God Save These American States

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Confederate Liberal, Feb 11, 2016.

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  1. Threadmarks: Sweden in the 1820's

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    King Gustav IV had risen to power in on October 8, 1817 when his father Gustav III had died at the age of 71. Unlike his father Gustav IV was not a great statesman and leader he wasn’t even an decent statesman and leader. What Gustav IV was was a “funny looking man who was in many ways a dandy.” Gustav IV would be best know for selling the Swedish (ex-Danish) Virgin Islands to the British on October 28,1820 was the final straw for many officials within the Imperial Government; many of whom decide that Gustav IV has to go. On February 14,1821 Gustav IV holds a massive St. Valentine's Day Ball. While the Royal family feasted the a servant who had been paid off by the conspirators would slip poison into the soup, unfortunately he poisoned not just the King’s bowl but also Queen Frederica’s as well. The poison was slow working and would not hit the royal couple until after they went to bed that night. Their servants would wake to find both the King and Queen dead in pools of vomit and feces the next morning. Crown Prince Gustav would quickly be crowned King Gustav V taking his fathers place. The Server who poisoned the King and Queens food was never found; some twenty five years later a book would be published in by Mira Strandberg titled “Death of Gustav IV: A servants Revenge.” based upon her father’s death bed confession of how he killed Gustav IV and his Queen and how he was smuggled out of Sweden by sympathetic nobles.

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    Gustav IV Adolf

    The Coronation of Gustav V would take place on June 10, 1821 at the Storkyrkan in Stockholm. The new Young king would move to pacify those elements who had hated his father. He swore to uphold Swedish Colonial Claims where they existed which consisted of Iceland, Greenland Swedish Australia. In 1825 he would ally with Britain when they declared war on the ailing Chinese Empire. To aid in the war Gustav V would send the Swedish Expeditionary Force. This force consisted of a Fleet of 15 ships of the line and 25 frigates and other supporting ships plus a ground contingent of 75,000 men under the command of his half cousin Lieutenant-General Count Carl Löwenhielm. However outside of this Gustav V like his father would continue to position Sweden as a major regional power in the Baltic not a globe spanning Empire like the British, French and Dutch did. Gustav V like his father realized that Sweden even with all of Scandinavia united under her banner lacked the population to colonize such an empire;and was surrounded by enemies who had to be constantly dealt with. this was problem that the Dutch also faced however unlike the kings of the Netherlands the Swedish were smart enough to recognize this fact. Instead like his father Gustav V envisioned a Sweden as the masters of the Baltic Sea controlling both is northern and southern shores;however before this could be achieved several enemies would have to be dealt with.

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    Gustav V

    Sweden would use the 1820’s to develop its industrial base as all the major and regional powers did. Like most of the emerging industrial powers of the western world at this stage of the game centered around steam powered textiles, Canal, Railroads and Ironworks. When it came to textiles in Europe they revolved around Wool and Cotton wool was easy enough to come by in Europe but cotton couldn’t be grown in Europe. To gain access to this France, and Britain both courted the Commonwealth of American States who lead the world in cotton production. However they also looked for other sources of Cotton. For France and Britain this lead to a proxy fight in India between the British East India Company and the Indian Ocean Trading Company. To secure cotton for Swedish textile mills Gustav V and the Swedish government signed exclusive trade deals for cotton grown in the Ottoman Empire and the Sultanate of Egypt. In exchange for selling cotton exclusively to Sweden, Sweden would provided generous funds to set up the cotton plantations needed to grow cotton on mass. This would be followed by the Unequal Treaty that Sweden would force on China that would grant Sweden favorable rates on Chinese grown cotton as well. The Swedish Chinese Unequal Treaty would be short lived as Sweden would side against Britain in the Second War of Spanish Succession. And the British would cancel out that treaty and annex the Swedish concession territory.
     
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  2. Threadmarks: The Italian Empire in the 1820's

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    For the Italian Imperial family the 1820’s began with a happy moment On August 21,1820 Princess Letizia Isabella is born. For the rest of the Country the decade also starts on a high. The still young Italian Empire had just defeated the Ottoman Empire taking all of Libya and Palestine from the sickly Ottoman Empire and had aided the Pope’s forces in recreating the Kingdom of Jerusalem and returning the Holy Land to christian rule.

