God Is a Frenchman Redux: Maps

Federal Kingdoms of Italy & Spain - 2005
Here are the provinces of the Federal Kingdom of Italy in 2005.

Federal Kingdom of Italy - 2005.png

And the regions of the Federal Kingdom of Spain in 2005.

If I ever get around to writing a timeline narrative continuing the from where it left off, there will be more details about the development of Italy and Spain post French Revolutionary War.
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Notes on the geo-political evolution of Europe
  • Readers may have noted that there are a lot of "Federal Kingdoms" in this TL. This is a political phenomenon driven by political thinkers in the mid-19th Century. The absence of OTL American and French revolutions dramatically changed the political history of both European monarchies and Imperialism.
    • In 1819, the Marquis de Chambray penned La Monarchie Constitutionnelle (On Constitutional Monarchy), which was known to be favored by Louis XVII. The book was a study on the importance of checks and balances on monarchs inspired after the works of Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu and obliquely praising the British model. It circulated throughout Europe, though Russia banned it and a counter-narrative was published in Vienna in 1830 by Graf Johann Franz von Lamberg entitled Die Bedeutung der Sozialen Ordnung (On the Importance of Social Order).
    • Britain was forced to liberalize some of its election laws in the early 1830s due to the Compact Movement of working class building throughout England.
    • In 1838 a retired French merchant to India and the East Indies Michel Pelletier published Le Commerce Impérial (On Imperial Commerce), a treatise on effectively managing colonial possessions and commerce through the delicate balance of positive-valuation of native societies and their "embetterment through commercial, legal, and social exchange." The volume was seen as a both summation of French colonial successes and failures over the previous century and a blueprint for the success of future endeavours.
    • In 1843 British political thinker Malcolm Barnet published The Federated State in English, French, and German. In it, he posited that European monarchies were doomed unless they adopted some form of regional self-governance. Barnet particularly examined Britain and Ireland, but also referred to Austria and Russia in his argument. His book was pilloried in Britain and banned in Russia. While Austria suppressed the book, it was read widely by the nobility in the 1840s.
    • In 1846 German economist Johann Holtz published Die Sozialen Kasten Europas (The Social Castes of Europe) in six languages. Holtz wrote his treatise after traveling throughout Europe for over a decade and living with people of different "castes" as he called them. He highlighted the vast social inequalities in European societies and warned the elites of worsening unrest over time if these disparities were continuously ignored. Holtz championed social mobility and decried the stratification of society, especially among the highest elites who he argued "have mainly stagnated their imaginations through sloth and hubris." The book was banned in much of continental Europe and Holtz fled to Britain. Still, the book was widely read by reformers throughout Europe and fed social movements.
    • In 1848 Dutch firebrand reformer Rud ter Halle wrote Le Manifest Republicaine (The Republican Manifesto), a radical call for the abolition of monarchies and popular rule through elections. Halle controversially rejected constitutional monarchy and maintenance of the nobility. At France's behest, Halle was arrested by Dutch authorities in 1849 but was freed by sympathizers in the guard. Halle was found hiding in the Rhineland by French authorities in 1850 and was killed while resisting arrest. Halle's death martyred him for radical reformers throughout Europe and "Hallism" or "Hallist Republicanism" became a significant movement among underground reformists for over a century.
    • After France explicitly became a constitutional monarchy during the French Revolutionary Wars, the ideas of Chambray and Barnet took hold among many European elites, especially as Hallist republicanism threatened to take root among the masses. Moderate reformers found common ground with conservative elites through the tumultuous 1860s-1880s and the Europe that emerged in the 1890s featured a number of constitutional monarchies and constitutional federal monarchies.
    • Austria led the way into federalism after the Hungarian Revolt in 1865. Kaiser Otto I, who had closely studied the controversial political philosophy texts of earlier decades, feared the beginning of regional unrest against Habsburg rule. He convened the Congress of Pressburg in 1867, which created a framework for regional state governments and a central, imperial government in Vienna. The framers of the 1868 Bundesverfassung Österreichs incorporated elements from Great Britain, the recent French constitution, and the works of Chambray, Barnet, and Holtz. Austria's experiment with federalism proved to be a grand success and ultimate model for other nations.
    • Autocracy was largely dead in Europe by the turn of the century. Of the major powers, Russia had liberalized the least by 1900.
    • Compared to OTL, the move toward royal constitutional federalism helped to preserve both monarchies and multi-ethnic countries like Austria. Ethno-nationalism was headed off by structural reforms that create a structure of self-governance at the regional level, which satisfied all but the most radical minority voices in empires like Austria. As such the ethnic strife and revanchism that occurs OTL in central and southeastern Europe between ethnic Germans, ethnic Slavs, etc., is mitigated and the nation forms around other socio-political identities.
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Yeah that was a fun timeline back in the day, these are some seriously cool maps.

Honestly based on all this work I say write your own timeline on the subject :)
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