Discussion thread https://www.alternatehistory.com/forum/threads/guns-of-the-french.433170/ Excerpt from Mexico and the Foreign Policy of Napoleon III by Michele Cunningham Following a dispute over debts, French soldiers entered Mexico City on 7 June 1863. General Almonte was appointed the provisional President of Mexico on 16 June, by the Superior Junta. The Superior Junta with its 35 members met on 21 June, and proclaimed a Catholic Empire on 10 July. The crown was offered to Maximilian, which he accepted on 3 October. Despite losing its capital, Mexico still seemed to have a number of advantages favouring guerilla warfare, which it had successfully conducted against the Spanish during its War of Independence. It had large scattered rural populations and harsh geography consisting of significant mountain ranges and deserts. However, after 1864, the sudden French technological advantage completely surprised and overwhelmed the Mexican defenders as they used a wide variety of new automatic rifles and aircraft to brutally crush the Mexican guerillas and exercise effective administration of Mexico for the proceeding century. The helicopter, in particular the Eurocopter EC725, allowed France to completely dominate the war, as they could now find enemy soldiers from the air and destroy them without even sending their own soldiers. However, the "New Frenchmen" only provided the France of 1863 with 90 days of military petroleum reserves, and the use of new vehicles required extraction and refining of petroleum, which required a reliable energy source. The existence of petroleum reserves in Mexico, and the lack thereof in France, provided the main incentive for France to continue to occupy Mexico in the following decades, as well as providing an incentive for France to colonize the interior of Africa. The New Frenchmen "Do you still consider France to be a great nation?" heard the Emperor Napoleon III in his sleep. He had been having a peaceful night at the Tuileries Palace until he heard those words. "What if France were even greater? What if France had a new industry capable of utterly usurping all other nations? We are the New Frenchmen, we come to you with gifts only. Listen to us, and we will provide you with everything our nation needs to be the premier nation. We are committed to French nationalism, and we must help France become great because we know what happens if France ever decays..." said a man with a black coat and mask obscuring his face. He had tinted glasses which obscured his eyes as well. There were others accompanying him who remained silent, the amount of which the Emperor could not determine Napoleon III was very disturbed that these possibly insane men have found their way into his palace, "Leave my room, immediately." He mumbled with a fatigued and mildly angered voice. "Soon enough, we will. In the meantime, we have left some papers in your room, which, if you use these correctly, will help your country further advance. There are some, how do I say it, facilities, in Evreux which contain examples of new inventions and technologies. I see you are growing exhausted, perhaps when you wake up in the future, we can have a discussion in better circumstances," they said before disappearing suddenly. "Had I drank too much tonight?" mumbled the Emperor before returning to sleep. --- When he woke up he found that the men who trespassed in his palace had indeed left some papers for him. The papers were completely white and the words were all perfectly aligned and orderly. The first page had a boxed inscription, These are the guides to constructing or maintaining critical inventions of the twentieth century using industry available in the ninetieth century. 3 km east of the town of Evreux, there is a military outpost which contains live specimens of the technologies mentioned here, as well as stockpiles of poison gasses, petroleum, automatic rifles, machine guns etc. We do not doubt that your engineers, provided with enough time, can replicate these inventions and even add to the designs. You have been provided with a great gift. Use this resource wisely. He proceeded to open the papers and saw prototypes for bizarre ideas, a machine which could change the temperature of any sealed room, a gun which could be made from scrap metal and fire at 10 rounds per second, a machine which could convert large amounts of coal and wood into small amounts of gasoline, and a camera which could record images in colour. He also saw guides on how to fly helicopters and airplanes. When he personally explored the facility at Evreux, he found it to be "the most bizarre and enlightening experience of my life." He then ordered 30 Vehicule Blinde Leger armoured scout car, 15 AMX Leclerc tanks, 50 Ford Ranger light utility vehicles, 20 Eurocopter Tiger attack helicopters, 20 NHIndustries NH90 and 8 Eurocopter Caracal transport helicopters to be sent via boat to Mexico. Some were rendered unusable along the way due to failure to maintain the equipment, while some ships sank due to the weight of the metal. The few that did make it across were unusable in the very poorly made dirt roads and mountains of Mexico. Transport helicopters allowed France to quickly supply forces and automatic rifles allowed individual soldiers to become much more effective. Soon, the morale of the Mexican guerillas began to plummet as they