    Italy was beginning its Industrial Revolution playing catch up to the other nations of Western Europe. But being close friends with the British Empire is allowing Italy to catch up fast. The fist railroad in Italy would be started In Naples on August 7, 1827. It would run west to the city of Bari on the Adriatic Coast.

    However the Italian Empire would welcome the 1820’s with blood and iron. On March 7, 1821 the Bohemian Empire declares war on the Republic of Slovenia. This became an issue for Italy because in the closing days of 1819 The President of Slovenia Joso Vidoviè came to Naples and met with Emperor Napoleon; in this meeting the two men would sign a Treaty of Defense in which the Italian Empire would guarantee the Independence of the Republic of Slovenia. This treaty would be ratified by the Italian Senate two days later. The Bohemian War would be a fairly short affair lasting just 18 months ending with the Treaty of Prague signed on March 12, 1822. Scarcely three years later the British would approach Napoleon looking for allies for their punitive war on China. Napoleon would decline the offer however as between the Italian Turkish war and the Bohemian War the Italian Army needed time to rest, refit and recruit before he could be ready for a colonial venture. Then in the early morning hours of July 6, 1829 the Emperor would suffer a heart attack and die in his sleep. With his empress finding his dead body in the morning when she came to wake him for breakfast, was was their custom. Charles Napoleon Bonaparte would take up his father's crown as emperor. Charles Napoleon Bonaparte would be crowned Napoleon II; Emperor of Italy and her oversea domains in a grand coronation event in the Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta on September 21,1829.
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    Charles Napoleon Bonaparte/ Napoleon II Emperor of the Italian Empire

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    Cattedrale di Santa Maria Assunta

    Italian Royal Family
    Napoleon Bonaparte -m-Empress Maria Amalia
    -Charles Napoleon Bonaparte Prince Imperial and Count of Tunis Born May 8, 1807
    -Marius Napoleon Bonaparte Duke of Naples Born June 17, 1809

    Napoleon Bonaparte-m-Empress Amelia
    -Carlotta Maria Bonaparte Imperial Princess Born November 18, 1811
    -Prince Giorgio (George) Victor Napoleon Bonaparte Count of Cyrenaica Born September 1, 1814
    -Letizia Isabella Bonaparte Imperial Princess Born August 21, 1820.
     
    Last edited: Jun 9, 2019
  3. Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Would y'all like me to start doing biography chapters on the emerging leaders as we move away from historical leaders?
     
    Last edited: May 13, 2019
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  4. brickhouse The Town Weirdo

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    Seems like a good idea.
     
  5. Threadmarks: Bohemia in the 1820's: Part 1: The War Begins

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    The 1820’a would be a painful decade for Bohemia; Bohemia would go from being an Empire to being a Republic and losing over ½ its territory. The 1820’s would see the last power play by Emperor Francis II.
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    Emperor Francis II of Bohemia

    On February 27, 1821 The Bohemian Assembly would vote to Declare War on the Republic of Slovenia. They cited no grievances in this declaration of war only citing that the existence of the Republic of Slovenia kept Bohemia form its rightful access to the sea, and hindering Bohemia’s trade. The Imperial Bohemian Army was already at 65% mobilization so it only took a week for it to be ready to march. On March 7, 1821 the Bohemian Army would cross the border in three columns. Meeting only scattered resistance from the Slovenian Army which was only starting to mobilize.
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    Colonel-General Hieronymus Karl Graf von Colloredo-Mansfeld

    The First major battle would take place on March 18, 1821 when the Western Bohemian Column under command of Major-general Tomáš Pavlík ran into a Slovenian Division defending the town of Jesenice. The Bohemians had the advantage of men and artillery having 38,000 men and 24 field guns to the Slovenians 10,000 Infantry and 12 field guns. However Slovenians took up defensive using the Sava River to protect their southern flank. The battle would be joined at 10:00h. The Slovenians put up a fierce defense of the town and drag the battle out until dusk fell at 19:00h before they finally withdrew under the cover of darkness. The Slovenians lost 450 men killed and another 900 wounded about have of which they were forced to leave on the field as they were too wounded to travel. The Bohemians lost 700 men killed and 1,200 wounded however as they held the field they were able to save more of their wounded.
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    Battle of Maribor

