Interlude: Plebeianism
Plebeianism: A Social and Political School of thought in which the state’s state's resourcesare used to benefit the masses of the poor and the working class before the well off and the wealthy. Most Plebeianism uses the idea of the Social Contract to justify creating social safety net programs to protect the lower classes from the upper classes, as the lower classes form the base upon which the country functions and the wealthy draw their wealth.

Plebeianism developed from the teaching Father Francisco and can be considered the first cousin to Franciscanism. While the later developed in the Iberian peninsula Plebeianism developed first amongst the Italian Revolutionaries during the Troubles at the start of the 19th Century. Unlike their Iberian brothers these revolutionaries didn’t want to forsake the Catholic church so they took Father Francisco’s works and stripped them of their religious aspects 2aand created a secular political school of thought. Developed by Emmanuel Rotono of Venice Plebeianism focused on using the existing republican and constitutional monarchies to protect and enrich the lives of the poor and downtrodden, while making the wealthy pay their share for the upkeep of the nation. Central to Rotono was the premise of the Social Contract and the Consent of the Governed. This school of thought stated that the nations of the world drew their power from the people that made up their nation. Of these the lower classes did the most work, fought and died in wars to defend their country. In return it was the duty of the country to take care of the working classes. According to Rotono there was no need for revolution once the people had representative government there was only the need to make sure that that government never forgot who it was working for. It was Rotono who coined the name of this Political School when he referenced the modern working class to the Plebs of Ancient Rome

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Emmanuel Rotono father of Plebeianism

A second form of Plebeianism and it is a second as Rotono published his book The Work’s of Plebs (Il Lavoro è Della Plebe) in July of 1799 and Herman Dreckler didn’t publish The People’s Will (Der Wille des Volkes) until August of 1803 and he cites Rotono’s work in his book. This Second School is known as Volkspolitik or German Plebeianism. Dreckler himself kept most of Rotono’s work concerning the role of the Social Contract and the Consent of the Governed. To Dreckler simply relying on the old ways and modernizing them to meet the needs of the Plebs was not enough. No, Dreckler saw it as the right of the Plebs (or the Volk as Dreckler Calls them) to “Take control of the means and workings of the state; to used the state to reduce the wealthy and rise the Volk so that all are equal and no one man stands above the other.”. This means that Volks States or Peoples States focus on securing the fruits of the people's labor so that it benefits all of the people; not just the wealthy. To do this they use State Capitalism where the State owns the industry and gets all the profits that are then evenly distributed to all the people. Volks States also invest most of the political power in the legislature not the executive branch. Legislature is also set up so that the people have the most representation as possible.

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Herman Dreckler father of Volkspolitik

Since the end of the Troubles both schools of Plebeianism spread across the globe however it is Rotono's Plebeianism or pure Plebeianism is the most common. German Plebeianism or Volkspolitik is mostly confined to Europe.
 
The Bloody Decade: 1844 the Winter of Discontent
Fall Out

Hamilton, F.D.

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Martin Van Burren President of the Federal Republic of America

The News of the Invasion of the Western states hit Hamilton like a bomb blast in its town right. The Government was adjourned for the Christmas holiday and only the President and his cabinet were in the Federal Palace having returned to deal with the growing New England Crisis when the news of the attacks and occupations started coming in over the wire. As he read the first message sent before the battle of the Ottawa River had started Van Burren looked at the Cabinet and said “So, It's War then. Maybe we could have worked out a settlement in New England but not Now the Blood will be flowing before the day is out. He issued orders for all the Senators to Return to the Capital at once. It would take till January 28,1844 for the Senate to arrive or most of it two Senators had been caught when Toledo Erie and New Istanbul Ohio were taken. At 1345h that day President Van Burren addressed the Senate.

“My Fellow Americans a SPEAR! Has been thrust into the back of our Republic by the Indians and their British Masters. As I speak two thirds of the State of Ohio lies under the British Union Flag as does the City of Toledo, Erie. That this attack came as we were seeking to prevent a War between the Republic of Vermont and the Crown Republic of New England can only mean one thing; the British seek to two expand their dominion on this Continent. They seek to Restore their Indian Puppets to the lands of the Ohio Valley, and Expand the CROWN! republic down the East Coast. I have received word from Williamsburg that if we fight the Commonwealth of American States despite their ongoing wars will honor the American Defense Pact and join us in the defense of both Our Federal Republic and the Republic of Vermont. Now, I ask you the Senators of the Federal Republic to give our Army and Navy the permission to do what they must and Drive the Royalist and their Indian Allies from our land once more. I Martin Van Burren President of the Federal Republic of America Hereby ask you the Senate to Declare War on the British Empire and All of Her Dominions.”

The Senate chamber erupted into applause the Vote would be nineteen to zero in favor of War with Britain with two not voting. The War of 1844 had officially begun.

Williamsburg, C.G.D.