were intimated by automatic rifles and by tanks and aircraft, which they had no way to combat and many deserted. France also provided a surplus of food to loyal Mexicans. After the Republicans were reduced to a token force, Benito Juarez ultimately was killed in combat in Mexicali in 1867, marking the end of major combat actions. Soon after France conquered Mexico, it began implementing dramatic changes to the Mexican landscape, by extracting from oil, primarily from the Chicontepec and Cantarell Fields. The fact that France was able to successfully establish oil refineries which could then be used for vehicles was surprising to the world, but there was fear that France would then run out of cars, because it could not repair or manufacture cars, at least for the next few decades. Thus, a few Ford Ranger cars were kept in reserve in Paris, in hope that one day they could be replicated in the future. France also began appeasing the Mexican population, by providing an ample food supply using modern agriculture, which eventually caused the Mexicans to stop resisting. The building of missionary and government schools spread the French language among educated Mexicans and it soon became the language of the elite classes by the end of the nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century, the French language began spreading to the urban masses and became the primary language of education. Despite this, most Mexicans, who were lower class, remained more proficient in Spanish, especially in rural areas. To reduced the threat of the United States dominating the Western Hemisphere, France began donating immense sums of assault rifles and food to the Confederate States, which was in dire straits during the Southern War of Independence. This ultimately allowed Confederates to retake New Orleans from the Union, and then take over the Mississippi, which the Union previously held. Many have compared how desperate the United States was before French intervention to how desperate the Confederacy was before French intervention. France, confident in its abilities, demanded in an ultimatum that the United States recognise the Mexican empire, which was predictably refused by Lincoln. After the France declared war on the United States, they sunk most of the American navy, which broke the blockade, and the Confederates, gaining new morale, pushed Sherman's advance all the way back into Kentucky and, alongside French soldiers landing from transport ships along the coast, invaded Maryland, surrounding Washington D.C. Along with constant French bombing of northern industry, farms and soldiers, so after a year siege of Washington D.C., the capital of the United States ultimately surrendered, and the South became an independent nation. The historical monuments and resources of the city were looted by Confederates and sent back to Richmond. Lincoln committed suicide as the French approached the White House, while Andrew Johnson and his cabinet were allowed to keep their office as long as they kept recognising the sovereignty of the Confederate States. Excerpt from The Disunited States of America: The Unfinished Revolution by Jack D. Foner Plight of the Franco-Americans The defeat in the Southern War of Independence led to the birth of new American militarism and desire for revenge, characterised by a deep sense of bitterness, hatred and demand for revenge against the Confederate States and France. This was particularly manifested in the desire for another war with Confederacy in order to regain lost lands. A side effect of this was discrimination against Franco-Americans, in spite of the fact that thousands of them had lived in the United States for centuries without any issues. Only a few Frenchmen were outspoken admirers of Napoleon III. This resentment was manifested in the French Exclusion Act, which was a United States federal law signed by President Johnson on May 6, 1866, prohibiting all immigration of French people into the United States. Meanwhile, thousands of Franco-Americans were arrested or executed on charges of treason and supporting the enemy in wartime. Vandalism of French community institutions, such as schools, cemeteries or Catholic Churches, became common. As a result, many Franco-Americans emigrated abroad. By 1870, nearly 60% of the Franco-American population had emigrated outside of the United States, while the rest hid their nationality or fled to the Midwest like the Mormons had. About 105,000 of them went to the Province of Canada, and the rest to other countries such as the Confederate States, Mexico and France. The exiled Frenchmen went on to become a very conservative and anti-American force in their local politics. Eventually, the proceeding generations of Franco-American youth rejected their heritage, seeing greater benefit from assimilating into American society. Industrialisation of the Confederate States Jefferson Davis was voted out of office in 1866, because of his lack of popular appeal and war exhausting the south. The popular general-in-chief, Robert E. Lee, was elected with 75% of the vote. The Confederate States came into existence as an impoverished nation with immense ethnic conflict between whites and blacks and almost of all of its significant industries destroyed in its war of independence. Almost all free blacks and slaves had taken advantage of the chaos of the