    The Second battle of the War would take place just a day later. To the East at the City of Maribor where the Slovenian 1st Army would engage the Bohemian Eastern Column lead by Colonel-General Hieronymus Karl Graf von Colloredo-Mansfeld. Mansfeld had the largest of the Bohemian force with 58,000 men and 48 field guns. The Slovenian 1st Army commanded by Generalmajor Emanuel Strnad; Strand had 26,500 men supported by 24 field guns but was dug in on the southern bank of the Drava River. The Battle of Maribor would begin on March 19, 1821 at 7am when Mansfeld ordered his men to cross the three bridges across the Drava. Once more the stubborn defense of the Slovenians made what was an easy victory on paper a grueling two day battle before they were finally forced to retreat following dusk on March 21,1821. However after having fought two tough battles Mansfeld was forced to encamp his army at Maribor in order to rest and reorganize his men. He would not leave the Maribor until April 12, 1821, however as he resumed his advance he was halted at every river and stream by burned bridges. Yet no further battle was joined by the Slovenians at first Mansfeld was concerned then word reached him that Major-general Maxmilián Ztratil’s Center Column had Velenje and forced the Slovenians to withdraw to the south bank of the Savinja river. The next three months would see a series of running battles in both the East and West. The Battle of the Savinja, the battle of Ločica pri Vranskem, battle of Kamnik, then the finally the battle of Domžale would open the way to the Slovenian Capital Ljubljana. The Battle of Ljubljana would begin on May 18, 1821 with a force of 85,000 Bohemians laying siege to the Slovenian Capital. Inside the defenses was a force of of 79,000 Slovenians. But this was still not the only action, Mansfeld had detached a force of 50,000 men to march to the sea and take the Slovenian Port City of Koper. This move catches the Slovenians completely off guard on May 21, 1821 the Port City falls with out contest. The Small Slovenian Navy is likewise captured as 13 of the 15 ships that make up the Slovenian Navy are unmanned and unarmed having their weapons and men taken to add to the defenses of Ljubljana.

    By the end of May 1821 it looks like Francis II and Bohemia are going to manage to achieve their objective the Conquest of Slovenia. Then on June 3, 1821 Napoleon Informs the Italian Senate that Italy was declaring war on the Bohemian Empire for its uncall for war of aggression against the Republic of Slovenia. Napoleon will gather the Central Army 45,000 men and 36 field guns and arch to Venice where they would meet up with Eastern Army 55,000 men and 48 field guns strong Commanded by Marshall Ferdinando Benedetti. Giving the Italians 100,000 men and 84 field guns committed to the Bohemian War.


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    Napoleon heads for Slovenia.
     
    Last edited: Jun 1, 2019
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  6. Threadmarks: Bohemia in the 1820's: Part 2: The Bohemian Tide recedes

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Napoleon’s first move was to have Brigadier General Teodoro Lechi to move his Division 15,000 of from Trestie to cut off the 50,000 Bohemians occupying Koper. Napoleon informs Lechi that he is take and Pass to the west of Koper. Blocking the Bohemian’s line of retreat and supply. This results in the battle of Črni Kal on June 18, 1821 where Lechi is able to drive off the Bohemian rear guard force 6,000 men. Lechie then has his men take up defensive position and begin constructing earthen defenses. Two days later Napoleon would bring his Central Army down to Koper.

    The Battle of Koper took began at 10:00h on June 20, 1821 when Napoleon came down from Trestie with 25,000 men and 24 field guns. Battle was joined when Napoleon’s men tried to take the bridges crossing the Rizana River. However Karl von Vincent the commander of the Bohemian troops had stationed his best trained troops defending these bridges and had the advantage of controlling the Hill that sat between the two bridges. Napoleon would solve this issue he would mass his artillery on the northern bridge and using massed bombardment to support his infantry’s second assault. By 13:00h Napoleon’s men had forced the river crossing and the fight and move on the the hill as the Bohemians sought to defend the high ground. It was at this point the a second column commanded by General Achille Fontanelli came out of the Eastern Pass. The sight of Italian Reinforcements caused the moral of the Bohemian forces, by 15:00h the Bohemians would begin to abandon the hill and retreat to the south. To keep from getting completely cut off von Vincent would move his army across the Hungarian-Croatian border. They would then march though the Croatian countryside until they reemerged at Slovenian village of Sočerga. This move would royal irritate the Hungarians and Croatians, and would lead to their entering the war in September of 1821.


