The Mexican Empire in the 1830's
Empire of Mexico


For the Empire of Mexico the 1830’s would see two major events happen the start of the Second California (often cited by historians as a continuation of the 1820’s Gold rush) in 1838. The other event was the Choice to replace the Baker Rifle as the Imperial Army’s primary long arm. From 1832 to 1835 the Imperial ordnance office held trials for various rifles from domestic arms companies, North American Arms Companies and European Arms companies. The European long arms all being muzzle loading rifled muskets were quickly rejected as their neighbors had moved away from this style of rifle and it was correctly assessed that muzzle loading rifles would be at a disadvantage in any major North American War. This also ruled out all of the domestic Mexican weapons designers, this left three Rifles in contention, The Model 1824 Halls Rifle (the Cap lock version of the Model 1812 Halls Rifle) currently used by the Federal Army in the FRA, it was breech loading and used a paper cartridge. The 1832 Palmetto Breechloading Rifle designed in compete against the McKnight Revolving Rifle it fired a 56-50 rimfire brass cartridge. And the last entry into the competition the Sharps Rifle from the Crown Republic of New England. The Falling block action of the Sharps rifle that could be configured to fire either Rimfire Brass Cartridges or a cap lock and paper Cartridge was the most promising to the Imperial Army. On August 17, 1835 Major General Santa Anna who was had been appointed Quartermaster General of the Imperial Army in July of that year announced that the Sharps Rifle had won the competition. The rifle would be produced in the Cap lock form as it required the least amount of Industrial conversion of the Ammunition factories, and thusly would save on the cost involved with the rifle, compared to adoption of brass cartridges. This made Prime Minister Hermelinda Angulo Valenzuela and the Cortes General in Mexico City very happy.

Politically the Catholic Conservative Party still dominated the Cortes General in Mexico City controlling 275 out of the 500 seats in the Imperial Assembly, The Imperial Eagle Party was there main opposition controlling 215 seats in the Imperial Assembly. With a hand full of independents rounding out the full 500 seats. This meant that for three decades the Catholic Conservative Party had along with the Monarch Emperor Jose I ruled Mexico providing stable ground for the heir of Cortez and Montezuma to build a strong and wealthy nation. It was not shocking that though out the 1830’s Mexico had the most stable economy of all of the American Nations. Despite this Mexico City was still forced to fight for control of its central American Provinces into which a constant stream of Filibusters flowed keeping the provinces in constant state of unrest but never quite in open rebellion. Needless to say this along with the C.A.S.’s annexation of Louisiana did nothing to help the diplomatic relations between the two North American nations who by 1840 were on the verge of open hostilities.
 
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Colombia in the 1830's: The Revolution of 1832
The Republic of Colombia
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Over the last twelve years Colombia had been in spiral of decentralization that by 1830 had left the central government almost powerless. In a way Colombia had done the opposite of the North American Republics; and yet there were those in Colombia who could not stand the current shape of things. Though out the 1820’s a movement had been growing in Society centered around the leadership of the Army and Navy. From the highest ranking Generals and Admirals to the common soldier and sailor the by the time the year 1831 began the Military and a large chunk of Colombian society were ready to rid themselves of the cumbersome wet blanket that their current constitution had become.



This would culminate with a military lead coupe on July 7, 1832, in this coupe the Colombian Army marched into the Assembly Palace and seized the both houses of the Congress and the President of the Republic of Colombia in one fell swoop. The Military arrested any senator or Assemblyman who didn’t agree with them but left the Rump of each house that did. This Rump Congress would approve the Constitution of 1832. This Constitution restored all of the powers that the Central Government had lost following the Ecuador War. This constitution replaced the President with an Emperor who would be elected by the public but serve a life term in office. The Congress was reduced to one house Called the Imperial House of Commons which would have 400 seats divided up between the Provinces equally, the House of Commons members would serve a 6 year term. The Constitution of 1832 also gave the Executive branch (the Emperor) control over the Federal Courts while leaving state level courts at the hands of the Governor. The figure head of the Coupe now being called the Revolution of 32 was a Creole General named Cristobel de Inca. Until elections could be held the Rump Congress and a panel of Generals would run the country. Not all was good however and even though the centralist had gathered much support in the western regions of Colombia in the east they were few in number. This led to a Republican Government being formed in the city of Caracas this government would create a separate country called the Republic of Bolivia. Oddly neither rival government wanted to or could do much to the other so for the next decade there would exist an odd truce between the two governments/nations.