war to escape to the United States or the Mexican Empire, further damaging the Confederate economy. The slaveowners resorted to harsh measures to retain the few remaining slaves, such as lynching free blacks to "set an example". Many predicted that the new Confederacy would implode in a few years. However, the Confederacy made an unprecedented upturn thanks to new technologies provided by the French Empire. The construction of paved roads, new industries and extraction of petroleum reserves across the south provided new job opportunities and increased the population's standard of living. The first car manufacturer in North America, in fact, was Cooper Motors, named after general Samuel Cooper. Established in Texas in 1869, Cooper Motors produced the Cooper Model 1, a large family car which was made accessible to civilians for the first time, allowing much more convenient transport. The Confederacy, hoping to capitalise on these inventions for its own political gains, distanced itself from France, with President Lee infamously claiming, "The automobile is a Confederate invention," despite having been used in France and Mexico 6 years before. Agricultural slavery was instantly obsolete, as phosphate fertilisers and other agricultural techniques, combined with mechanised cotton production, reduced dependency on slaves. Ultimately, it was the higher cost of slavery compared to industry that resulted in many slaves being sold off or manumitted. Northern abolitionists, such William Lloyd Garrison, leading the American Anti-Slavery Society, attempted attacks on southern plantations, which led to paranoia of Washington D.C. which did not stop them. Ultimately, nonviolent methods, such as protesting or freeing slave children by paying for freedom when they were baptized were more effective. Slavery began to dwindle, reaching about 10,000 slaves before the Confederate States Constitution was amended to abolish slavery in 1889, the last nation in the Western Hemisphere to do so. Excerpt from The Franco-Austro-Prussian War: Prussia’s War with France and Austria in 1866 by Geoffrey Wawro Prussia and Austria had fought three Silesian Wars in the eighteenth century, all of which Prussia won, and the last of which escalated into a global conflict. Ultimately, Napoleon’s first conquest of Europe united them against a common foreign enemy, the French, which they then turned on when it was clear the French invasion of Russia failed. Growing desire to unify Germany emerged in the aftermath of the 1848 revolutions. Prussia and Austria were the German-speaking great powers, and Prussia’s coal resources had allowed it to unexpectedly industrialise and become stronger. Meanwhile, the minorities of Austria, such as the Hungarians, Italians, Romanians, Ukrainians, Poles, etc all wanted their own nation and were repeatedly suppressed by military force, such as the Hungarian rebellion in 1848 or Galician rebellion in 1846. After the distraction of the Mexican war ended, Franse began to focus on Europe. France wanted to prevent a united Germany, but also wanted to keep Italy as an ally. To this end, it promised to recognise Austria’s claim to Holstein, assist in any war against Prussia, provide advanced technologies and secretly endorse the return of Silesia to Austria in exchange for Austria providing Venetia to Italy. On 12 March, Austria officially ceded Venetia to France, and on 19 March ceded Venetia to Italy, which placated Italy. On 29 March, France fired around 50 Pluton conventional ballistic missiles at Prussian factories and military outposts, and occupied Freiburg. The battle of Freiburg demonstrated the effectiveness of French technology, as within a day France took a city with only 180 casualties while Prussia suffered 902. The next day, Prussia declared war on France, and Austrians began to invade Silesia. With 2 weeks, Austrians entered Breslau and French entered Hamburg. Entire Prussian cities had been burnt to the ground and the Prussian army had no method to fight back. Notably, incendiary bombs were used to destroy farmland and deliberately starve the population and the army. Within 3 months, the French were on the edge of Berlin. The Battle of Berlin was marked by immense civilian casualties, as a result of indiscriminate combing and French soldiers rode tanks into the streets, firing automatic rifles or machine guns into houses to root out enemy soldiers. It was also the first use of paratroopers in warfare, as 300 French paratroopers descended from C-130 Hercules aircraft and caused confusion by going behind enemy lines. The Prussians became desperate, often sending children with only stones or knives against French soldiers equipped with automatic rifles, with predictable results. Prussian soldiers often found that their weapons could not penetrate the French tanks. On August 31, 1866, Prussia finally surrendered. After the Franco-Prussian-Austrian War, the Treaty of Calais was signed, with the following terms. 1. Prussia abandons all territorial claims to Silesia, Schleswig, Holstein and Rhineland. Silesia and Holstein become Austrian, Schleswig becomes Danish, and Rhineland becomes French. 2. Prussia pays Francs the value of 5 billion marks. 3. Austrian and French soldiers can remain in Prussia until the payment of reparations is finished. 