anne, it’s a brutal heartrending scene, and Goldblum captures is perfectly.

The Two Princes (1995)

Now, normally I don’t like remakes. In general I think they’re pointless and derivative. But, as hard as it it to admit, The Two Princes (1995) remake of 2 Princes (1972), is much better than the original. Both films portray Cesare Borgia’s time as Prince Henry’s hostage, but after that they differ. 2 Princes (1972) is campy cheesy B-Flick. The Two Princes is an Indi film before Indie was a thing.

While neither film has anything resembling a plot, just series of loosely related events with no climax or finish, The Two Princes comes of as purposeful, a slice of life, instead of 2 Princes’s “I ran out of funds and can’t finish” wet mess.

Kalmar’s Birth (1965)

Kalmar’s Birth is the only Prince Tudor film to make this list that isn’t in English. The Kalmarian Film is at the heart a national film. It is rife with Kalmarian imagery and allusions towards future monarchs of the Kalmar Union.

One of the more positive portrayals of King John Albert, the film focuses on the effect both King John Albert And Prince Henry on Queen Mathilde. As the daughter of King John Albert, much of the film is taken up by flashbacks to her childhood. Even though Queen Mathilde never met her illustrious great-grandfather in person, the film does an amazing job of showing the effect Prince Henry has on her life.

The Last Trip (2014)

For all the setting lends itself to an Historical Drama, The Last Trip is most commonly known as a Father’s Day film. Many channels play the movie every year on father’s Day. The majority of the film deals with Prince Henry and the variety in his relationships with his many children.

The lion’s share of the film dwells on the relationship between Prince Henry and his youngest, Edmund Tudor. Thomas Brodie-Sangster does a wonderful job as young Edmund Tudor and plays off Daniel Craig’s Prince Henry (though Craig is much to young to play Prince Henry during the last trip) wonderfully.

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"When asked the best ballet of all time most people will answer Swan Lake or possible La Sylphide. But making a comeback is Alcott Penley Byrne's masterpiece, Camelot.

Based on the epic by Queen Margaret of England, Byrne's masterpiece was written in 1880s. After an initial splash at it's inaugural performance in 1885, the ballet faded into obscurity. But, starting with the Calais Theatre Ballet's anniversary production of Camelot in 1985 the ballet has made a strong resurgence."

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“For six seasons we have all watched as Damian Lewis knocked it out of the park as the dashing Prince Henry. But like all good things we knew it would have to end. This season’s finale was fabulous and heart wrenching as The Tudors depicted Prince Henry’s death. But have no fear, the show will continue, with Callum Turner’s Prince Edmund as the shows new focus.”
Blurb announcing the sixth season of The Tudors

“Amy Grant’s new song, “Mother’s Love,” will serve as main theme song for Joe Wright’s The Stewart Queen. Drawing from the melody of Prince Henry’s “A Father’s Loss,” Grant uses several of Queen Margaret’s letters to her cousin discussing her children and the difficulties of being a Queen and a mother as inspiration for the lyrics. While it’s an obvious award bait song, we think it’s going to work.

Somewhere between a power ballad and a lullaby, “Mother’s Love” will move you to tears.”
Musical Review for Amy Grants “Mother’s Love”

“Maria Menounos: Joining us today is award winning composer Robert Lopez here to talk about his new musical, 200 Years. Now Robert, how did this musical get started?

Robert Lopez: Growing up I wasn’t aware that there were more Tudors than Queen Kathryn. The single largest topic of historical media is the the Tudors. But people only talk about Prince Henry or Queen Kathryn.

Maria Menounos: Is that what prompted 200 Years?

Robert Lopez: Yes, there were nine monarchs in the Tudor Dynasty and we really only talk about one… and her grandfather. I wanted to give the others a change to speak.

Maria Menounos: Or sing. But, Prince Henry wasn’t a monarch, was he?

Robert Lopez: No, the Prince Henry character serves as a narrator. He doesn’t get his own song.

Maria Menounos: Though he tries right?

Robert Lopez: Yes, Prince Henry gets to break the fourth wall. He’s constantly trying to sing one of his songs.

