God Is a Frenchman Redux: Maps

Maps Overview
Hey folks, I was a fan of the defunct thread "God is a Frenchman" by former user Anaxagoras. The thread died out in the middle of a civil war in France in the early 1850s. I've spent some time looking back at the old thread, the old TL and have fleshed out the world a lot more in my notes. I've got a basic timeline up to the mid-20th Century that I can start to flesh out and share, but my real purpose in making this thread is to share the Google My Map I have for 1850, 1862, 1876, and 1905. The maps are Eurocentric. The colors match colonies to the European country. Any countries that are "grayed out" are independent at the time of the map. I'll post the full map for 1905. Here are some excerpts from other decades:

North America, 1779 (Post King-Louis' War)

North America 1809

North America 1850

Europe 1850

North America 1876

Europe 1876

And here's the world in 1905 (click the image for a link to the full map - click the three dots on the map legend to collapse it to the left)

I might drop some more images or info for this expanded TL if people are interested.
Never heard of the original, but the maps have certainly grabbed my attention. Is this some sort of “France wins the Seven Years’ War” scenario?
Never heard of the original, but the maps have certainly grabbed my attention. Is this some sort of “France wins the Seven Years’ War” scenario?
Precisely. I linked to the original thread up top. Unfortunately, there are no thread-marks, but read through if you're interested.
I'm not sure how truly novel this is, but this is the first time I've seen this way of making maps. I'm loving the ~a~e~s~t~h~e~t~i~c~
Thanks! I'm not nearly skilled enough to make alt-maps the old fashioned way, so I let Google do the legwork of the underlying geography and build over it.
Original TL Part 1
I'll quote-post the original alt TL. For people's reference. To be clear, this is not my work. I'm building off of this text material.

Anaxagoras said:
In September, an upper-level disturbance alters the position of the jet stream, resulting in colder and wetter weather than would otherwise have been the case. Outside Quebec, the British army under General James Wolfe is severely hampered by rain and cold, whereas the French garrison under the Marquis de Montcalm remains secure within the city. A reckless attempt to scale the cliffs and reach the Plains of Abraham results in a fiasco, with most of the British assault force being killed or captured. General Wolfe himself was mortally wounded, living only long enough to know that he had lost.

Severe weather continues throughout the fall. In November, a Royal Navy fleet of 23 ships pursued a slightly smaller French force, which was trying to escape into Quiberon Bay. Foolishly attacking even though a storm was nearly upon him, British admiral Edward Hawke was unable to engage the French before the full force of the storm hit. While the French succeeded in reaching safe anchorages, most of the British ships floundered in the chaotic seas. The remainder were captured by the French soon after.

Throughout France, the cathedrals were filled by celebrating worshippers, who claimed that God had sent weather to destroy the English.

Due to the disaster at Quiberon Bay, the Royal Navy lacks sufficient strength to fully blockade the French coast. Because of this, a French fleet is able to sail across the Atlantic with reinforcements for the beleaguered French forces in America. In the spring, the newly-arrived French army lays siege to Louisburg, which had been captured by the British in 1758. By the end of the year, it is once again in French hands, opening up a route for resupply and reinforcement.

An advance by General Jeffrey Amherst towards Montreal is defeated by General Montcalm. The British suffer heavy casualties, particularly from raids against their supply lines by French-allied Indian warriors.

A substantial portion of the British naval forces operating in the Indian Ocean are withdrawn to Europe, to make up for the losses of the previous year (the British greatly fear the possibility of a French invasion of England itself). As a result, the French are able to recoup some of their losses in India. French troops under the half-Irish General Thomas Arthur defeat the British at the Battle of Wandiwash, greatly strengthening the French position in India.

In addition, the British reduce their financial subsidy to Prussia, which is already under heavy pressure from the French, Austrian and Prussian armies. The year sees significant defeats for Prussia, whose army is steadily dwindling away. Despite the tactical genius of Frederick the Great, it seems unlikely that Prussia can last long against such long odds.

The year begins with two diplomatic disasters for Britain. In February, Spain declares war on Great Britain. Only weeks later, Prussia signs a treaty of peace with her enemies, being forced to return Silesia to Austria. Frederick the Great bitterly denounced the British for failing to continue their financial subsidy of his war effort.

Paradoxically, the entry of Spain into the war provides Britain with a series of morale-boosting victories. A Spanish attempt to capture Gibraltar ends in disaster in the summer, with most of the Spanish fleet being destroyed by the Royal Navy. During the fall, Havana is captured by the British.

Things continue to go poorly in the struggle against the French, however. Freed from committing the bulk of their army against the Prussians and largely able to circumvent the Royal Navy blockade, a stream of French convoys carries regular troops to India and North America. British offensives in both theaters are repeatedly repulsed.

In January, a no confidence vote in the House of Commons removes William Pitt from office. New elections bring the Tory Party to power. Having lost their only major Continental ally, and seeing no prospect of achieving any significant gains in the colonial theater, the British decide to cut their losses and seek peace terms.

On August 14, the Treaty of Paris is signed, restoring peace between Britain and France. Britain recognizes French claims in North America and returns the French colonies it had captured during the fighting (a few Caribbean islands and African trading posts). In India, the British are required to recognize certain French clients as rajas and refrain from political interference outside the areas they already control. Spain offers to recognize British control of Cuba in exchange for a return of Gibraltar, but Britain elects to return Cuba to Spain and keep Gibraltar.

Reaction to the Treaty of Paris among the American colonists is almost universally negative. By recognizing French claims to the Trans-Appalachian West, the British government had effectively limited their territorial aspirations to the eastern coast of the Continent. Many prominent colonial leaders, having invested hugely in western colonization schemes, find themselves bankrupt and angry.

The French revel in their victory over the British. However, the government has become seriously alarmed at the vulnerability of New France, particularly on account of its small population (roughly fifty thousand) compared to the population of the British colonies (roughly a million). It is decided that urgent measures are needed to increase the population of New France.

In addition, France takes advantage of its strengthened position in India. Many of its client kings, thankful for French assistance in holding back the British, allow the French to take over much of the administration infrastructure of their states. The French generally manage their responsibilities efficiently, while turning a handsome profit for themselves. The number of French military advisors to Indian rajas, already high, increases still further, as the Indians have begun to consider the French as being militarily superior to the British.

From London, Benjamin Franklin writes a series of articles which are widely reprinted both in Britain and the British colonies. He restates his opinion that there must be a “union” of the colonies in order to properly defend against the French threat. These articles are much discussed and debated throughout the year.

