Hopefully, this will become a timeline to encompass all of the little ideas I have for the early 20th century! Mainly, these will consist of A) more widespread American intervention in South American in the vein of the Second Mexican-American War, B) a much more widespread socialist revolution in Europe and Russia, leading to the creation of a new world power, the Eurasian Social League.

Also, I am looking for a new kind of superweapon to feature in this XX Century ATL, akin to nuclear weapons in OTL and 'Ritz Force Cannons' in Puttin' on the Ritz. I could go with maybe just some kind of genius introducing rockets much earlier, leading rockets to be a legitimate weapon by WWII era, or some such. Its open to debate.

As to why I am going to call it Grippenberg... Well, its the Point-Of-Departure.

The Russo-Japanese War
The Russians had lost. Again, and again, and again. Who would have thought the Japanese could have put up such a fight? Not Kuropatkin. The cautious general was far too conserved for fighting with such an aggressive, clever-witted enemy. Still, much of the victory Japan had earned had done so through the lack of good choices on part of Russias, and a slightly inordinate amount of good luck.

There was one ardent flame, among others, whose potential had been curbed. The deaf and inexperienced General Oskar-Ferdinand Kazimirovich Grippenberg, who had just newly arrived to command the Russian Second Army. Having heard of the fall of Port Arthur, he felt it was imperative to drive the Japanese back to Korea before General Nogi could join the front.

The Battle of Heikoutai
January 25th - Grasping that the Japanese left wing was in an exposed northern position, Grippenberg planned and executed an attack with the Russian 2nd Manchurian Army near the small village of Heikoutai. The Japanese, settled in their winter's quarters, were completely surprised. The Japanese chain of command lost coherence, some of their forces fell into chaos, although individual units put up fierce resistance. Nevertheless, local blizzards forced the Russians into a disadvantage.

On another world, Kuropatkin, jealous of Grippenberg's success, and far too cautious and hesitant to allow such a risky move, would order the attack to stop on the 29th of January. The advancing Russian soldiers had extremely high morale, knowing that they were winning. It was an illogical move. Grippenberg gave up his post immediately and moved back to Moscow.

January 29th - Kuropatkin never orders Grippenberg to stop. He continues his rampage.

January 31st - Grippenberg makes extremely good headway, advancing far enough that the frantic Oku Yasukata orders a retreat to Liaoyang, the continuing winter hindering their retreat. Grippenberg attempts to forge onward, but is stopped by Kuropatkin. The Battle of Heikoutai is the first land battle the Russians have won, and extremely good on paper. Kuropatkin is nevertheless jealous and feels slighted by the deaf, fresh-from-the-city Grippenberg.

The Battle of Heikoutai would result in the Japanese taking 16,500 casualties; killed, wounded or captured. The Russians would suffer a strangely very similiar number, 16,800 casualties, killed, wounded, or captured. This is very unlike many of the other battles in which the Russians always took much heavier losses.

Now, Grippenberg and Kuropatkin fight for who is allowed a say in the next step of the campaign. Gripperberg advocates that they rush Liaoyang, to retake the city and continue down the peninsula so as to hold the forces of General Nogi from regrouping. Kuropatkin was disdainful and believed that the winter would drain all the energy from the soldiers.

Still, Grippenberg had just proven himself with the first battle won by Russia in the war. Kuropatkin was eventually persuaded to allow Grippenberg the attempt, with more than two weeks of preparation, largely ignoring Grippenberg's desire to attack as soon as possible to catch the Japanese off guard.

With 260,000 men and 450 guns, Grippenberg led the Russian Army towards Liaoyang, sixty miles away.

The Second Battle of Liaoyang
February 14th - Unlike Kuropatkin, Grippenberg was fresh enough to not accept defeat before he was sure. So many other battles in the campaign had been inconclusive because Kuropatkin had not given it that next drop in the battle to finish the deed. Nevertheless, Grippenberg was not allowed to attack as early as he desired, nor did he have as many men as he wished.

However, an important facet of this battle was that General Nogi had been stalled on his way up to join the rest of the Japanese Army. He was only two days away.

The Russians, marching with great morale, met the Japanese outside of Liaoyang when they had only little warning. Liaoyang was a devestated city from earlier battles, and provided little advantage for the Japanese. For the first day it seemed that the Russians would win quickly, however, the Japanese recouped, and for the next two days there was a bloody stalemate, morale falling on both sides (but mostly for the Japanese). However, Grippenberg would not end.

