The Bloody Decade: The Commonwealth-Mexican War: Old Dominion Colored Troops part II: The Albuquerque Raid
The Albuquerque Raid
To the North Major General Isaac McKinney was busy requisitioning as many horses that he could get his hands on. His plan was to mount all 20,000 men of the ODCT to speed up is March on the way to Albuquerque. He had already dropped off all of his field gun batteries for the lighter Horse Guns Batteries. For this Raid General Hampton had insisted that two additional cavalry brigades, the 31st North Carolina Dragoons Brigade and the 78th Georgian Cavalry Brigade be attached to the 1st Virginia Colored Corps (VCC) as the Old Dominion Colored Troops were known in the theater. This brought the total order of battle for the raid as followers

It would not be until the end of July that they were ready to march. McKinney had managed to secure a mixture of horses and mules for his infantry (90% mules 10% horses) for his command to all be mounted. The Infantry did not make the best horsemen but it was faster than them walking. The march west would begin on July 20,1843, with the fully assembled command leaving Fort Henry Lee at dawn. It would take them three days to arrive at the village of San Miguel (1) where the road split with a western road heading toward Albuquerque and a northern road heading toward Santa Fe. Here McKinney detached Major General Alexander Henry’s 1st Division along with the 1st and 4th Virginia Colored Cavalry Regiments to head north to Santa Fe where they were to do as much disruption as possible. The two columns would reach the edges of their respective objectives on July 24,1843 however due to the heat both McKinney and Henry would rest their men that day. At Albuquerque scouting parties brought back reports of a Brigade sized force of Infantry with a battery of Field guns manning a small adobe fortress just east of the town center (2). At Santa Fe the Scouts reported that the Capital was defended by a Brigade of Infantry with a regiment of Cavalry and a battery of Field guns. All of which were stationed in a fortress made up of a mixture of Adobe and wooden palisades located on the hill just to the Northwest of the city. On the Mexican side their scouts reported that they were facing at least a division of enemy soldiers Brigadier General MAnuel Rodriguez commander of the Albuquerque garrison would send runners out during the night north to Santa Fe and south to Las Cruces seeking reinforcements.

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July 25,1843 would see two battles take place; the battle of Santa Fe and the Battle of Albuquerque. At Albuquerque Brigadier General Manuel Rodriguez and his 5,000 infantry and 6 field guns chose to hold out in their fort, the fort was only and poorly maintained but some cover was better than nothing when they were outnumbered. The Fort itself was shaped like a triangle with two guns at each point and rifle holes along the walls in between. At 1030h the Georgians occupied the town with little resistance from the locals while the ODCT Cavalry and the North Carolinian Cavalry swung wide around the Fort Encircling it from the north and south while the infantry no longer mounted on their mules and artillery approached from the east; by 1130h the fort was encircled, and General McKinney send his Mexican counterpart an offer up parole upon surrender of the fort. Rodriquez replied that if the Americans wanted to take his fort they would have to bleed for it. At 1200h the 20 light horse guns that McKinney had brought with them opened up on the fort, with solid shot and exploding shells. The design of the carriages for the American Horse guns allowed them to fire over the walls of the fort sending exploding shells inside the walls. (Ames 3 pounder). At 1230h after a half hour of bombardment the Infantry began to advance on the fort’s eastern and southern walls. Inside the fort the Mexicans began to open up with rifle and cannon fire but the thin spaced out lines of the Virginian Infantry limited the damage; The Blue clad ex slaves thundered over the walls of the fort at 1245h despite fierce resistance by the defenders by 1300h the Flag of Imperial Mexico was torn down and the Flag of Virginia and the Commonwealth National Flag were run up over the fort as the remaining Mexicans surrendered.

While the Americans settled into their new homes at Albuquerque and Santa Fe to the South Major General Jose Hernandez was leaving Las Cruces was heading north at the head of a column of 25,000 men the core of his column was his three brigades of Lancers. The Lancers were some of the best trained most professional units in the Mexican Imperial Army, his remaining 10,000 men were a mix of infantry; he had 4,000 Regular soldiers of the 41st Imperial New Mexican Rifles, however the larger part were the 6,000 New Mexican Militia that he had gathered to him and sporting him were a battery of field guns and a battery of horse artillery.

The Second battle of Albuquerque would begin on July 29,1843 at 1000h when the Mexican scouts came upon a line of Commonwealth Infantry deployed across the Road south of Albuquerque at the village of Isleta Pueblo. The Battle would take place on the Western bank of the river across from the town itself. McKinney had his men on the ridge that came close to the river, he hadn’t had the time to dig in but had deployed his Infantry to take advantage of the terrain as much as possible. The River anchored his right flank and he had his Cavalry securing his left. With his artillery deployed to support the infantry. At 1030h Hernandez had his two batteries of artillery open fire on the Commonwealth men on the ridge. He moved his infantry forward being just about equal in number to the Americans, while he used one brigade of his lancers to occupy the Commonwealth Cavalry.

The Infantry push forward didn’t last long as the disciplined and rapid fire took a toll on the mostly militia formations of Mexican Infantry. Frustrated, Hernandez ordered his infantry to pull back and move the bulk of his Lancer forward. To Increase his number he pulled a couple of Regiments out of the Screen on his right and into the center. This gave him 12,500 men for his charge. The Lancers struck an impressive sight in their green uniforms with red tips their chest were covered by a polished bronze breastplate and helmet. Hernandez had to admit that just the sight of them was martial sight to behold.

On the ridge McKinney and his men had managed to drive the Mexican infantry back well before they had gotten close to their line. With the way that most of them were armed it was safe to assume that they were militia. It was about 1400h when they heard bugles sound over in the Mexican lines. Then the ground began to shake as 12,500 Mexican Horsemen started charging toward his lines. The Sun gleamed off of their helmets and breastplates as they thundered across the fields in front of his men; who displayed nerves of steel as they awaited the order to fire. Fix Bayonets was the first command that sounded down the line as the artillery opened up on the charging horde. Then at six hundred yards the order was given rapid fire and the commonwealth line opened up in a wall of orange flame and smoke. The Riflemen now showed once more how deadly their rifles could be as they rained down a round of death on the charging Mexicans letting lose all nine shots in under a minute as the thundering mass of horse flesh and sharpened steel lances drew ever nearer. The last order to be heard above the dim of the battle was “Lower Barrel '' echoed by every officer and non commissioned officer in the commonwealth line as the men switched their hammers to fire the single 20 gauge shotgun shell full of double ought buckshot. Then the Mexicans were upon them.

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Colonel Enrique Manuel’s Horse was out ahead of his regiment of lancers as they thundered across the dry ground toward the invading Commonwealth soldiers. He had lost a lot of men to them and their rifles from the devil but now they were finally out of bullets it seemed then right as his men crashed into the their line and he felt his lance strike home into a soldier’s chest their damned rifles opened up once more catching his horse square in the chest and him the shin now these weren’t rifle bullets it was a shotgun blast. Thrown from his horse he struggled to his feet drawing his single shot pistol and his saber he fended off an enemy soldier who was trying to run him through with his bayonet. He killed the man with his pistol then ran another through with his saber. Finally he was surrounded by a group of the dark skinned soldiers dropping his saber and pistol he holds his hands up in surrender.

Across the field Hernandez watched as the Lancers limped back from across the field. It was not a disaster but it was a defeat,already he would bet he had lost at least 3,000 men killed, wounded or missing. Off to his right the Flanking Lancers had stopped an attempt by the Commonwealth Cavalry element to descend on the retreating lancers in the center. That action was still going on even now. When his horsemen had regrouped he would send some reinforcements to the right. This battle was over true he still had his infantry but they had already been shown to be out matched by the Commonwealth’s firepower. No he would withdraw his force to act as a deterrent against a further push south, until reinforcements could arrive. The next day after a few rounds of artillery fire exchange the Mexicans pulled back, towards the south.