Maria Menounos: And it’s always one of the songs he wrote himself?”
Interview Regarding 200 Years: The Musical

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Top Ten Things Named After The Tudors

And before beginning we wanted to clarify we mean things named after the English House of Tudor, not the Navarrese or Netherian branches nor any of the German Tudors.

10. The Hat

Traditionally a man’s hat, the widowed Queen Anne would wear her deceased father's hat frequently. This propelled the Tudor into popularity. It would enjoy almost two decades of popularity before fading during the reign of Queen Anne’s nephew, John Alexander. The Tudor would come back into popularity in the 1880s and never really went away. Recently the Tudor has been seen on the red carpet on the head of Christina Hendricks; possibly a hint that the actress has landed the role of Maeve Stewart on the Tudors.


9. Street

The major thoroughfare in Alexandria is Tudor Avenue. It runs from Westpark to Highton and is often called the “most musical way.” Once home to nine different Colleges of Music—Tudor Avenue now holds five Musical Collages, six concert halls, three theatres, and plaza where musicians come to perform daily. Several genres of music owe their birth to Tudor Avenue—Glory, Soul, City Blues, Girl Gangs, and Classical Revival—as well as the current resurgence in Americana Folk.


8. Horse

Prince Edmund Tudor was an avid horseman. As a young man, he traveled throughout Europe and the Mediterranean. He would return with four stallions that all Tudor horses trace back to. Officially “Turkish” horses, these stallions probably came from Arabia or Egypt. For those of you that know horses, the Tudor is typically between 16 and 17 hands, most often lighter colored (grey, white, palomino, roan), level croups, long arched neck, deep chest, and long legs. If you are watching hunt chasing the chasers are either Tudors or Selle Français.


7. TV Show

The historical fiction television series started in 2005 and is still going. The first six seasons follow the life of Prince Henry, seasons 7-9 followed Edmund Tudor, and it looks like next season will be following Alexander II. An incredibly detailed show, the Tudors has won awards for costuming and music. And it helps that all the actors are ridiculously attractive.


6. Couch

Designed for two, the Tudor Couch is a couch with two raised ends (each functioning as a backrest), and nothing along the long sides. On a Tudor, two people recline facing each other with their feet either off and on opposite sides or entangled between. It isn’t really all that important, but the Tudor has been a favorite of mine since X-Men (1992) where the Professor and Magneto play chess while sitting on a Tudor. In popular media the Tudor Couch is the place for love confessions between love interests, or intense stares between nemeses.


5. District

The unlucky thirteenth District of Glorianna, Tudor is thevacation spot. The district basically 400 miles of coast, and is home to beautiful beaches, fabulous hotels, several world renown aquariums and a fabulous nightlife. Idyllic year-round weather means it’s never too hot or too cold. The rich textured culture, a mix of English, Hispanic, Native, and Chinese, results in fabulous foods and a fascinating history.


4. Castle

Built in 1630s by Prince Arthur of Wales, Tudor Castle was constructed in a style more at home in the 1300s. Tudor Castle would house various Tudors, Wettins, and FitzTudors throughout the centuries. An immense treasure of art would accumulate there at the hands of English monarchs. Schade’s Tudor portraits are displayed in the main hall of Tudor Castle. It would be there that Alexander the Last would retire after abdicating.


3. Hair

Now technically the red hair would exist irregardless of the Tudors, but the Tudor have significantly affected how red hair is regarded. Redheads are considered to have a temper, be clannish, and charismatic because these are attributes attributed to the Tudors. And redheaded children everywhere enjoy the thought that they might be descended from the Tudors.


2. Bible

The single best-selling book of all time, the Tudor Bible encompasses three different translations of the Bible: English, Basque, and French. Translated on the orders of Prince Henry in 1560s, some of the most famous or influential phrases in the English language can be traced back to the Tudor Bible: “Your heart will be on your treasure” and “God with us, who can stand against us?”


1. Park

Originally hunting grounds for King Arthur I, Tudor Park is now 115 acres in the middle of London. Many things are found at Tudor Park: among the most famous are Statue Walk, the Alexander IV Memorial, and the Empress Anne playground. Every ten years the World Fair is held in Tudor Park. Then the quiet open spaces are transformed into a large international exhibition to celebrate the achievements of humanity.