Then came General Nogi's group. The battle had lasted too long. However, General Nogi's men were tired and low on resources, nevermind half-frozen. They came to lines filled with terrified Japanese soldiers. Morale pitfalled. Grippenberg did not yield, despite a similiar pitfall in morale due to more soldiers appearing amongst the Japanese.

February 20th - The order comes from Kuropatkin to retreat after hearing of losses. Grippenberg has no desire to turn back, fearing that one more loss is all it would take to lose the war. He eagerly pushes on, and correctly applies pressure to the right flank, where a majority of Nogi's tired soldiers have been placed. The battle begins to turn. Kuropatkin gets no word back from the General at Liaoyang.

February 22st - General Nogi and the others declare a retreat from Liaoyang to reinforce themselves. Morale was so low that the Japanese soldiers in the trenches were submitting to hari-kari to die in honor. Nogi felt like he had no other choice. They would move to Haicheng. The Russian Army was victorious, taking the city of Liaoyang and sending optimistic letters back to Kuropatkin back in Mukden to move forces to defend the location and continue the advance. The issue of Grippenberg replying late was ignored in the news.

The Second Battle of Liaoyang was an incredibly bloody one considering the duration. The Japanese took 19,000 casualties, with the Russians absorbing 22,400 of their own. Still, the Russians now had two victories under their belts, all thanks to Grippenberg, the only two won in the Russo-Japanese War.

General Oyama Iwao was extremely flustered, seeing this as the turn of the tide. The Japanese were much more drawn out and wringed through than in OTL. He knew that strategically he should fight at all costs to decimate as much of the Russians as he can when the Rozhestvensky's fleet arrives. There is no time. The other generals beg for more time to prepare, their soldiers weary and, despite the distance they are into Manchuria, suffering from low morale. Oyama decides to build up and prepare for a mass attack against the Russians. He wishes to draw them into Mukden, but must first get rid of the sundered city of Liaoyang standing in the way.

The Third Battle of Liaoyang
The rivalry between Kuropatkin and this new successful general is heating up. While there are many casualties, Kuropatkin has seen much worse, and has not made one victory. The government in Moscow has even been questioning whether more authority should be given to this new general, Grippenberg. As such, it is expected when Kuropatkin keeps a significant number of troops in Mukden, coming to critical acclaim with Grippenberg and his army, who argue against the splitting of forces immensely. Furthermore, many artillery pieces were kept in Mukden. Grippenberg continued to urge Kuropatkin into pushing forward into Korea, ignoring the casualties. He greatly desired an assault on Haicheng. Kuropatkin countered in that the Japanese did not have any easily accessible recruits, and that they should wait until their numbers increased with new eastern blood.

Thus, the Japanese armies under General Oyama find weakened defenses. Liaoyang hadn't necessarily been very defensible from the start, being extremely devestated.

March 9th - The Japanese with 175,000 soldiers meet the Russian lines with 245,000 defending. They are bringing a significant amount of artillery pieces. Both sides suffer from a slight streak of bad morale: the Japanese have suffered two important defeats at the hands of the new General Grippenberg, while the Russians were at the hands of a man who was known for pushing men at the enemy for as long as it took to win victory.

The two forces smash into each other. Somewhat encircled and unwilling to give up territory, weapons, or artillery with a retreat, Grippenberg stays for a long ten days of seige, before a large force comes down from Mukden, reinforcing the lines immensely and bringing in new supplies. Kuropatkin assumes control and is able to find a weak section on the left flank, and after a long artillery blast breaks Japanese lines. Oyama stays for four more days, before declaring a general retreat.

March 25th - The battle ends. Kuropatkin orders the Russian army to fall back onto Mukden, largely abandoning the ruined city, which would be consequently taken over by the Chinese. The Japanese would claim it a few days later.

Both sides needed a lot of time to lick their wounds. The Russians had taken 49,200 killed, wounded, or captured. The Japanese suffered 37,400 similiar casualties. However, their objective had been fulfilled. The Russians had put all of their soldiers in Mukden, only one battle could claim the war.
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Is it supposed to be "The only win" or "the only one" in the last sentence?

I would say that this is a good start; perhaps more details are needed in this POD on if TTL's Grippenberg is of OTL or a creation...

I await more ripples...


The Russians were back in the city of Mukden.

