Amazing post, but I need to say two nitpicksGrand Duke of Cornwall (Cornish: Veur Dug Kernow) is a title in the British peerage, traditionally held by the eldest son of the reigning British monarch. The Duchy of Cornwall was the first duchy created in England and was established by royal charter in 1337. On 20 April 1753 the Duchy was raised to the status of Grand Duchy by King-Emperor Frederick I, and its holder is the only Grand Duke in the British peerage. Prior to 2015, the grand dukedom of Cornwall could only be held by the oldest living son of the monarch, who is also heir apparent, but since the Succession to the Crown Act 2013, the title is now held by the oldest living child of the monarch, who is also heir apparent. Since 1753, the grand dukedom has been only been vacant twice, from 1817 to 1837, and again from 1936 to 1952.
According to folklore and semi-legendary histories, the Dukes of Cornwall were semi-autonomous rulers during the Arthurian period. Historically, Cornwall formed part of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Dumnonia, and was gradually incorporated into the Kingdom of England until the Norman Conquest when the first Earl of Cornwall was appointed. Edward, the Black Prince, the eldest son of Edward III, was made the first Duke of Cornwall in 1337, after Edward III had lost the title of Duke of Normandy. After Edward predeceased the King, the duchy was recreated for his son, the future Richard II. Under a charter of 1421, the duchy passes to the sovereign's eldest son.
The grand dukedom includes over 570 square kilometres of privately-owned land, more than half of which lies in Devon. Prior to 1991, the constitutional status of Cornwall was disputed, although the Grand Duke had some rights over the entirety of what was then the County of Cornwall. Since devolution in 1991 and the granting of dominionhood to Cornwall in 1999, the Grand Duke has taken on definied constitutional and operational responsibilities for the enitrety of the Grand Duchy of Cornwall. Under Cornish law, the Grand Duke:
- appoints the Lord Lieutenant and the High Sheriff (although both posts have been united since 1999);
- convenes sessions of the Cornish Parliament;
- approves the selection of the First Minister of Cornwall by the Cornish Assembly, along with the monarch;
- and grants assent to legislative bills, along with the monarch.
The present Grand Duke is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Queen-Empress Elizabeth II, who was officially proclaimed Grand Duke of Cornwall at Launceston Castle in 1973. His second wife, Camilla, is the current Grand Duchess of Cornwall. She is also Princess of Chesapeake and Wales but does not use those titles.
- Dumnonia was a Brythonic Kingdom, not an Anglo-Saxon one (The Anglo-Saxons even considered them as being Welsh, with Dumnona being called "West Wales")
- The dates when the title was vacant are a little wrong, since Victoria would only have Edward VII in 1841 and not 1837, which was when she became Queen-Empress