God Save These American States

Discussion in 'Alternate History Discussion: Before 1900' started by Confederate Liberal, Feb 11, 2016.

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  1. Threadmarks: The Italian Turkish War: The War Expands and Fighting ends.

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    The Byzantines Revenge and the last acts of the Italian Turkish War.


    Since its rebirth the Byzantine Empire was seen by the rest of Europe as little more than a Russian Client state. However, the Italian Turkish War gave Emperor Constantine XII the chance to show the world that he and his Empire was not his younger brother's lap dog. On May 7, 1816 the addressed the Byzantine Senate and Assembly in joint session in which he outlined the plight of the Greek and other christian people suffering under Ottoman Rule. Constantine’s call for was was met by thunderous applause.

    The Byzantine Invasion of Anatolia would not happen right away even though Constantine and his Generals had the men plans and supplies ready no they were waiting for a special date. That day came on May 29, 1816 three hundred and sixty three years to the day that the Ottomans conquered Constantinople and finally destroyed the original Empire. As dawn broke 80,000 men swamped out of barges and onto the southern shore of the Bosporus.

    For the Ottomans this event couldn’t have happened at a worse time they had recently pulled all of the experienced troops from the Istanbul garrison and most of the other Western Anatolian Garrisons in order to create a new Army to send south to battle Napoleon in the Holy land. This meant that the Ottomans had only raw conscripts defending Western Anatolia.

    Having defeated the bulk of the Turkish forces in Syria and Palestine Napoleon once more split his army. He would lead a force of 40,000 men northeast engaging the Turkish Army outside the city of Damascus; he easily defeated the demoralized Turkish troops on January 18th. His other two columns would take the Cities of Beirut on January 17th, and the City of Amman on February 1st. And lastly the port city of Ayla would fall on March 20, 1816.


    [​IMG]
    The Battle of Eskişehir

    The Low quality of the Ottoman Defenders lead to the Byzantines making stunning advances By June 15, 1816 the Anatolian western Coast would be in Byzantine Hands. This success would lead to what would be the final battle in the war. On June 19, 1816 the A Turkish army 65,000 men strong almost completely made up of veteran and elite units engaged A byzantine Army 85.000 men lead by General Theodoros Kolokotronis, The two armies would meat near the city of Eskişehir. There in a battle that would last for two days the Turks would be defeated and forced to retreat to the west.

    [​IMG]

    General Theodoros Kolokotronis

    With Napoleon Occupying Palestine and parts of Syria, and preparing to advance northward. Deeper into Syria and possibly into Southwestern Anatolia; and with the Byzantine forces threatening the very core of the shrinking Empire. The Ottoman Government approach the British embassy in the hopes of them being able to barter a peace. The British would arrange a cease fire between all the combatants that would start on June 21, 1816. With Peace talks beginning on June 30, 1816 in London.
     
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2019
  2. Threadmarks: The Italian Turkish War: The Congress of London and the Treaty of Windsor.

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    The Congress of London.

    The Congress of London would be at Windsor Castle it gathered together representatives from all the warring nations the Italian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Kingdom of France and the Byzantine Empire, and the Papal State of Rome and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (which had be created by Napoleon and the Pope on May 22. 1816) as well as the Sultanate of Egypt. The treaty was not kind to the Ottomans They were forced to recognize the not only the Italian and French Annexations of Libya and Algeria; (even Benghazi which was still holding out under siege.) but also the Italian annexation of Palestine and Lebanon, to recognize the two new nations The Sultanate of Egypt and the Papal Kingdom of Jerusalem. Worst of all they were forced to accept the Byzantine Annexation of the Western Anatolian Coast including Istanbul. In response the Ottoman Delegation threatens to leave the talks only to be told by the British Foreign Minister that any future talks would only be worse, after which they returned to the table. In the end they were able to escape any threats of having to pay war reparations thus sparing the Ottoman Economy from recession at least in theory. The Byzantine Empire also agreed to pay the Ottomans 1.5 million British pounds in exchanged for them being able to resettle all Turkish nationals in side the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Windsor would signed on July 15, 1816. It would be ratified by the various nations between July 20th to August 9th. The Benghazi Pocket would surrender to the Italians on July 26, 1816.
     
  3. Threadmarks: The Italian Turkish War: The Treaty of Windsor

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    [​IMG]
    The Med post treaty of Windsor
     
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  4. Threadmarks: Mexico and the 1820’s Part 1

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Mexico and the 1820’s Overview

    [​IMG]

    For the Empire of Mexico the decade of the 1820’s would be as exciting and eventful as the decade of the 1810’s had been uneventful and dull. The 1820’s would see the Empire of Mexico have to face its first major bout of rebellion fostered by foreign agents that when this came to light would damage Mexico’s relationships with several of the other North American nation’s for decades to come. The 1820’s would also bring about the California Gold Rush

    A trip to Central America

    June 29, 1819 Norfolk Va, James Long, Andrew Pike, and Christopher Walker board the Quickwind a clippership bound for Belize City in Mexico Central america provinces. These three men have one mission in mind fire up the local groups hostile to Mexico City’s rule in Central America to found an independent nation or nations that can the join the Commonwealth. To aid them in this mission they have acquired 30,000 muskets to arm their rebel army. October 9,1819 after five months of traveling the group met up with the leader of one of the many Mayan rebel groups that litter the Yucatan a man know simply as Ajtzak. Over the next three years these three men would foster several rebel movements that would finally erupt into open rebellion on March 9, 1822 with the Founding of the Yucatan Confederation in Belize City.