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    Battle of Ljubljana

    Meanwhile Napoleon would rest his army at Koper for a day before marching North to join with his other army and break the siege of Ljubljana. On June 28, 1821 Marshall Ferdinando Benedetti and the Italian Eastern Army arrives at Ljubljana and launches an attack on the Bohemian Eastern flank seeing the Italian attack the Slovenians would also begin a counter attack. The Bohemians are forced to retreat. Mansfeld choses to keep his army intact as the retreats from the Slovenian capital. Mansfeld would retreat to the town of Kamnik he set up a strong defensive position with the Kamnik Bistrica river on one flank and the mountains on the other. However Mansfeld soon finds out that Napoleon had taken his Central army and flank his position occupying the town of Celje which placed his army in between Mansfield’s army and Bohemia. Mansfeld was forced to retreat before his men even fired a shot. Over the next two months Mansfeld and Napoleon would play the flanking game though the mountains of northern Slovenia until September when Mansfeld arrived at the City of Graz the southernmost city of the Bohemian Empire. While he was waiting for his rear guard to arrive he would learn that Hungary-Croatia had declared war on Bohemia, and no reinforcements would becoming to him.
     
  7. Threadmarks: Bohemia in the 1820's: Part 3: Tides Turned, Bohemia Besieged.

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    For the Kingdom of Hungary-Croatia the Bohemian war was a very odd event in history. Politically they had very little interest in taking any of Bohemia’s land nor did they care about the plight of Slovenia. But the Bohemians had violated the Borders of Hungary-Croatia and had refused to issue the simplest of apology for doing so. This lead to Hungary-Croatia declaring war on Bohemia on September 11, 1821.

    The Hungarian would make their main push into Northeastern Bohemia on September 28, 1821 a hungarian army 54,000 men strong would take the city of Ostrava. This force completely overwhelmed the city defense force that was just over 10,000 men strong. A second Hungarian Column would run into stiffer resistance as they march on the city of Brno. This column consisting of 64,000 men and 54 field guns commanded by Major General Ignác Gyulay. On September 29, 1821 Gyulay’s army arrived on the eastern bank of the Morava River across from the city of Kroměříž, it was here as they crossed the river that the Hungarians found themselves under attack by Bohemian forces.

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    Major General Ignác Gyulay

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    Major General Oliver Turek

    These Bohemian Forces were the 4th Army under the command of Major General Oliver Turek. The Bohemian 4th Army had just over 26,000 men and 24 field guns. Most of these men were local militia had been gathered together around a core group of 8,000 regulars. Outnumbered closer to 3 to 1 than 2 to 1. Turek did the one thing that no sane commander would do he attacked. As the Hungarians crossed the Bohemians slammed into the head of their column; after his first series of attacks Turek settled back into a defensive posture, punctuated by periodical attacks on the bridges, keeping the the Hungarians off balance. He would keep this up for two days before with drawing to the west where reinforcements awaited him. The Battle Kroměříž would be declared a Hungarian victory as they were able to cross the river and drove the Bohemians off of the field of combat. However both sides had achieved their objectives as the Bohemians had delayed the Hungarian advance long enough for reinforcements to be brought up form Prague. The withdrawal of the Bohemian 4th army on October 1, 1821 sets the stage for the start of the siege of Brno. This siege will not begin until October 12, 1821 as the Hungarians chose to unite their two armies together before advancing. This gave them an army of 110,000 men and 120 field guns. In side the city was a Bohemian force of Just under 68,000 men supported by 100 field guns and 25 heavy artillery guns all safe in side fortifications. Yet for Bohemia the bad times were just beginning as On October 28, 1821 the Bavarians afraid that Hungary-Croatia was going to try and seize all of Austria and incorporate the old Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Bohemia and Sent 5 columns totaling 180,000 men into Bohemian Austria.
     