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Chancellor William Henry Harrison of the Commonwealth of American States

Chancellor William H. Harrison was not a happy man. The Commonwealth was already fighting two wars, one against the Columbian Empire in South America and one with the Empire of Mexico in the Commonwealth’s own backyard. As if that wasn’t enough the British Invasion of the Federal Republic of America had scuttled his hopes for a negotiated end to the New English Crisis. The total of three years of war was showing on the Commonwealth home front as well. His party the Commonwealth Manifest Destiny Party had held a fool proof majority in the House of Delegates at the start they had lost seats in the 1841 election but had held a majority; however last November had seen that majority smashed. The Commonwealth Chartist Party now held the most seats with 78 out of 238, His party was a Firm second with 65 out of 238. The newly formed Liberty Party A merger between the Aqualia Party and the Louisiana Republican Party and the Freedom Party was third with 55 seats and the States Nationalist held 40 seats but this was split between their Hawk and Dove faction. The Commonwealth Chartist Parter now held a clear majority, in case they may have needed the help the Palmetto Party that dominated South Carolina (but was part of the SNA nationally) announced that it was going to back the Chartist on any major national laws. This made Charles E. Read (CCP-Va) the new Speaker of the House, Read was firmly against the War in Colombia however admitted that the War against Mexico and now Britain had to be fought. Still the Chartist in the House made it clear that it was time to look at peace in South America. The Vote to Declare War on Great Britain, Her Empire and Dominions took place on February 2,1844 a month before the new house would be seated in March; and the house was still controlled by the Commonwealth Manifest Destiny Party. The Vote was 198 to 40 in favor on February 2, 1844 the Commonwealth of American States entered its third war in less than five years.

Election of 1843: 238 Total Seats
Commonwealth Chartist Party: 78 seats
Commonwealth Manifest Destiny Party: 65 seats
Liberty Party: 55 seats
State Nationalist Alliance: 40 seats (30 doves, 10 Hawks)

London, England

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King Richard IV King of British Isles; King of the Crown Republic of New England; Ruler of the British Empire.

In London Prime Minister F. J. Robinson, 1st Viscount Goderich, King Richard IV and the rest of the Government of the British Empire were in shock at the war of the happening in North America. Another war was the last thing that the British Empire needed right now. The current War against France was balanced on a knife edge. They had lost in Spain with the Iberian army now hold up on Gibraltar, However in India the East India Company’s Army along with their Marta Allies had crushed the French and Mysore Armies at the battle of Devadurga in which the Sultan of Mysore Krishnaraja Wadiyar III was killed. This victory quickly led to the fall of Mysore and the retreat of the French back to their port cities along the southeastern coast of the subcontinent. That plus the Duke of Mann’s victories in Northern France had almost countered the defeat in Iberia in the view of the general public. Now there was a whole other front that they had to deal with, however one that from early reports they had a good start at. It was generally decided that they would let the Colonials fight each other for the most part in America. They would send a fleet to reinforce the Royal Navy’s Caribbean Fleet at Kingston Jamaica and American Fleet at Bermuda. As well as sending 150,000 men in two formations two thirds of them would be sent to New England population wise the Crown Republic was the weakest part of the British Empire in North America. The Remaining 50,000 men were sent to Jamaica under General Maxwell Arnott. This would show the Colonial that Britain had not forgotten them and they despite being involved elsewhere. Meanwhile word was sent to the British ambassador in Naples to pressure Napoleon II to launch an invasion of Southern France stating that Britain would support Italy gaining everything east of the Rhone River and south of the Isere River.

Paris France

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King Louis XVII of France

King Louis XVII and the French Government looked on the events happening in America were viewed as a good thing. They had won the war in Spain, but the war was far from over, and wasn’t going so great for them elsewhere. The British had handed them an utter defeat in India and French army was barely hanging on to the few port cities they had in Southeast India. The French hold on Japan was also threatened by the Russian’s after the Japanese had been too successful at raiding Russian gold shipments from Russian America. In North Africa the Italians were driving french forces back and in Italy the Sardinians had surrendered and were being absorbed into the Italian Empire as had Corsica. Then there was the British Army encamped in Northern France to close to Paris for comfort. Lucky the end of the war in spain had freed up a couple hundred thousand troops to be moved elsewhere. In December at the conclusion of the Iberian Campaign the French army of Iberia had numbered 330,000 men: 350,000 Infantry, 20,000 Cavalry, 84 batteries of field guns, and 25 batteries of horse guns. (1) This army was going to be broken up, now that it was pure excess in Iberia. The Army of Iberia would remain with 100,000 men 60,000 Infantry, 10,000 Cavalry 25 batteries of Field guns and 6 batteries of horse guns. The 30,000 infantry and 10 batteries of Field guns to garrison Spanish cities in addition to the Army of Aragon. Of the Remaining 150,000 men and 29 batteries of field guns and 11 batteries of horse guns would be sent to Rennes under Marshal Lafayette and the French Army of Brittany The remaining artillery would be sent to the new Southern Army forming at Marseille. It was hoped that as long as Spain remained quiet the 30,000 infantry and 10 batteries of artillery could be moved to Southern France by the summer.