  1. OT:L Clines Corners Tx
  2. OTL Tiguex Park, Alburquerque
 
The Bloody Decade : Old Dominion Colored Troops part 2.5: Order of Battle Albuquerque Campaign
1st Virginia Colored Corps 15,000 Infantry, 5,000 Cavalry, 4 Batteries of Horse Guns
Commander Major General Irvine McKinney
Aide de Camp Colonel William Anderson

1st Virginia Colored Division: Major General Alexander Henry 7,500 Infantry, 2,500 Cavalry, 2 batteries of Horse Artillery
1st Virginia Colored Brigade Brigadier General Daniel Skanh 3,750 men
1st Virginia Colored Regiment 1,000 men
2nd Virginia Colored Regiment 1,000 men
3rd Virginia Colored Regiment 750 men
2nd Virginia Colored Brigade: Brigadier General Richard Pickett 3,750 men
4th Virginia Colored Regiment 1,000 men
5th Virginia Colored Regiment 1,000 men
6th Virginia Colored Regiment 750 men
1st Colored Artillery Battery
2nd Colored Artillery Battery

2nd Virginia Colored Division: Major General Arnold Lincoln 7,500 Infantry, 2,500 Cavalry, 2 batteries of Ho26rse Artillery
3rd Virginia Colored Brigade: Brigadier General Utku Sporel 3,750 men
7th Virginia Colored Regiment 1,000 men
8th Virginia Colored Regiment 1,000 men
9th Virginia Colored Regiment 750 men
4th Virginia Colored Brigade: Brigadier General William H. Thomas 3,750 men
10th Virginia Colored Regiment 1,000 men
11th Virginia Colored Regiment 1,000 men
12th Virginia Colored Regiment 750 men
3rd Colored Artillery Battery
4th Colored Artillery Battery

1st Colored Cavalry Brigade: Brigadier General Nathaniel Garland 3,500 men
1st Virginia Colored Cavalry Regiment 1,000 men
2nd Virginia Colored Cavalry Regiment 1,000 men
3rd Virginia Colored Cavalry Regiment 1,000 men
4th Virginia Colored Cavalry Regiment 500 men

31st North Carolina Dragoos Brigade: Brigadier General Thomas Crane 4,000 men
78th Georgian Cavalry Brigade: Brigadier General Ronald Iverson 4,000 men

Campaign Totals 15,000 Infantry (mounted on Mules), 11,500 Cavalry, 20 Horse Guns Total: 26,500 men.
 
The Bloody Decade: Blood in the Pacific
Blood in the Pacific

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East China Sea

The Steamer Archangel powered its way through the East China Sea. She was on the last leg of her journey to Port Arthur from the port of St. Michael. Many of the sailors were exhausted from fighting the cold rough seas of the Northern Pacific, and were looking forward to shore leave in the Warm climate of Port Arthur. Then the look out called out “Sail Ho''. The Captain pulled up his looking glass sure enough there was a two mast brig coming out of the North, Japanese Pirates. The Captain ordered all the sails out and extra coal thrown into the boiler, as the Archangel surged ahead maybe he could outrun them only to see two more pirate ships coming at them from the east.

Moscow Capital of the Russian Empire, October 12,1843.

General Admiral Isidor Makarov, head of the Imperial Naval Ministry was led into the Czar’s private office by the private secretary. Micheal looked at him “ Admiral please be seated” at ease please. “I would like to know why my gold ships from America keep getting lost in the East China Sea?” Makarov had guessed it was about this honestly it was getting worse despite Admiral Timofey Sorokin adding more patrols in the region there were just too many damn Japanese Pirates sailing modern French built steam brigs and cutters for the Pacific Fleet to intercept them all. “Your Majesty it is the Japanese and their French masters. This war over the Spanish throne is sapping the treasuries of everyone involved and the French are pressing the Japanese to get them more gold and the Tokugawa Government has become so dependent on them to stay in power that they have no choice but to issue more notes of marquee to the pirates. We have enlarged the Pacific Fleet as you know but it still cannot be everywhere and the French Pacific Fleet Patrols the Japanese Coastal Waters so we cannot go in and root them out.” The Czar pondered that for a second. “I want you to prepare a fleet to head to the Pacific that will carry an army of 100,000 men to reinforce our forces there,I want it ready to sail by the start of December.” Makarov stood up;he understood the conversation was over. He would go on to issue the needed orders.

Micheal took pen to paper and started to write a letter to the French in it he informed King Louis XVII and his government that they had until March of 1844 to stop all japanese Paricy. If not then Russia would be forced to take action to ensure that its ships had free passage across the Pacific Ocean. He sealed the letter and ran a bell for a servant to take it. He then wrote a second letter to Emperor Hyomyeong of Korea, whose queen was a Japanese Princess. In this letter he stressed that if Russia was to undertake offensive action in the Far East that Korea must play its part in providing supplies and troops. If this was done willingly then his heirs may rule over some if not all of Japan making Keora a true Empire. The letter was also sealed and sent with the ringing of the bell. Micheal didn't want to add Japan to the Empire, he was still trying to settle Siberia, Manchuria, and Russian America. If the french and their Japanese Puppets forced a war then the Koreans could rule over what parts of the Japanese Islands he ended up controlling.

Paris

The Czar’s ultimatum reached King Louis XVII and the French Government on October 29,1843. The Idea that Russia might enter the war as the Iberian Front was finally closing was not a pleasant surprise. Louis Returned a letter saying that he would use his influence to discourage the Tokugawa Government from its piracy actions. Louis would also send a small squadron to reinforce the French Pacific Fleet and inform them of possible war with Russia. Just as it appeared that the War was winding down it appeared that Hell had not finished it's visit to Earth. It now became evening more pressing to finish the Spanish problem once an for all before Russia could land an Army and reinvigorate the Iberian Front.
 
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The Bloody Decade: The Second War of Spanish Succession: The Fall of the Kingdom of Spain Part I
The End of the Beginning

The Fall of Valencia and the Dissertation of the Prussian Army had forced the British and their allies to fall back to the City of Seville and begin to fortify the city against attack. The Duke of Norfolk was down to just 75,000 Infantry 14,000 Cavalry 20 batteries of Field guns, and 7 batteries of Horse guns in his British Army, The Granadan Army was down to 60,000 Infantry 10,000 cavalry, 8 batteries of Field guns, 2 batteries of Horse Guns, and around Seville 48 heavy guns deployed in redoubts around the city. This gave the Allied army defending Seville 130,000 Infantry 26,000 Cavalry, 28 batteries of Field guns, 10 batteries of horse guns and 48 heavy guns.

To the East General Lafayette was gathering up his forces the French Army of Iberia now numbered 390,000 men: 360,000 Infantry, 30,000 Cavalry, 58 batteries of field guns, and 15 batteries of horse guns. In addition to this the Army of Aragon numbered 75,000 Infantry, 10,000 Cavalry, 18 batteries of Field guns and 3 batteries of horse guns. Lafayette chose to give Lieutenant General Ramon Cabrera y Griñó and the Army of Aragon a chance at redemption and sent them to capture the city of Cáceres‎ which was held by the last element of the Spanish Army that was still in the fight, Griñó was to finish off the Spanish Forces at Caceres and then march south to join Lafayette at Seville. Meanwhile, Lafayette would march on Seville with the French army and begin the final battle of the Iberian Campaign.

The Battle of Cáceres‎ October 2,1843

On the mountains surrounding the city of Cáceres General Miguel Badilla commanded the last remnant of the Royal Spanish Army. Under his command was a pathetic force of 15,000 Infantry and 2,000 Cavalry with a battery of field guns to support them. The men much like he himself were demoralized; their king was dead, their capital had been ransacked and raised; they all just wanted to go home and see what fate had befallen their families. Then on October 2, an army flying the flags of the Army of Aragon approached from the west. It was easy to see that they were outnumbered by tens of thousands of troops. Maybe they could hold out for a while but their supplies were limited. Miguel looked at his men once more they had been through enough. Spain had been through enough. He sent a ride out under a white flag with the terms he was willing to accept for the surrender of his force.