  8. Threadmarks: Bohemia in the 1820's: Part 4: End of the Empire

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Unlike the Slovenians, Italians, or Hungarians the Bavarians could not claim to have been wronged in anyway shape or form. When Bavaria joined the war it was like a shark attacking a drowning sailor. Blood was in the water and Bavaria was keen to unit as much of the Catholic Germans that they could with in their kingdom. Crown prince Ludwig and his father King Maximillion knew that the Germans were heading toward a conflict that would determine who would become the Dominant German Nation, and the greed of Bohemia gave Bavaria the excuse that she needed to strip the the Bohemia’s german provinces.

    The Bavarians had joined the war late in the campaign season with just over a month before the arrival of winter. However they were the straw that would break the Camel’s back. The Bavarians entered the war like a tidal wave. Salzburg, Linz, and Vienna being overwhelmed before the Bohemians could react. Mansfeld would try and march his army to support Vienna before it fell but his army was met by a Bavarian army at Hartberg. The Battle of Hartberg the Bavarian Army lead by Prince Karl Theodor would defeat Mansfeld forcing his army back to Graz.

    This would set up the siege of Graz which would start on November 19, 1821. To the North Bavarian Armies would advance into Bohemia proper. With their armies engages else where the Bohemia would only be able to gather enough troops to defend Prague. A Bavarian Amy lead by Crown Prince Ludwig would arrive in front of the Bohemian Capital on November 8, 1821. Ludwig would call for the city to surrender, and Francis who had chose to command the defense of the city himself would refuse; after which Ludwig would give the orders to start the siege of the city.

    The Winter of the Three Sieges as it came to be called was a hard one for the Bohemians. The average person in living either under occupation or starving in one of the cities under siege, start wondering just how they ended up in this situation. These feeling of ill content would continue to grow. This Winter of the Three Sieges leads to the Spring Revolution. On March 7, 1822 the People of Prague starving and tired of war rose up, over toppled Francis II’s Imperial government. The Next day the new Czech Republic ask surrenders to the Bavarians. Four days later the Hungarians also agree to a cease fire. Five days later the Treaty of Prague is signed the New Czech Republic give the Bavarians the parts of the old kingdom of Cisleithania that made up the Bohemian Empire, likewise they would give them Moravia to the Kingdom of Hungary-Croatia.

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    Flag of the Czech Republic.
     
  9. Threadmarks: Map:Central Europe 1822

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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  10. Threadmarks: Postwar Slovenia: A republic transformed

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    The Treaty of Prague ended the Bohemian War; however for the Republic Slovenia the war left nothing but destruction. Following the end of the War the leaders of Slovenia now realize that the are still a small nation stuck between three larger ones who may or may not respect their borders any more than Bohemia did. From the mountains to the sea every part of Slovenia had witnessed the horrors of war wash over the land like a red tide. This lead to many Slovenians to view their government as weak and corrupt; lacking the backbone needed to protect the people of the country.

    This would lead to the rise of the Slovenian Protectorate Party. The SPP campaigned on the need to reform the government and seek out strong allies to make it so that Slovenia would not be walked on again. So after three years the end of the war and years of internal debate the Slovenian Protectorate Party would win a crushing majority in the Slovenian Assembly. With their Majority SPP passed the Crown Alliance Act (CAA). The CAA officially changed the Republic of Slovenia into the Crown Republic of Slovenia, and invited Luigi Buonaparte to take the Crown as the Prince of Slovenia and Head of State of Slovenia. Government wise the transition from the Republic of Slovenia to the Crown Republic of Slovenia changed little. The SPP was looking towards Italy when they passed the Crown Alliance Act; the Slovenian People remembered how Italy had honored the Secret Defensive Pact that had existed between Slovenia and Italy before the Bohemian Invasion.

    So it was not surprising when they invited a member of House Bonaparte to take up their new Princely crown. Yet Napoleon was hesitant it was clear that this new Prince was little more than a figurehead as the legislature comprised of the National Assembly and the Chamber of Ministers still held 90% of the political power in the country; and the Premier who was elected by the National Assembly and Confirmed by the Council of Ministers held the other 10%. Finally Napoleon's youngest brother Girolamo Bonaparte agreed to take the Slovenian Crown. Even if the Prince of Slovenia was mostly symbolic position as he told his brothers "Symbols are Important too".