“Perhaps the most interesting historical relationship is that of Queen Margaret Stewart of England and Queen Margaret Stuart of Scotland.

On one hand we have Queen Margaret Stewart of England a woman who is Queen Regent and would like nothing more than to hand ruling off to her husband, who would like to devote her time to writing and her children. She was madly in love with her husband and was reticent, modest, and devotedly religious. She grew up surrounded by family and absolutely sure of her place in the world.

On the other is Queen Margaret of Scotland who is Queen Consort and who really feels—and an argument could be made that—she should be Queen Regent, who has something to prove to the world. She generally couldn’t be bothered with her husband. She was loud and forceful and not particularly religious. She grew up forgotten and ignored, never knowing what was to become of her.

Two very different women, who’s desires and goals were often complete opposites and sometimes even conflicted, and yet they were extremely close throughout their lives.”
Desiree Brandon, “The Queens Margaret”

“It appears that the Queens Margaret, during their Irish Sojourn, agreed that a marriage would occur between their children to create an alliance between their countries. We have several letters who’s lines would support this: ‘the birth of our Royal friendship,’ ‘that your child may be mine, and my child may be yours,’ and ‘that we may share a grandchild.’

Additionally, Prince Robert Stewart, Duke of Rothsay, the future King Robert IV of Scotland, would be betrothed to Princess Kathryn Tudor since his very birth.”
Richard MacArthur, “Robert of Scotland”

“So, I really don’t think Professor Anderson should have separated The Stewart Queenand The Other Margaret Stewart[1] into two separated books. There are entire chapters that are identical between the two books. The Irish Sojourn chapter, Robert and Kathryn’s chapter, Maeve and Arthur’s chapter, and the French Religion War chapter are all identical.

And I get that the Queens Margaret had separate lives, but Professor Anderson could at least edit the shared chapters to include more personalized information or something. It really feels like cheating.”
Hailey Lane, the definitive Tudor Reviewer
[1] Whether Margaret of Scotland spelled her name in the French way or not is somewhat debated.

“Margaret of Wales was a mother of four when her mother, Queen Kathryn died. Prince Arthur and Prince Alexander were twelve years of age, Princess Kathryn was six years of age, and Prince Henry was but four months.

The Royal Family had been residing in Ludlow Castle at the time of Queen Kathryn’s death and the crowning of Queen Margaret would greatly upset their lives. Princes Alexander and Henry and Princess Kathryn went from spending most mornings with their mother to seeing her once a week or so. For Prince Arthur there was an even greater distance.

For while Prince Alexander, Princess Kathryn, and Prince Henry would live at Iredale Palace, Prince Arthur, newly Prince of Wales, would be sent back down to Ludlow Castle.”
Rosa Kent, “Mother Margaret”

“By all accounts Arthur of Wales was initially lonely and bereft, as he wandered the castle he grew up in. The halls that once bustled with his family and their close retains now echoed. There was just him and his tutors.”
Jacob Price, “Arthur of Wales, Burning Bright and Burning Out”

“…Mother always said mothers had no favorites, but truthfully none were as close as us two. We shared the oncoming specter of the thrown of England and the weight of a crown. It did not occur to us that it would not be a weight shouldered together. For it fell to her and I was left behind.

For many months after Mother’s crowning I found myself alone fearing the oncoming destiny. But it was thy sweet smile that broke the clouds and saw the sun shine through. Though I was but a boy and had naught a thought of the way of men and women I loved you from that very moment.

Perchance there will come a day where the weight of the mightiest land shall fall upon me, but while thy bewitching face is within my view I find I can disregard it awhile. Thou hast always been my most beautiful sunshine. While in your company I feel no weight or destiny, I am but a man.

Fragments of Letter 5 from Arthur of Wales to his mistress Alys ferch John Owen

“Far from his parents—visits occurred only rarely—Arthur of Wales grew into a charming hedonistic young man. He quickly accumulated a collection of younger lords, gentlemen, and ladies that accompanied him on hunts, played him at tennis, starred in his masques, and participated in his jousts. [1]

Chief amongst this crowd—not from any rank of their own—was Sir Owain ap John Owen and his sister Mistress Alys ferch John Owen. For roughly eleven years, Alys ferch John Owen was the mistress of Arthur of Wales.