  1. The French captured all of the British and Spanish artillery
 
Things are really heating up now. I wonder how much this will hurt the poor Commonwealth of American States with having to fight so many wars. If the Commonwealth ends up dropping out due to war exhaustion, it could seriously harm their relation with the other American states they are aligned with.
 
Yes both the CAS and France are starting to feel the pinch. The CAS in particular is starting to see political shifts that are not all that healthy. South Carolina is very nervous and disgruntled.
 
Next update will show how Bogota, Mexico City, Munich and Stockholm to round out the winter political povs. If anyone what's to see another view point just let me know.
 
The Bloody Decade: 1844 the Winter of Discontent: Part 2
Fall Out part 2

Bogota, Colombian Empire

For Emperor Cristobal I and the Colombian Government would take the winter of 1844 to weigh their options. Colombia had been at war longer than any other nation involved in the Bloody Decade as its Civil War which started in 1840 had been one of the triggers for the series of wars. That was four years ago and the people of Colombia were beginning to show signs of war weariness. Cristobal I knew that his government was still young and a new revolution could undo all that he had and the centralist had done to fix the country. He was looking for an exit form this war that was now starting its fourth year. However he didn’t want to start negotiations form a point of weakness; so he made a choice he would pull 80,000 men from the southern border and move them to the Bolivian front, With the aim of extracting the Eastern Army from Caracas allowing the Colombian Army to have a strong field army to oppose the Bolivians and their Commonwealth masters. This would allow them to start talks as equals at least, and maybe just maybe the British could influence events so that Colombia would be in a strong position when talks started. Due to the state of the transportation network in Colombia it would take time for the new Army to move north at best he could hope for an offensive to begin in June if not July.

Mexico City, Empire of Mexico

To the Mexican government the war was a tossup. Santa Anna’s campaign in Tejas was playing out as many in Mexico City had expected. To take New Orleans would have been nice but as long as the fighting stayed in Tejas or Western Louisiana as the Americans called it it was fine with them. The capture of Santa Fe and Albuquerque were inconvenient. The Central American Rebellion was a source of frustration this region has spent more of the last 40 years in rebellion than it had in peace. It was Emperor Christobal I who came up with the idea to seek peace with the Central Americans to allow the Empire to focus on the problems to the north. Christobal’s plan was to offer the Central Americans home rule creating the Grand Duchy of Mesoamerica and giving its own parliament that could deal with local issues as long as its laws didn’t clash with Imperial Laws. Minister of the Interior Juan Carlos Castro would depart Mexico City in late December with the Emperor’s proposal. He and his party would arrive in Managua in mid February where he would meet with the USCA leadership. Castro expected this deal to be accepted quickly. It wasn’t they would debate for two weeks before rejecting the Emperor’s deal. When Castro returned to Mexico City on March 18,1844 he informed the Emperor and the Prime Minister of this news, a new army of 85,000 men and 5 batteries of artillery was being formed at Mexico city would now be sent south to crush the the chase the Rebels around the jungles and mountains of Central America. To replace them Christobal issued an order to the Governor of Alto California to start raising an army of 9 divisions to replace the men that were being diverted to Central America. Thanks to the massive Chinese migration to Alto California it was the second most populated part of the Empire now only fair that it should contribute to the war effort. In Alto California this was met with a run on the recruitment offices, as the Chinese sought to show their loyalty for their new homeland where in two generations the Emperor would be half Chinese. This meant that any offensive in Tejas would be delayed until the fall at the earliest time this new army was assembled, trained, and transited the vast expanses of Northern Mexico.

Munich, Kingdom of Bavaria

In Munich King Karl and the Bavarian government officials were celebrating; they had done it. The Prussian eagle had been crushed under the boot of the Bavarian and Swedish soldiers. True, they were still technically at war with the British Empire but even with their puppet the Kingdom of Saxony having a small amount of Batlic coast line and Invasion was far from their minds. Indeed Karl and Otto Simon the Bavarian Prime Minister were looking for a natural party to facilitate a peace deal with Britain. That was until the French ambassador Olivier Blanchar arrived asking if Bavaria would be willing to open a second front against the Italians in return France would recognize the Bavarian Annexation of the Slovenian State. This the french pointed out would give the Bavarians a port of their own without the religious issues.