    Girolamo was crowned Prince of Slovenia on March 21, 1826 in the Cathedral of St. Nicholas. His Wife Catharina of Württemberg was crowned Princess of Slovenia beside her husband. The new Royal Family consisted of three children in addition to their parents the were Girolamo Napoléon Charles Bonaparte who became the Duke of Carniola; Mathilde Laetitia Wilhelmine Bonaparte who was named Countess of Carinthia, and lastly Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte who was named Count of Styria.

    The new Crown Republic of Slovenia’s entered into a customs union and full military alliance with the Italian Empire. For Slovenia the second half of the 1820’s would be spent fixing the damages that the Bohemian War had heaped upon the nation. This process would be greatly helped by generous loans form the Italian Imperial Bank.
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    Prince Girolamo Bonaparte and his wife Princess Catharina of Württemberg

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    The children of the Royal Family

    The Royal Family of Slovenia
    Prince Girolamo Bonaparte -m- Princess Catharina of Württemberg

    Girolamo Napoléon Charles Bonaparte Duke of Carniola born 8/28/1814
    Mathilde Laetitia Wilhelmine Bonaparte Countess of Carinthia born 5/27/1820
    Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte Count of Styria born 9/9/1822
     
  11. Threadmarks: Slovenian Flags

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Royal Standard of the Prince of Slovenia
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    National Flag of the Crown Republic of Slovenia
     
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  12. Threadmarks: Bavaria in the 1820's

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Unlike the Italians who entering into the Bohemian War to defend the Slovenians Right to exist as an independent nation; or the Hungarians who were defending against Bohemian incursions into their borders. The Bavarians were acting in their own interest. King Maximillion had been secretly wanting to annex the Gemran lands that were part of the Bohemian Empire. When the fortunes of war turned against the Bohemians Maximillion declared war on them and send Bavarian troops into Bohemian. Following the Treaty of Prague Bohemia gained all of the former German lands that made up the Bohemian Empire.; he would also show kindness to Francis II’s heir Ferdinand whom Maximillion (and most others considered feeble minded.) by Granting him the Schönbrunn Palace and the title Barron of Schönbrunn both to Ferdinand and his descendants.
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    Schönbrunn Palace seat of the Austrian Hapsburg's following the fall of the Bohemian Empire.

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    Ferdinand von Hapsburg Barron of Schönbrunn


    Then on October 13, 1825 Maximilllion I of Bavaria died and his son Crown Prince Ludwig became King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Unlike his father who had always looked toward Austria even after the collapse of the Hapsburg Empire Ludwig looked North. Ludwig I dreamed of a united German state lead by the Kingdom of Bavaria. Ludwig would spend the next decade building up Bavaria’s industry and military to bring most if not all of the German states under Bavara’s control. His only problem was that he was not alone in this thinking along these lines; which would lead to the Bürgerkrieg in the 1830’s.

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    Ludwig I of Bavaria
     
  13. Threadmarks: The Race for India

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    By the 1820’s the Indian continent had been divided into two camps in the North was the British holdings and their native allies the Maratha Empire. And in the South the French and their native allies the Kingdom Maysore, with the Dutch holding the island of Ceylon to the southeast of the mainland. Yet to call the Marathas or the Maysorians independent states by the 1820’s was pushing it; more accurately they were puppet states of their respective allies. The Marathas owed their continued rule to the British being more occupied by trying to settle their large holdings in North America which were proving to be rich in vital resources like Iron, coal and timber. For the French it was their long time policy to let the natives govern themselves as long as the native leaders worked for France. After regaining some of their Indian holdings in the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War in 1783 they had armed and supported the Kingdom of Mysore in two bloody wars with the British and the Maratha Empire in the 1790’s and early 1800’s. This had at the expense of some old muskets, cannon and the powder needed to fire them earned France the loyalty of Mysore and allowed France to quietly expand its one colonial holdings in Southern India. It was this established control of India that would factor heavily it to the coming of the Great Opium War.