General Griñó received the rider under flag of truce and was shocked the Spanish Commander was offering to surrender his force in exchange for Parole for himself and all of his men as well as safe passage for him and his men to return to their homes. He looked at the Spanish cavalry officer standing by his horse. The man’s uniform was tattered and torn; he looked like he had barely slept in days. He realized that it was time to stop thinking of that man as something separate; they were all Spanish again. The Kingdom of Spain was dead as the old Spanish Empire and the Union of Iberian Christian Republics before it. Something new was going to be created what he didn’t know exactly but he figured the Protectorate of Aragon was set to become the Protectorate of Spain. This war was over time to let at least this part of it end not with bloodshed but with reunion. He accepted the offer of Surrender. At 1200h the last part of the Spanish Royal Army marched out of the mountains around Cáceres‎, came to a parade rest one last time stacked arms and rolled up their banners and received their proof of Parole and started marching toward home with select Aragonese troops escorting them.

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The final surrender of the Royal Spanish Army

**Note this was Orgionally going to be one update but its getting too big. So I made it a two parter.****
 
And thus ends that bloody chapter of Spanish history. Now we'll probably see Spain be nothing more than France's lapdog, but maybe things will actually get better in Spain now.
 
The Bloody Decade: The Second War of Spanish Succession: The Fall of the Kingdom of Spain Part II
The Battle of Seville 10/3/1843-11/29/1843

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British and Granadan Trenches around Seville

Just a day later 145 miles to the south General Lafayette and the French army of Iberia arrived at Seville to find a much different seane. The French found the British and Granadan dug in in a 40 mile long line of fortifications that had been built on the Ridge that makes a C shape to the west of the city. Lafayette would spend the next five days bombarding the defensive works and launching probing attacks to search for weaknesses in the defenses of the city. However on the southern side of the River the Defenses were very well built and the city defenders were able to drive off all of the French attack. It was not until October 20th when the Army of Aragon finally started to approach the city from the north that the British and Granadan forces realized that they had a problem and were forced to thin the lines to deploy more troops to the Northern side of the river. Lafayette took notice of this and on October 23,1843 launched a coordinated attack on the defenses of the city.

October 23rd would become known as the “Día de tres batallas” or Day of three battle in English. Lafayette would send 90,000 men to attack the Granadan forces in the south at Dos Hermanas, he would send 50,000 men to attack El Viso del Alcor in the Center of the line and lastly he would send 80,000 men to attack the Northern Flank at Guadajoz. Meanwhile the Aragonese would attack Las Pajanosas with their full strength of 48,000 men. The attacks would begin at dawn at all three locations; by noon the Duke of Norfolk realized that he was in trouble. The battle at El Viso del Alcor was going well the terrain in the center of the line meant that the five attacking divisions had struggled to make headway against the British musket and artillery fire indeed in just two more horse at 1400h Général de corps d'armée Pierre Gage would call off the attacks at El Visodel Alcor.

However, the battle on the Flanks would be another story. At Dos Hermanas and Guadajoz the terrain was flatter, negating some of the advantages that the defenders enjoyed. By 1500h the Grandans were in trouble as the French had managed to take two of the five forts in that part of the line and were close to taking a third. The Duke of Norfolk was forced to move two British Divisions form the Center to reinforce the Granadans at 1600h. In the North Things were worse the Terrain was even flatter than in the south with the extreme flank of the line being a flat floodplain. Here General Clarence Appleworth was and his Corps were struggling to hold back the French onslaught By 1700h he was in dire straits down to his last fort and rear line of earthworks and trenches. Appleworth sent repeated calls for Reinforcements to the Duke hoping stressing that if the French hit him again with fresh troops the Flank would not hold. At 1830h Norfolk took yet another division out of the center and sent it north; he was concerned now that his Center would not hold against the French if they renewed the assault, yet if the flanks fell then holding the Center would be pointless.

To the north of the City the battle was fought out in the open not in trenches, earthworks and forts. The defenders had not had time to construct any this far from the city. Instead 20,000 Granadan and 30,000 British under the command of Major General Sammuel Walden Kent went up against the 48,000 Aragonese troops under Lieutenant General Ramon Cabrera y Griñó. The Aragonese were fresh off their bloodless Victory at Cáceres‎, and were in really good spirits. The battle would begin at dawn like the rese and would see-saw back and forth all day however the Aragonese just didn’t have that one extra division they needed to drive the Allied Corps back. As the sun set on October 23,1843 the Northern battle was still deadlocked.

Across the field of battle in the French camp Général de corps d'armée Thibault Brodeur commanding the attack at Guadajoz could see victory ahead of him. He asked Lafayette for another division, stating that one more attack and I’m through their lines the British are on their last legs here. He begged for one more assault even though the sun was low on the horizon. Lafayette instead listened to his Aide de Camp Général de brigade Guarin Chaput who said if the British are that week now rest the troops and hit them hard again at first light tomorrow, its not like they can get reinforcements. Lafayette would give the order for all commands to rest for the night he would give orders for more divisions to reinforce both flank attacks and went to sleep assured that the Morning would bring Victory.

That evening as the fighting died down and night approached. The Duke of Norfolk and General Antonio Jesus Blázquez command of the Granadan Army held a council of war. It was almost certain that the Flanks would be broken come the morning Norfolk admitted that if the French had pushed hard one last time the Northern Flank would have broken this evening. The two decided to use the moonless night to pull their men back to the Inner defenses, even if this meant having to spike a good number of artillery pieces if they couldn’t be moved before dawn. As the heavy guns couldn’t be moved the Duke of Norfolk proposed something radical: a night bombardment by the heavies and some of the field gun batteries to cover the withdrawal. It was agreed and orders were sent out. That evening at 2000 hours the British and Granadan Artillery opened up in a night bombardment. An hour later the British and Granadan Troops started pulling out of their front line defenses. As dawn approached the last of the cannons that could not be moved were spiked.

The move to the Inner Defenses was the beginning of the end for the British and Granadan Defenders. The French moved in digging shallow trenches across from the Defenses creating an early form of trench warfare. From October 24th to November 19th the two sides would batter each other in attacks and counter attacks, however as time went on British and Granadan counter attacks became less and less, as the manpower difference and lack of supplies started to take its toll on the defenders. By November 19th it was clear that the end was near, supplies of ammunition were down to just 25% of the original stores of supplies, and Food was not looking much better. As such King Gilberto I and Carlos Galiano the Premier of the Christian Republic of Granada began to talk about seeking terms of surrender from the French. To the Duke of Norfolk this was not an option; he would not just surrender his army without an attempt to break out. Grudgingly the King and Premier were convinced to allow the british to attempt a break out. At dawn on November 21st after major rearranging of the troops inside the defenses. The British launched an all out attack on the French southern flank. With a little over 6 divisions of Infantry and two divisions of cavalry it was everything that the British had to throw at the French, and after a full day of fighting it was not enough and the setting sun saw a french counter attack force the British back into the trenches that they began in; in eighteen hours of constant combat the British hand suffered massive casualties and achieved nothing in return. That night the Duke of Norfolk agreed to offer terms of surrender.