Now the Bavarians had two questions. First was it worth the fight after just winning their war with Prussia and completing their war aims? And second could they secure Slovenia before the Italians came running to the rescue. The king, and Prime Minister Otto Simon and his government met on the issue for over a month before finally voting in favor of bringing the Proposal of war with Slovenia to the Parliament for a vote. In expectation of a yes vote orders were given to start moving troops to reinforce the Italian and Slovenian Borders; while leaving enough to guard against the Union of German Republics just in case. However it was all for nought as the Parliament voted against war with Slovenia; Confronted with such an aggressive act the Bavarian Liberal Party minority pressed the King to call for a general election. Karl refused stating that the next election would take place as scheduled on March 7, 1845. The soldiers would receive orders to move to defensive positions; if the Southern border was more heavily defended than normal no one said anything.


Stockholm, Swedish Empire

The Bavarians were not the only nation looking for an exit from the war. To the North, King Gustav V of the Swedish Empire was also looking for a way to end his war with Britain now that Prussia was crushed. On January 12,1844 the Swedish though the offices of the United Portuguese Empire sought what it would take for Britain and Sweden to end hostilities. The Swedish expected a Status Quo Antebellum since aside from a few minor ship battles they had not done the British any harm. So the Swedish were horrified when the British demanded Swedish Australia, Swedish Formosa,The Swedish Concession on mainland China, Iceland and Greenland. These demands were too much for the Swedish who flatly rejected them, replying that they would maybe, maybe consider signing over Swedish Australia but that was all. The British refused and any thoughts of a peace deal were shelved. And so the Swedish High Command began looking for ways that they could hurt Britain. And they focused on two tempting targets, Newfoundland, and to undermine the British position in the South Pacific.

For the Newfoundland operation the Swedish decided to send the better part of 2 divisions of Infantry and some brigades of cavalry 20,000 Infantry would be enough to conquer and hold the Island, and 5,000 Cavalry would be fine to patrol for any attempt to retake the Island, plus anymore cavalry was unfeasible when it came to shipping them across the Atlantic. The plan that they came up with was that the Swedish navy would increase its raids into the North sea beginning at the end of January; after consulting with the French Ambassador Zacharie Laflèche the French agreed to gather a fleet at La Rochelle in an attempt to distract the Royal Navy. The force bound for Newfoundland would depart Trondheim on February 15th, sailing to Iceland then on to America.

To strike directly at any of the British possessions in the South Pacific was out of the reach of the Swedish navy. The Royal Swedish Navy did have two Pacific Squadrons, the Northern Squadron based at Formosa and the Southern Squadron based at New Stockholm in Swedish Australia. However, the Swedish Pacific Fleet consisted of 6 Frigates, 5 Corvettes and 12 brigs. Gustav and his government turned to the other English speaker that had sought an audience with the Swedish Government Representatives from the Colony of New South Ireland. Mr. Elijah O'Gara and Donagh Kavanagh were here seeking Swedish support for a rebellion that the Irish were planning in far away New South Ireland; a rebellion that would throw off the yoke of British oppression once and for all. The Swedish agreed to loan the Irish money, and provide weapons to arm an army of 50,000 men. These would be the Model 1828 Cap lock Musket that Sweden had in storage, the Model 1828 having been replaced with the Model 1839 Cap lock Rifled Musket in the Imperial Armies of the Swedish Empire. These rifles would have a much more indirect route because Sweden lacked the ability to safely ship them to New South Ireland. Instead they would travel to the Ottoman Empire where they would sail to New South Ireland on Ottoman Flagged ships.
 
I plan on the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico being as politically critical as the Mediterranean Sea was in OTL. And will have several major Industrial nations fighting for control, Mexico, Colombia, the CAS, the British Empire and the United Portuguese Empire to name a few. of them Colombia will probably have the rockiest road but time will tell. Also I'm shocked no one commented on Sweden's big ideas
 
The Bloody Decade: 1844 The Winter of Discontent part 3
Naples, Italian Empire

The Church bells were still ringing throughout the Italian in early February when Napoleon II, Marshall Sacco, General Lombardi, The Consul of the Italian Senate Ermanno Bonaparte (1) and the Tribune of the Italian Assembly Ciriaco Donati as well as the various ministers of the cabinet met in the Emperor’s office to discuss what to do next; Italy was whole the Sardinians has capitulated and joined the Empire, Corsica was occupied the Algerian Campaign was progressing well as well. And in a bit of shocking and unexpected news Napoleon II announced his intention to marry the ex-queen of Sardinia and Duchess of Piedmont Esmeralda Maria of Savoy. Since the surrender of Sardinia he and the now ex-queen had been in constant communication and he found himself liking the energetic woman. This was a shock to the court as many had seen Chales Napoleon as a lifetime bachelor.