However, the Japanese had been devestated. Though the Russians had taken far more casualties, the Japanese had been weary and drawn thin since the start. Russian soldiers continued to arrive from the railway, while Japanese soldiers were forced to conserve their numbers.

Furthermore, the Chinese seemed to have caught wind that the Russians were recouping. They knew the Japanese were in a precarious position. Seeing the Russians as the victor, many switched sides. Of those who didn't, only a small minority remained with the Japanese, the rest seemed caught between the decision, and quite apathetic.

General Oyama knew that he was in a situation that could not be made right easily. But the Russians had been driven from Liaoyang once more, the climate was getting favorable towards battle. Furthermore, he was encouraged by what he called the natural cowardice of the Russians and their commander, Kuropatkin. He knew that the longer he waited, the chances against the Russians grew slim. Oyama thus prepared for an invasion of Mukden to decimate the Russians.

The Battle of Mukden
The Japanese underestimated the build up of the Russians. Recruits had come strong and steady into the eastern theatre. Perhaps 236,000 Russian soldiers were fortified in Mukden, recouping half of all those lost since the start of the year. In contrast, General Oyama was only confident in taking near 141,000 Japanese soldiers to take the city. He seemed to doubt himself, making extensive preparations for a retreat, and even went into discussions with the Emperor himself to allow for a retreat back to the Yalu River if they failed to attain a decimation of the Russians at the city. In comparison to OTL, where the Japanese took Mukden with an army 70% the size of the Russians, the Japanese now had 60% of an army, and had lost much support from the local Chinese.

May 6th – Oyama directs four armies to encircle the city of Mukden in a crescent shape, much similar to OTL. However, the diversionary 5th Army is not created, due to a perception of fewer forces, and is placed with the Third Army at the front. They smash into Russian lines south of the city.

May 7th – General Kuropatkin, ignoring Grippenberg’s suggestions, decides to switch many of the forces from the east to counter attack General Nogi’s attack on the western flank. This switch between the east and the west lends towards chaos amongst the troops. Oyama sees this as his chance and orders his soldiers to ‘pursue and destroy’ at all costs at the front lines.

May 9th – Reeling from the Japanese attack, the Russians nevertheless have too much of a numerical advantage. Their defenses hold, though morale is fading fast with the Russians, while the Japanese believe that the impossible may be achieved.

May 13th – General Nikolai Linievich is able to attain a breakthrough with a massive surge on the eastern flank, despite having less troops to afford. However, they are turned back to their lines with a Japanese counterattack.

May 17th – Kuropatkin drastically shifts all of his armies in the lines to counter certain Japanese strengths on the lines. The Russian army, once again, does not take the shift well. Nogi again orders a surge, but now on the eastern flank, owing to a large loss of territory.

May 19th – Grippenberg takes advantage of both the Japanese confusion on the reshuffling of Russian forces, and the fact that they were concentrating their meager forces towards the east. His offensive creates a breakthrough. The tired, outnumbered Japanese lose their one advantage, that of astounding morale that they might destroy the Russian giant.

May 22nd – Oyama orders a retreat. The Russians have inflicted too many casualties. He also begins to formulate orders to retreat to the Yalu River.

May 23rd – The Russians attempt to chase the Japanese for a few miles, then are ordered back by Kuropatkin. All quiet on the front of Mukden.

The Japanese threw all of their forces on this one city. However, the famous Russian advantage reared its ugly head: they had the power of numbers. While the Japanese were able to orchestrate a couple of devastating maneuvers, the Russians held against them anyway.

The results of the battle were crushing. 11,383 Japanese soldiers were killed, with 36,000 wounded. Also, during the retreat, as many as 6,000 Japanese soldiers were captured. The Russians were hit hard as well, with 12,900 Russians killed and 31,400 wounded. The Japanese presence on the mainland was severely diminished.

Though little would come of it, Supreme Commander Kuropatkin would recognize his shortcomings during the battle and admit to his weakness leading the Imperial Russian Army during the Russo-Japanese War. He would apologize to General Grippenberg for doubting his superiority. He then switched places with Grippenberg, leading the Russian Second Army while given Grippenberg the title of Supreme Commander.

The Battle of Tsushima, May 27th
The Russian Baltic Fleet finally arrives at the door of the Sea of Japan. After the Russian Pacific Fleet had been dispersed at the Battle of Shantung in 1904, it was up to the ships all the way in the Baltic to come to the rescue. They sailed through the North Sea, proceeded around Africa and Indochina, and finally arrived off the coast of China. It was a long and arduous journey, and morale was low.