4. Prisoners of war are returned to their respective countries. The War of 1866 resulted in 49,334 French casualties, 58,076 Austrian casualties and ~175,000 Prussian casualties. We can estimate half a million civilian casualties, including from starvation after the war caused by bombing of farmland and industrial centres. The war was cheered on in France as an example of France successfully dominating its historical opponent and reasserting its rightful position as the dominant European power, providing strong support to the Imperial government. Austrian reaction was less enthusiastic as many wanted to stay out of the war, but most were grateful that Prussia no longer posed a threat to Austria. Prussia was utterly humiliated and most of its people were starving and unemployed. Kaiser Wilhelm, who started the war by initiating a dispute over Holstein, was forever remembered as the fool who ruined the possibility of German unification through reckless aggression, and brutally crushed opposition to the monarchy in the aftermath of the war. Prussia and Britain agreed to sign an alliance, both fearing a dominant France. Belgium and the Netherlands mobilised their armies, fearing invasion by France if Napoleon III continued his expansionist warmongering path. Recording of a conversation held in a basement of Evreux Facility, January 10 1867 1: We have been too reckless. A million people have died so far in pursuit of French domination of Mexico, the Confederacy and Prussia. The world so far is not used to this level of carnage. 2: Providing our developments in medicine, printing, transportation, industrial goods, agriculture, etc has vastly increased the standard of living for Frenchmen. 1: And everyone else? They have received only the worst of these developments, German mobs being slaughtered before machine guns like grass to a scythe, napalm burning alive Mexican children, French soldiers protecting the barbaric system of slavery in the Confederacy while expected to denounce it at home? 2: I do not believe that the French soldiers are as reckless as you claim. You forget that civilisation has been brought to Mexicans, they have air conditioning now and treatment for most tropical diseases such as malaria. They should be grateful that we were able to provide them with help, they only fight us because they do not know anything else other than to fight. 1: Do they want our "civilisation?" 2: They do not know enough to know what they want. That is why we are here to educate them. 1: What lets you make such a decision? 2: Because we are a more advanced people. We have many inventions, let's say, which are only being spread to help the world at this time. 1: You refuse to consider any negative impacts of your rash decision to spread lethal weapons to a people which cannot understand the implications. 2: Alfred, these impacts, that you mention, are outweighed by the increase in quality of life that we created. Millions of people have been alleviated from poverty thanks to our phosphate fertilizers. 1: And a million have died from bullets which you showed Napoleon III how to make. Was it impossible to spread air conditioning without spreading nuclear weapons? 2: I won't deny that there are a few bad apples among the French government who are using these benefits for unapproved purposes. Civilisation is a package deal, you can't pick and choose. 1: A few bad apples? To say there are a few bad apples is ridiculous when the new weapons of France were used to subjugate Mexico, the United States and Prussia, and now looking toward Belgium and the Netherlands. They never will stop expanding. They have committed genocide against Germany, and we gave them the planes to do it. Perhaps it was better we had just left them alone. 2: This "genocide against Germany" is a raindrop when compared to the ocean of blood that a united Germany could open if it were left alone to conquer Europe. A few can die today so a million do not die tomorrow. 1: You do not know what will happen tomorrow, all you know is that you fucked around today. 2: We did not "fuck around" with the world. We provided generous benefits to the French Empire with the intention of improving its standard of living and that of the world as a whole. 1: Seldom has history seen such a dominant, unilateral power astride the international scene. We see the Spanish and Mongol Empires as examples. When such a power finds areas which are relatively unarmed, the results are bleak and depressing for all the conquered people. 2: And here we have offered a chance for change! 1: Napoleon III saw this "chance for change" and conquered Mexico and the Rhineland and carved out from the United States, a slave power determined only to crush the African population. The world as a whole is not benefitting, only the elite minority loyal to Napoleon III. Sound of paper shuffling, followed by quick footsteps running away. 2: You can't take those papers with you! Those are important. Man killed by sniper, found to have French secret information, Published in The Times on January 14, 1867 Jeffery Josephson was born in 1838, in the northern French town of Rouen, the son of a farmer. He had been visiting Oxford as a tourist when he was shot and killed by a sniper at the entrance to the Malmaison hotel. The perpetrator has not been found at this time, but is suspected to be an agent of the French government. Policemen arriving to