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Ermanno Bonaparte

It was the British request for them to Invade Southern that was the main focus of the meeting. Ermanno Bonaparte and Ciriaco argued that they should reinforce the Algeria campaign and finish off French interest in North Africa. Marshal Sacco and General Lombardi were both against a campaign through the alps “My Emperor we would face the same hardships that the French Army had had to deal with while campaigning in Italy. Long vulnerable supply lines.” It was not till March 1st when word of the aborted french attempt to get Bavaria to invade Slovenia that Napoleon II reached a decision: They would Reinforce North Africa as well as mount a probe across the Alps. Marshal Sacco was directed not to take undue risks with the army but to make it look Italy was at least thinking about invading France. But if he saw a chance to take Nice or another port along the Sea where the Navy could keep them supplied if their overland supplies were cut then they were to do so. For their part Sacco and Lombardi both insisted that they have more men for such a campaign and a free hand in planning it. Napoleon II agreed to both demands. The Alps campaign would wait till the Summer to ensure that all of the passes were clear of snow. While an additional 50,000 men and 7 batteries of Artillery would be dispatched to North Africa for the start of the Spring Campaign.

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External and Internal views of the Cathedral of Naples

On March 20, 1844 the Cathedral of Naples was dressed out for the Marriage of Charles Napoleon (II) Bonaparte Emperor of The Italian Empire, and Esmeralda Maria of Savoy Duchess of Piedmont, the last queen of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The Wedding was a showcase of the Italian Empire’s budding nobility, wealthy middle class, and common working class people which the Emperor and his bride insisted be allowed to take part in the ceremony. The Kings extended family were all invited as were the bride's family although only here cousins from Armenia would attend. It was after much debate between the couple as to who should succeed her to the Duchy of Piedmont that Esmeralda’s cousin Princess Isabella Rachele of Savoy from Armenia was awarded the title Duchess of Piedmont. After Esmeralda was crowned Queen Esmeralda of the Italian Empire. (2) Her Brother fully fed up with the whole thing and refusing to accept that he had lost would accompany his cousins back to Armenia after the wedding. This wedding would act as a solder welding any disgruntled ements of Sardinian Nobility into the Italian Empire, as future Emperors would have the blood of House Savoy in them. Hiding in Paris King Charles Felix would congratulate his daughter on playing the game of thrones much better than he had.

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Esmeralda Maria of Savoy Queen of the Italian Empire


  1. Son of Luciano Bonaparte
  2. The title of Empress is only granted to a ruling Female monarch.
 

Attachments

Interlude: Commonwealth Rank Badges and State Collar Colors
So I made the Original version of this back in 16 when I started this timeline and promptly had a computer die and believed that it was gone for ever however while exploring my outlook onedrive I found it and made a quick update to go with it. I know the officer pictures don't line up but I cant really photo shop. My though behind the Commonwealth Army uniform is that while they are all blue jacket with white or blue pants the Colors of the Collar show what state they are from. I stole the Idea from the Austrian Hungarian Army. Hope every one enjoys and as always feed back is welcomed.

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the Original 1795 version


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The Updated 1844 one
 
The Bloody Decade:Anglo-American War of 1844: The Invasion of Georgia
The British invasion of Georgia.

General Maxwell Arnott arrived in Kingston Jamaica on February 21,1844 and immediately came to his superior office Admiral James Woback with a bold plan. Woback had agreed to it simply because it offered a chance to Cripple the Commonwealth of American States in one fell swoop. Arnett's plan was to land his army at St. Louis Bay Georgia and March to Baton Rouge and sack the city. Why do this ? Well Baton Rouge was the primary railroad hub on the Gulf Coast losing it would stop all rail traffic across the Mississippi river into western Louisiana. Until the junction could be repaired. However, Arnott's plan was much deeper. After Baton Rouge he would march north to Fort George III leaving a path of scorched earth behind them. If this work Arnott would drive a blazing sword into the belly of the CAS. After working out landing plans and mapping the tides a date of April 2nd was set for the landings.

New Orleans, April 2,1844

Major General Orlando Parrish looked at the maps on the wall of his office. He had been sent back to the state Capitol a month ago to take command of the western Gulf coast defenses. Overall things didn't look too good. New Orleans was safe protected by 5 masonry forts and 8 battery emplacements as well as a division of Louisiana Regular Infantry and two Militia divisions. 30,000 men total. Elsewhere he had 2,000 infantry supporting 42 heavy guns and two batteries of field guns in the defenses around the city of Fort Biloxi. 500 Infantry and a battery of field guns at St. Louis Bay. A division of Mounted Georgian Militia patrolling along the coast, and 2,000 infantry a Georgian militia regiment and a Louisianan regiment at Baton Rouge.

Landings early April 3rd.

The landings had been pushed back 24 hours due to a storm that had made the approach to the Mississippi estuary too dangerous. In a way it worked out better as the coast was enveloped in a thick fog when the boats ferrying the Redcoats approached the shore. This would have made it difficult for even alert sentries to see them before they were on the beach. The Georgian militiamen stationed at St. Louis Bay were not alert. In fact most were warm and asleep in there commandeered housing. Once the first regiment had assembled itself it quickly overtook the sleeping Georgians. With the defenses neutralized the rest of the landings went smoothly. By noon Arnott had his full command ashore and at 1300h the march north by northwest began. The British would have an unopposed march north till they got to Picayune where the Atlantic and Gulf crossed the Old Pearl River.