The morning of November 22nd was strange because it dawned quiet there was no artillery fire, as the Duke of Norfolk had ordered all Allied artillery to cease fire at midnight. At 1000h a single rider approached the French lines under a flag of truce, he was lead to Lafayette’s headquarters where he presented the French General with the Terms of Surrender that the Duke of Norfolk was offering.
1)The British and Granadan forces would cease resistance and surrender the City of Seville to the French forces encircling the city.
2) The Granadan Army would unconditionally surrender to the French
3) The British Army would surrender all Artillery to the french and evacuate their troops from the Territory of the Kingdom of Spain and the Christinan Republic of Granada. They would keep their long arms, Small Arms,Swords, Bayonets and Knives. The French could escort the British Army as it marched to Gibraltar.
4) King King Gilberto I would accompany the British back to Gibraltar for his safety.,

Lafayette read them and scribbled on the note Gilberto must stay. Otherwise I can accept these terms. He had every intention of being lenient with the surrender of Seville to make up for the horror that was the Sack of Valencia, and Paris had approved this intent as a way to earn some much needed good international P.R. Back in Seville the Duke of Norfolk was willing to keep fighting; he would not sacrifice Gilberto to the people who had murdered his uncle, niece, and father; however it was Gilberto who put an end to all of it. “The people of Spain have suffered enough. I will not have one more person suffer another day of this siege for my sake. I and the Governments of Spain and Granada agree to these terms if you don’t then I will expel your force after I surrender. It was done at 1300h on November 22nd the Siege of Seville ended. The next day at dawn the British army of Iberia would march out of the city heading south under the watchful eye of French Cavalry. Then at 1400h the Army of Granada would march out of the city and stack arms and surrender its colors; before being led away to a Prisoner of War Camp near Madrid, with the Army would go King Gilberto of Spain and the Executive Council of the Christian Republic of Granada.

Madrid December 21,1843

King Louis XVII had made the trip to Madrid to personally sign the Treaty that would end the war in Iberia. The Treaty of Madrid would end hostilities between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of Spain and the Christian Republic of Granada. Under the treaty
  1. Both the Kingdom of Spain and the Christian Republic of Granada would accept annexation by the Protectorate of Aragon.
  2. The Protectorate of Aragon would be renamed the French Protectorate of Spain the Capital of the Protectorate would be moved to Madrid.
  3. Gilberto I would abdicate the Spanish Throne, and would agree to remain in French territory for the rest of his natural life. France would provide him with allowance housing to fit his status as a former King of Spain and a Member of the Italian Imperial Family.
  4. All Armed Forces of the Christian Republic of Granada and the Kingdom of Spain would be surrendered to French forces as soon as possible.
The Treaty would be signed that day. The War in Iberia was over However, the Second War of Spanish Succession would grind its way across Europe for another year before it finally ended.
 
The Bloody Decade: The Second War of Spanish Succession: Normandy in the Fall
The Normandy in the Fall

The War in the Iberia may have reached a climax but that didn’t mean that the Second War of Spanish Succession was over. Indeed the War was far from over; across Europe conflict still raged. From Normandy in northern France to the Shadows under the Alps in Northwestern Italy and the fields of central Germany the soldiers still marched and blood was still spilled; even in Iberia one last campaign was starting as a portion of the French Army of Iberia started the Siege of Gibraltar. No Spain may have fallen but the war had gained a life of its own and that life force had not yet run out.
The Second War of Spanish Succession, 1984
By Jonathan Polk, University of Virginia

Henry Duke of Mann (1) (or Lionheart II) as his men called the former prince had advanced south and established a defensive line running Saint-Germain-sur-Ay in the west to the coast just past Pierreville in the east (2). As things had gone downhill in Iberia King Richard IV and the Government of the British Empire had decided to reinforce Normandy instead of Spain which after the Polish and Danish revolts inside the Prussian Army which fell apart looked like a losing bet. Because of this by October of 1843 the Duke of Mann had 340,000 men (300,000 infantry, 40,000 Cavalry) with 65 batteries of Field guns, 6 batteries of horse artillery, and 250 heavy guns deployed in earthen forts along the trench line. That the Duke had created for the defense of the Peninsular. Most importantly The Duke of Mann had been able to acquire enough of the New Springfield-Sharps and Enfield-Sharps rifles that the majority of his force was equipped with them. Henry’s Army of Normandy was broken down into 5 corps of three Divisions. The 1st Corps commanded by Lieutenant General Arthur Crusher; the 2nd Corps commanded by Lieutenant General Richard Howell, the 3rd Corps commanded by Lieutenant General Christopher Clayton; the 4th Corps commanded by Lieutenant General John W. Maxley; and the 5th Corps commanded by Lieutenant General Alfred Loyns. The Cavalry formed its own detached corps commanded by Lieutenant General Logan Dunavan. Each Corps had 6 batteries of Field guns and the Cavalry Corps had 4 batteries of Horse Artillery attached to them. The remaining 35 batteries of field guns, 2 batteries of horse guns and 250 heavy guns were formed into the Artillery Reserve commanded by Major General Dominik Fox.

To the South the French Army of Normandy was gathering at the City of San-Lo. This army was led by Louis Bourbon, Duke of Normandy, who recently returned from Iberia (stained honor and all); he was quickly assembling an army to match Henry’s. At present he had a force of 295,000 men (270,000 infantry, 25,000 Cavalry) supported by 33 batteries of field guns and 4 batteries of Horse guns. Preliminary scouting reports on British defenses didn’t give Louis a lot of confidence in breaking their lines however he had orders from his brother and the government in Paris to make every attempt possible to do so. Finally the Duke of Normandy decided to launch two attacks on the British Lines one would be aimed at the British positions at La Haye-du-Puits on the western flank on their line while the other would be at Foucarville on the eastern end of the British line. The Duke of Normandy divided his army up into 3 wings Left Right and Center. The Left and Right wings would have 7 divisions of infantry each or 105,000 men while the Center would have just four divisions of Infantry or 60,000 men. He split the Cavalry 10,000 to left and right wings and 5,000 men in the center. The Left wing would be commanded by Général de corps d'armée Patrice de MacMahon (4) the center is commanded by Général de corps d'armée Aimable Pélissier(4) and the Right Wing is commanded by Général de corps d'armée Nicolas Monette. Both Monette and MacMahon are young, rising stairs in the French army MacMohan is 35 and Monette is just 28 years old. The Duke of Normandy knew that his center was weak but he believed that if he had any chance of breaking the British line he had to hit it as hard as possible.

The Battles of Foucarville and La Haye-du-Puits

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The Twin battles of Foucarville and La Haye-du-Puits would begin at first light on October 2, 1843. When the french artillery began a short 45 minute bombardment of the British lines. When the bombardment lifted the French Infantry began its attack. The two battles were fought completely differently.

At La Haye-du-Puits MacMahon and his Left Wing found themselves facing Lieutenant General Richard Howell’s 2nd Corps dug in on the heights around the town. MacMahon began his attack with a strong feint with his Right (eastern) flank. Once he was sure that the British had taken the bait around 0900h He began a massive attack with his left flank. This attack would catch the British off balance; and for several hours it looked like he might manage to roll the British flank and achieve a major victory. Yet, the Duke of Mann was forced to send the better part of his reserve in to restore the British position; finally forcing MacMahon from the field at 2100h. MacMahon and his men will pull back to Lessay; yet the Duke of Normandy would have them pull back to Coutances where the ground was more defensible.