Empire of Colombia
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The new Empire of Colombia would hold its first election on the first Tuesday of February in 1834. This election would see the new Imperial Party (a coalition of centrist parties) win the majority of the seats in the House of Commons with 275 seats the Condor (A coalition of liberal parties) would come in second with 75 seats, the Franciscan Party would take the remaining 50 seats rounding out the house. General Cristobel de Inca would win the Imperial Election becoming the First Emperor of Colomiba Cristobel I at 45 years old.



Emperor Cristobel I

Republic of Bolivia

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To the East the Republic of Bolivia’s creation had been heavily influenced a large group of filibusters lead by Richard Clough Anderson Jr. of Virginia. The Republic of Bolivia resembled the old government of Colombia very little in stead it looked a lot like the Commonwealth of American states with power evenly divided between the Central Government and the states of the Republic. The Government consisted of the Senate where each of the 26 states each got 2 Senators. The President elected by the Senators for a single 8 year term and the Judiciary which was divided between state courts and federal courts, federal courts being appointed by the President. The Federal government control general over all domestic policies that required states to have similar laws, international trade and defense; like in the CAS the federal government could not directly tax the people of the states but could levy taxes on the states themselves. The Senate would be elected in February of 1834 and sworn into office a month later in March, relieving the provisional government. The senate would be comprised 25 members of the Republican Party dominated the senate, the next biggest party was the Party of Independence which held 18 seats the other 9 seats went to independents. This would lead to Pedro Gual Escandón of the Republican Party being elected the first president of Bolivia. However the name should not fool you the “Republican Party” was run by Anderson and his fellow filibusters, to the point that Anderson and his men would make up the majority of the executive branch department heads including the cabinet seats of Foreign Minister which Anderson held, and the Minister of Defense which was held by Robin Williams Vance of North Carolina.


President Pedro Gual Escandón


Richard Clough Anderson Jr. of Virginia Foreign Minister of the Republic of Bolivia


Robin Williams Vance (filibusterer of North Carolina) Minister of Defense for the Republic Bolivia. (1)

The uneasy peace between the Colombian Empire and the Republic of Bolivia would last until March 7, 1841 when Colombia would launch and invasion of Bolivia. In the opening moves of what would become the Commonwealth-Colombian War, and also start the Decade of Blood as the 1840’s would become known.

(1)
I take no credit for this it comes from https://replaceface.tumblr.com/  Once again I take no credit for this
 
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@estevech
Glad you are enjoying it I'll give a spoiler and say that Mexico's monarchy is stable enough to survive the upcoming conflict as is Peru Colombia is in the middle of a Cold Civil War that is getting ready to turn Hot but the Imperial/Centralist have built a strong foundation and will most likely weather at least the first dual with the Commonwealth of American States. Also what is coming is much greater in scope than just the Americas, The 1840's will earn the title Decade of Blood for a reason.
 
I had not set up a chapter on the UPE I did kinda cover french Argentina but there is not a whole lot going on in these there right at the moment. New Aquitaine and the UPE will factor into the Bloody Decade as a front in the Second War of Spanish Succession. And in the Upcoming Cold Years that follow it in the 1850s and scramble for Africa in the 1860s and 70s
 
It's still Jose I his eldest son just turned 16 in 1839. There will be an imperial wedding as a bright spot amongst the blood of the 1840s. It's already been hinted at a while ago. I wonder if anyone can guess.

I was gonna do it in 1839 but felt the 40s needed some light amid the darkness
 
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It's still Jose I his eldest son just turned 16 in 1839. There will be an imperial wedding as a bright spot amongst the blood of the 1840s. It's already been hinted at a while ago. I wonder if anyone can guess.

I was gonna do it in 1839 but felt the 40s needed some light amid the darkness

Ok was just making sure because the Mexico update has the Emperor named Antonio I
 