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Major General Maxwell Arnott

Picayune, Georgia April 5,1844

Acting Major General Stephen Hardee had gathered his Division of Militia Dragoons together at Picayune; he had even gained a couple 100 locals to his men. The British had landed an Army of five divisions, a brigade of cavalry and a couple batteries of artillery by his count (1). His best guess was this was a flanking attack on New Orleans that would be linked with an assault from the sea. With that in mind he had his men entrench around the town. With their couple of 3 pound horse guns in support. He wanted to hold the bridge as long as possible but he rigged it to blow if he couldn't hold it. He had sent wires as well as runners to New Orleans but he knew he was on his own for a while. Only half of his men had McKnight carbines; the rest were armed with the Palmetto single shot carbines. As the demand for the revolving rifles and carbines meant that the Militia had received the simpler and quicker to produce Model 1836 Palmetto Rifle(2) a single shot gun.

General Arnott first learned of an enemy force in his way around 1500h on April 5th. When his scouts reported a concentration of American cavalry defending the bridges across the Pearl river at Picayune the force was estimated to be a couple of brigades. Sensing trouble he ordered Major General Arnold Downbridge's 1st division forward to drive the Americans off and take the bridges. In case the Americans blew the bridges he ordered his cavalry to find an alternative way across the river.

As the British arrived and deployed into the line of battle at 1640h the light was already growing faint and the sun was low in the western sky. The British had the numbers 20,000 to the 10,000 Americans but they were armed with a mix of Brown Bess muskets and slow firing Brunswick rifles. The British also had the advantage in Artillery with eight six pounder light guns to the Americans two three pounder horse guns.

The battle began at 1700h the British attacked the American line. The battle did not last very long for just under two hours till the sun went down at 1845. General Hardee and his men put up a hard fight and bled the British until darkness fell before withdrawing over the bridges, blowing them as the last men retreated to the western shore. For Arnott not being able to take the bridges intact was a setback but his Cavalry Commander Brigadier George Williams brought Arnott news that he had captured a ferry about six miles up river and Major General Christian Jones already had a brigade across securing the beachhead.

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Major General Stephen Hardee

(1) Both sides used their own standards for judging the size of the enemy forces.
(2)Model 1836 Palmetto Rifle a modified version of the 1833 design to fire the McKnight 45-70 bullet.
 
So what do you gents and ladies believe that the British reaction will be to their American subjects starting a war that London had no intention of fighting ? after the wars are all said and done? Tighten the leash on Canada and New England and clamp down on them, or allow them to begin to go their own way like South Africa after WWI?
 
So what do you gents and ladies believe that the British reaction will be to their American subjects starting a war that London had no intention of fighting ? after the wars are all said and done? Tighten the leash on Canada and New England and clamp down on them, or allow them to begin to go their own way like South Africa after WWI?
For Britain's sake, I hope it's the latter. Otherwise they may have their American cousins rebel.... again. I don't think the British are dumb enough to do that again. Also, unless I missed it somewhere, it isn't common knowledge that it was actually New Englanders that started this war. The official story is that Vermont soldiers attacked New England seemingly at random. If the truth ever comes out, it will be a HUGE blow to New England and could see some SERIOUS repercussions.
 
For Britain's sake, I hope it's the latter. Otherwise they may have their American cousins rebel.... again. I don't think the British are dumb enough to do that again. Also, unless I missed it somewhere, it isn't common knowledge that it was actually New Englanders that started this war. The official story is that Vermont soldiers attacked New England seemingly at random. If the truth ever comes out, it will be a HUGE blow to New England and could see some SERIOUS repercussions.
For Britain's sake, I hope it's the latter. Otherwise they may have their American cousins rebel.... again. I don't think the British are dumb enough to do that again. Also, unless I missed it somewhere, it isn't common knowledge that it was actually New Englanders that started this war. The official story is that Vermont soldiers attacked New England seemingly at random. If the truth ever comes out, it will be a HUGE blow to New England and could see some SERIOUS repercussions.
Yes the current story that Vermont soldiers struck at New England, and because of that all parties involved were angling for a settlement except for New England. It was the Native American sneak attack that blew peace out of the water.

I have a couple versions current mapped out one were the secrete never gets out and the world continues blissfully unaware This is the path that is the most developed path and the most likely to happen. and the British empire continues on its path towards a fully integrated Commonwealth or Modern Empire.

The second is where it gets out but London pretends that it didn't and it stays a sandal that is never officiality recognized which leads to the Tories being ousted from the the Parliament the Whigs seize power and a more jingoistic Imperialist Party appears and the Tories go the way of the OTL Liberal Party.