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    Flag of the Maratha Empire

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    Flag of the Kingdom of Mysore
     
    Last edited: Jun 11, 2019 at 2:14 AM
  14. Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    The Green on the Map represents the Sikh Empire which is still independent at the end of the 1820's and the Dark Grey is the Afghan Empire also independent the

    Edit
    Dark Grey out lined by yellow borders is land disputed between the Sikh Empire and the Afghan Empire
     
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  15. Threadmarks: The Great Opium War Part 1: You can't say no to drugs.

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    By the 1820’s the British Empire as well as the other European nations were growing ever more tired of the Canton System that the Chinese used to govern trade with the western powers. More importantly they are tired with the imbalance of trade with china. China had no need for western goods while western European nations had an insatiable demand for Chinese tea, porcelain and silks; this meant that every year more and more European silver went into china and never came out. The Americas at first were a source for the European Trading companies to recoup some of this lost income as none of the American nations were allowed to trade in china; however on June 17, 1823 the South Carolina based Palmetto East India Trading Company run by John Quincy Adams and his brothers was able to land a small trading contract with the Chinese Cohong.


    In their quest to balance the trade with China the British and Dutch began growing Opium there Indian territories in the 1810’s and selling this Opium in China. As more and more Chinese citizens became addicted to this drug the silver exchange slowly began to reverse and by 1825 china was beginning to run a silver deficit. To stop and reverse this in June of 1826 the Daoguang Emperor ordered a ban on the importing of Opium into China and threatened to shut down the trading port of any nation that violated, this ban. The first test of this would come just two months later on August 17, 1826 when a Dutch merchant was seized by Chinese officials for trying to sell opium at the Netherlands's trading port on the Pearl River. This would result in all three dutch ships in port at the time being impounded, their captains being beheaded and the crews held as hostages for ransom; and the dutch trading factory closed two days later on August 19, 1826. A month later a British merchant ship would suffer the same fate with the British trading factory being closed on September 21, 1826. However due to the time it took to sail from China to Europe word of December and January. When word finally did arrive in Europe all hell would break loose in Amsterdam and London. On February 2, 1827 the British and Dutch would form the Oriental Coalition. Joining this Coalition would be the Swedish Empire, the Prussian Empire, and the Russian and Byzantine Empires. As the European powers began to ready their militaries for a war half a world away, the shape of the force would begin to take shape. The Russians would do their own thing and concentrate their forces in the Far East for a drive into Korea and Manchuria. The Byzantines would send a fleet and an army of 45,000 to support the Russian efforts in Korea at Pasun. The British would gather a force of 27 ships, and an army of 30,000 men (18,000 English/Scottish, 12,000 New English/Canadian). The Dutch would field a fleet of 18 ships and an army of 15,000 the Dutch fleet would also transport the Prussian Army of 15,000 men. Lastly the Swedish would contribute a fleet of 15 ships and an army of 15,000 men. The total Coalition force (excluding the Russians and Byzantine forces) was a fleet of 60 ships, and a ground force of 75,000 men. The Coalition Fleet would leave Plymouth England on March 28, 1827, it would not arrive off the coast of China until August 29,1827.

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    Rear Admiral Sir Charles Paget commander of the Coalition Fleet

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    General William Carr Beresford

    When the Coalition Fleet arrive at the Pearl River Delta they found a Chinese fleet made up of 45 war junks. As the two fleets squared up for battle the commander of the Coalition Fleet Rear Admiral Sir Charles Paget knew that he was starting off at a disadvantage as the Chinese were already in line of battle presenting a broadside. The Chinese Fleet was lead by "Commander-in-Chief of Naval Forces" Guan Tianpei. Tianpei could tell that the Europeans out numbered his fleet but he hoped that his position would give him a chance to negate their advantage. The battle of Humen strait began at 1400h when the two fleets closed. The Battle would last for three hours before the heavy damaged Chinese fleet was forced to flee. The results of the battle was 20 war junks sunk 3 more damaged and forced to strike their colors. The Europeans lost 1 Swedish Ship of the line, 2 Dutch ships of the line, and 2 British Frigates and the Single Prussian Sloop in the fleet. The fleet the fleet would now separate. The British Swedish, and Prussian forces would land the closed trading docks while the Dutch fleet would head for Hainan Island and Taiwan Island. The City of Canton would fall on September 1, 1827 after a two day battle between the 60,000 man Coalition army lead by General William Carr Beresford would defeat a Chinese army of 80,000 men Chinese Army lead by General Yang Fang after a three day battle. The Europeans controlled the City of Canton by the End of September the Islands of Hainan and Taiwan were also under Dutch and Swedish Control. The Swedish army having to be shifted to Taiwan to reinforce the Dutch Forces there. On October 2nd they offered the Chinese a peace deal that gave the Europeans everything they wanted. The Chinese Emperor refused the war was only beginning.