    When Word of this rebellion reached Mexico City Emperor Jose I would dispatch an army 75,000 men under a young General named Antonio López de Santa Anna. Due to the distance it would take Santa Anna’s Army a month to arrive in the meanwhile the Defense of the region against these rebels fell to General Vicente Filisola commander Yucatan Defense Area. Filisola had under his command 50,000 men and 200 cannon however of this number most were 20,000 men and 175 cannon were fortress bound, leaving Filisola with campaign force of just 30,000 men and 25 field guns. While Santa Anna was marching south with his army Filisola would fight a grueling jungle campaign for the next month. By the time Santa Anna and his army arrived Filisola was down to just 5,000 men in fighting condition. Santa Anna and Filisola would spend the next two years fighting a joint campaign until June 8, 1824 when Filisola would be killed in action while commanding the siege of Merida his second in command Brigadier General Juan Gonzalez would assume command of the Northern Army. Gonzalez and Santa Anna would continue fighting with the Yucatan Rebels for the next four years in a series of bloody battles in the Jungles of Southern Mexico until finally Santa Anna was able to capture Belize City on October 8, 1828; and in doing so capture Ajtzak, James Long, Andrew Pike, and Christopher Walker and the rest of the leadership of the Yucatan Confederacy.


    The Capture of James Long, Andrew Pike, and Christopher Walker brought with it the fact that Commonwealth nationals had funded and armed a good part of the Rebellion, the CAS would honestly claim that it had nothing to with any of these three men but this would create a rift between Mexico and the Commonwealth for decades to come.The other major thing to come out of the Yucatan Rebellion was the rise to prominence of General Santa Anna, a man who would be a major player in the Mexican Military and Mexican Politics for decades to come

    [​IMG]

    General Vicente Filisola

    [​IMG]
    Antonio López de Santa Anna


    [​IMG]
    Flag of the Yucatan Confederation the similarity to the CAS Flag can be seen
     
  5. Alpha-King98760 Aku's most favorite assassin, babe!

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    Santa Anna!!!
     
  6. Threadmarks: Mexico and the 1820’s Part II

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    The California Gold Rush

    On June 1, 1825 Juan Esteban Gaona the owner of a small flour mill located on the banks of the near the small town of Colluma on the Río americano del sur happened to find a large gold nugget along the river bank while fishing. Over the next few weeks more gold would turn up Juan would take his good fortune into town and spend it on things that he needed for his mill and family. Word of the Gold would radiate outward from the small village spreading across the Empire and even reaching the American Republics east of the Mississippi river. By the end of 1825 the California Gold rush was on.


    [​IMG]
    Colluma post office

    The first Mexicans to arrive would be miners from Sonora and Chihuahua who came overland. They would be followed by people from the central American provinces who were looking to either escape the on going rebellion or seeking a better life for their families. By the end of 1826 without counting the foreigners who also came chasing gold over 85,000 Mexican Citizens had migrated to Alto California. Adding in the American’s English, Scottish, French, Germans, ect the number of people migrating to Alto California climbed up to just over 120,000; by 1827 this number had grown to 250,500 ( 175,000 foreign citizens) and the gold continued to flow. However 1828 would be the year that another factor would feed into the population boom of Alto California This was the year that word of the Gold rush reached War ravished china The poor Chinese were looking for anywhere to go to escape the Great Opium War raging between Britain and her allies and the Quing Empire. Between 1828 and the official end of the Gold rush in 1833 over when the Largest wave of Chinese migration to Alto California ended over 450,000 Chineses had crossed Pacific Ocean.


    Gold would would continue to flow out of California for over the next century, in 1838 the Northern California gold fields would be found and trigger the second California Gold Rush; and again in 1848 when the Southern California Gold rush would trigger the third gold rush however by that point Mexico City had placed limits on immigration to Alto California to encourage native migration toward the province. And none of the later gold rushes would have the effect on the population balance and economy of the Empire that the 1825 Rush had. Among the Chinese that fled the Great Opium War 1825-1830 and the great unrest 1830-1842 that followed the end of the war were a hand full of the Chinese Imperial family The Daoguang Emperor’s fourth daughter Gurun Princess Shou'an and her mother Empress Xiaoquancheng following the fall of the Manchu Qing dynasty in 1830. The Exiled Empress along with a part of the Chinese merchants and bankers would found the city of New Nanjing on the Northern side of the Golden Gate across from the growing city of San Francisco.


    [​IMG]
    Gurun Princess Shou'an

    The influx of Gold into the Mexican Treasury would spur Mexico’s Industrial Revolution. The Imperial Government would invest their new revenue into the country's fledgling steal, Textile and shipbuilding industries. In 1828 Mexican Government would also take the then revolutionary step of authorizing that a Railroad be built from Mexico City to Monterrey in Alto California as well Improving the California Way the main road from central Mexico to Alto California.

    Mexican Royal Family as of 1829

    1. Emperor José I (Antonio Marcilla)-m-Queen Consort Maria Esmeralda
    2. Crown Prince Christobal Fernando (25 years old)-m-Isabella Maria
      1. Juan Carlos (6 years old)
      2. Clara Phillipa (4 year old)
    3. Prince Manuel Carlos (22 years old) -m- Esmeralda Junita
      1. Antonio Jesus (3 years old)
      2. Esmeralda Carlotta (2 years old)
    4. Princess Catherine Maria (16 years old)
     
  7. htgriffin Member

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    Jan 19, 2004
    Exiled nobility is still nobility, and Mexico is a monarchy....

    ... what are the chances of a Manchu convert at a remotely 'equal' match?
     
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  8. Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Very the princess is about 4 if wikipedia is correct and since i have no other source and csnt read Chinese im going with it.
     
  9. Threadmarks: The Republic of Vermont in the 1820's : Prelude

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    This song became famous in Vermont and the Crown Republic of New England in the years following the end of the New English Civil War.



    Would you like to hear my song? I'm afraid it's rather long
    Of the famous "On to Vermont" double trouble,
    Of the half-a-dozen trips and half-a-dozen slips
    And the very latest bursting of the bubble.
    'Tis pretty hard to sing and like a round, round ring
    'Tis a dreadful knotty puzzle to unravel;
    Though all the papers swore, when we touched the Connecett’s Western shore
    That Vermont was a hard road to travel.

    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve,
    Vermont is a hard road to travel
    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve
    Vermont is a hard road to travel, I believe.