With knowledge that Port Arthur had fallen, Commander Rozhdestvenski decided to take the Tsushima Strait towards Vladivostok. Admiral Togo of the Japanese Combined Fleet expected such a move.

The two fleets met soon after the Russians entered Tsushima. Admiral Togo gained the advantage of surprise by following the Russians from the South. Superior Japanese gunners ripped apart the older Baltic Fleet. By “crossing the T” twice, the Japanese gained a considerable advantage. The battleships Knyaz’ Suvorov, Oslyabya, Emperor Alexander III, and Borodinowere lost in the first day of the battle. However, the Japanese Mikasa is also hit and sunk.

At night, Japanese torpedo boats and destroyers were thrown against the Russian fleet. Navarin was sunk, while the battleship Sisoy Veliki and the old armoured cruiser Vladimir Monomakh were damaged and had to be scuttled.

May 28th
Commander Rozhdestvenski signals “XGE” to the Japanese, which marks surrender.

In the aftermath, there was some luck. Three Russian protector cruisers, including the Aurora, escaped to the US naval base at Manila. The fast armed yacht Almaz and three destroyers made it through to Vladivostok. The old cruiser Dmitri Donskoy fought against five Japanese cruisers, severely damaged one, and survived for two more days on the ocean until she arrived in Vladivostok.

Nearly the entire Russian Baltic fleet was lost in this battle. The Japanese lost only four (4) torpedo boats and the Mikasa.

The Japanese had their final naval victory. No more ships would come from Russia. They had completely devastated their power to wage war at sea. For this reason, back on the home islands, morale was high and joyous. However, Tokyo and Oyama agreed that they were not in a good position. The Russians had come to a point in which they could steamroll over opposition on the mainland, down the Liaoyang Peninsula or maybe even into Korea. By the time Tsushima was done, the entire Japanese Army had been relocated along the Yalu River, with a smaller force covering the bottleneck towards Port Arthur. They were digging in for a semi-permanent defense.

Tokyo was angry. They could get the drafts rolling into high gear, or they could transfer naval forces into groundpounders, both which would take some time for training. The war was becoming costly. And, the Russians had more men coming by rail every month. It was a precarious position. Japan did not want to lose Korea.

So, Tokyo sent feelers for peace into Moscow. The Tsar was facing revolutions at home and unrest across the country, and did not want to invest more forces into the Asian theatre. He agrees to an armistice. The US President Theodore Roosevelt offers to mediate, and so diplomats of both sides leave for Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

The Treaty of Portsmouth, September 14th
September 14th – Japanese and Russian diplomats agreed to a draw in the war they had fought between 1904 and 1905. They compromised a treaty that they felt made concessions to both sides. Neither of the powers felt like they had been treated fairly, however, and both believed the other to have slighted them.

1. Japan to recognize the Russian claims of suzerainty over Manchuria.
2. Russia to recognize the Japanese claims of suzerainty over the Korean Peninsula, south of the 40th parallel and not the Yalu River boundary.
3. The twenty-five lease of Port Arthur would be ceded to Japan. However, the lease of Talien and the rest of the Liaodong Peninsula would remain with the Russians. The Liaodong Peninsula would be demilitarized.
4. The Russians would keep the Island of Sakhalin, though it would be entirely demilitarized.
5. Neither the Empire of Russia nor the Empire of Japan would have to admit responsibility for the war.

So the Russo-Japanese War would come to an end, at a draw. Both sides got something of what they wanted, namely suzerainty over their respected territories and an agreement to not squabble over pieces of China. However, it would have drastic effects on both nations for years to come. Those that perished for the sake of these results are as listed: 95,000+ KIA and 205,000+ MIA for Russia; with 55,000+ KIA and 254,000+ MIA for Japan. As many as half of a million soldiers were lost for the sake of this conflict.

As for Supreme Commander Grippenberg, he returned to Moscow. He was 67 years old and had seen a major war launch him to the highest position he could hope for. Grippenberg mildly gave up the job and retired to St. Petersburg.

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It seems the Russians do a little better, but assuming WWI runs similarly to OTL, it probably won't matter that much. Maybe later a resurgent Russia might reclaim Manchuria now it is officially recognized as a part of its zone of control?