investigate the incident have found Josephson to have a stack of papers in his jacket, with highly classified information, such as information about artillery, automobiles, automatic firearms, radar, sonar, and jet propulsion engines previously only manufactured by the French government, and quickly turned over the papers to London. It is believed these inventions require a vast amount of resources to design and produce. Government figures have not made public comments on any specific details, but Gladstone has claimed the information is "highly precise and important". The French government has demanded that Britain return the papers with out viewing them, but this demand has been rejected. Tensions are rising between Britain and its traditional enemy, since France conquered the Rhineland it has been growing in power. Excerpt from The War of the Eight Coalition by Geoffrey Wawro The blood had hardly dried from the streets of Berlin when an alliance was signed between Prussia and the United Kingdom. The unseen devastation in Prussia created a sense of despair and hopelessness, which the Kaiser hoped to alleviate by fighting alongside Britain, hoping that victory would come this time. Instead of making an economic recovery, Prussia simply put all of its focus on its military, forcing children and criminals alike into the increasingly disorganised and unprofessional Prussian army. The people largely wished simply to live and be left alone, no longer interested in the grand German nationalist schemes that had caused so much devastation and failure. The United Kingdom, on the other hand, considered itself an exceptionally industrialised nation, with the best navy constantly protecting it from invasion and using its power to prevent any one European power from being strong enough to invade it. Now, another Napoleon was in command, and he seemed to have the exact same scheme as his uncle, conquering France's natural borders. Fearing any future French expansion, Britain and Belgium agreed that Britain could deploy a military force into Belgium in order to protect its neutrality and sovereignty. Napoleon III wanted to restore the borders of France that Napoleon I had established, which included Belgium, and the Josephson Affair convinced him that he had to act fast before France's technological advantage faded away. He quickly demanded that Britain withdraw its army from Belgium within 72 hours. Gladstone, was sure that, even if Prussia would defeat France alone, believed it could if Britain blockaded France and attacked the colonies. He refused the ultimatum and the French Empire declared war on the United Kingdom on January 30, 1867. The French invasion of Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium was a quick affair. The ancient fortresses that the three nations had depended on for millennia turned out to be utterly defenceless in the face of aerial bombing. Luxembourg's small army, which numbered under 400, did not resist, and on January 30, 1867, Luxembourg was annexed by France. Belgium was essentially surrounded, and French soldiers and tanks entered from the south and the east. Belgium was an easy conquest for France, and within three weeks Belgium surrendered, with 50,000 British soldiers encircled and taken prisoner. The Dutch were similarly helpless when France used aircraft and tanks against them, and fell without significant resistance. Willem III of the Netherlands and Luxembourg fled to London, while Leopold II of the Belgians was killed in the French invasion. The death of Leopold II led him to become a famous martyr among Belgian diaspora communities, and he is generally perceived as an innocent figure who died valiantly for his country. The Dutch Caribbean and East Indies went to France without significant resistance, as well. Prussian attempts to gain the Rhineland failed as the French defensive line, with trenches and machine guns, proved impenetrable. The British attempts to blockade France were easily defeated by superior French firepower. British Honduras was taken in 6 days by the Mexican Empire, which, alongside the Confederacy, declared war on the United Kingdom after the Netherlands fell. On February 14, a Dassault Rafale carrying a 300kt thermonuclear warhead was sent to nuke Edinburgh, resulting in 5,000,000 immediate civilian casualties, and a loss of a large portion of British industry. Additionally, French began bombing British industries, which they thought had been helping the war effort and British farms and all ships going to Britain, with the intention of starving it. Britain had no possible way to retaliate against aircraft. Gladstone was then provided with a peace offer, to recognise French control over Rhineland, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, Mexican control over British Honduras and the war would end right there, with the British Empire mostly intact. Or, he could have honoured his earlier promises and remained defiant, despite literally having no possible way to win this war. Would he accept the peace offer? Excerpt from The Third Carlist War by Louis Albert Fragmented by the war, Spain throughout the 19th century was destabilised as different political parties fought for control. After the fruitless Chincha Islands War and rising independence tensions with Cuba and the Philippines, the Glorious Revolution deposed Isabella II, and