To the west Général de corps d'armée Nicolas Monette and his Right Wing was assaulting Foucarville the land was flatter and offered less advantage to the defenders. However, here Monette ran into the 3rd and 4th corps under the overall command of Lt. General John W. Maxley who was senior by two weeks to Lt. General Christopher Clayton commander of the 3rd corps. Monette gambled that he could knock the British off guard and roll them into the sea. He sent 4 of his seven divisions along with his two cavalry brigades in a massive assault on the British right flank. Leaving the remaining three divisions in a defensive position securing his assault’s right flank. Maxley redeployed his men to meet the french assault and by 1000h he had stabilized his flank; in doing so however a gap had formed in the center between his 4th corps and Clayton’s 3rd corps. Clayton was aware of this and had moved his reserve division to a spot where he could quickly meet any french attack into the gap while not making it apparent to the french that he was doing this. At 1100h Monette took the bait and ordered two of his unengaged divisions into the gap hoping to split the British corps apart and save the battle which he was starting to feel slip through his fingers. This was just what Clayton wanted, by 1200h the French had slammed into a wall as the British 3rd Corps had closed the door on the gap after the French had committed. Worse at 1300h the British began their own freak attack on the French Right flank. Clayton’s men managed to encircle a full french division before Monette’s last unengaged division was able to mount an attack on the British flanking attack that allowed the second division committed to the gap attack to escape. The ensnared division would hold out for three more hours before Général de division Gabriel Sylvestre finally surrendered to the encircling British at 1645h. In the meantime Monette realizing that his chance for victory was gone had the rest of this Wing conduct a fighting withdrawal. They would first fall back to Carentan then Louis would have them march to Bayeux.

The Battle of Saint-Lo

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Henry Duke of Mann was happy his defenses had been tested and had held, however his victory came at the same time as the start of the battle of Seville. Upon receiving word of this Henry told his aide de camp Colonel Charles Hathaway “Only defeat can come of this news I am afraid.” This news cemented Henry's next move in his mind. On October 6, 1843 he called a War council of his generals in which he laid out his next campaign. Two days later the British Army began to march. In three columns General Crusher’s First corps, General Loyns 5th Corps both of which were mostly fresh only one division of each having taken part in the fighting on October 2nd and General Clayton’s 3rd Corps which was not so fresh would link up at Périers then; march on toward Saint-Lo. Meanwhile the 2nd Corps and 4th Corps would hold at Périers and await the report of General Dunavan’s Cavalry which would be scouting to find out where the French had taken up positions at. Henry was taking 3 corps to Saint-Lo because if he knew from old reports that that was where Louis the Duke of Normandy had been concentrating his army.

The Battle of Saint Lo would take place on October 11, 1843. When Henry the Duke of Mann led three corps 160,000 men supported by 28 batteries of Fields two brigades of Cavalry and one battery of Horse guns toward the town of Saint-Lo. He cavalry detachment quickly brought back word of a large French force encamped around the town, they estimated it at between 30,000-60,000 infantry. Henry would Send Clayton and his third Corps off to the South to cross the River below the town while he took the 1st and 5th corps in.

Louis had been rudely awakened by the news of the British approaching Saint-Lo he and quickly ordered his men into defensive formation The British appeared on western bank of the Vire at 1100h and a vicious battle over control of the bridges crossing the river would begin. Judging by the reports he was getting he was facing two corps that meant that there were around 120,000 men opposed to his 60,000 after receiving his last bit of reinforcements. However the defensive advantages of the River negated this somewhat. He dispatched orders to his Left and Right wings to begin moving toward Saint Lo with all due speed.

For the next 5 hours the battle roared around the old french city the French made the British bleed for every ounce of ground that they gained but the British numbers showed. By 1330 after two and a half hours of battle they had forced the crossing of the bridges in front of the city. Louis had received word that his two wings were moving toward the Center with all speed. But the Left wing was a days march away and the Right was just under a days march to the south. Then at 1730h Clayton’s 3rd Corps appeared at Condé-sur-Vire where Louis had deployed a single division in reserve. Sending what reinforcements he could Louis the Duke of Normandy sent new orders for this is wing commanders to his right wing he gave MacMahon leave to act independently for the time being striking as he saw fit but not allowing the British to get between him and Paris and to make his way toward Falaise while Louis and Monette would like up with him. To Monette he sent orders to link up with him at Bérigny, before they began to make their way to Falaise. At 2000h the last french troops pulled out of Saint-Lo and the British occupied the city. For now Henry Duke of Man chose not to push his luck. One final battle of the Fall Campaign in Normandy would be fought on October 12,1843 MacMahon’s army gave a rearguard action at Coutances before withdrawing. Once more they Second Lionheart had given the British People something to cheer as the Iberian Front fell apart.


  1. The Duke of Mann holds the Rank of General
  2. OTL Utah Beach
  3. French Division 15,000 men British Division 20,000 American Division 10,000
  4. Same person as in OTL
 
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FRA Cities and States

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FRA Railroads

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Commonwealth of American States (Continental) Cities and States

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Commonwealth of American States (Continental) Railways and cities

The island states and South carolina's African Holdings are still in progress


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British North America Cities

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British North America Railroads

Blow up of the Crown Republic of New England in the Works
I have up dated my North American Maps with British North America Cities and Railroad Maps as of 1840
 
The Bloody Decade: Second War of Spanish Succession: Last Stand in the Shadow of the Alps
Last Stand in the Shadow of the Alps

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On March 28,1843 Marshall Sacco set the 1843 campaign season in to motion by detached General Lombardi with 90,000 mne west in two flanking columns. Lombardi’s objective was to take control of the mountain passes that were keeping the French Army at Cuneo supplied. This would lead to the Battle of Borgo San Dalmazzo. Inside Cuneo General Roux had already dispatched a force of 70,000 Infantry 3,000 Cavalry and 13 batteries of field guns Borgo San Dalmazzo under command of General Francis Montclair. Meanwhile Marshall and his 150,000 men would march up and begin moving west toward Cuneo, ready to begin a siege of the town.

The battle of Borgo San Dalmazzo began on April 5, 1843. The French deployed in a giant C with the opening facing west toad the two passes. Lombardi’s men attacked from both the North and South. At first the northern attack came in hard forcing Montclair to send his reserves to his Left Flank This persisted for the better part of the day then at 1500h Lombardi ordered a full attack with his southern Column. The Fighting was intense to say the least and the Italians took heavy casualties as they forced the river crossing to the South of the town. But it worked by 1900h the French Right flank was failing and renewed attacks from the north on their Left flank kept the French form adjusting men to stabilize the lines. Finally at 20000 Montclair was forced to withdraw west. Or face losing his army. Worse still the Italian Cavalry kept his men from being able to fall back into one of the major passes west to France instead he was forced into the Central valley west of the town that dead ended into the Maritime Alps; he would rally his men at the town of Valdieri. The battle of Borgo San Dalmazzo cost the Italians 1,200 men Killed and another 4,500 wounded. The French suffered 1,000 men killed, another 2,500 men wounded and 5,000 men captured or missing. Lombardi would go about fortifying the town, which would now act as a plug keeping French reinforcements and supplies out of Italy and keeping Montclair’s army from rejoining General Roux’s Army at Cuneo. To do this Lombardi would detach 30,000 men west to Brignola where the valley narrowed and another 20,000 men to Santuario della Madonna del Colletto cutting both of Montclair’s escape routes out of the central valley. Meanwhile one April 8,1843 Marshall Sacco and the main body of the Italian Army of Northern Italy arrived and encircled the city of Cuneo. Sacco didn’t have enough men to take the French Fortifications but he didn’t need to, time was on his side; the siege of Cuneo had begun, and with an almost constant artillery bombardment as the field guns on both sides opened up on each other.