And Korea above 40 North is spared the Japanese occupation, at least for now.


Well, yes, but I am a strong adherent to the butterfly effect, I have to admit. Even if you do not philosophy, ask yourself a few questions. The defeat of the Russians in the War of 94-95 forced Moscow to make drastic changes in its army. It also inspired the influential Russian Revolution of 1905. With news items coming directly from the front into the turbulent atmosphere of urban Russia, the idea of a Russian general (Grippenberg) that disobeyed a superior (Kuropatkin) and led his men to sweeping victories is very inspiring, and will change many attitudes and ideas during the Revolution and afterward.

After that, imagine Japan, even more slighted during the war. Though they creamed the Russians on the seas, all but crushed them on land, and worked themselves into a financial disaster by supporting the war, the Japanese were only rewarded recognition of Korea (and not even all of it) and tossed Port Arthur. The riots and disturbances in Japan are going to be horrible and furious.

FURTHERMORE, the fact is that Japan was not victorious. They did put up a huge fight and came very close, but in the history books, in this ATL, historians will report it as a draw, a tie. In OTL, Japan proved that Asians can beat Europeans, that Natives can beat the Civilized West. This was huge amongst all nationalist movements of the day, inspiring them against the imperialists.

The small change in the Russo-Japanese War from Japanese victory to a draw will be far-reaching. To summarize, I can see four effects right now: A) Change in Russian military, B) Change in Russian intelligentsia and revolutionaries, C) Much more violent and drastic riots in Japan, more loathing against Russia, the United States (for President Roosevelt slighting them), and generally tougher anti-Western feeling, and D) the slackening of native nationalist movements around the world.
So then the whole world is changed?

I await further details about political movements....although the military angle was really good & sound...


I really like to formulate military scenarios and campaigns, especially on land. :) I feel its cheating when someone just says, "The Russians beat the Japs at Mukden." You gotta go into detail!



January 2ndRusso-Japanese War: The Russian Army surrenders at Port Arthur, China, an event that shocks the world.
January 22ndMassacre of Russian demonstrators at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, one of the triggers of the abortive Russian Revolution of 1905.
January 25thRusso-Japanese War: General Grippenberg launches an offensive on Heikoutai, the Japanese there are thrown into total chaos.
January 29stPOD: Russo-Japanese War: Kuropatkin does not order Grippenberg to stop his attack on Heikoutai.
January 31st Russo-Japanese War: Grippenberg forces General Yasukata to order a retreat to Liaoyang after claiming victory in the Battle of Heikoutai, the first Russian victory.

February 14thRusso-Japanese War: Grippenberg heads the Second Battle of Liaoyang.
February 22ndRusso-Japanese War: Grippenberg drives the Japanese from Liaoyang, claiming victory.

March 4thTsar Nicholas II of Russia agrees to create an elected assembly, the Duma.
March 25thRusso-Japanese War: The Third Battle of Liaoyang ends, with the Japanese removing the Russians from the city.
March 31stGerman emperor William II asserts German equality with France in Morocco, triggering the Tangier (or First Moroccan) Crisis.

May 6thRusso-Japanese War: The Battle of Mukden begins with a last-ditch Japanese invasion of the Russian stronghold.
May 23rd Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Mukden ends with many losses on both sides, but also final repulsion of the Japanese from the city.
May 28th Russo-Japanese War: The Battle of Tsushima – The Japanese fleet under Admiral Heihachiro Togo devastates the Russian fleet under Admiral Rozhdestvenski in a two-day battle.

September 14thRusso-Japanese War: The Treaty of Portsmouth is signed in New Hampshire, a treaty mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt, signed between equal powers Japan and Russia. In the agreement, Russia and Japanese organize and affirm claims of suzerainty over parts of China, namely Manchuria and Korea. Russia cedes the lease of Port Arthur to Japan, and certain border areas are to be demilitarized.
September 15th - The Hibaya Riots: Activist groups are called to gather for a rally at Hibaya Park in Tokyo, when police close down the gates. The crowd swelled to 50,000, but still the police kept the gates closed. The crowd became riotous, and began a rampage across the city for five days. 85 percent of the police boxes in the city were destroyed, 43 people were killed, over 2,500 civilians and police were injured and close to 1,000 were arrested.