France begins a program of sending convicts to work off their sentences as laborers in New France. Another program is launched for giving the Parisian poor grants of land and money if they emigrate to New France. Many of these new colonists are sent to St. Louis and New Orleans rather than Quebec and Montreal, as far-sighted French politicians are recognizing their future economic value. In addition, a new settlement is started on the Ohio River (on the site of OTL Cincinnati), designed to be a strategic outpost to control the territory. It is named Montcalm.

The French also lift the ban against Protestants settling in New France, much to the irritation of the Church, which wishes to make New France a model Catholic society.

Unable to invest their liquid capital in colonization schemes, the American colonists become increasing irritated that they are barred by the Navigation Acts from investing in ironworks and other newly-emerging industries.

In India, the British attempt to develop their territory in Bengal, while the French continue to gain allies and expand their territory in southern India. The French city of Pondicherry is becoming the main trading port city on the southeastern coast of the Subcontinent, while the colony of Mahe serves a similar purpose on the southwester coast. In other areas, free from British interference, the French are building new fortresses and garrisoning them with regular French troops as well as Indian recruits.

With Prussia reduced in power and influence, Austria has emerged as the main power in Eastern Europe. She casts a wary eye towards the Turks and Russians, and worries about a future conflict with France over who will be the dominant power on the Continent.

French immigration to New France continues to accelerate. In addition to government programs to promote colonization, new economic opportunities combined with a general feeling of optimism about the future of New France contribute to an increase in individual immigration without the aid of the government. Voltaire declares that, though he had once considered New France to be “a few acres of snow,” he would now himself “venture over the pond” if he were a young man.

Population growth in the British colonies, while still high, has begun to slow down. With fewer prospects for land ownership and a general economic slowdown, immigration to the colonies has decreased. The natural birthrate, however, remains high.

Benjamin Franklin returns to Philadelphia from London, wishing to devote himself to the issue of colonial unity. From his printing shop come forth a stream of pamphlets and small books, praising the advantages of such a political union. Reaction is mixed. Many colonial leaders find the idea attractive, as they fear the French and have largely lost faith with the British. Others find the idea distasteful, not wishing to lose any power to a general colonial assembly. London does not find the debate of much interest, believing the matter to have already been settled.

With a rising population and strong military presence, the future of New France appears bright. With the programs of immigration now working rather well, the French focus their efforts on diversifying the economy, so as to make it less dependent upon the exports of furs. Fishing and agriculture are emphasized.

The main goal of French India, in addition to furthering their economic exploitation of the Continent, is to establish political hegemony from Pondicherry to Mahe, thus securing control over all southern India. The British, held in check by the provisions of the Treaty of Paris, remain isolated in Bengal, although the French repeatedly protest to London that British agents and soldiers-of-fortune are attempting to stir up trouble against the French throughout India.

Late in the year, the French are able to secure a treaty with the Mughal Emperor not to enter into any treaty with the British without French permission. Although this agreement was not taken all that seriously by either side, it marked an important symbolic moment in French domination of India.

Despite continued successes overseas, public opinion in France continues to regard the government with general contempt. The riches flowing in from New France and French India create endless possibilities for corruption. The image of the shady bureaucrat growing rich off his colonial profits while ignoring his administrative responsibilities is a common one in the grub street literature of the time.

Still, most of the wealth flowing in from overseas does find its way into the larger economy, and France is doing quite well compared to other states. Recognizing that the next conflict with Britain is only a matter of time, the French invest a great deal in improving their naval forces. This seriously alarms the British, who in turn seek to improve their naval strength.

There are a large number of skirmishes between English settlers and French soldiers along the upper reaches of the Ohio River. While such skirmishes are nothing new, the French become increasingly convinced that the settlers are being prompted to encroach on French territory by the colonial governments, and perhaps the British government itself.

The population of the French settlements at St. Louis and Montcalm continues to grow, making the nearby natives uneasy. Also, the Catholic Church divides New France into two bishoprics, one in Quebec and one in New Orleans. By this time, the population of New France has reached 150,000, while the population of the English colonies is roughly 1.2 million.

In India, the French sign a treaty with the Kingdom of Mysore. The French grant Mysore favorable access to French manufactured goods, military arms and French army officers to train their army. In exchange, Mysore promises to support France in any future war with the British and not to enter into any treaty with another European power without French permission.

Frederick the Great, having been heartbroken and in ill health since his disastrous defeat in the Six Years War, dies.

A major Iroquois raid against the French-allied Algonquin tribe reaches the outskirts on Montreal. French regular troops intervene and a series of battles take place. Having well-learned the value of guerrilla tactics from their Indian allies, the French defeat the Iroquois, killing large numbers of warriors. The defeat of the Iroquois is a setback to the English, who had actually sponsored the raid themselves to test French defenses.

Despite this impressive victory, Montcalm, still the military commander of New France, remains uneasy when he considers the vulnerability of the colony. He has spent considerable resources building fortifications at Louisburg, Quebec, Montreal and Montcalm itself, and has secured alliances with most of the local Indian tribes. But the population disparity between New France and the English colonies is a constant source of worry and he urges the French government to continue and accelerate their immigration schemes.

Voltaire publishes his latest novel, Seguin, about a Spanish orphan boy who, through a series of unlikely events, becomes the finance minister of the French government. It satirizes the entire French governmental system and blasts corruption, making the French ruling class look ridiculous. The French government bans the book, Voltaire claims not to have written it and, naturally, it is wildly popular among the literate circles of French society.

Captain James Cook, of the Royal Navy, sets sail on a voyage of discovery to the Pacific Ocean. He will return in 1771.

At the beginning of the year, King Louis XV appoints Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes to be Governor General of New France. His appointment is mostly due to his administrative ability, but it is also thought that his strong Anglophobia will result in dynamic action to put the colony in a better position vis-à-vis the British. Montcalm meets him upon his arrival and the two get along rather well.

As a strong Catholic, Vergennes had not approved of the decision to lift the ban on Protestants settling in the colony. He requests that the King allow him to reinstate the ban, but he is refused (the King reasons that the more Protestants in New France, the fewer in France itself, which he considers a good thing). Still, the Church is delighted by Vergennes’ position and warmly supports him.

The naval arms race between the British and the French continues, creating a drain on their economies. Both see another war as likely to break out in the near future, and the French are determined to invade England when the conflict breaks out. To do this, they know they will need a sufficiently strong navy to deal with the British.

Further skirmishes between French and English settlers, as well as between Indians tribes allied to the respective nations, cause serious concern in both London and Paris. Vergennes continues to prepare New France for the inevitable showdown with the British.