ushered the First Spanish Republic into power. Napoleon III could not accept the possibility that a popular revolution could depose the monarchy, feating it could set a precedent wihtin France. However, no political force was willing to restore Isabella, so he turned to the Carlists. Making a secret deal with Carlos VII, he agreed to cede Catalonia and the Philippines to France and Cuba to the Confederacy in exchange for French military support in gaining the position of King of Spain. The army's organisation was most effective, as they could be resupplied from the air and by supply trucks and the French troops' loyalty was certain as they had been vindicated by victories against Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Mexico, the United States, Prussia and the United Kingdom. The medieval-era forts around Spain were quickly demolished by aerial bombing, and France found sympathy among Catalonians for their annexation, hoping to bring increased tolerance of the Catalan language and benefits of modern technology and agriculture. Reconnaissance and air support to units on the ground proved critical to Carlist victory. Madrid had been captured within 16 days of the French invasion, and by 1870 the Liberals and Republicans had been militarily defeated or unwilling to fight anymore. Many surrendered due to the fear tahat if they kept resisting, they would face certain death without accomplishing much. Plus, many were more interested in having modern food products. Overall, Napoleon III had a far easier time invading Spain than his father had, with the Carlist forces sweeping over the competition. However, the issue of Catalonia became an open sore that prevented Carlos VII and Napoleon III from ever completely trusting each other, which would play a key role in future tensions. Diary of a Confederate by Nate Harlow As a result of the war in Europe, Spain had become so weakened that it could no longer retain its colonies, and was kind enough to grant us Cuba, a rich island south of Confederate Florida. All our officers said the Cubans harbored a great deal of discontent towards the Spanish Government, due to years of manipulation on the part of the Spanish. We were told that our presence in Cuba was justifiable, we were told we would be welcomed with flowers. The prospect of getting the Confederate States involved would result in a freer Cuba. I'll be damned if I knew why everyone thought that was a good idea. The second our Eurocopter Cougar landed in Havana, we already saw that the city had been all but destroyed. Houses, hospitals, libraries and school were indistinguishable in the ashes. Confederate soldiers who began killing innocent negro men and women in the streets with machine guns never were punished. I'd estimate about half the negro Cuban slaves had been killed by the Confederates. All the Cuban civilians I met were furious that we had destroyed their hopes of independence that we thought they had. Resistance sprang across the mountains, but the poor bastards never stood a chance against our attack helicopters and drones that could see them from the sky. They had a lot of men willing to die to fight us, but the best gun the Cuban resistance ever had was muskets, taking a minute to reload each shot while we could fire ten rounds a second with our AK-47 rifles that France so generously provided. Our navy and air force attacked all the ships going into Cuba without even asking who it was, which embarrassingly led to accidents where we fired on our own troop transport vessels. Most of the Spanish fled when they saw what was coming, but those who stayed had been hanged en masse by our soldiers. The goals of the Confederacy, to establish justice and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, were completely mocked by the actions of President Lee in his brash decision to conquer Cuba. Clearly, the man who once believed in honourable traditions has fallen into the same power trap as Napoleon III. I fear the Confederacy will be just as brutal as Napoleon's French Empire if we cannot contain our anger. I cannot in good conscience participate in such atrocities. Pray the Lord has mercy and that He will save these people and put an end to the war. Excerpt from The War of the Eight Coalition by Geoffrey Wawro "Gentlemen, the chill down my back has little to do with the rainy weather of London. I must admit that since the slaugher of Ediburgh, the tide of the war has developed in a direction which is unfavourable toward the interests of the United Kingdom. Recognising that the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium and British Honduras have already fallen, and recognising that as Edinburgh has been annihilated, it is no longer reasonable to continue the war against France. We see no progress in this war, and only the annihilation of the British people will occur if we continue our involvement in this Continental affair. The United Kingdom has no reasonable option but to accept the terms which have been outlined by Napoleon III, and that's the sad and sorry truth. May the powers above grant mercy upon our people, and let us pray that never again may we fall victim to such atrocities." Gladstone's London Speech, which was the first speech in the United Kingdom to have been publically viewed on radios, and contributed to widespread dissent among Gladstone. He had