Alys ferch John Owen is purported to have been slight, with dark hair and eyes. Her beauty is somewhat debated. Letters from Arthur of Wales practically rave over her loveliness and splendor while the Swedish Ambassador would report, “she holds some wild charm but on the whole is plain as a milkmaid.” [2]

After the birth of their first child, Lady Anne FitzWales, Prince Arthur would be called to London by his parents to be restrained. But while in London he would meet and bed the Lady Maeve Stewart [3] and get her with child. They sent him back to Wales after that.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

[1] Jousting had slowly fallen out of fashion, but Prince Arthur enjoyed the sport and found no end of those willing to indulge him.
[2] Neither of these parties are particularly unbiased but it is from them that we get the most information.
[3] See page 324

“While the Lady Maeve was the King of Scotland’s sister, she would never accept the title of Princess of Scotland, would live mostly in Ireland, and had quite the reputation. Purportedly, King James VII would say, “I can rule Scotland, or I can control Maeve, but I cannot do both.”

Her daughter with Arthur of Wales, Kathryn MacArthur, was her second illegitimate child [1] and after Kathryn MacArthur’s birth, Lady Maeve and her two children were sent to the Scottish colonies in America which the Lady Maeve would govern for the next fifteen years. Out of sight out of mind.

The Lady Maeve is a fascinating character and really deserves more attention, but most of the craziness she got up to was in America and this is a European history book.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”, p. 324

[1] The first being Sir Murrough MacJohn. He was claimed by Prince John of Portugal, but no one knows how Prince John and Lady Maeve met. Most stories involve piracy in some manner, but it is all unsubstantiated.

“To the relief of the English Court, Arthur of Wales never attempted to marry his mistress, Alys ferch John Owen. This left the succession clear when Arthur of Wales died at age twenty-one while jousting. For none of the prince’s five illegitimate children were in danger of being put forward as heir.

Prince Alexander, the twin of Arthur of Wales, would not only inherit his brother’s title, but his brother’s bride. For Princess Elisabeth Sabina of Sweden had, at the time of Arthur of Wales’s death, been on her way to England. She would arrive to find a new groom.

The two would be wed mid-April of the year fifteen ninety-nine.”
Matheo Henrikson, “The 1500’s Was A Crazy Century, and It Was Mostly the Tudors’ Fault”

“Arthur of Wales was a young man, more of a boy really, who was determined to live life to the fullest; taking every opportunity before his chances were spent. In this he succeeded though he probably assumed his fun would end on a throne, not in a coffin.

But as with many a young person, he gave no thought to the effect he had on those around him. His death would leave his mistress Alys ferch John Owen grief striken, and five children fatherless. His three children by Alys ferch John Owen— Anne FitzWales, Arthur FitzWales, and Alice FitzWales—would be left in the custody of their uncle, Sir Owain ap John Owen. In time, Arthur FitzWales would be made Baron Dynevor and the confiscated castle, Dinefwr Castle.

Kathryn MacArthur, Arthur of Wales’s daughter by the Lady Maeve, Sister to the Scottish King, would travel with her mother to the Scottish colony, Muir Magi. [1] The Chiefs of Muir Magi are descended from her.

The youngest and posthumous son of Arthur of Wales, Henry FitzTudor would be born early in January of sixteen hundred. There was some doubt to his paternity that would not be resolved until his first birthday, at which Queen Margaret declared he was the absolute image of Arthur of Wales. He would be granted the surname FitzTudor and placed in the royal nursery as a companion to his uncle, Prince Edward.”
Jacob Price, “Arthur of Wales, Burning Bright and Burning Out”

[1] So named due to a miscommunication with the Natives and the presence of great lakes.

“After the Nursery Quarrel, Henry FitzTudor would be raised exclusively by his grandfather, Edmund Tudor, Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Due to Lord Edmund’s influence, Henry FitzTudor would be allowed to inherited his barony. It would be Henry FitzTudor’s son, Edmund FitzTudor who would be made Duke of Richmond.

It is from him that the Royal FitzTudor’s are descended.”
Henry Hansen, “Tudors, Wettins, and FitzTudors: The Last Three Dynasties of England”