A third is where it gets out and its game over for New England the Crown Republic loses all of its special status that it currently has with in the empire. This is the newest idea as the early battles of the Anglo American War of 1844 start playing out and the dice are not liking Britain too much. This will completely alter the development of my original plot for the 2nd half of the 19th century where Britain and her Empire are concerned. this is least likely but is got a basic outline created.
 
The Bloody Decade:Anglo-American War of 1844: The Invasion of Georgia Part II
New Orleans, Louisiana April 7th

For General Parrish and his staff the past two days had been tense. The British had crossed the Pearl River yesterday despite General Hardee and his men blowing the bridges at Picayune thanks to a captured ferry. General Hardee and his Division of mounted Militia were fighting a delaying action to slow down their advance. The question was what was their objective. The first thought had been New Orleans, the port would make a good base for Britain to launch a campaign up the Mississippi river to connect with their attack coming out of the Great Lakes region. But the Navy had swept the Gulf on any approach to New Orleans and both the Royal Navy and the Imperial Armada were nowhere to be seen. It took a young Second Lieutenant named George Partridge to point out the obvious “General Parrish sir I believe he’s heading for Baton Rouge. It is the railroad hub for this part of the Commonwealth. Literally all the lines meet there If I were a British officer looking for a way to tie us in a good knot I’d burn Baton Rouge to the Ground and destroy as much of the Railroads as possible before I got run off.” Having it pointed out to him Parrish and the other senior officers couldn’t help but to see it. Second Lieutenant Partridge was given a Commendation and Promoted to First Lieutenant “For seeing what was right there to see but none of us could.” However there was still a problem of manpower Parrish decided to dispatch two divisions to Baton Rouge the Louisiana 7th Division and the 2nd Louisiana Militia Division Major General Daniel Honker the commander of the 7th was given command of the two divisions. However even with those two divisions they would only have 22,000 men at Baton Rouge plus Hardee’s division but they would have been fighting a running battle for four or five days at that point a total of at most 30,000 men. Against what looked like 50,000 British, they would have the advantage in artillery hopefully that would be a small one.

The Battle of Baton Rouge

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Battle of Baton Rouge April 11, 1844

Arnott and his men took their time marching on Baton Rouge tearing up the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad as they marched. The constant harassment by General Hardee’s men also retarded their advance. This gave General Honker and his men at Baton Rouge time to strengthen the defenses of the city. Honker had no plan whatsoever of standing in lines batting against each other like they had done back in 1805 and in other parts of this current conflict. No he had his men digging trenches. His line ran along the western bank of Wards Creek North to Hurricane Creek in the North and Manchac Bayou in the south a 16 mile front. This was one of the better defensive positions around Baton Rouge to occupy however it meant that his reserve was less than a brigade until Hardee’s division arrived. Behind his lines he had 3 batteries of field guns. Hardee’s division would arrive on the Evening of April 10th and report that the Redcoats were about seven miles behind them. As his men filed past the trenches into a reserve position Hardee reported to Honker that he had just over 7,000 men combat ready with 1,000 walking wounded that could if needed be pressed into service. Since the battle of Picayune he had lost 2,000 men either killed or two wounded to move or captured. He still had his three horse guns.

General Arnott and his column had been in a slow running fight with the American Cavalry for since they had crossed the Pearl River. On the march he had lost just over 800 men killed or wounded. As he approached the town of Baton Rouge his scouts reported just over a division's worth of men dug in along a creek line in front of the town supported by a couple batteries of field guns. Arnott decided to wait till his force was fully up before he engaged the enemy. This meant that it was 1445h before the british army advanced on Baton Rouge. Arnott had his men deployed into line of battle with Downbridge’s 1st division on his Left and Major General Thomas Harold’s 2nd division on his right. Brigadier William’s cavalry was detached off to Downbridge’s left making him the southernmost British unit on the battlefield. Both divisions were deployed with three of their 4 brigades in line with the last one in reserve. Arnott had determined that it was best to have the American Army in front of him when he made his turn to the north than behind him. With that in mind his orders were as follows Harold would conduct a holding action while Downbridge attacked the American Right flank driving the American out of Baton Rouge toward Fort Washington Georgia (3). General Downbridge and his men would crash into the American Flank at 1600h.
General Honker was pleased with the way that the battle had been going so far. He had expected a heavy assault on his left flank as the enemy would want to drive him back towards the sea and had placed his Louisiana division there and Major General Hank Anderson’s Georgian Militia on the Right. Then at 1615h everything changed, two divisions worth of Redcoats appeared off his right flank and slammed into Anderson’s division. To the Georgian’s credit even out numbered two to one they held firm for over hour of brutal assaults on their positions and thanks to their quick firing breechloading Palmetto Rifles made the Redcoats bleed from every inch of ground that they gained. Yet numbers are their own advantage and when Downbridge’s attack started to stall Arnott ordered Harold’s Division to press their attack on the American left flank In Baton Rouge Honker was faced with a couple of bad choices he had ordered Hardee to take his men to reinforce Anderson’s battered division and no sooner had that flank had been stabilized the British started hammering his Louisianans. However the British had already found out that the Louisiana men with their McKnight Revolving rifles easily negated the number advantage that the British possessed.