The dispatch of a British political mission to the Mughal court at Delhi leads to a French protest. The French argue that it violates the Treaty of Paris, in which the British promised not to intervene in Indian politics outside of Bengal. The British reply that it is merely a trading mission, which the French do not believe.

A newly-elected Whig ministry decides to declare war on France, reasoning that time in on the side of the French in terms of military advantages and that it is better to start a war now rather than later. Using the issue of the diplomatic protest over the mission to Delhi, Britain recalls its ambassador to Paris. On March 10, the Royal Navy is given orders to attack French ships.

The military outlook at the beginning of the war appears to favor neither side. The population of New France is 200,000, while the population of the British colonies are roughly 1.4 million. However, there are more regular French troops in North America (10,000) than British troops (a mere 2,000, with the colonial governments expected to provide for their own defense). Most Indian tribes are allied to the French, with the only major British ally, the Iroquois, still recovering from their severe defeat by the French a few years earlier.

In India, Britain is in firm control of Bengal, with a strong army (15,000 sepoys and 2,50 European troops). France has roughly the same number of forces in its territory in southern India, but also has the alliance with the powerful Kingdom of Mysore.

At sea, France has made great progress in its naval rearmament, resulting in a fleet of 51 ships-of-the-line. Britain still has the edge, with 62 ships-of-the-line, but the margin is less than it had been during the Six Years War.

The first conflict of the war takes place on June 21, when a French fleet escorting a convoy of troops to New France is intercepted by the Royal Navy. The convoy turns back and makes a run for Brest, with the Royal Navy in hot pursuit. Three French ships-of-the-line are taken, for the loss of one British ship. The convoy itself escapes back to France and the French public treats the affair as a victory. The escape is credited mostly to the leadership of Admiral Pierre Andre de Suffren, who becomes a highly-regarded figure as a result.

Colonial militias muster to attack New France. Massachusetts and Pennsylvania immediately put large numbers of men into the field, but they are rather poorly equipped. In the meantime, Virginia balks at the number of men expected of it, declaring that it should not be required to send as many men as Pennsylvania, since it is not directly threatened by the French nor in as good a position to take advantage of any seizure of French territory.

In India, Mysore immediately enters the war on the side of the French. A large Franco-Mysorean army lays siege to Madras, the main British base on the southeastern coast of India. A series of naval battles along the Indian coast produce losses on both sides, but no clear result.

Britain finds itself unable to maintain a strong blockade of France, due to France’s increased naval strength. As a result, French convoys to North America and India are able to get through most of the time, strengthening the French position in both colonial theaters. Of particular concern is the build-up of a large French army and a fleet of transports in Brittany, whose only purpose can be to launch an invasion of Britain itself.

To compensate, Britain attempts to secure an alliance with a major Continental power in order to divert French resources. It promises Spain a return of Gibraltar in exchange for an alliance, but the Spanish do not trust the British and have also been receiving overtures from the French, who promise that any peace treaty would insist upon a return of Gibraltar.

The British then approach Austria. Although the Austrians and French are traditional rivals, they were allies during the Six Years War and the British have few bargaining tools with which to negotiate, now that Prussia is no longer a major power. The Austrians, however, fear the expansion of French power and make contingency plans to enter the war against France if it seems that the French may defeat the British.

Finally, the British approach the Dutch, whose respectable naval power could provide an edge against the French, particularly in the Indian Ocean. The Dutch, however, fear the prospect of a direct French invasion of the Netherlands and make no commitment.

In North America, a force of 1,500 British regulars (mostly Scottish Highlanders) and 5,000 colonial militia (mostly from Pennsylvania) launches an offensive against Fort Duquesne, which had given the British so much trouble during the Six Years War. Montcalm, commanding the defenders, has about 3,000 men under his command, along with some Indian allies. Despite his inferior numbers, he moves out to meet the British rather than await them in the fortress. This decision would later be widely criticized, but he overconfidently believes he can destroy the enemy force if he defeats it in a pitched battle and is concerned about being besieged.

The ensuring battle (known as the Second Battle of the Monongahela) was a disaster for the French. The British adopted French tactics and did not move in line formation, as Montcalm expected them to. The British outflanked the French-Indian force as they launched a general attack, leading to a French rout. As he attempted to stem the tide of the battle, Montcalm was struck by a bullet and killed instantly. The remnants of the French force retreated into Fort Duquesne, which the British placed under siege. After four weeks of gallant resistance, the fort falls to the British.

This French setback was partially offset by a successful defense of Fort Ticonderoga, where a force of 1,000 French troops successfully repulsed an attack by 5,000 Massachusetts militiamen.

In India, the Royal Navy attempts to relieve the siege of Madras, only to be repulsed by a French squadron (the battle itself was a tactical draw). The city falls to the combined French-Mysorean force on August 23, setting off celebrations in France and doing much to restore confidence after the news of the Second Battle of the Monongahela and the death of Montcalm.

Alarmed by France’s growing power and with the promise of a large British financial subsidy, Austria declares war on France on January 1. Austrian troops are assembled in the Lower Netherlands, preparing for an offensive as soon as they are ready. France, understandably alarmed by this, reinforces the frontier. Although many in the French government wish to transfer the army in Brittany to the Austrian frontier, the decision is made to continue preparations for the invasion of England and remain on the defensive against Austria.

New France continues to reel from the death of Montcalm and the loss of Fort Duquesne. However, communications with France remain intact and regular convoys of reinforcements and supplies are arriving in Quebec. Since the settlement of Montcalm is too far away for the British to attack successfully, the military leaders of New France adopt a strategy of “active defense” of Montreal and Quebec. They launch raids on British settlements throughout New England, New York and Pennsylvania, keeping the British off-balance and delaying any British offensive.

In India, French successes continue. All of southern India is now in French hands or under the control of Mysore. The British decide to focus on Europe and North America, hoping to recoup their losses in India at the signing of the peace treaty.

At sea, on July 12, a French fleet of 20 ships-of-the-line under the command of Admiral Suffren meets a British fleet of comparable size off the coast of Brittany, where the Royal Navy is attempting a blockade. In their first major victory over the British fleet (unless one counts the weather-assisted victory at Quiberon Bay), the French are completely victorious. Suffren takes six British ships-of-the-line and leaves three others burning. Despite heavy losses, not a single French ship is lost. The British are stunned and terrified when the news reaches London.

Britain immediately withdraws its forces in North America, bringing them back to England to defend against the feared French invasion. The war against New France is left in the hands of the colonies themselves, who rail bitterly against the British government for “abandoning” them.

Buoyed by the news, Spain declares war on Great Britain on August 31. Immediately, it blockades Gibraltar and commences a bombardment, while the Spanish colonial forces are ordered to attack the British wherever they might be encountered.