initiated and lost a war against France, in the process losing over five million Scottish civilians within a day, and having lost Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands through military incompetence. Modern historians now know that it was literally impossible for Britain to have won against France, no matter plans they used, thanks to French technological superiority, but the people at the time did not. After Churchill's speech the House divided. There was then a vote of confidence against Gladstone, which resulted in 520-61 against, as many members of his own party, after seeing the carnage of Edinburgh, did not vote in favour. On 21 December 1868, the war between France and Great Britain ended, and on New Years' Eve, Gladstone went to Buckingham Palace to resign and was succeeded by Disraeli. After Britain surrendered, France now moved into southern German states, occupying Bavaria, Prussian Province of Hohenzollern, Wurttenbemberg and Baden. These were united into the South German Kingdom, under the leadership of Napoleon III's son, Napoleon, Prince Imperial, with the understanding that when Napoleon III retired, his son would control both the French Empire and southern Germany. Prussia, despite being at war for almost 2 years, made no gains and its people only suffered further, it ultimately surrendered with the only significant change being ceding Hozenhollern. Excerpt from A brief history of Hawaii 300AD ~ 1900 by Dante Han Kamehameha V (1830–1872), born as Lot Kapuāiwa, reigned as the fifth and last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1863 to 1872. He was described as the last great traditional chief, who was placed in an irrecoverable position. Despite having recognised Hawaiian independence in the Anglo-Franco Proclamation of 1843, France began turning to the Pacific after the Great French War ended. Eager to gain control over the strategic region, Napoleon III presented Kamehameha V with an ultimatum in 1869 ordering the sultan to board the French flagship or Honolulu would be bombarded. Knowing that resistance would fail as seen in the Low Countries, he had no choice. Publicly humiliated, his authority was irreversibly damaged. The French allowed him to retain his position as King, but he lost all power. The French colonisation of Hawaii brought many new infrastructure projects, primarily military airports such as Jean Baptiste Kleber Air Base in Wahiawa, but also civilian airports which increased tourism. Medications for tropical diseases were introduced. Settlers and tourists from Francs began moving into Hawaii quickly and buying the sugar plantations, forming the richest group. Migrant workers from French East Indies and the French Philippines also moved in, but remained impoverished and confined to poorer ethnically homogeneous neighbourhoods, where crime was common. Discrimination soon became common as, by the infamous Wahiawa Code, only French citizens and their descendants were allowed to own businesses or serve in the government, judiciary and police. Additionally, any press articles mentioning independence were censored. Protests and riots were common, but all failed to remove the French administration. Excerpt from The Final Years of Napoleon III by Michele Cunningham The 1860’s were known as the “Decade of Success” in French culture. The automobile, plane and radio made French life more convenient and phosphate fertilisers and tractors allowed more to settle in cities and decreased the number of farmers. After the Great French War (aka the War of the Eighth Coalition) France had overwhelmed all of its enemies, Spain, Prussia and Britain, and hardly been harmed in the process. France was a global empire from Honolulu to Amsterdam to Mexico City. France was now clearly the dominant European military, political and economic power, and its people enjoyed an unprecedented standard of living. Patriotic demonstrations in the streets of Paris were common as the people celebrated the Emperor for each military victory. However, the price of French domination was paid by the rest of Europe. French success came only from using its new weapons and technologies to cruelly starve or massacre millions of people. Notable incidents are that five million Briton civilians died from the nuking of Edinburgh in 1867 and half a million Prussian civilians died from French bombing and massacres in 1866. Any institutions suspected of supporting nationalism were suppressed, often forcibly. Dutch Protestant Churches were disbanded. All Napoleonic principles of equality were abandoned as the French culture was prioritised and enforced upon all nations it deemed within its “natural borders”. Through the 1860s, the health of the Emperor steadily worsened. Some modern historians attribute his health to making strange decisions. Ultimately, he died on 9 January 1873, to be succeeded by his son Napoleon IV as Emperor of France. Napoleon III is considered among the most important figures of the 19th century. He is remembered favorably among Frenchmen today as a victorious wartime leader who reestablished French global supremacy. On the other hand, the rest of Europe sees him as responsible for mass repression of social liberties and millions of deaths from warfare, starvation, executions and nuclear bombing. Excerpt from Biography of Emperor Napoleon IV published in