    First, Hull, bold and gay, set forth the shortest way,
    By Pittsfield in the pleasant summer weather,
    But unfortunately he found a Stonewall, foolish man,
    And had a "rocky journey" altogether;
    And he found it rather hard to ride o'er ole McDaniel,
    And Strong proved a deuce of a bother,
    And 'twas clear beyond a doubt that he didn't like the route,
    And a surrendered his sword to another.

    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve,
    For Pittsfield is a hard road to travel;
    Pittsfield gave us fits, and the Housatonic made us grieve,
    For Vermont is a hard road to travel, I believe!

    Next came the traitor's sons, with an forgotten Tory force,
    To march down Vermont from the North,
    But they couldn't find the road, and his "onward movement" showed
    His campaigning was a mere shilly-shally.

    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve,
    For the North is a hard road to travel;
    The North wouldn't do and we all had to leave,
    For Vermont is a hard road to travel, I believe!

    Then Hull followed soon, both with spade and balloon,
    To try the Rhode Island approaches,
    Rhode Island true was lost,
    But one and all agreed that his best rate of speed
    Was no faster than the slowest of "slow coaches."
    Instead of easy ground, at New Haven, he found,
    A Smith hard at work, and another bloody battle,
    And it put him in the dumps, that spades wasn't trumps,
    And the Hills he couldn't level as ordered.

    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve
    For New Haven is a hard road to travel -
    Lay down the shovel, and throw away the spade
    For Vermont is a hard road to travel, I'm afraid!

    Then said Maxwell unto Boyd,
    "You can make the trip, I hope,
    I will save the Universal Yankee nation,
    To make sure of no defeat, I'll leave no lines of retreat,
    And issue a famous proclamation."
    But that same dreaded Strong, this fellow laid his whacks,
    And made him, by compulsion, a seceder
    And Boyd took rapid flight from Yalesville at second light,

    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve,
    For Yalesville is a hard road to travel;
    Pope did his very best, but was evidently sold,
    For Vermont is a hard road to travel, I am told!

    Last of all the brave Boyd, would at Middle Town Make his last stand as a leader.
    After Yalesville the road had led to where none had before ,
    With tens of thousands men for the Republican slaughter pen,
    And the blessed Royal flag waving o'er him;
    But he met a fire like hell, of canister and shell,
    That mowed his men down with great slaughter,
    'Twas a shocking sight to view, that second Waterloo,
    And the river ran with more blood than water.

    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve,
    Middle Town is a hard road to travel
    Boyd got in a trap, while Hull watch from safe across the river
    For Vermont is a hard road to travel, I believe!

    After seeing such a sight,
    Hull thought that the River just might,
    Be a excellent barrier for the border,
    For the Vermont Road is simply to rough I’m afraid.

    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve,
    For Vermont is a hard road to travel;
    Then pull off your coat and roll up your sleeve,
    For Vermont is a hard road to travel, I believe!
     
  10. Threadmarks: The Republic of Vermont in the 1820's

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    [​IMG]

    For the Republic of Vermont the decade of the 1820 would be a time of rebuilding and fortifying their border with New England. Politically the young republic was dominated by the Green Mountain Party. The GMP was militaristic nationalist party whose primary goal was making sure that Vermont was ready for the next time that the Royalist in New England came across the Connecticut River. President Jonas Galusha who had seen Vermont though the New English Civil War, would win reelection twice more serving until 1826. Galusha would see the Connecticut River Defensive Pact signed with the Federal Republic of America which provided FRA funding for a series of Defensive forts along the Connecticut River. The CRDP and the Republican Duty Free Trade Pact would cement the close relationship between the two republics.

    [​IMG]

    President Jonas Galusha

    In 1823 Galusha would step down and see his Vice President Ezra Butler elected Vermont’s second president, Butler would continue his predecessor's policies on defense as well as beginning to develop trade Relations with the Commonwealth as well as the Kingdom of France. Butler valued Vermont’s relationship with the FRA but he saw that Vermont needed to expand its foreign relations or else the FRA might start feeling the need to absorb its smaller ally. Butler would establish the new National Arsenal at Pittsfield in West Connecticut, he would be reelected in 1826 and Again in 1829. Butler would also champion the development of modern industries inside the Republic, he would personally by stock in Vermont's first Railroad the New Haven Northern which would run From New Haven and Pittsfield. Vermont would exit the 1820’s with strong and ever strengthening defenses, a stable Government and a growing economy.
    [​IMG]
    President Ezra Butler

     
    Last edited: Mar 25, 2019
  11. Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Ok so the attempt at the alternative song was a first for me what were yalls thoughts something for me to try again or pretend it never happened.
     
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  12. Alpha-King98760 Aku's most favorite assassin, babe!

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    I really liked it.
     
  13. brickhouse The Town Weirdo

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    My I ask how the goverment of vermont works.
     
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  14. Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    I can cover that next update if yall want.
     
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  15. Dante Well-Known Member

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    In OTL Vermont had a constitution based on Pennsylvania's, which was the most democratic constitution in the nation. So I'd expect Vermont to have a very similar form of government in TTL, namely:

    universal male suffrage for taxpayers, A unicameral legislature with term limits, a judiciary branch appointed by the legislature for seven-year terms removable at any time, and a board of Censors to conduct an evaluation of the activities of the state government.

    Now that original Constitution for Pennsylvania only lasted until 1790, so I don't know how well it worked out in practice. Still I could see Vermont trying very hard to instill egalitarianism and democracy into their republic.
     
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  16. brickhouse The Town Weirdo

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    Sounds good
     
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  17. Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    Ill go more in dept in the next update but yes Vermont is going to be the most republican nation out of the American Republics. Example Vermont has a presidential election every 3 years compaired to the FRA every 4 and the CAS every 9.

    And yes they are still following the old Pennsylvania model.
     
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  18. Alpha-King98760 Aku's most favorite assassin, babe!

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    That sounds great!
     