Also in August, at the frantic urging of the British, the Austrians launch their offensive against northern France. They come up against the tried-and-true line of fortresses built to protect the area. Progress is slow and losses are heavy on both sides.

In New France, a colonial force of militia from Massachusetts and other New England states captures Fort Ticonderoga in late August. Plans are laid for an offensive against Quebec itself in the spring of 1775.

The main Austrian army in the low countries is disastrously defeated by a French force commanded by the Comte de Rochambeau. The Austrians are pushed back over the border into their own territory, with French troops soon to launch their own offensive.

On September 15, the dream of the French for over a century became a reality. A massive French fleet escorted hundreds of transports, landing 35,000 men on the southwestern coast of England. The Royal Navy attempted to intervene, but in the ensuing Battle of Plymouth, Admiral Suffren cemented his reputation as “Admiral Satan” by again defeating the British and forcing their fleet to withdraw. Among the British causalities is Captain James Cook, killed while bravely fighting the French boarders hand-to-hand.

Plymouth is placed under French siege and bombarded from the sea. The town surrenders on September 30, giving the French a firm foothold on English soil. The Royal Navy having been defeated, convoys from France began ferrying troops across the English Channel from Cherbourg. Soon, 50,000 French soldiers are in England, with more on the way.

Panic ensues in London, as French troops begin to fan out across southwest England. The Whig government immediately collapses, and George III opens direct negotiations with Louis XV. Frantically, the British offer peace on almost any terms to the French. On November 30, with the French in occupation of much of England and moving in strength towards Portsmouth and Cambridge, there is a cessation of hostilities.

On December 15, King Louis XV dies at Versailles. He will be remembered by his subjects as King Louis the Victorious.

The Treaty of London is signed on May 2, bringing an end to King Louis’ War, as it became known. The French were in an unparalleled position of strength and this was made clear in the terms of the treaty.

  • All British territory in India was transferred to France, bringing the vast areas of Bengal under French control. The British East India Company was to be disbanded completely.
  • The territorial limits of the British American colonies were specifically laid out, so as to prevent any misunderstanding which might lead to a future conflict.
  • Gibraltar is returned to Spain, as the French had earlier promised their allies.
  • British military forces would be barred from North America. The British colonies could organize militia only for the purpose of defending against Indian attack or combating slave insurrections. The treaty stipulated that any introduction British military forces would be a cause for war.
  • The Royal Navy would be limited to 2/3 the number of ships as the French Navy.
The British signed the treaty with great reluctance, but they had little choice in the matter. The French now had upwards of 75,000 men in England, and could probably take London if they desired it.

The Austrians, being steadily pushed back by the French and now fearing to face the full strength of their enemy, hastily make their own peace with France. The Treaty of Vienna is signed on July 16.. In exchange for recognition of their supremacy in Bavaria, provided that the independence of the state is not compromised, the Austrian Netherlands are transferred to France (much to the alarm of the Dutch).

Many observers were surprised that Austria gave up its territory in the Low Countries so easily, but there were secret clauses within the Treaty of Vienna which favored the Austrians. France agreed not to interfere with the soon-to-come Austrian and Russia partition of Poland, and also promised not to sell military equipment to the Ottoman Empire.

The new king, Louis XVI, inherited a nation that was in a more powerful position than it ever had been in during the course of its long history. It was the most powerful nation in the world, its economy was strong and public respect for the monarchy had never been higher. The future for France looked golden.
Anaxagoras said:
Because the Treaty of London prohibits regular British military forces from being stationed in North America, the British Parliament gives the go ahead for the colonies to create the much-discussed “colonial union” for defensive purposes. In Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin heads up a committee representing the colonies to devise a proper plan.

Each colony is expected to maintain a militia, with state’s meeting requirements based on their populations. During time of war (with the power to declare war still in the hands of the British government), the militias will be organized under a single command structure and headed by an officer chosen by the crown. The agreement also stipulates that representatives from each colony will meet once a year in Philadelphia to discuss matters of mutual interest. The first meeting is scheduled for June 1, 1777.

The committee presents its plan to Parliament, which finds it agreeable and orders it to be implemented.

In Europe, respect for the power of France is at its height. 1776 is the beginning of a “Second Golden Age” of French culture, with the architecture, art, literature and cuisine of France being copied throughout the Continent. Voltaire writes a series of letters and pamphlets, expressing delighting that the rest of Europe was becoming “so civilized” but worrying about the effect it will have on already large French egos.

France and Spain sign the Holy Alliance, stated to continue in perpetuity. It provides for mutual assistance in colonization efforts and that each will come to the aid of the other in the event of war. Shortly afterwards, the Papal States become a party to the treaty, as Vergennes is eager for France to assume the position of the leading Catholic power, overshadowing Hapsburg Austria.

In India, British flags are hauled down and French flags go up throughout the Subcontinent. The newly-established British settlement at Calcutta is abandoned, and the Chandannagar (previously a small French outpost in an otherwise British-controlled Bengal) becomes the center of trade in northeastern India. The vast majority of employees of the British East India Company continue to work in their former positions, now serving France rather than Britain.

Many Indian rulers held the opinion that, with the British removed from India, there commercial and political obligations were also at an end. The French maintained, however, that the rights and privileges held by the British were now held by the French. This misunderstanding, whether accidental or intentional, would have serious consequences.

In recognition of his service as the Governor-General of New France, Comte de Vergennes is brought back to France and becomes Foreign Secretary. As a passionate French nationalist, Vergennes is determined to increase the power and prestige of France.

In Great Britain, the political fallout from the disaster of King Louis’ War plays itself out. The Whig arty is completely discredited, having started and lost two wars to the French within twenty years. The Tory Party solidifies its grip on power, operating on a platform of restoring British power while avoiding another conflict with the French.

In India, French attempts to exercise the rights previously held by the British East India Company are rebuffed by numerous Indian princes. In response, France launches military attacks on a number of relatively minor states in central India, with whom the British had held treaties. Assisted, as before, by units from Mysore, the French win a series of quick victories and force the defeated rajas to sign humiliating treaties and accept French and Mysorean garrisons. Seeing the actions of the French, other Indian states either move to mollify the French or begin preparations to resist their encroachments.

The Committee on Inter-Colonial Defense meets in Philadelphia. Aside from general meet-and-greet sessions and agreements on fortifications around specific ports and towns, little of consequence is discussed. The event is not even mentioned by any newspapers in Great Britain.