Encyclopædia Britannica Born in 1856, Napoleon IV was just 17 years old upon his coronation as Emperor of France and King of South Germany. He had certainly thought of becoming Emperor before, but never thought it would come this early. He thought that he should earn his crown by military prestige, and to that end he initiated many successful wars which greatly expanded the French Empire. He created a vast cult of personality, comparable to Napoleon I, making thousands of statues which featured him as "the great French nationalist". His rule placed priority on French nationalist ideas, and was marked by active suppression of foreign cultures, contrasting with his predecessors, who sought to work alongside other cultures within the Empire. The ideas of "Liberty, equality, fraternity" were quickly replaced by "French supremacy on this Earth". Censorship and harsh repressive measures were used against all opposed to his rule, with mass executions becoming common. By the end of his reign..., he had made for France the largest empire since the Mongols, having conquered almost the entire African Continent and Southeast Asia, with the harshest level of brutality. ... The following speech was given after his coronation at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, which is the same place where his grand-uncle Napoleon I was coronated. It is for the first time that I have taken the crown of my Grand-Uncle Napoleon I with honour. I will go beyond his vast legacy not only to ensure France is a great power, but to ensure that France is the greatest power. We were occupied and had a foreign monarchy forced upon us once, deprived of our New World colonies by the British Empire. But we were a strong nation and we rose up against the British. And now we have destroyed all British strength. While Napoleon I may have been incapable of hitting anything in England, we not only bombed them, we nuked Edinburg and ensured that they faced the consequences for their vain attempt to stop us. French planes and tanks terrify all opposition, all those who dreamed of crushing France, of reducing France cities to ashes, all are far less outspoken now that is their cities which have been destroyed. Our inventions grant us the speed and brutality we need to ensure France remains a glorious state. We will remove any force which could prevent the French Empire from obtaining the supreme position on this Earth. As the Emperor of France, I will take every measure possible to assert the Imperial authority everywhere. It is the French soldiers who know war and are willing to kill to preserve the French Empire who are paying the sacrifice which the French people need. We will exceed the natural borders, France will go beyond every border drawn on the map, we will exceed every expectation set upon us. The French Revolution lives on, and the French Revolution is great. Long Live France! Excerpt from A Concise History of the Netherlands by James Kennedy On 16 June 1875, Dutch nationalists organized a demonstration in front of the Amsterdam Police headquarters in order to demand the reintroduction of the Dutch language in education and independence from France. The governor-general of the French Holland, Louis-Jules Trochu, ordered the leaders arrested, and the crowd protested. He then ordered that the Amsterdam Police fire upon the crowd with machine guns, and disposed of the bodies in the Amstel River. The number of dead is in dispute, however it is estimated to be at least 100. Resentment generated by the Amsterdam Massacre ultimately led to a resurgence in Dutch nationalist sentiment. In the aftermath, French military presence in the Netherlands was increased to 30,000 men, and mass deportation of Dutchmen from the Netherlands to French Guiana. The whole story was never allowed to appear in the press or any other French mass media and remained classified. No one was prosecuted for participation in the killings, and no successive French government acknowledged that the massacre occurred. Amsterdam Massacre, anon The French administration was boasting about killing Dutch civilians ever since the country was invaded 5 or so years ago. What happened on 16 June 1875 was unsurprising considering the irrational and abnormal fear of the Dutch held by the French people. Among the hundreds of demonstrators massed in Amsterdam, only a few would have voluntary arrived if they knew they would be killed. They came with no weapons and only sought to speak their own language in their own community. But now that they already have been slaughtered, we can expect much more intense resistance against the occupation. If the Revolutionary Ideals of "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" ever withstood the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte, by now those ideals have now been completely replaced by the same French colonial domination characteristic of the Bourbon Kings. I fear that French society has been so overcome with a desire for reckless slaughter that it fails to consider any implication to its actions. The indisputable facts are that France only seeks to expand further, and that it will slaughter millions more if it wants to and that there is nothing anyone can do to stop it. The French Empire will be no different than the Spanish or Mongol Empires which murdered millions in pursuit of a place in the sun.