  19. Threadmarks: Republic of Vermont 1820: Government

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

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    CHAPTER I


    A DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF VERMONT

    I. THAT all men are born equally free and independent, and have certain natural, inherent and unalienable rights, amongst which are the enjoying and defending life and liberty; acquiring, possessing and protecting property, and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety. Therefore, no male person, born in this country, or brought from over sea, ought to be holden by law, to serve any person, as a servant, slave or apprentice, after he arrives to the age of twenty-one Years, nor female, in like manner, after she arrives to the age of eighteen years, unless they are bound by their own consent, after they arrive to such age, or bound by law, for the payment of debts, damages, fines, costs, or the like.


    II. That private property ought to be subservient to public uses, when necessity requires it; nevertheless, whenever any particular man's property is taken for the use of the public, the owner ought to receive an equivalent in money.


    III. That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship ALMIGHTY GOD, according to the dictates of their own consciences and understanding, regulated by the word of GOD; and that no man ought, or of right can be compelled to attend any religious worship, or erect, or support any place of worship, or maintain any minister, contrary to the dictates of his conscience; nor can any man who professes the protestant religion, be justly deprived or abridged of any civil right, as a citizen, on account of his religious sentiment, or peculiar mode of religious worship, and that no authority can, or ought to be vested in, or assumed by, any power whatsoever, that shall, in any case, interfere with, or in any manner controul, the rights of conscience, in the free exercise of religious worship: nevertheless, every sect or denomination of people ought to observe the Sabbath, or the Lord's day, and keep up, and support, some sort of religious worship, which to them shall seem most agreeable to the revealed will of GOD.


    IV. That the people of this Republic have the sole, exclusive and inherent right of governing and regulating the internal police of the same.


    V. That all power being originally inherent in, and consequently, derived from, the people; therefore, all officers of government, whether legislative or executive, are their trustees and servants. and at all times accountable to them.


    VI. That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation or community; and not for the particular emolument or advantage of any single man, family or set of men, who are a part only of that community; and that the community hath an indubitable, unalienable and indefeasible right to reform, alter, or abolish, government, in such manner as shall be, by that community, judged most conducive to the public weal.


    VII. That those who are employed in the legislative and executive business of the Republic, may be restrained from oppression, the people have a right, at such periods as they may think proper, to reduce their public officers to a private station, and supply the vacancies by certain and regular elections.


    VIII. That all elections ought to be free; and that all freemen. having a sufficient, evident, common interest with, and attachment to the community, have a right to elect officers, or be elected into office.


    IX. That every member of society hath a right to be protected in the enjoyment of life, liberty and property, and therefore, is bound to contribute his proportion towards the expense of that protection, and yield his personal service, when necessary, or an equivalent thereto; but no part of a man's property can be justly taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his own consent, or that of his legal representatives; nor can any man who is conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms, be justly compelled thereto, if he will pay such equivalent; nor are the people bound by any law' but such as they have, in like manner, assented to, for their common good.


    X. That, in all prosecutions for criminal offences, a man hath a right to be heard, by himself and his counsel-to demand the cause and nature of his accusation-to be confronted with the witnesses- to call for evidence in his favor, and a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of the country; without the unanimous consent of which jury, he cannot be found guilty; nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; nor can any man be justly deprived of his liberty, except by the laws of the land or the judgment of his peers.


    XI. That the people have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers and possessions free from search or seizure; and therefore warrants without oaths or affirmations first made, affording a sufficient foundation for them, and whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded or required to search suspected places, or to seize any person or persons, his, her or their property, not particularly described, are contrary to that right, and ought not to be granted.


    XII. That no warrant or writ to attach the person or estate. of any freeholder within this Republic, shall be issued in civil action, without the person or persons, who may request such warrant or attachment, first make oath, or affirm, before the authority who may be requested to issue the same, that he, or they, are in danger of losing his, her or their debts.


    XIII. That, in controversies respecting property, and in suits between man and man, the parties have a right to a trial by jury; which ought to be held sacred.


    XIV. That the people have a right to freedom of speech, and of writing and publishing their sentiments; therefore, the freedom of the press ought not be restrained.


    XV. That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the Repuiblic; and, as standing armies, in the time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.


    XVI. That frequent recurrence to fundamental principles, and a firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, industry and frugality, are absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty, and keep government free. The people ought, therefore, to pay particular attention to these points, in the choice of officers and representatives, and have a right to exact a due and constant regard to them, from their legislators and magistrates, in the making and executing such laws as are necessary for the good government of the State.


    XVII. That the people have a right to assemble together, to consult for their common good-to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the legislature for redress of grievances, by address, petition or remonstrance.


    XVIII. That no person shall be liable to be transported out of this Republic for trial, for any offence committed within this Republic.


    CHAPTER II

    PLAN OR FRAME OF GOVERNMENT

    SECTION I. THE REPUBLIC of VERMONT, shall be governed, hereafter, by a President, Vice President, Council, and an Assembly of the Representatives of the Freemen of the same, in manner and form following.


    SECTION II. The supreme legislative power shall be vested in a House of Representatives of the Freemen or Commonwealth or State of Vermont.


    SECTION III. The supreme executive power shall be vested in a President and Council.


    SECTION IV. Courts of justice shall be established in every State and every county of those States in this Republic.


    SECTION V. The freemen of this Republic, and their sons, shall be trained and armed for its defence, under such regulations, restrictions and exceptions, as the general assembly shall, by law, direct; preserving always to the people, the right of choosing their colonels of militia, and all commissioned officers under that rank, in such manner, and as often, as by the said laws shall be directed.

    1. All men of vermont between the ages of 18 and 20 shall serve two years in the National Army. Officers for the National Army shall receive training the Green Mountain Military academy located within Fortress Ticonderoga .

    SECTION VI. Every man of the full age of twenty-one years, having resided in this Republic for the space-of one whole year, next before the election of representatives, and who is of a quiet and peaceable behaviour, and will take the following oath (or affirmation) shall be entitled to all the privileges of a freeman of this Republic.