November 1st Tsar Nicholas II is forced to grant Russia’s first constitution, conceding a national assembly, the Duma, with limited powers.
November 15th - Prime Minister of Japan Katsura Taro resigns premiership to Prince Saionji Kinmochi and dissolves his cabinet.
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Tsar Nicholas begins to focus on the reform of the Russian military, in light of failing to achieve victory against Japan. A little bit more attention will be given into the naval aspect of the Imperial Russian military, seeing as it, when compared with the army in the Russo-Japanese War, did much worse.

April 18th – A 7.8 magnitude earthquake hits San Francisco on the San Andreas Fault, killing at least 4000. 300,000 left homeless. There is $400 million in damages.
April 26th – The Fundamental Laws are issued by the Tsar, contradicting the October Manifesto by stating that the Tsar’s ministers could not be appointed by the Duma, and that the Tsar has the power to dismiss the Duma and announce new elections whenever he wishes.
April 27th – Elections for the First Duma is held in Imperial Russia. The Trudoviki win 100 seats, the Constitutional Democratic (Kadet) party takes 178, the Octobrist Party takes 15, the Extreme Right takes 14, and 119 seats go to non-Russian nationalist groups.

July 9th Because of the Russo-Japanese War ending in a draw, the Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets) of Russia do not believe they have enough support to create a revolution. They do not go to Vyborg in Finland and announce the Vyborg Manifesto, which labeled the entire party as traitors amongst the government. The imprisonment of their leaders severely crippled their organization. They keep much of their strength.

November 12th – Russian Prime Minister Peter Stolypin introduces agrarian reforms aimed at creating a large class of land-owning peasants, which also galvanizes a move of peasants to settle Russian lands east of the Urals.


The Germans are not as confident with supremacy over the Russian army with the successes in the Russo-Japanese War. Helmuth von Moltke makes even more significant changes in moving more forces to the East from the West in the Schlieffen Plan, to even farther than the 70% / 30% split. Also, a general feeling among the German military during the current arms race favors more attention on armies and less on navies, only by a fraction, but it is notable.

March 11th - The Second Duma is opened in St. Petersburg Russia, and 40,000 demonstrators are dispersed by Russian troops. The Social Democratic Party gets 63 seats, the Socialist Revolutionaries 33, the Trudoviks 104, the Constitutional Democratic Party a plurality of 144, the Octobrist Party 29, and the Extreme Right 61.

March 16th - First Parliamentary Elections in Finland, first elections in Europe allowing universal sufferage, and the first in the world with women candidates.

June 3rd - Russian Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin dissolves the Second Duma. He also changes the weight of the votes to favor the nobility and the wealthy, reducing the value of lower class votes for the planned Third Duma.

July 19th - The Third Duma opens. The Social Democratic Party only gets 14 seats, the Trudoviks 14, the Progressives 37, the Constitutional Democratic Party 81, the Non-Russian National Groups 24, the Octobrist Party a plurality of 109, the Nationalists 87, and the Extreme Right 51.

Notable is the fact that the CDP is still in the game, and they are still officially republican, though a growing wing of their faction advocates a constitutional monarchy. The Octobrist Party, despite their advantage, have slightly less the amount of representation as in OTL. The Nationalists are also doing much better in this ATL, with no shame of the RJW to hinder their progress.

August 2nd - After surrounding the Korean Imperial Palace, five ministers sign treaties to allow for Korea to become a Protectorate of Japan.

August 29th - Russian Tsar Nicholas II puts pressure on the Japanese Emperor Meiji to answer where Russia stands with its Korean suzerainty in the new Japanese Protectorate. Russian emissaries are sent on the long trip towards the Korean peninsula to manage legalities.

September 5th - Formation of the Anglo-Russian Entente.

September 26th - New Zealand and Newfoundland become dominions.

November 21st - The Treaty of the Harbin Convention is signed between representatives of Russia, Korea, and Japan. The areas of Russian suzerainty in North Korea were to be ceded to the Russian Empire with generous autonomy, to be named the Grand Duchy of Northern Korea. The Emperor of Russia would rule as the Grand Duke of Northern Korea, and would be represented by a Governor-General. However, northern Korea would lack a Senate, Diet, or any parliamentary body. It also confirmed the Japanese Protectorate of Korea as a body.

This action would also cause Tsar Nicholas II to look more into matters in Manchuria, to tighten Russia's hold over the territory after the headway made in Northern Korea.