The Bloody Decade: Prelude The Colombian Civil War New
The Bloody Decade began on March 7, 1841 when the Colombian Empire sent its east out of Valencia heading straight for Caracas the seat of the Bolivian Government. Following the Revolution of 32 the newly formed Imperial consisted of the core of the old Republican Army of 32,000 enlisted men plus officers. Over the course of the next ten years the Imperial Government would expand this small army to a force of 125,000 enlisted men plus officers. This was done slowly so that the training quality of the new recruits was just as good the older soldiers. The money it took to do this however required sacrifices upon its formation the Imperial Army had wished to up grade from the Flintlock Model 1812 Halls breechloading Rifle. However, as the coast of expanding the army to its needed size became apparent it was decided to for go this and keep the flintlock rifle. When the Colombian’s began their Invasion of Bolivia they committed were able to commit a force of 65,000 men supported by 90 field guns (15 batteries). In Bolivia the Republicans had not been able to replicate the success of the Imperials when it came to re-arming. As each state maintained its own military, this meant that the central government could not maintain a unified quality of the troops. It could control the arms that the Army was equipped with and though its murmurous contacts was able to secure the Palmetto Breach Loading Rifle for used on their troops. The Palmetto Rifle was not one of the McKnight series, it had been designed about the same time and fired a 50-56 caliber rimfire bullet, it was a single shot trapdoor action similar to the Custer Rifle that the Federals were using. When the Colombian Invasion began in the spring of 1841 Bolivia called up all the state armies to defend against the Imperial invasion a combined army of only 55,500 men supported by 72 field guns (12 Batteries) was all that they could assemble.

The Caracas campaign was the first of the war and it would show the difference that training made. The opening battle took place at Las Tejerias on March 21, 1841; here 35,000 supported by 48 field guns Bolivians entrenched around the town in the narrow valley met an Colombian Army of 40,000 supported by 60 Field guns. The battle was a bloody affair but two things became apparent quickly first the Bolivians not having the brass for the bullets for the Palmetto Rifle had used copper instead these shell began to swell in the humid conditions making jamming a major issue for the Bolivians, second the low quality of many of the Bolivian troops began to tell as the battle entered its second day. And the exhausted and frustrated Bolivian soldiers began to break under the pressure of Colombian attacks. By then end of the 22nd of May the Bolivians were forced to withdraw or risk their army breaking over course of battle on the 23rd of May. The Bolivians would fall back to the Fortress city of Los Teques where they would reinforce the 5,000 man garrison and prepare to make their next stand because behind Los Teques nothing stood between the Colombians and the gates of Caracas. The Battle of Las Tejerias was a bloody affair the Colombians took close to 3,500 men killed with 4,800 more men wounded. The Bolivians got off easier taking just 1,500 men killed and 2,600 men wounded. For the European observers the failure of the Bolivian rifles came as a relief as the firearms revolution that place in America had started to worry them just a bit. The Commonwealth advisors not pleased to learn of metal substitution in the shells however what they took away from the battle was the effect that the entrenchments had done for the Bolivians even with their ammunition issues. Meanwhile in Williamsburg the Filibusterer ambassador for Bolivia to the CAS began making the case for CAS intervention on Bolivia’s behalf.

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Colombian Imperial Army attacks Bolivian Positions

The Colombians would push ahead with the next phase of their plan on May 30, 1841 the Colombian Imperial Navy would engage the Bolivian Counterpart off the Isla La Tortuga. Their for the first time ever two steam powered fleets would engage each other. The Bolivian Navy was more organized than the Army but over the last decade the Bolivian government had not been kind to the navy and many of their ships were far from fully seaworthy; still when the two fleets met the Bolivians fielded a fleet 38 ships centered around 1 50 gun steam powered ship of the line and 12 steam frigates the rest were a combination of steam sloops and brigs. The Imperial Armada fielded a fleet of 50 ships; the Imperial battle line featured a battle line of two 52 gun steam ships of the line and 17 steam frigates the rest of the fleet consisted of Sloops and brigs. The after a fierce five hour battle the Colombian Imperial Armada would emerge victorious. The Bolivians lost their ship of the line, 6 frigates, and 10 smaller ships; the Colombians lost 4 frigates and 8 smaller ships. The Colombians would go on to land 45,000 men at the town of Higuerote. This Army would quickly sever the remaining roads into the Bolivian Capital city and begin the siege of Caracas would officially begin on April 8, 1841.