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    "Commander-in-Chief of Naval Forces" Guan Tianpei

     
    Last edited: Jun 15, 2019 at 2:23 AM
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  16. Threadmarks: The Great Opium War Part 2:The Fractured Empire

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Apr 8, 2011
    Location:
    Virginia
    The European Intervention into China gave two oppressed religious minorities a chance to rise up against the Imperial Chinese Government. These two religious groups were the Hui Muslims of Western China and the Chinese Christian’s who were based in the Canton Province. Both of these people had been repressed by the Imperial Government for decades, and were looking for a moment when a revolt would not mean death for all involved.

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    Flag of the Divine Heavenly Kingdom

    The Christians were the first to take the plunge into revolt, being that the Europeans had already dealt the Imperials a major blow in the Canton Province on November 7, 1827 the Leader of the largest section of the Chinese Christians the “God worshipers” a poor man named Fang Xing who claimed to be the second son of God almighty and the younger half brother of Jesus Christ Declared himself Leader of the Divine Heavenly Kingdom. Across Canton Province Fang Xing’s rose up forming an Army just under 180,000 men strong. Seeing a Chinese army materialize out of the countryside did nothing for the Coalition Troops holding the City of Canton. However when British Diplomats met with Fang Xing and his advisers they found that the Chinese Christian leader wanted the European Coalition to aid him in setting up “God’s Kingdom on Earth” They realized that they had had a gift horse fall into their laps; even if every priest attached to the army called the Chinese leader a false profit among much worse other things. On November 20. 1827 the Canton Treaty was signed also referred to as the First Unequal treaty by Chinese not living in the Divine Heavenly Kingdom. This treaty promised the Coalition Nations preferred trading status with the Divine Heavenly Kingdom. It also allied the Coalition Nations to the Divine Heavenly Kingdom until its independence is recognized by the Imperial Government in Beijing.


    To the West the Hui people were also plotting to break away from Beijing It took word longer for news of the Invasion of China by the European Powers and the subsequent Christian Rebellion to reach the Hui People in far western China. The Muslims of the far west had long disparaged against the Imperial Rule, having had several failed revolts over the past hundred years the Hui people were waiting for a chance to launch a successful bid for an independent nation. So it was not until March of 1828 that the Hui people rose in Rebellion against the Imperial government. Western China was not heavily garrisoned by the Imperial Government at this point as they had recalled troops to deal with the Europeans and the Christian Rebellion. This allowed the Hui rebellion to take control of Xinjian Qinghai, and Gansu Provinces by July 1828 after just five months of Rebellion.

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    Flag of the Chinese Islamic Republic

    These rebellions were the major source of irritation for the Imperial government in Beijing as they were forced to divert troops to deal with them. But by the Fall of 1828 the panic of the spring and summer had faded. Rebellions were nothing new and the Europeans seemed willing to sit in Canton or the Islands off the coast and wait. With winter approaching they felt that they could make adjustments over the winter to deal with these Issues. However it was in September of 1828 that the Russians and Byzantines invaded Manchuria causing a whole new problem to be dealt with. With the Russians the Mongolians also invaded. As 1828 ended with additional armies from Britain Sweden and Prussia arriving setting the stage for a renewed offensive by the Coalition; all of these facts set the stage for 1829 to become the defining year of the war. Could the Imperials Hold out drive out all the Invaders and put down the two rebellions that the invasion had spawned or would it fail and suffer the ultimate defeat.
     
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  17. Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Apr 8, 2011
    Location:
    Virginia
    I don't know if I should keep it the Chinese Islamic Republic or change it to the Hui Islamic Nation. I'm open to suggestions.
     
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  18. brickhouse The Town Weirdo

    Joined:
    Mar 12, 2018
    That would be my pick
     
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