    I _____ solemnly swear, by the ever living God, (or affirm, in the presence of Almighty God,) that whenever I am called to give any vote or suffrage, touching any matter that concerns the Republic of Vermont, I will do it so, as in arty conscience, I shall judge will roost conduce to the best good of the same, as established by the constitution, without fear or favor of any man.


    SECTION VII. The House of Representatives of the Freemen of this Republic, shall consist of persons most noted for wisdom and virtue, to be chosen by the freemen of every town in this Republic, respectively. And no foreigner shall be chosen, unless he has resided in the town for which he shall be elected, one year immediately before said election.


    SECTION VIII. The members of the House of Representatives, shall be chosen annually, by ballot, by the freemen of this Republic, on the first Tuesday of September, forever, (except this present year) and shall meet on the second Thursday of the succeeding October, and shall be stiled the General Assembly of the Representatives of the Freemen of Vermont; and shall have power to choose their Speaker, Secretary of the State, their Clerk, and other necessary officers of the house- sit on their own adjournments-prepare bills and enact them into laws-judge of the elections and qualifications of their own members-they may expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause-They may administer oaths (or affirmations) on examination of witnesses-redress grievances-impeach State criminals-grant charters of incorporation-constitute towns, boroughs, cities and counties, and shall have all other powers necessary for the legislature of a free State; but they shall have no power to add to, alter, abolish, or infringe any part of this constitution. And for this present year, the members of the General Assembly shall be chosen on the first Tuesday of March next, and shall meet at the meeting-house, in Windsor, on the second Thursday of March next.(2)


    SECTION IX. A quorum of the house of representatives shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of members elected; and having met and chosen their speaker, shall, each of them, before they proceed to business, take and subscribe, as well the oath of fidelity and allegiance herein after directed, as the following oath or affirmation, viz.


    " I ____ do solemnly swear, by the ever living God, (or, I do solemnly affirm in the presence of Almighty God) that as a member of this assembly, I will not propose or assent to any bill, vote, or resolution, which shall appear to me injurious to the people; nor do or consent to any act or thing whatever, that shall have a tendency to lessen or abridge their rights and privileges, as declared in the Constitution of this Republic; but will, in all things' conduct myself as a faithful, honest representative and guardian of the people, according to the best of my judgment and abilities."


    And each member, before he takes his seat, shall make and subscribe the following declaration, viz.


    " I ____ do believe in one God, the Creator and Governor of the Diverse, the rewarder of the good and punisher of the wicked. And I do acknowledge the scriptures of the old and new testament to be given by divine inspiration, and own and profess the protestant religion."


    And no further or other religious test shall ever, hereafter, be required of any civil officer or magistrate in this State.



    SECTION X. If any town or towns shall neglect or refuse to elect and send representatives to the General Assembly, two thirds of the members of the towns, that do elect and send representatives, (provided they be a majority of the inhabited towns of the whole State) when met, shall have all the powers of the General Assembly, as fully and amply, as if the whole were present.


    SECTION XI. The doors of the house in which the representatives of the Greene of this Republic, shall sit, in General Assembly, shall be and remain open for the admission of all persons, who behave decently, except only, when the welfare of this Republic may require the doors to be shut.


    SECTION XII. The votes and proceedings of the General Assembly shall be printed, weekly, during their sitting, with the yeas and nays, on any question, vote or resolution, where one-third of the members require it; (except when the votes are taken by ballot) and when the yeas and nays are so taken, every member shall have a right to insert the reasons of his votes upon the minutes, if he desire it.


    SECTION XIII. To the end that laws, before they are enacted, may be more maturely considered, and the inconveniency of hasty determination as much as possible prevented, all bills of public nature, shall be first laid before the President and Council, for their perusal and proposals of amendment, and shall be printed for the consideration of the people, before they are read in General Assembly, for the last time of debate and amendment; except temporary acts, which, after being laid before the Governor and Council, may (in case of sudden necessity) be passed into laws; and no other shall be passed into laws, until the next session of assembly. And for the more perfect satisfaction of the public, the reasons and motives for making such laws, shall be fully and clearly expressed and set forth in their preambles.


    SECTION XIV. The style of the laws of this Republic shall be,-" Be it enacted, and it is hereby enacted, by the Representatives of the Freemen of the Republic of Vermont, in General Assembly met, and by the authority of the same."


    SECTION XV. In order that the Freemen of this Republic might enjoy the benefit of election, as equally as may be, each town within this Republic, that consists, or may consist, of eighty taxable inhabitants, within one septenary or seven years, next after the establishing this constitution, may hold elections therein, and choose each, two representatives; and each other inhabited town in this Republic may, in like manner, choose each, one representative, to represent them in General Assembly, during the said septenary or seven years; and after that, each inhabited town may, in like manner, hold such election, and choose each, one representative, forever thereafter.


    SECTION XVI. The Supreme Executive Council of this Republic, shall consist of a

    President, Vice President, and twelve persons, chosen in the following manner, viz. The Freemen of each town, shall, on the day of election for choosing representatives to attend the General Assembly, bring in their votes -for President, with his name fairly written, to the constable, who shall seal them up, and write on them, votes for the President, and deliver them to the representative chosen to attend the General Assembly; and, at the opening of the General Assembly, there shall be a committee appointed out of the Council and Assembly, who, after being duly sworn to the faithful discharge of their trust, shall proceed to receive, sort, and count, the votes for the President, and declare the person who has the major part of the votes, to be President, for the year ensuing. And if there be no choice made, then the Council and General Assembly, by their joint ballot. shall make choice of a President.


    The Vice President and Treasurer, shall be chosen in the manner above directed; and each freeman shall give in twelve votes for twelve councillors, in the same manner; and the twelve highest in nomination shall serve for the ensuing year as Councillors.(3)


    The Council that shall act in the recess of this Convention, shall supply the place of a Council for the next General Assembly, until the new Council be declared chosen. The Council shall meet annually, at the same time and place with the General Assembly; and every member of the Council shall be a Justice of the Peace for the whole Republic, by virtue of his office.