Although it was a near run thing several times the Americans held their positions until darkness fell. That night The American held a council of war. All three Generals were of equal rank even if Honker had been given command of the battle by Parrish, because he was the regular army general. The facts were they had started the battle outnumbered by 20,000 men give or take however their rifles even the slower single shot Palmetto’s out classed the british who appeared to be using smoothbore muskets for the biggest part of their army. They had plenty of ammunition for two more days of battle and thanks to river boats supply was not an issue and if needed retreat was also not an issue. Hardee, and Anderson both argued to pull back and shorten the line and allow for better interior lines of movement. Honker finally agreed and around midnight the troops began to pull back to their new positions. Honker’s and Anderson’s divisions stayed on the northern part of the Ward Creek line while Hardee’s men formed a Right angle to Anderson’s men creating the new Right flank of Commonwealth force. Also that night word reached the Generals received word that Lt. Commander Ralph West would be bringing a squadron of 6 gunboats up from New Orleans to support them in the morning.

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Dawn on April 12th brought a very unpleasant sight for Arnott. His plan to force the American’s from the town in a quick battle, in that he had failed. Having proved unable to do that he had hoped that they would decide that their position was untenable and withdraw either north or west as he had managed to cut off a retreat to the south. Now he found that he had failed in that as well. Now he faced a choice. His ammunition was not unlimited at best; he had enough for maybe two more major engagements after yesterday's fight. He had been shocked at the amount of casualties that his men had taken yesterday. All totaled he had lost close to 714 men killed and 900 men wounded. The question now was what to do today. He had two choices today he could attack or he could withdraw and start his swing north with a potential army in his rear. It was his division commander both pressing to attack that finally made up his mind. At 1000h Downbridge would renew his attack while Harold held his men for now. Downbridge led his men into the attack and drove his men forward into the murderous fire from the Hardee’s divisions. And by 1100h the British and Commonwealth soldiers were entwined in hand to hand combat. Downbridge sent runners back to Arnott to send any men he had free to into the attack saying “the action is on a knife edge, whichever side gets more men here first will carry the day. Send them now Sir send them now” Arnott did not flinch and ordered William’s two Cavalry Brigades into the fray. He also told Harold to begin to put pressure on the Northern Part of the American line.

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William's Charge

William’s 10,000 Cavalry hit Hardee’s line just as the Georgian’s had started to gain the upper hand on the redcoats attacking. However they were in no position to stop a cavalry charge, and the line bent backwards under the weight of the attacking horses and men. Hardee was on his horse behind his men shouting encouragement and directing his merger reserves to plug holes that formed in the line. Hardee was never one to shy away from danger and when he saw the Cavalry charge coming he readied his men around him to be ready for it. As the charge broke on the American Line Lieutenant George Author Smith saw an American officer rallying and directing the defense impressively without hesitation he pulled out his pistol and fired. The shot struck Hardee in the left eye and he toppled out of his saddle dead. As word spread that the general was dead the Georgians broke and started to run.

Anderson saw Hardee’s men running and started to shift his men to cover the flank as he sent work to Honker. The Hardee’s men had broken and were in full retreat. At that point Honker told Anderson to start pulling me up the north and refuse his line at a right angle to Honker’s own line. Anderson managed to achieve this maneuver and by 1230 with the aid of a generous bombardment by West’s Gunboats that had arrived on the scene they had managed to refuse and stabilize the line enough for the American forces to pull out under the cover of the Gunboats.

The British now occupied Baton Rouge and had captured enough of the American field guns to encourage West’s ships to also withdraw north up the river. For Arnott having taken the city he now had to decide what to do next his original plan to march north now looked like a bad idea that would see him more likely to repeat Cornwallis's fate at the end of the American Revolutionary war than anything else. No he chose an even riskier plan beginning that night he started moving the bulk of his men to the western bank of the Mississippi river suing the large Railroad ferries that had been captured intact, as the American had not wanted to burn the large expensive and hard to replace boats for when they inevitably retook the city. The small force he left in the town spent the night and the following day destroying the railroad tracks and yard in the city when the last British troops left Baton Rouge for the west bank they set off charges in the bottom of the two large railroad ferries that had been coated in whale oil to encourage them burn better while the charges blew out the bottom of both boats leaving them total losses. Now the British would begin the long and hard march north on the western side of the Mississippi.

The Commonwealth lost 1,100 killed 2,500 walking wounded and 1,500 to wounded to move and 1,650 captured.

The British lost 2,400 men killed, 3,500 walking wounded 2,000 to wounded to move and left behind.
 
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