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Colombian Steamships on Patrol

Only 28,000 men and 24 field guns would escape the siege to continue field actions further east. This army would rally at El Guapo, where they would an additional 24,000 men to join the Army. However these men were ill trained and equipped with the older 1812 Halls Rifle not the newer palmetto rifle. This army commanded by Damián Zambrano would fight a series of battles along the eastern flank of the Colombian lines besieging Caracas. These attacks were easily driven off by the Colombian Imperial Army but they served to keep the moral of the defenders up. Meanwhile to the west Bolivian partisan groups constantly harassed Colombian supply trains as they bough supplies form Colombian Supply dumps to the front. Over the course of the Summer these hit and run attacks would continue but the Bolivians lacked the artillery to break the Colombian siege; and inside Caracas the defenders and civilians were fast running out of supplies. By mid-August The Bolivians would mount a desperate breakout. At dawn on August 18, 1841 the defenders began a massive bombardment having moved heavy artillery form other sectors of the front to concentrate on the Colombian eastern flank that had been subject to so many rear attacks by the Bolivian Field Army. The attack from inside the pocket caught the Colombians off guard and the Bolivians were able to successfully get 18,000 troops and some civilians out of the city before the Colombians closed the breech in the lines. This left just 10,000 men defending the city. Realizing what had happened the Colombians would launch two massive attacks on the defenses on the western flanks and the center of the line on August 20, 1841. These were the areas which had their heavy guns stripped away to support the breakout. The Bolivians would fight desperately but they were outnumbered 3 to 1 and lacked the heavy artillery support that could have made up of the lack of manpower, and they were forced back out of their earthworks and into the support trenches. The battle would continue until August 24, 1841 when with most of the city a smoking ruin Major General Isandro Diaz would surrender his command to Major General Marcio Pedroza of the Colombian 12th Army. When the fighting in Caracas finally ended just 3,500 Bolivians were left able to fight.

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The Bolivian Army attacks the Colombian Siege lines around Caracas.

The fall of Caracas was a planed for event of the Bolivians the location of the capital had been between a rock and a hard place when the Republican vs. Imperial border been settled during the Cold Civil War following the Revolution of 1832. But they had expected to keep more of their first line troops in the fight longer, than this, and recognized that the Army currently facing the Colombians had little chance of stopping the Imperials. If the world was a saner place they would have negotiated peace with the Imperials. But this was not a sane time and the Filibusterers in the Bolivian Government were able to push though an application to Join the Commonwealth of American States in exchange for help defeating the Colombians. The application was very generous to the CAS allowing them to divide the Republic of Bolivia up between the new state of Bolivia and up to 4 other states, and the CAS House of Delegates would be the ones to draw the new borders of these states.

The Application for state hood from the Republic of Bolivia would reach Williamsburg, CD on September 12, 1841. It would bring to the for front of Commonwealth politics the back seat debate over weather or not to intervein in the Colombian Civil War. The Application for State hood would trigger two weeks of debate before the Finally on September 25,1841 voting to accept the application and giving Colombia 30 days to with draw or be at war with the Commonwealth of American States. The vote for this had been close as the Commonwealth Chartist Party had worked hard to put together the votes to stay out of the war by accepting the application for statehood effective upon conclusion of the current conflict but the Aquila Party from the Commonwealth’s Caribbean states had gone fully in with the Commonwealth Manifest Destiny party to push for intervention and had won the vote. Chancellor Harrison would issue orders for and Army of 150,000 men and 20 batteries of artillery (120 guns) to be assembled in the city of Havana Cuba and for the Commonwealth Navy to ready a fleet to secure Commonwealth supremacy in the Caribbean Sea. On October 24, 1841 Colombia would reject the ultimatum and the Commonwealth Declaration of War would take affect, the Colombian Civil war had morphed into the Commonwealth-Colombia War.
 

Attachments

The Bloody Decade: Prelude Part 2 Bloody Monday New
September 1, 1841 Cagliari, Sardinia

King Charles Felix and the head of his secrete police have are in a meeting with a French Exile named Dieudonnée Fontaine. Mr. Fontaine is an ex Franciscanist and a current Anarchist. King Charles asks him a simple question “So you understand who you are working for Mr. Fontaine and what you task is ?” Fontaine responds “ Yes your Majesty I am an agent of the French Crown charged with eliminating the Bonaparte stain from the throne of Spain, and bring pure French blood to rule the Iberian Peninsula as God intended; Viva la Roy. I will make sure that none of the current Spanish Royal Family survive me for I am the angle of death doing Gods Work.” King Charles nods “Very well you payment is on its way to your family in the Protectorate of Aragon half now haft after they are dead. Now leave us your presence offends me” the guards escort Fontaine out of the Place via a servants entrance and take him to a small steam clipper that will speed him to Spain. Charles Felix sits back in his chair soon it would all begin Killing the Spanish King would set ablaze the Iberian powder keg and lead to France and Italy declaring war on each other. Once that happened Sardinia would be poised to invade the Italian Empire and wipe the Bonaparte stain from the history of Italy and set himself on the Italian Throne where he should have been all along. If the explosion was bigger and more of Europe got caught up in the flames more the better. Republicanism even in a muted form of Constitutional Monarchy had too much power in Europe these days it was time for him to restore the proper balance of power, who knows Rome was and Italian city that ruled most of Europe no reason Sardinia could not as well.