Undated - The Herero Wars end in German South-West Africa (OTL Namibia).
Blue means "same as OTL", red means "different than OTL", right?

I prefer my color scheme: Blue means "same as OTL", red means "something which happened IOTL does NOT happen here" and black is for "past-POD, different".


Yeah, especially once the Great War hits, I'll switch everything back to black, as its largely going to be entirely different.
Good work - I do admire how Russia is changing ITTL than OTL.

Any significant democratic movement within TTL's Popularists (i.e. Liberal in the classical sense) to be observed?


Hey, thank you G.Bone! What do you mean exactly by the Popularists? Are you talking about Russia's Narodnikmovement, with the village community functioning as the basic unit (peasants being the revolutionary class and all)? These guys inspired both the Trudoviks and the Socialist Revolutionaries.

The Trudoviks spread their ideas a good deal bit more, with more seats being awarded to them in the First and Second Duma. However, they were curbed by Stolypin's Reforms in the Third Duma, and while their ideology is a slight bit more widespread, they have the same amount of seats in the end.

The Socialist Revolutionaries were pissed off enough at Stolypin that they boycotted the Third Duma as in OTL.

As for the Constitutional Democratic Party, they are doing significantly better ITTL, as they didn't think there was enough unrest after the RJW to make the Vyborg Manifesto, which became a huge stigma to the party. They still support a republic, and as such, republicanism is a great deal more widespread, even by 1907, just by this one action.

All in all, by 1907, the political outlook of Russia has A) a much more significant streak of Republicanism and B) a slightly significant streak of the concept that the peasants should be part of the revolutionary class. This could significantly change any future revolution.

However, be warned. I have mentioned at the start of the ATL exactly what kind of institution I want out of Russia. They will constitute a big part of the timeline. Namely, I want to create an aggressive, more democratic, NEP-style version of the Soviet Union, where Socialism in All Forms is represented, instead of just Communism. Emphasis on aggressive. This isn't made to be a Russowank ATL, but I really want to explore the idea of a more successful nation-state in the place of the USSR.


Luis Filipe becomes the King of Portugal after an assassination attempt with different results.

February 5 - A failed Republican revolutionary attempt is made in Portugal, the conspirators are arrested.
February 11th - An assassination attempt is made on King Carlos I of Portugal and the royal family returning to Lisbon from the country. King Carlos and his wife Amelia are both shot, but the assassins are killed before doing more damage. Both the King and the Queen survive by getting treatment at a nearby hospital.
February 13th - King Carlos gives power to Joao Franco to use the military in hunting down the conspirators and cleaning them from the country. Carlos sends his entire family except for Prince Luis Filipe to the United Kingdom to get away from the country.

March - General unrest throughout Portugal, agitated by the assassination attempt and the use of military by Joao Franco in bolstering city defense.

March 12th - Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire, Ferdinand I of Bulgaria becomes Tsar.
March 28th - King Carlos of Portugal announces free elections to be held in the country in three months to elect a new President, seperate from the Prime Minister.

May 21st - While riding an automobile to a meeting with the Prime Minister, King Carlos I of Portugal is shot three times by a group of four assassins that storm the car when it stalls. All but one Antonio de Castro is killed by the royal guards.
May 22nd - Prince Luis Filipe becomes the new King of Portugal.
May 27th - After communique with his brother, Manuel II, who he will work heavily within his reign, King Luis Filipe, dismisses the dictator / prime minister Joao Franco and hurries the election to be due within two weeks.

June 9th - Japanese immigration to the USA is forbidden.
June 11th - The Portuguese Republican Party sweeps the elections. Manuel de Arriaga becomes the new President of Portugal. He attempts to quell anti-Republican feeling in the frontier and stop the fragmentation of the Republican Party.
June 30th - The Great Siberian explosion event occurs near the Tunguska River.

November 3rd - William Howard Taft defeats William Jennings Bryan in the US Presidential Election.
November 15th - Andrew Fisher becomes the 5th Prime Minister of Australia.

Unknown Dates
The Young Turks Revolution begins in the Ottoman Empire. They force Sultan Abd al-Hamid II to adhere to the constitution of 1876.
Oil deposits are not found near the Persian city of Abadan.
I actually meant the popular movements as sponsored to something akin to the ..."socialists" ITTL but I guess the answer was given...

A republic eh?

Doesn't that fly against TTL's trend of a kind dictator/authority in Russia?