The Siege of Cuneo was a very active siege, for a couple of reasons. First General Roux was not one just to stand by and watch as his army starved Roux would attempt no less than 48 break out attempts between the start of the siege On April 7,1843 until it ended on January 17,1844, The most successful of these was the Battle of October 17th. This is possibly due to it being Roux’s most desperate break out attempt, with his stockpiles of ammunition starting to run low Roux threw everything he had in a breakout to the West. Although the battle is known by its start date it lasted for three days with Roux’s men not being forced back inside the pocket until late on October 20,1843 even then several brigades did manage to escape. These men would roam the Italian countryside for months becoming more like bandits than an organized military unit. After the Battle of October 17th Roux would not have enough ammunition left to mount anything but a determined defense. By the start of December Ammunition was not the only thing running low, Roux’s stockpiles of food were beginning to grow scarce The writing was starting to appear on the wall as Roux faced the facts; however he would hold out. Then on December 14,1843 the Montclair’s Corps starving in the snowed in valley gave up the ghost and surrendered unconditionally in exchange for food. For his part Sacco was continent to wait out the French. His men were well fed, well supplied and in good spirits if a little cold. And so just nineteen days into the new year Roux his men now on starvation rations gave in and surrendered to Sacco. The French Army of Italy was done. On January 20,1844 Roux’s men marched out, stacked their arms and surrendered their colors, Roux would surrender his sword to Sacco in person; then march back into the city and Italian supply wagons rolled in behind them. Sacco would use Cuneo as a massive Prisoner of War camp as many of the civilians had left the city at the start of the sige. He would later detach 65,000 men under the command of Major General Lorenzo Folliero. He also took pride in promoting his son Luigi Napoleon Sacco from Colonel to Generale di Brigata (Brigadier General) and placing him in charge of an Infantry Brigade in Lombardi’s Corps. So ended the French Italian Campaign.


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Generale di Brigata Luigi Napoleon Sacco

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Grand Marshal Lazzaro Ennio Sacco
 
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The Bloody Decade: Second War of Spanish Succession: The Kaiser Falls as the Republic Rises
The Fall of Berlin

The Battle of Rendsburg September 1,1843

After Frederick von Bismarck masterful escape from the Jutland trap at the Battle of Drantum had not only allowed him to escape with his army intact but had made the Swedish pause for a month before they resumed their offensive. Bismarck had taken his army to Rendsburg where he had started to entrench along the Eider River’s southern bank. While he was fortifying his position he collected as many local reserves and militia units that he could find, and by the time the Swedish showed on the northern bank of the River he commanded an army just under 62,000 infantry, 1,500 cavalry and 3 batteries of field guns fully, recovering his losses from the previous battles, if the quality of these troops was not as good as the regulars no matter Bismarck was convinced that one Prussian Militiaman was as good as 4 Swedish regulars.

To the north the Battle of Drantum had forced the Swedish to pause and collect their entire army plus reinforcements from both Sweden as well as the Danish Rebels. This force minus guards for supply dumps now number at 80,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 12 batteries of field guns and 4 batteries of Horse Guns. Generallöjtnant Björn Nordin would begin his push south in the second half of August and his scout located the Prussian Army under Bismarck on August 30,1843.

Bismarck had deployed his army on the South Bank of the Eiber River with three of his six divisions in a line running west to east with sight curve to the south on either flank his three batteries were deployed with a battery of field guns supporting the Right, Center, and Left. He kept two divisions in reserve; his last division he divided up into its four brigades and sent two brigades and a Regiment of Cavalry east to Keil 18 miles away and the other regiment of Cavalry and two brigades of Infantry he sent West to Hamdorf. He did this in an attempt to keep his army from being encircled by flanking maneuvers. The fact that he did this would most likely save his army in the coming battle.

Nordin meanwhile had divided his army once more. He kept the vast bulk with him 40,000 infantry, 1,500 cavalry and 8 batteries of field guns as his Main column as he once again detached 20,000 Infantry,10,000 cavalry, 2 batteries of field guns and Horse guns under Generalmajor Noah Marcussen this would form the Western wing and another 20,000 Infantry,10,000 cavalry, 2 batteries of field guns and Horse guns under Generalmajor Vilhelm Ohlson creating the Eastern Wing.

At 1000h on September 1, 1843 the Main column of the Swendish army came marching into Rendsburg and engaged Bismarck's main defenses on the southern side of the river. Bismarck is outnumbered but thanks to the advantage of the defense and having the breech loading Needle Rifle in the hands of his troops. However numbers did matter and by 1300h not only was the battle of Rendsburg turning against him but he was now learning that his units guarding the other crossings were being forced back. With this in mind he began a fighting withdrawal at 1330; by 1500h his army was marching south, however this ended at Nortorf when his vanguard arrived they found the men of Nordin’s two wings not only blocking the way but spreading out east and west. Realizing that he was now suffering the fate that he had escaped from in Jutland he was surrounded. He was tempted to launch a night attack however he ruled this out as by now the bulk of his men were not the well dressed regulars but Landwehr. So he settled at a dawn attack. His men however had other thoughts and during the night men started slipping out of camp and vanishing into the countryside. So many that when the dawn came Bismarck was left with just 30,000 infantry. Still he would order the attack in his three divisions attacked at 0645h the battle went back and forth for a few hours however by 0900h the Prussians were repulsed. Had he had more time he might have been able to scout out an escape route either west of east of the town but he didn’t have the time as Nordin’s main body was fast approaching from the north Bismarck chose to end the pain of this men and at 1000h he surrendered to Generalmajor Noah Marcussen. The Swedish would go on to occupy Hamburg and the Prussian Baltic Coast meeting little resistance after Bismarck's defeat.

The battle of Berlin 11/5/1843

To the South the Bavarian Generals General Eckehard Schiele and General Jakob von Hartmann had replied and secured their supply lines respectively they had wasted little time in launching a fall campaign aimed at taking Berlin. Molke and Roon had done their best to stop the Bavarians but they had the momentum and they kept driving the Prussians back towards Berlin. Slowly over the course of September tyhe Bavarians swung east and west of the city till on October 7,1843 the 1st and 2nd armies linked up Berlin was surrounded. The Kaiser and his family along with a small imperial guard brigade had fled the city before the pincers closed and had set up a government in the port city of Settin. The Siege of Berlin would last form October 7th till November 5, 1843. However the Turning point would occur on November 1,1843. By the start of November the people of Berlin had had enough. The Kaiser had fled like a coward abandoning them to the fate of the siege. Why should they suffer for a coward who would not share that fate with them. So on November 1,1843 a General strike was declared the people took to the streets demanding an end to a lost war, the Kaiser had followed the British and what had it got them, no it was time for this war to end. As the strike continued word was allowed to spread by the Bavarians and soon Stettin was in strike as well and Rostock and all the remaining Prussian cities. On November 5th in Berlin the Republic of Prussia was declared; two days later Kaiser Frederick III and his family fled to safety in Russia. The Republic of Prussia quickly asked for a cease fire and sent out feelers for a potential peace treaty.

The Peace

On November 15,1843 Representatives from the Swedish Empire, The Kingdom of Bavaria and the Crown Republic of Poland and the Republic of Prussia would meet in the City of Potsdam for the Potsdam Conference at which a final treaty would be hammered out. The Treaty of Potsdam would see Prussia ceded most of its territory to Sweden, and Bavaria as well as recognizing the Crown Republic of Poland. Sweden got Jutland and Northwestern Prussia including the city of Hamburg. Bavaria gets Saxony Brandenburg and part of Mecklenburg namely the Port of Rostock.

Following the conclusion of the treaty the Bavarian Parliament has issued ratifying the treaty as they don’t want the massive influx of Lutherans and other protestant Christians like wise the protestant Christians of occupied Prussia were not thrilled in being grafted into a catholic kingdom. Then Karl has a brilliant idea: he would recreate the Kingdom of Saxony which had been absorbed into the Prussian Empire upon its creation. The New Kingdom of Saxony would be a puppet of Bavaria with its foreign policy controlled by Bavaria. But it would have home rule on domestic issues, with its own parliament and courts. The Kingdom of Saxony would have four provinces, Saxony, Anhalt, South Brandenburg, and West Mecklenburg. Sweden would restore jutland to the Duchy of Denmark Schleswig-Holstein would become a new duchy in yard empire, and Hamburg would become an independent imperial city. The Republic of Prussia, glad to still exist, would move its capital from Berlin to Stettin. Now the much shrunken nation would start moving forward, to do so they would have to chart a path that stayed clear of the larger nations that surrounded it.