King Charles Felix of Sardinia the Man Who Blew up Europe

March 7, 1842 Valencia, Kingdom of Spain

Monday March 7, 1842 started off as a warm sunny day The royal Family enjoyed a game of tennis in the palace yard before retiring inside for lunch. The first items had just been served with the Royal Dining room erupted in Fire and Flame. The Guards outside rushed into the palace to see what happened only to find King Francisco I, Queen Carolina, and Princess of Astoria Élisabeth Louise de Bourbon all dead the child missing both arms and a leg below the knee lie in arms of her mother who cradled the dying child, she herself on her way to Gods warm embrace with a peace of wood from the table in her side piercing her liver. The King had also been pierced by shrapnel from the bombs with a large splinter of wood going though his right eye most likely killing him instantly; although it was told later that it appeared that the king was trying to reach his wife and daughter half a room away in his last moments. Prime Minister Joaquín María de Ferrer y Cafranga was summoned to the place were he was seen to weep over the fallen royals and issued orders for the Army and Navy to be mobilized and for the Royal Police to find the man or woman responsible for this. He would leave after issuing a summons for an emergency assembly of the Parliament, in this session Joaquín María de Ferrer y Cafranga would pain a vivid image of the seen he had seen at the palace and a demand for justice. This also opened the debate over who the next king should be Prince Francis Xavier Bourbon of France or Marius Napoleon Bonaparte Duke of Naples of the Italian Empire.

On May 5, 1842 after two months of evading capture Dieudonnée Fontaine was captured while in a brothel in a little town just 24 miles from the border with Protectorate of Aragon. On his person were detailed hand drawn maps of the Royal Palace in Valencia and almost 700 Gold French livre in his possession. Fontaine was taken in to custody and once he sobered up he agreed to give a full confession and tell everything including who his contacts were. Fontaine was taken back to Valencia to the Royal Police headquarters where he told everyone who would listen how he was recruited in Paris and the French government agreed to release his wife and children from debtors prison if he did this and give him enough money to retire in New Aquitaine and live out a happy life. Word of this was leaked to the press and before parliament could even convene it was all over the news papers FRENCH GOVERNMENT PAYS ASSASSIN TO KILL ROYAL FAMILY; FRENCH COUPE IN VALANCIA: FRENCH SEEK TO PLANT A PUPPET ON SPANISH THRONE; FRANCE COMMITS VILE ACT OF ACT OF WAR; CALL TO ARMS FRENCH COMMIT ACT OF TERROR AGAINST SPANISH GOVERNMENT; AVENGE GOOD KING FRANCISCO AND OUR POOR QUEEN AND PRINCESS. Were just a few of the headlines that were printed that day. The Spanish government would issue an ultimatum to Paris, France had 48 hours to apologize formally and officially, and pay 1.2 million French livre in reparations to Spain; and recognize Marius Napoleon Bonaparte Duke of Naples as the new King of Spain. This ultimatum would be sent by Telegraph an invention that was spreading across Europe after first appearing in late 1830’s, as well as official currier. Paris cried that France was innocent of this vile act that King Louis XVII would never order the assignation of his own cousin and his family it was unthinkable. But they replied that they would never accept a Bonaparte on the Spanish throne; France would mobilized its armed forces as well. On May 10, 1842 Spain declared war on the Kingdom of France and the Protectorate of Aragon. The next day May 11, 1842 the Kingdom of Sardinia would declare war on the Kingdom of Spain; while the Italian Empire and the Christian Republic of Granada would declare war on France and its allies. The Second War of Spanish Succession had begun.


King Francisco I of Spain and His Queen Caroline and Daughter Princess of Astoria Élisabeth Louise de Bourbon
 
Just figured I'd pop in to reiterate how much I love this TL! I don't always comment, but I enjoy each and every update you come out with. So I just wanted to give you some extra encouragement to keep this going!
 
@Marse Lee thanks that means alot there have been times over the years when I wondered if anyone was reading it.

@estevech that's a yes and no answer you'll have to wait and see to understand what I mean by that. I have 5 kids 4 of them girls writing that was hard. And this war is just getting going there is much more bloodshed and bad ideas to come.
 
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