Over half of Poland is seized by Austria and Russia. The Poles appeal to the French for assistance, but adhering to their treaty with the Austrians, the French decline to become involved. Poland is left as a rump state, utterly powerless.

Immigrants from France continue to arrive in New France in large numbers, assisted by favorable government policies and confident that the future of the colony is assured. The population of the territory is now approach 350,000, with 300,000 living in Canada and the remainder along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. The increasing population makes the Indians uneasy, but they are relieved that the French more or less allow them to live the way they wish and have protected them from the British threat.

The Netherlands and France sign a mutually beneficial commercial treaty, which alleviates somewhat Dutch suspicion of the French. Nevertheless, the Dutch are investing considerable resources at building up their fortifications along the French border.

At a symbolically important meeting of French ministers, in the presence of King Louis XVI, Comte de Vergennes lays out his “Four Pillars” of French foreign policy.

  • France must develop and expand its colonial empire.
  • France must prevent a resurgence of British power
  • France must prevent any single power from controlling Germany.
  • France must promote and expand the Holy Alliance.
Anaxagoras said:
It is now estimated that the population of New France is increasing by more than 35,000 a year, due to immigration and an steadily increasing birthrate. This rate is expected to increase as the population grows.

As the glow of the victory in King Louis’ War begins to fade, general irritation with the regime returns among the French public. Louis XVI is seen as indecisive and incompetent, particularly when compared with his two dynamic predecessors, while his Austrian queen Marie Antoinette is regarding as an out-of-touch buffoon of a woman. Corruption in high circles of government only increases the popular perception.

But the French people are willing to treat political corruption and royal stupidity as a joke, so long as the economy of France does well. And times are good in France. Wealth flowing in from the colonies contributes to economic activity, and for the have-nots there is always to prospect of immigrating to the New World, where land is available for free to anyone willing to work it.

Louis XVI dispatches an exploratory expedition under the command of the Comte de La Perouse. The objective is to explore the Pacific Ocean and seek out any territories which might be fit for French colonization. Strict orders are given to treat all natives they encounter with respect.

In Britain, parliamentary debates rage over what to do concerning the possibility of a future war with France. The successful French invasion of England created a national loss of confidence, and many were of the opinion that nothing whatsoever should be done which might provoke France. Others, however, believed in the greatness of Britain and, while not desiring another war, wanted to ensure that Britain would never become a puppet of France.

At the same time, the Dutch feared the growing power of France. Small and isolated, with no barrier of Hapsburg territory between the Netherlands and France, the Dutch felt particularly vulnerable.

Great Britain and the Netherlands sign a treaty of defensive alliance, each pledging to come to the assistance of the other should they be attacked. This is widely and correctly perceived as an anti-French alliance, particularly as the combined British and Dutch fleets would be numerically superior to the French fleet. France is concerned about this development, but voices no immediate protest.

In Britain, after fierce parliamentary debate, funds are allocated for stronger fortifications in coastal towns and for a line of strong fortresses around London, to protect against a potential future French invasion. Dutch fortification experts contribute to the effort.

The La Perouse expedition explores various Pacific Islands, claiming them for France. Venturing south, they explore New Zealand and the eastern coast of Australia, building on the work of the English explorer James Cook.

At its annual meeting in Philadelphia, the Committee on Inter-Colonial Defense issues an appeal to Parliament, requesting the abolition of the Navigation Acts and the establishment of free trade between Britain and the colonies. They argue that the ban on industrial production in the colonies makes it more difficult to effectively protect their territory from Indian attacks and a potential French invasion.

The population of New France continues to increase at a faster rate that the population of British America. New France now is the home of 400,000 people, while the population of British America is roughly 1.5 million.

The British Parliament is rather surprised at the request of the Committee on Inter-Colonial Defense. But as the ideas of the Scottish economist Adam Smith have begun to permeate the establishment, the proposal has more backing than it would have had a few years earlier. Parliament accepts the proposal with qualifications, allowing the colonies the freedom to produce their own goods, while keeping intact many tariffs and taxes on trade between Britain and the colonies.

La Perouse continues his explorations, sailing north to the Pacific coast of America, then back across the Ocean to China, where he sells the furs he had acquired and distributes the profits among his men. He fills the cargo hold with Chinese products and sails for home.

Vergennes bends his energies towards finding a way to split the alliance between Britain and the Netherlands. Neither on their own is a match for French power, but combined they block the possibility of further French domination of Europe.
I clicked on the world map and it took me to that map overlayed on to the google earths map ( inside of google maps), how in the fuck did you manage to do that.
There should be a thumbnail on the bottom left where you can toggle between bird-eye view and the atlas view. Nothing magical about me, just Google's features!
Original TL Part 2
Anaxagoras said:
In India, about half of the French governmental establishment is made up of former employees of the British East India Company, many of whom have never even been to England. This does not overly bother the French, particularly as many marriages are now taking place between French and British families. Profits continue to be large, and French political control of Bengal and South India are absolute. Every year, more and more Indian princes are signing treaties with the French, surrendering autonomy in exchange for protection from their enemies.

In Scotland, the steam engines of James Watt are becoming increasingly efficient. Nothing nearly as sophisticated exists in France.

La Perouse returns to France and is hailed as a national hero. Louis XVI is fascinated by the accounts of his voyage, and commissions new exploratory ventures to the Pacific. Some are to explore New Zealand and Australia in order to ascertain their suitability for French colonization. Others are to search for the much-discusses Northwest Passage. La Perouse himself is to attempt to open diplomatic and trade relations with the Chinese Empire.

Britain, increasingly uneasy at the expansion of French power and determined to restore its former power, decides to attempt to circumvent the Treaty of London by creating shipbuilding facilities in the colonies (at Boston and Philadelphia) to construct warships. It is hoped that this can be done without the French fully realizing it, so as to restore the naval balance between the two sides.

A daughter, Princess Maria Joaquina, is born to Prince Charles IV of Spain, heir apparent to the throne of France.

France offers to establish a demilitarized zone in Flanders and generous trade concessions in India if the Dutch sign a treaty of friendship and understanding. The Dutch respond that they will study the proposals.

Movements are beginning to sprout up calling for reforms of the French governmental system. While wealth continues to flow in from the colonies and times are good for the upper and middle classes, most of the population continues to live in poverty. Continued caricatures of corrupt government officials are spread by a vast underground press, fueling resentment against the ruling class (though respect for the monarchy remains high).

The French government are attempting to establish Flanders (the former Austrian Netherlands) as a French province no different from any other, but many in Flanders want some sort of special status to be recognized, if not outright independence. At the same time, Flanders has experienced strong economic growth since the transfer from Austria to France, and Flemish participation in the French East India Company is disproportionately high.