    SECTION XVII. The President, and in his absence, the Vice President, with the Council-seven of whom shall be a quorum-shall have power to appoint and commissionerate all officers, (except those who are appointed by the General Assembly,) agreeable to this frame of government, and the laws that may be made hereafter; and shall supply every vacancy in any office, occasioned by death, resignation, removal or disqualification, until the office can be filled, in the time and manner directed by law or this constitution. They are to correspond with other States, and transact business with officers of government, civil and military; and to prepare such business as may appear to them necessary to lay before the General Assembly. They shall sit as judges to hear and determine on impeachments, taking to their assistance, for advice only, the justices of the supreme court; and shall have power to grant pardons, and remit fines, in all cases whatsoever, except cases of impeachment, and in cases of treason and murder-shall have power to grant reprieves, but not to pardon, until the end of the next session of the Assembly: but there shall be no remission or mitigation of punishment, on impeachments, except by act of legislation. They are also, to take care that the laws be faithfully executed. They are to expedite the execution of such measures as may be resolved upon by General Assembly; and they may draw upon the Treasurer for such sums as may be appropriated by the House: they may also lay embargoes, or prohibit the exportation of any commodity for any time, not exceeding thirty days, in the recess of the House only: they may grant such licenses as shall be directed by law, and shall have power to call together the General Assembly, when necessary, before the day to which they shall stand adjourned. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the forces of the Republic; but shall not command in person, except advised thereto by the Council, and then, only as long as they shall approve thereof. The President and Council shall have a Secretary, and keep fair books of their proceedings, wherein any Councillor may enter his dissent, with his reasons to support it.


    SECTION XVIII. All commissions shall be in the name of the freemen of the Republic of Vermont, sealed with the Republic seal, signed by the President, and in his absence, the Vice President, and attested by the Secretary; which seal shall be kept by the Council.


    SECTION XIX. Every officer of Republic, whether judicial or executive, shall be liable to be impeached by the General Assembly, either when in office, or after his resignation, or removal for mar-administration All impeachments shall be before the President or Vice President and Council, who shall hear and determine the same.


    SECTION XX. The supreme court, and the several courts of common pleas of this Republic shall, besides the powers usually exercised by such courts, have the powers of a court of chancery, so far as relates to perpetuating testimony, obtaining evidence from places not within this Republic, and the care of persons and estates of those who are non compotes mentis, and such other powers as may be found necessary by future General Assemblies, not inconsistent with this constitution.


    SECTION XXII. Trials shall be by jury; and it is recommended to the legislature of this Republic to provide by law, against every corruption or partiality in the choice, and return, or appointment, of juries.


    SECTION XXIII. All courts shall be open, and justice shall be impartially administered, without corruption or unnecessary delay; all their officers shall be paid an adequate, but moderate, compensation for their services; and if any officer shall take greater or other fees than the laws allow him, either directly or indirectly, it shall ever after disqualify him from holding any office in this State.


    SECTION XXIV. All prosecution shall commence in the name and by the authority of the freemen of the Republic of Vermont, and all indictments shall conclude with these words, " against the peace and dignity of the same.'' The style of all process hereafter, in this Republic, shall be,-The Republic of Vermont.


    SECTION XXV. The person of a debtor, where there is not a strong presumption of fraud, shall not be continued in prison, after delivering up, bone fide, all his estate, real and personal, for the use of his creditors, in such manner as shall be hereafter regulated by law. All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient securities, unless for capital offences, when the proof is evident or presumption great.


    SECTION XXVI. Excessive bail shall not be exacted for bailable offences: and all fines shall be moderate.


    SECTION XXVII. That the General Assembly, when legally formed, shall appoint times and places for county elections, and at such times and places, the freemen in each county respectively, shall have the liberty of choosing the judges of inferior court of common pleas, sheriff', justices of the peace, and judges of probates, commissioned by the President and Council, during good behavior, removable by the General Assembly upon proof of mal-administration.


    SECTION XXVIII. That no person, shall be capable of holding any civil office, in this State, except he has acquired, and maintains a good moral character.


    SECTION XXIX. All elections, whether by the people or in General Assembly, shall be by ballot, free and voluntary: and any elector who shall receive any gift or reward for his vote, In meat, drink, monies or otherwise' shall forfeit his right to elect at that time, and suffer such other penalty as future laws shall direct. And any person who shall, directly or indirectly, give, promise, or bestow, any such rewards to be elected, shall, thereby, be rendered incapable to serve for the ensuing year.


    SECTION XXX. All fines, license money, fees and forfeitures, shall be paid, according to the direction hereafter to be made by the General Assembly.


    SECTION XXXI. All deeds and conveyances of land shall be. recorded in the town clerk's office, in their respective towns.


    SECTION XXXII. The printing presses shall-be free to every person who undertakes to examine the proceedings of the legislature or any part of government.


    SECTION XXXIII. As every freeman, to preserve his independence (if without a sufficient estate) ought to have some profession, calling, trade or farm, whereby he may honestly subsist, there can be no necessity for, nor use in, establishing offices of profit, the usual effects of which are dependence and servility, unbecoming freemen, in the possessors or expectants; faction, contention, corruption and disorder among people. But if any man is called into public service, to the prejudice of his private affairs, he has a right to a reasonable compensation; and whenever an office, through increase of fees, or otherwise, becomes so profitable as to occasion many to apply for it the profits ought to be lessened by the legislature.


    SECTION XXXIV. The future legislature of this Republic, shall regulate entails, in such manner as to prevent perpetuities.


    SECTION XXXV. To deter more effectually from the commission of crimes, by continued visible punishment of long duration, and to make sanguinary punishments less necessary; houses ought to be provided for punishing, by hard labor, those who shall be convicted of crimes not capital; wherein the criminal shall be employed for the benefit of the public, or for reparation of injuries done to private persons; and all persons, at proper times, shall be admitted to see the prisoners at their labor.