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The Flag of the Kingdom of Saxony


The Flag of the Republic of Prussia
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Map Northern Central Europe after the Treaty of Potsdam
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Flag also updated

Provinces of the Republic of Prussia
Brandenburg
Mecklandberg
Pomerania
 
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The Bloody Decade: Old Rivals Renewed: Part 1
Old Rivals Renewed

Part 1 Prolog


The end of the New English Civil War was not so much and ending to some people on both sides but a pause before the second round. These people would spend the intervening years between the end of the Civil War and the beginning of the War of 1844 getting their respective side ready for the next round. The Republicans in Vermont focused on creating and maintaining the American Defense Pact with the Federal Republic of America and the Commonwealth of American States. The Royalist in the Crown Republic focused on encouraging Britain to focus its settlement plans on British North America building its population up to a point where it could stand toe to toe with the Americans to the South. However, neither side had expected that when the time came all their hard laid plans would almost be undone because the rest of the western world let Hell come to visit before the New English were ready.

The Second New English Civil War 1844-1847: How New English Hotheads started the Third Anglo American Conflict By William Ames University of William and Mary Press Williamsburg Va 2001


The Crown Republic of New England on the eve of war

By the start of the winter of 1843 the New England the new pro expansion party the Pinetree Party had been formed following the Election of 1838 by Andrew Pinkman the Mayor of Springfield Massachusetts the main plank of this party was for the New English to assert their prominence in North America with in the British Empire of course. Pinkman’s and the Pinetree Party’s ultimate goals were 1) the unification of the Region of New England into the Crown Republic and 2) the Rise of New England to Lead a Confederation of British North America. This party grew with quite a bit of speed and in the Fall of 1843 the Pinetree Party came in second taking 28 of 65 seats in the house of commons, the Tories took 24 seats and the Whigs took 30 seats. For the first time the Tories did not win the most seats and would not lead the government. The Whigs had and with a two seat majority could form a government of their own. However Norman Gildson of Maine the leader of the Whigs chose to offer to create a Coalition with the Tories for an 54 seat supermajority. The New Government meant that Gildson would become Prime Minister and William King would become the Speaker of the House. In the rest of the government Christopher Allen (Whig-Ma) would become the Secretary of the Treasury, Gordan Giles (Whig-N.H.) would become the Secretary of Imperial Relations, Mathew Miles (Whig-NB) would become the Minister of the Interior, Neville Armstrong (Tory-Con) would become Secretary of the Army, and Henry Wilcox (Whig-N.H) would become the Secretary of the Navy.

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Norman Gildson (Whig-Maine) Third Prime Minister of the Crown Republic of New England

Having been shut out of the Government and forced into the minority opposition role. Didn't change the members of the Pinetree Party that they needed to act now while Britain was distracted and not paying attention to their Colonies in North America. They reached out to the First Peoples Council, the collection of Indian chiefs and religious leaders who were the De Facto government of the Huron Territory, many of whom were also looking for an excuse to go to war. From the point of view of these men now was the perfect time. The CAS was distracted already fighting two wars to their south and west. The FRA was not looking for war, enjoying their economic upswing as they sold the nations of Europe the means to kill each other, erasing the downturn they had suffered in the 1830’s. To them this meant that the CAS would be too busy to interfere and the FRA would not. (In later years many in this group who survived the war would cuss the fact that they had not inquired harder what the Indians' plans were.). In early December things started coming together the conspirators acquired a company’s worth of Vermont Army Uniforms and on Christmas eve of 1843 they were settled into their safe houses in Manchester, Massachusetts at midnight they would strike.

The Commonwealth of Huron on the Eve of War.

The Commonwealth of Huron was in theory ruled by the governor in Detroit, but it fact it was ruled by the First Peoples Council in Cold Harbor.

The History of American Indians in British North America Ally, and Irritation
By Robert T. Townson Imperial University of York, Canada 1998



In 1840 the Commonwealth of Huron had a population of 762,578 people;of that number 372,919 were members of one of the American Indian tribes that had ended up in Huron over the years. These tribes had banded together early on and created the First Peoples Council to act as a universal representative for all the tribes. Over the years this turned into a de facto government.

Following the loss of the Great Lakes Confederacy at the end of the war of 1805 and the forced removal of all Native Americans from the area by the Federal Republic of America those displaced people moved north into what would become the Commonwealth of Huron. The Surviving leaders of the defeated people assessed what had happened to them and why it had all gone south so fast. These men are led by Bloody Bear Claw, one of the last surviving leaders of the Great Lakes Republic. He would follow the vision that the gods had granted him as the war came to its bloody conclusion and led them to a small sliver of land with a steep cliff leading down to the cold waters of the lakes on two sides. There they built Final Keep (1) a great fortress that would protect the people. A town quickly built up near the fortress this would become Cold Harbor.

The Survivors of the Great Lakes Confederacy would welcome the refugees from the south when the states of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia and Florida expelled the natives from within their borders following the war’s conclusion. With these exiles would come two men Feathered Bobcat and War Hawk. Feathered Bobcat was a creek religious leader while War Hawk was the son of Red Hawk the leader of Red Hawk’s rebellion. They would meet with Bloody Bear Claw (who was by now an old man) at Cold Harbor and together from the First People’s Council. Over the next 30 years the First Peoples Council would focus on getting their population up by encouraging women to have as many children as possible and sending emissaries north east and west seeking out any native Americans who wanted to come settle with them in Huron. The tribes also welcomed most anyone seeking to escape form the east who was looking for whatever reason to start a new life, as long as he or she joined one of the tribes and lived according to that tribe's law.

By 1825 a decade after the last of the Southern Indian refugees arrived back in 1815 and some resettlement by other native american groups the Indian population of Huron was 178,895(2) total about half of the territory’s total population. Not happy with this War Hawk who wanted to rebuild native american numbers faster would take a controversial action. He would send representatives to the orphanages across Europe. They would be brought back to the tribal lands in Huron and divided evenly between the tribes that had settled there and raised as members of that tribe. Over the period between starting in 1825 and ending in his stepping down from the council in 1833 this program would see some 150,000 children ranging from newborns to ten years old brought back to the tribes. Upon his stepping down from the leadership of the council Susan White Swan the spiritual leader of the council declared that War Hawk’s idea had brought some balance to the world “the Europeans tried to destroy our people it seems fitting that we should take the children that they cast off to restore our culture.” In 1839 a new generation would start taking over the council; these would include Buford Blue Hawk grandson of Red Hawk, George Bearclaw grandson of Bloody Bear Claw, and Andrew Wolfsblood great grandson of Thomas Wolfsblood. It would be these individuals that the members of the Pinetree Party would create their secret alliance with in the lead up to the War of 1844

(1) The Hill between Cedar Lake and Lake Michigan north of Traverse City
(2) Traverse City Michagan
 
The Bloody Decade: Old Rivals Renewed: Part 2
The Manchester Massacre December 25,1843

December 25,1843 began cold and cloudy with a light snow falling over Manchester Massachusetts quietly a group of 50 men wearing the uniforms of Vermont infantry moved around the town large barrels filled with gunpowder, nails, spoons, and whatever else they could get their hands on to turn into shrapnel. Two barrels placed at city hall filled with a new explosive called Nitroglycerin in addition to gunpowder once they had all of their presents in place, they set themselves up at critical intersections, readied their Vermont army issue Colt Revolving Rifles and waited for the show to start.

The just minutes after dawn on Christmas day explosions destroyed the quiet of the morning. The loudest of which was the two bombs at city hall where the two nitro bombs had leveled the building and damaged the two to either side. Fires were started around the city with bells going off calling for the fire brigades to deal with the crisis. However now the “Vermonter” soldiers opened fire on the men rushing to put out the fires and see people stuck in collapsed buildings.

The "Vermonters" would cause chaos as the city burned for over 6 hours before colonel Faber Miller and the 7th Massachusetts Dragoons arrived and proceeded to attack the “Vermonters” who refused to surrender and fought to the last man. The Dragoons then assisted in helping out as best they could as by this point many had become uncontrollable.