Vergennes, working through the political officials of the Papal States, begins to encourage Italian states to join the Holy Alliance, which causes great concern in Austria.

At the annual meeting of the Committee on Inter-Colonial Defense, the delegates study the British proposals to construct warships in American waters. They are of the opinion that such a program could not escape the notice of the French, who have numerous spies throughout the colonies, and they fear that such activities could provide the French with an excuse to attack the colonies. They send Parliament a report of their findings, which does not go over well in London.

In a parliamentary debate over foreign policy, numerous references are made to Spain being a “French puppet” and the need to treat France and Spain as if there are a single power. Fears are particularly expressed that the union of all-Bourbon ruled states could one day create a super-state that would completely destroy the balance of power in the world.

These fears are given renewed emphasis when the Kingdom of Naples joins the Holy Alliance later in the year. In response, Austria enters into secret discussions with Great Britain and the Netherlands about a military alliance should either of them be attacked by the Holy Alliance. Russia also views the expansion of the alliance with concern.

A man named Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, who had taken holy orders before giving up on a church career, enters the French Foreign Ministry and very quickly becomes a trusted confidante of Vergennes. In particular, Talleyrand encourages Vergennes to seek the expansion of French influence through diplomacy rather than force.

As news of French explorations of the Pacific continues to be the talk of Europe, Britain sends out its own expedition, under the command of Captain William Bligh, to explore the western coast of Australia (since French attention seems focused on the eastern coast). If possible, he is to venture south to ascertain whether or not the hypothesized “Southern Continent” exists.

The British explorers have a strong advantage over their French counterparts, in that accurate chronometers have now been invented, allowing British navigators to determine their longitude with relative ease. Their design becomes a closely guarded secret, as the British wish to maintain their advantage as long as possible.

In India, French political control of the interior continues to expand, and a permanent representative of the French government is now installed at the Mughal court as an “advisor” to the Emperor. In New France, the population growth continues, particularly as locals have begun buying increasingly large numbers of land plots from their aristocratic owners. Some French fur trappers are beginning to venture west of the Mississippi into the immense plains beyond.

Talleyrand is named as French ambassador to Britain. Almost overnight, he becomes a social sensation, throwing immense parties which become the talk of the upper class. While he enjoys the parties immensely, Talleyrand also has a specific motive in that he wishes to court the influential men of Britain so as to prevent another war from breaking out between Britain and France.

The Netherlands suggests to the French government that Flanders could possibly become an independent duchy under the rule of Louis XVI, but not an integral part of France. This would ease tensions considerably, they argue, and relieve both of the immense expense of maintaining fortresses and military forces along their border. Louis XVI does not like the idea, and Vergennes feels the same way. Talleyrand writes from England, encouraging them to accept the idea, but it is eventually rejected.

A slave revolt in South Carolina is crushed by the colonial militia, although not without some difficulty and only after several people had been killed. Colonial leaders are happy to have been able to deal with the threat on their own, but chaff at the possibility that European political issues prevent the British government from being allowed to station regular troops in the colonies.
Anaxagoras said:
French colonial authorities in New France send a strong recommendation to Paris that relations with the Indians be foot on a more secure footing. With the continuing expansion of the French population (which passes the one million mark in 1788), the Indians are becoming increasingly concerned about encroachments on their land. The colonial governor recommends creating a system of association with the tribes, recognizing their rights while having the Indians become “associated tribes” of New France.

In the Pacific, French expeditions are carefully mapping New Zealand and the eastern coast of Australia, while the British are taking the lead in exploring the western Australian coast. Meanwhile, French ships are scouring the coast of North America in the search for the Northwest Passage (having the advantage of being able to resupply at Spanish ports in Mexico).

La Perouse, after a great deal of difficulty, gains an audience with the Chinese Emperor. Unlike other Europeans, the French are not particularly bothered by the traditional requirements of kowtowing before the Emperor. Still, La Perouse does not achieve his objective, being told by the Chinese that they have no need of European goods. The best he can get is an agreement by the Chinese to allow the French to open a trading post in Canton in order to buy Chinese products, but only if they are paid directly with gold or silver.

In London, Talleyrand is anxious that the expansion of the Holy Alliance and potential colonial altercations not spark a conflict between France and Britain. Above all, he wants the status quo to be maintained as long as possible, though he recognizes that another conflict is only a matter of time. Among the agreements he is able to arrange is a treaty by which neither side will sell weapons to Native Americans within the other’s territory.

The Committee for Inter-Colonial Defense petitions the British Parliament to abolish the Navigation Acts. Parliament responds by asking why they are making recommendations on matters beyond the purview of their committee. This leads to a series of newspaper articles throughout the colonies expressing confusion over exactly what their political relationship with Great Britain is. No question of independence is raised, particularly as they need the power of Britain to defend against the French threat. But there is clearly a desire for a more appropriate constitutional framework.

In India, Tippu Sultan of Mysore renews his alliance with the French by signing another treaty of friendship and commerce. But he insists that French troops not be stationed within his territory itself, and that Mysore receive a proportionate amount of profits from the territories where it has committed troops on behalf of the French. He recognizes that the French need the alliance as much as he does, for without his troops they would be unable to mount the punitive expeditions which are becoming a general part of the political process. He is determined to use this as leverage and not to become a mere puppet of the French.

In addition, Tippu sends large numbers of young Mysorean boys to be educated in European schools, particularly in technical fields with military applications.

On opposite sides of Australia, two colonizing fleets arrive. The French settle an excellent bay on the southeastern coast, creating a colony called Vergennes (ironically, on the same day the colony is established, the old statesman died in Paris). On the western coast, the British establish a colony of roughly similar size, naming it New Edinburgh. The distances between the two colonies are so vast that there is no contact between them.

Upon the death of Comte de Vergennes, Talleyrand is appointed by King Louis XVI to replace him as the Minister of Foreign Affairs. He returns to Paris and immediately celebrates his new position with a massive (and massively expensive) soiree.

A joint appeal is made by the colonial assemblies to the British Parliament, asking for a clarification of their constitutional relationships to one another and to Great Britain itself. In London, the decision is made to form a committee to investigate the matter, and invitations to various colonial leaders go out to come to London and hammer out the issue. News of this development is give to Benjamin Franklin shortly before his death.

Talleyrand reasons that Britain will not risk another war with France unless it was strong enough, by itself or through alliances, to have a realistic chance of success. Therefore, the best way to prevent another war with Britain would be to diplomatically isolate Britain, while somehow convincing Britain that it has nothing to fear from France.