    SECTION XXXVI. Every officer, whether judicial, executive or military, in authority under this State. shall take the following oath or affirmation of allegiance, and general oath of office, before he enter on the execution of his office.


    THE OATH OR AFFIRMATION OF ALLEGIANCE


    " I ____ do solemnly swear by the ever living God, (or affirm in presence of Almighty God,) that I will be true and faithful to the Republic of Vermont; and that I will not, directly or indirectly do any act or thing, prejudicial or injurious, to the constitution or government thereof, as established by Convention."


    THE OATH OR AFFIRMATION OF OFFICE


    " I _____ do solemnly swear by the ever living God, (or affirm in presence of Almighty God) that I will faithfully execute the office of for the of ; and will do equal right and justice to all men, to the best of my judgment and abilities, according to law."


    SECTION XXXVII. No public tax, custom or contribution shall be imposed upon, or paid by, the people of this State, except by a law for that purpose; and before any law be made for raising it, the purpose for which any tax is to be raised ought to appear clear to the legislature to be of more service to the community than the money would be, if not collected; which being well observed, taxes can never be burthens.


    SECTION XXXVIII. Every foreigner of good character, who comes to settle in this Republic, having first taken an oath or affirmation of allegiance to the same, may purchase, or by other just means acquire, hold, and transfer, land or other real estate; and after one years residence, shall be deemed a free denizen thereof, and intitled to all the rights of a natural born subject of this Republic; except that he shall not be capable of being elected a representative, until after two years residence.


    SECTION XXXIX. That the inhabitants of this Republic, shall have liberty to hunt and fowl, in seasonable times, on the lands they hold, and on other lands (not enclosed;) and, in like manner, to fish in all beatable and other waters, not private property, under proper regulations, to be hereafter made and provided by the General Assembly.


    SECTION XL. A school or schools shall be established in each town, by the legislature, for the convenient instruction of youth, with such salaries to the masters, paid by each town; making proper use of school lands in each town, thereby to enable them to instruct youth at low prices. One grammar school in each county, and one university in this Republic, ought to be established by direction of the General Assembly.


    SECTION XLI. Laws for the encouragement of virtue and prevention of vice and immorality, shall be made and constantly kept in force; and provision shall be made for their due execution; and all religious societies or bodies of men, that have or may be hereafter united and incorporated, for the advancement of religion and learning, or for other pious and charitable purposes, shall be encouraged and protected in the enjoyment of the privileges, immunities and estates which they, in justice, ought to enjoy, under such regulations; as the General Assembly of this Republic shall direct.


    SECTION XLII. All field and staff officers, and commissioned officers of the army, and all general officers of the militia, shall be chosen by the General Assembly.


    SECTION XLIII. The declaration of rights is hereby declared to be part of the Constitution of this

    Republic, and ought never to be violated, on any presence whatsoever.


    SECTION XLIV. In order that the freedom of this Republic may be preserved inviolate, forever, there shall be chosen, by ballot, by the freemen of this Republic, on the last Wednesday in March, in the year one thousand seven hundred and eighty-five, and on the last Wednesday in March, in every seven years thereafter, thirteen persons, who shall be chosen in the same manner the council is chosen- except they shall not be out of the Council or Presiden Assembly-to be called the Council of Censors; who shall meet together, on the first Wednesday of June next ensuing their election; the majority of whom shall be a quorum in every case, except as to calling a Convention, in which two-thirds of the whole number elected shall agree; mod whose duty it shall be to enquire whether the constitution has been preserved inviolate, in every part; and whether the legislative and executive branches of government have performed their duty as guardians of the people; or assumed to themselves, or exercised, other or greater powers, than they are entitled to by the constitution. They are also to enquire whether the public taxes have been justly laid and collected, in all parts of this Commonwealth-in what manner the public monies have been disposed of, and whether the laws have been duly executed. For these purposes they shall have power to send for persons, papers and records; they shall have authority to pass public censures-to order impeachments, and to recommend to the legislature the repealing such laws as appear to them to have been enacted contrary to the principles of the constitution. These powers they shall continue to have, for and during the space of one year from the day of their election, and no longer. The said Council of Censors shall also have power to call a Convention, to meet within two years after their sitting, if there appears to them an absolute necessity of amending any article of this constitution which may be defective-explaining such as may be thought not clearly expressed, and of adding such as are necessary for the preservation of the rights and happiness of the people; but the articles to be amended, and the amendments proposed, and such articles as are proposed to be added or abolished, shall be promulgated at least six months before the day appointed for the election of such convention, for the previous consideration of the people, that they may have an opportunity of instructing their delegates on the subject.


    (1) Verified from "Vermont Republic Papers; Being a Collection of Records and Documents, Connected with the Assumption and Establishment of Government by the People of Vermont: together with the Journal of the Council of Safety, the First Constitution, the early Journals of the General Assembly, and the Laws from the year 1779 to 1786, inclusive. To which are added the Proceedings of the First and Second Councils of Censors. Compiled and Published by William Slade Jun. Secretary of State, Middlebury: J. W. Copeland, Printer. 1823." pp. 241-255.


    The Republic of Vermont was originally claimed by Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New York, and at the commencement of the revolutionary struggle she not only sought independence from British rule, but from the State of New York, which claimed sovereignty over the territory to the west bank of the Connecticut River, and from New Hampshire, which contested the claims of both New York and Vermont. In March, 1781, Massachusetts assented to the independence of Vermont, which adjusted her difficulties with New Hampshire in 1782, but it was 1790 before New York consented to her admission into the Union


    This constitution was framed by a convention which assembled at Windsor, July 2, 1777, and completed its labors July 8, 1777. It was not submitted to the people for ratification. It was affirmed by the legislature at its sessions in 1780 and 1782, and declared to be a part of the laws of the State. The Convention subsequently met, on December 24, 1777, after the time of election and the day of meeting of the Assembly. Back


    (2) The convention which met on July 2, 1777, " ordered that the first election should be holden in December, 1777, and that the General Assembly, thus elected should meet at Bennington, in January, 1778. The public attention being arrested by the evacuation of Ticonderoga, and the progress of the enemy under General Burgoyne; the constitution was not printed, seasonable, to have the election holden in December. The convention was therefore, summoned, by the Council of Safety, to meet at Windsor, on the 24th of Dec. 1777." They met and revised the constitution in this particular. Back


    (3) The Council of Safety. Back


    The bulk of this comes from project Avalon http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/vt01.asp
    I have made alterations but the bulk of it is still from that site and has now been duly cited.