December 26,1843 Boston Ma

Grand Duchess Victoria sat on her podium overlooking the assembled House of Commons that made up the only house in the New English House of Parliament. This was all new to her as her Father the late duke Edward had passed away earlier in the Month on December 15,1843. Off to her side was her husband Albert Wellesley, eldest son of Arthur Wellesley the Earl of Ontario. Once everyone was seated she stood up “Mr. Prime Minister, I hereby ask the Parliament to call the armed forces of the Crown Republic of New England to readiness. And to send a formal petition to the Government in London for a Declaration of War upon the Republic of Vermont.” The address was met with a thunderous applause. The Call to Arms was passed with no dissenting votes as was the petition for a declaration of war on Vermont on behalf of the Crown Republic of New England. A rushed petition along with statements form the men of the 7th Massachusetts Dragoons and citizens of Manchester Massachusetts would leave Boston Harbor on the HMNES Swiftwind, a high speed steam packet boat heading for London.

Indian’s Revenge December 31,1844

City of Bear Claw
General Christopher Soaring Hawk led his column of 60,000 warriors and 3 batteries of Field guns out of the City of Bear Claw in the early morning hours on New Years Eve. All of his men were mounted on horses, mules or asses. They would fight on foot for the most part but speed was everything. His was the largest of the Columns that the First People’s Council had assembled in Huron Territory, but he also had the largest objective to capture Toledo and destroy the Federal Republic of America’s 3rd Army based there. To the west General Thomas Hungry Bear was leading a Column of 40,000 men and 3 batteries of mixed artillery south to capture Battle Boro then if things went right Fort McCoy. Still further west General Joseph Crying Wolf was leading the smallest column 30,000 men and two batteries of mixed artillery southwest to New Istambul, and if luck favored them in this campaign detaching a division south to take Council Creek. The Spiritual leaders on the council had told them that they would have good weather until the 12th day of the new year. It was time for revenge.

January 1,1843

Brigadier General Richard Howard, commander of the 1st Independent Cavalry Brigade watched the approaching cloud of dust on the horizon as the first of his scouts came galloping back towards him. Out of breath the man gasped “General.. Indians in Red Coats thousands of them riding in columns. George, he was gonna try and ride around them and get a better count.” Howard nodded “Go get a drink and a fresh mount son you did good.” as he dismissed the riders. Signaling to his staff with his other hand as he scribbled a note to General Sherman back in Toledo. “Thomas Ride like the devil is behind you get this to General Sherman.” As Thomas took the note saluted and road off full gallop Howard called to the Bugler Sound they ready we are gonna delopy where the road crosses the Ottawa River. He would soon be joined by General Walters and the 6th Cavalry Brigade as well as their two batteries of Horse Guns.

Howard’s stand at the Ottawa River was a brave act but it was a futile act that actually played into the Soaring Hawk’s plans. Soaring Hawk took the risk of splitting his command sending 30,000 men on a wide swing to the south then east.
Meanwhile in Toledo General Sherman was readying his men to match. General Coltrain and the other half of the 9th legion were already on the road. The rest of the army would be ready to march in the hour; he was concerned that each legion was at half strength with men away on leave for the recent holidays. However by 1450h his men were marching. With his cavalry engaged he had no knowledge of the flanking column.

Up at the crossing Howard was thrilled to see Coldtrain come up to the Infantry brigade that made up the rest of the 9th Legion. As General Davin's brigade started to file into line his boys made their way with each of his five regiments sliding to the Infantry's flanks. Coldtrain told Howard and Walters both to get one of their regiments in the saddle and go scout the flanks. At 1830 General Sherman and the rest of the Army arrived and now the battle was truly finally on. As the sun set General Sherman and his generals held a council of war. Sherman asked if this was good ground to fight on Generals Coldtrain, Pittman and Gordan (Alexander was still in Toledo with his 10th Legion) “Not really General but it's the ground we got to fight on unless you want to fight it out inside Toledo.”

As the morning of January 2nd dawned cold but clear the lines were dawned up and the battle commenced in earnest once more. Sherman was able to use his superior artillery to keep the Indian troops at bay while the two Cavalry Brigades now mounted for the most part traded charges with the Indians who were mounted on the flanks of the lines all in all it looked like a textbook battle being played out. Technically the Indains had more troops but the advantage of his rifles and rifled artillery on the defensive negated this. Then around 1300h a runner reached Sherman’s headquarters and the General commanded the Federal 3rd Army went white. The message was from General Alexander He and his Legion were engaged in a desperate fight just south of Toledo facing superior Indian numbers. Alexander stated that he would hold out for as long as humanly possible but he advised Sherman to make plans to withdraw his men. Sherman surveyed the battlefield with his glasses. It would be difficult to disengage his men as the Indian Commander seen that his men were fully engaged. He sent orders to his commanders. General Pittman was to begin disengaging his men, slowly as he did this Generals; Coldtrain and Gordan would extend their lines to cover Pittman’s withdrawal once Pittman was disengaged. Coldtrain and Gordan would begin a fighting withdrawal with Gordan extracting his men and Coldtrain forming a final rear guard.

It would take most of the afternoon before Sherman had managed to get Ptittman’s and Gordan’s Legions out of the battle and marching southeast. He had started to hope that he would manage to extract his army without losing any of his major formations He had sent word to Alexander to fight his way out of Toledo and link up with the army at the O’Brian’s Mill (1) were the army would cross the Maumee River and regroup on the eastern bank. When a runner came galloping up his finger in a bullet hole in his horse's neck keeping the poor creature from bleeding out. He jumped off and the horse ran about fifteen more yards and collapsed, dead. “General Sherman! General Alexander sends his last regards sir our Legion is surrounded I barely got out. The Indians are driving him back into the Lake.” Sherman read the blood spattered message and started urging his men to march on. As night fell Howard’s Cavalry came riding up. Howard reported that Coldtrain had ordered him and his men to escape as the Indians had started to encircle the 9th Legion Howard and his men had had to cut their way through the Indian troops to do so and that Coldtrain and rest had been overrun. As his men gathered on the Eastern bank of the Maumee River Sherman took count of the losses of his roughly 28,000 men 30 batteries of artillery and going into the battle of the Ottawa River and the Third Battle of Toledo he had a force of 10,500 men and 19 batteries of artillery currently active here opposite of O’Brian’s Mill. Facts in hand he ordered his men ready to march after they had eaten and filled their canteens He was headed to Franklin, Erie where he hoped to link up with his men returning from enlistments as well as the State Guard Troops.

January 11,1844

Christopher Soaring Hawk proudly led his men on a victory march though the streets of New Dublin, Erie the state's capital. It had been a momentous campaign in just two weeks his men had taken Toledo and New Dublin on the shores of Lake Erie. to the west New Istanbul had fallen after only minor skirmishing with the hastily assembled local militia. Similar scenes had played out at Battleboro and most importantly at Council Creek. Joseph Crying Wolf had lead 15,000 men and a battery of artillery south from New Istanbul to Council Creek Town. The current town being five miles downstream and on the Eastern Bank of the Wabash River. Local refused to go near the ruins of the old town which they claimed to be haunted by angry ghost of the Indians who once lived there. Council Creek had fallen with even so much as a skirmish to Crying Wolf’s scouts. After occupying the current town Crying Wolf and the medicine woman Laura White Swan would visit the ruins of the former Council Creek Town on the western bank of the river where Laura would perform a ritual that would allow the angry spirits to rest once and for all. As the sun set on January 11th the snows started to fall, as the Native American troops began to entrance in their newly captured towns and cities; the snows would not stop for 14 days, the newly declared war had gone cold, for the moment.

  1. Isaac R. Ludwig Historical Mill Grand Rapids OH
 
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