Talleyrand therefore convinces King Louis XVI to accept the earlier Dutch proposal to make Flanders an independent duchy and a demilitarized area, which will alleviate tensions with both Britain and the Netherlands. He area will remain a de facto part of France, and he will be allowed to add “Duke of Flanders” to his list of titles. In addition, it might help appease the developing nationalist movement within Flanders, which could conceivably cause trouble in the future.

In September, France and the Netherlands signs the Treaty of Calais, setting out the new arrangement. Talleyrand took the opportunity to settle several other issues, which he feared might eventually lead to problems down the road, although he also took care to protect the interests of French colonial merchants, who were paying Talleyrand hefty bribes.

  • Flanders is recognized as an independent duchy rather than being an integral part of France, with King Louis XVI recognized as the Duke of Flanders.
  • French military forces shall not be stationed in Flanders and French fortifications there shall be demolished.
  • The Netherlands shall not enter into any alliance directed against France, and shall withdraw from any such alliance it is already party to.
  • French merchants in India and other parts of Asia shall be allowed free access to Dutch territories, and Dutch merchants shall have similar access to French territories.
With the stroke of a pen, Talleyrand pulled the Dutch away from the British and drew them into the French orbit. The British are aghast at the treaty, but are powerless to prevent it.

In New France, numerous tribes sign necessary treaties with the French in order to be recognized as “associated tribes.” From the French point of view, this legally makes the Indians French subjects, though the Indians themselves didn’t particularly understand this concept and wouldn’t have cared if they did. The agreements require France to protect the tribes in the event of an attack by the British or another tribe. If two associated tribes come into conflict, the authorities in New France are expected to mediate the dispute. It encourages trade and respects Indian land, with the Indians understanding that certain areas (such as St. Louis and Montcalm) are to be colonized by the French themselves.

At the same time, with a booming population and the possibility of new territory being acquired to the West, it is recognized in Paris that New France is simply too big to be governed as one entity. It is therefore split into two colonies, Canada being ruled from Quebec and Louisiana being ruled from New Orleans. “New France” simply becomes a general term for the French North American colonies.

In London, British politicians and colonial leaders attempt to work out a new constitutional framework for the American colonies. The colonial leaders are lead by Massachusetts lawyer John Adams, who alternately amazes everyone with his intelligence and irritates everyone with his stubbornness and lack of tact. The work continues throughout the year.

The British are particularly anxious to create a constitutional framework that will allow the colonies to function more effectively while remaining solidly within the British Empire. It is felt that doing so will strengthen their power in the face of the collapse of the Dutch alliance.

In America, a new style of architecture, based on the Neoclassical and Palladian schools, is being pioneered by Thomas Jefferson, a sometime lawyer and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. The “Jeffersonian” style of architecture becomes representative of Enlightenment ideals in America.

Talleyrand, having diplomatically isolated Britain, now wishes to alleviate Austrian apprehensions of French expansion. The center to this problem is Italy, where France and Austria have conflicting interests. Talleyrand’s solution to this problem is to attempt to shift Austria’s attention to the east and he begins to calculate how he might engineer a conflict between the Austrians and the Turks.

A French lawyer named Maximilian Robespierre pens a widely-distributed short book entitled Considerations on the Nature of the French Government. While full of praise for French nation and being quite respectful of the monarchy, Robespierre bitterly denounces the massive cronyism and nepotism within the French government, stating quite bluntly that it stifles French progress and French culture. He lays out several proposals for major reforms. Conservatives accuse Robespierre of being an Anglophile, for many of his reforms sound suspiciously English.

Talleyrand quietly reads the book and, although he personally agrees with much of Robespierre’s points, he is disturbed at the book’s popularity. He fears it might destabilize the French government.

After a year-and-a-half of hard work, the Parliamentary committee on reforming the American colonies announces its plan. The thirteen colonies shall be organized as the Dominion of America. An American Parliament shall be established, which shall meet in Philadelphia and which shall have jurisdiction over all internal matters of the colonies and shall have its own powers to raise taxes. All matters of foreign policy, defense and most matters of trade policy shall remain strictly in the hands of the British Parliament. The Dominion shall be governed by a Viceroy appointed by the King. The necessary legislation is drawn up, but numerous delays are encountered as the fine points are hammered out.

The Governor-General of New France and the Governor-General of Louisiana decide to send teams of explorers into the uncharted territory of the Trans-Mississippi, each taking different routes up the larger rivers. With the population continuing to expand, it is hoped that new territory can be opened up for settlement.

France sets up a small trading post at the mouth of the Columbia River, in the Pacific Northwest. It becomes a center for fur-trapping, with the furs being taken down to Spanish ports in Mexico for re-export to Europe. Others are taken to Canton, in the hopes that the Chinese will be interested in purchasing them and finally open up their markets to French products.

A group of French bourgeoisie intellectuals, galvanized by Robespierre’s writings, begins meeting in various Parisian coffee houses to discuss and debate his ideas and consider how they might be applied to French society. Many prominent lawyers and merchants are among them. The French police are careful to keep tabs on them.

The Act Regulating the Government of the American Colonies passes through Parliament, bringing the Dominion of America into being. King George III appoints William Pitt the Younger as his first Viceroy of America. Pitt takes the position determined to redeem his family’s name, which had been soiled by Britain’s defeat in the Six Years War.

King Louis XVI, in one of his rare moments of seeking to influence policy, directs Talleyrand to inform the British that the military forces of the Dominion of America will be considered by the French to be military forces of the British Empire, so any warships built in America will be counted as part of the Royal Navy. The British cannot therefore violate the Treaty of London by building warships in American ports that might raise the strength of the British fleet to more than 2/3 of the French fleet.

Talleyrand does not like the idea, preferring to let the matter remain ambiguous. But being unable to talk Louis XVI out of it, he has his ambassador in London deliver the message. Privately, however, he assures the British ambassador in Paris that the matter can be allowed to remain murky.

The population of France itself has grown greatly in recent years, and the exodus of Frenchmen to the colonies (mostly to North America, but a growing number to French India) eases the growth only slightly.

Now that French merchants have access to Dutch colonies in Asia, competition is fierce. Although the Dutch maintain a large merchant fleet, they no longer have the resources the French have, and an increasingly large portion of the trade which had been under their control is now being taken by the French. Dutch merchants are becoming increasingly concerned and lobby the Dutch government for a revision of the Treaty of Calais.

The first elections to the American Parliament are held. The vast majority of seats are won by prominent merchants, lawyers and (in the Southern colonies) planters. John Adams is elected Speaker of the House of Commons. To create the American House of Lords, the King bestows noble titles on a number of prominent American figures.
Funds are appropriated to construct a suitable Parliament building in Philadelphia, and Thomas Jefferson is chosen as the principal architect (he had been pressured to run for Parliament himself, but he had declined).