    [​IMG]

    Following the end of the New English Civil War Vermont restored itself to a republic. Its constitution was changed to reflect this with the Governor becoming the President the Lieutenant Governor becoming the Vice President. The new Republic of Vermont consist of two states The State of Green Mountain (Otl Vermont) and the State of West Connecticut. These states have some local authority but for the most part power is kept in the National and local levels of the old Green Mountain Republic. Each state is run by a Governor, Lieutenant Governor and the State Council who makes the administrative actions required of the State government. This mainly entailed appointing state level Judges, and collection of state taxes.

    The President and Vice President are elected for a 3 year term they are elected in individual tickets (no Running Mates.). This is done to ensure that there are checks on the Executive office holders. Where as the General Assembly is elected every year. And Judges appointed for 10 year terms. State level offices served only a one year term in office.

    In 1822 the Vermont Army act was passed creating a national army and a national military academy. To do this the Vermont General Assembly amended Section V. And in doing so gave Vermont the first national conscription act in the Americas.This was done because of the limited size of the republic and the realization that they may not have time to fully mobilize their militias in the event of the next war with New England who would have the might of the British Empire behind them next time.

    Vermont was also the first American Republic to have universal male suffrage after the age of 21. In comparison the Federal republic of America required either a man to own an acre of land or pay a 2 dollar poll tax to vote. And the Various states of the Commonwealth had either land requirements or poll taxes or both. The closes that come to matching Vermont was the State of Virginia in the CAS which granted all males who had served in either the State Army or the Commonwealth Navy.
     
    Last edited: Mar 27, 2019
  20. Threadmarks: Commonwealth of American States in the 1820's: Part I

    Confederate Liberal Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Apr 8, 2011
    Location:
    Virginia
    The Elections of 1820 and 1823

    The Commonwealth would enter the 1820’s on a House of Delegates election year that would precede the Chancellor election in the spring 1821. Heading into the election the Commonwealth Chartist Party was confident they carried a small but ever increasing majority since the expansion of the house in 1814. November 7, 1820 would see the Chartist would win the most seats in the House since they had spit with the Commonwealth manifest destiny party in the wake of the War of 1805. The Commonwealth Manifest Destiny party would come in second, the States Nationalist Alliance would finish third and the Anti Masonic Party would grab the last three seats.

    Commonwealth House of Delegates 75 seats
    Commonwealth Chartist Party 28 seats
    Commonwealth Manifest Destiny Party 24 seats
    States Nationalist Alliance 20 seats
    Anti Masonic Party 3 seats.

    The Chartist would name William Carroll of North Carolina as their Speaker of the House when they were sworn into office on March 4, 1821. However their majority was just 4 seats strong. This was importiant because the next Chancellor Election would occour on March 11, 1823 before the next House election that November. This meant that as such they could not ensure their candidate for chancellor would win on March 11, 1823.


    With the House basically split three ways the three major parties knew that the only way to win the Chancellor election would be to find a candidate who could reach across the lines to take votes of at least one of the other two parties. With this in mind the Chartist Party would nominate William Harris Crawford of Virginia, Crawford was the heir to James Madison’s political legacy both in Virginia and within the Commonwealth Chartist Party. The State National Alliance would Nominate the Governor of Virginia Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. was the product of the Virginia Gentry a member of the Randolph family one of Virginia’s first families he had married Martha Jefferson the daughter of the late Thomas Jefferson. However it was noted that outside of Virginia his support with in the SNA was limited as he could be somewhat of a braggart and a gambler. Lastly was the Commonwealth Manifest Destiny Party who would break with all convention and name recently retired General Andrew Jackson of North Carolina as their candidate. Jackson was well known for his exploits in both the Southern War and the War of 1805, it was also known that Jackson had been a member of the Commonwealth Manifest Destiny Party since the split with the CCP.


    [​IMG]
    William Carroll (CCP-NC) Speaker of the House 1821-1825

    The Vote to elect the fourth Chancellor of the Commonwealth of American States would take three ballots

    The First Ballot would eliminate Randolph from the race, leaving only Jackson and Crawford
    Crawford 29 votes
    Jackson 29 votes
    Randolph 17 votes

    The Second ballot would come out in Jackson’s favor but he failed to achieve the 2 vote majority needed to win.
    Jackson 38 vote
    Crawford 37 votes

    After much wrangling and deal making the third ballot would see Crawford the winner.
    Crawford 45
    Jackson 30

    While Crawford did promise to give the SNA three seats on the Cabinet; However it was Jackson’s own mouth did him in when several SNA members overheard him calling of the invasion and annexation of Louisiana and Cuba. At this point the pro war part of the SNA was small, meaning that it turn the majority against him. Jackson was livid when the final vote was read out loud by Speaker Carroll; he swore that next time he would not be defeated by such lily livered politicians, this would set the stage for the Commonwealth Manifest Destiny Party’s drive to take control of the House of Delegates that dominated the Commonwealth Political landscape during the 1820’s.


    [​IMG]
    Chancellor William H Crawford (CCP-VA)

    [​IMG]
    General Andrew Jackson (CMDP-NC) candidate for Chancellor in 1821

    [​IMG]
    Governor Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. (SNA-VA) Candidate for Chancellor 1821
     
    Last edited: Apr 2, 2019
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