Numerous pamphlets and small books are circulating in Paris, calling for serious reforms in the French governmental system. Nobles and the Church should have to pay taxes, say some. Others discuss means to root out corruption and nepotism. Many highly-placed officials are concerned at the growing reform movement and press the King to suppress it.

Among the firebrands writing in the Paris streets is an almost-unknown English émigré named Thomas Paine. He is among the few members of the reform movement who openly calls for the abolition of the monarchy, but his views are dismissed by the other members of the movement as utterly unrealistic and undesirable. Some people whisper that he is insane.

As steam technology gradually develops, British industrial output increases. Though still behind France, some French economists view this development with alarm. At the same time, British merchants operating from the small settlement at New Edinburgh are attempting to gain access to the East Indies trade, from which Britain has been largely excluded since 1775. Their efforts are not particularly successful, although French and Dutch smugglers are selling spices and Chinese goods at very high prices in New Edinburgh.

In response to growing British industrial production and the surprising performance of British navigators, the French Academy of Sciences launches a program to study British inventions, such as chronometers and steam engines, to see whether they might be duplicated in France.

King Louis XVI dies of tuberculosis. His fourteen-year-old son Prince Louis-Joseph-Xavier-Francois is immediately hailed as King Louis XVII, with a council of nobles (carefully selected by Talleyrand) to function as a Regency.

At the request of the British Parliament, the American Parliament appropriates money to construct warships in Philadelphia and Boston. This is not only a means for the British Empire to circumvent the restrictions of the Treaty of London, but is also seen as a means to provide jobs for the cities and to foster shipbuilding in general.

Spurned on by France and using the oppression of Christians as a pretext, the Austrians embark upon a major campaign against the Turks. Russia lies in wait, preparing to either jump on the weakened Turks themselves or prevent the Austrians from gaining too much territory. Talleyrand is delighted; thus distracted in the East, the Austrians and Russians will not be as interested in Italy, where France is gradually expanding its influence.

Talleyrand has himself appointed as Chief Regent, thus becoming the de facto ruler of France. While he enjoys the ability to generate wealth and attract women (not that he needed much help in that regard), he has no thought whatsoever of securing permanent political control over the country. For all his decadence and corruption, he is a French patriot and sees his rule as guiding the country wisely until Louis XVII comes of age.

In the meantime, he takes over direction of the young king’s education. Louis XVII spends most of the year traveling throughout Europe, learning languages and making connections, all while going through a rigorous course of study. To the confusion of the other members of the Regency Council, who would prefer Louis to spend his time engaging in the frivolous activities traditionally associated with the French royalty, Louis is made to learn law, economics, science and philosophy.

In a naval action against the Barbary pirates of North Africa, Royal Navy captain Horatio Nelson sinks of captures several enemy vessels, becoming a hero in Britain.

The French Reformists are getting increasing attention within France, as their writings spread throughout the middle class. Many nobles and clergy, jealous of their positions and especially their exemption from taxation, are pressuring Talleyrand to crack down on them, but he believes such an effort would only increase the Reformists’ influence and hence by counterproductive.

Austria inflicts a major defeat upon the Turks and captures much territory in the Balkans. Russia enters the war and launches a major campaign to seize territory before the Austrians can reach it.

The Republic of Venice joins the Holy Alliance.

Under pressure from other members of the Regency Council, Talleyrand issues a protest to Britain regarding the construction of warships in the Dominion of America. The British stall, citing various legal ambiguities regarding whether warships built in the Dominion of America are to be considered part of the Royal Navy. It is hoped that by the time the French force the issue, British naval strength will again be a match for French strength.

The French population explosion spurns colonization efforts. The colony in Australia continues to grow, and an effort to colonize New Zealand is also being considered. In North America, the population of New France is now nearly as large as that of the Dominion of America. Additionally, an increasingly large number of Frenchmen are immigrating to French India, which is increasing in size every year.

Austria and Russia continue to enjoy military successes against the Turks, and the Christian population in the Balkans secretly prepare for the end of Turkish rule.

In response to the British economic revival, Flanders (correctly seen as a French puppet state) passes significant tariffs on British goods passing through Antwerp. While not high enough to prevent British profits, they do siphon off a great deal of British specie into Flemish coffers and make it far easier for French goods to compete with British goods.

In response to Flemish trade barriers, the British shift their export trade almost entirely to Dutch and Baltic ports, bringing those areas greater prosperity. Furthermore, in order to hurt French trade with other European nations, the British commence “dumping” of various finished goods, which can be produced more cheaply in Britain than in France on account of superior British industrial technology.

French and Flemish merchants are outraged but rather powerless. Their economic prosperity is increasingly dependent on the re-export of luxury items from India and China. The British, for their part, are increasingly reliant on textile goods made in British factories from cotton grown in the southern states of the Dominion of America. The use of slave labor to grow the cotton is increasingly unpopular with many reformist elements in Britain, however.

In August, a petition signed by a large number of prominent Reformists, including several distinguished legal and business leaders, is printed in Paris. It calls for the creation of a “popular assembly” made up of “elected representatives” similar to the institutions in Britain and the Dominion of America. In addition, it calls for an end to the tax exemption of nobles and the Church.

Talleyrand is caught between two fires. On one hand, the conservative nobility wants the petitions arrested and tried. But Talleyrand also knows the increasing importance of the merchant classes to the prosperity of France and hesitates to move against them.

The situation is made worse when low-class citizens of Paris demonstrate in the street in favor of the Petitioners (as the signers immediately become known). The local authorities are terrified and, in breaking up the protest, several people are killed. Things quiet down shortly thereafter, but the situation is tense.

The Dominion Parliament in Philadelphia passes legislation to establishment a permanent army of regular troops, albeit rather small, while still allowing each colony to maintain a militia under its own control. The move is controversial, both because it is seen as giving too much power to the Dominion government and because it might provoke the French.

When the news reaches Paris, many in the French government are both angered and concerned, seeing it as a direct violation of the Treaty of London, by which Britain had promised not to station regular forces in North America. Many hawkish officials refuse to see any legal distinction between the Dominion of America and Great Britain itself, since Britain controls its foreign and military policy.

British efforts to build up their military strength are made more urgent by a sudden rise in Catholic militancy in Ireland, which had been rather peaceful for several decades. As always, there was a great fear that Irish rebels might attempt a revolt against British authority with the help of the French.

King Louis XVII, upon his eighteenth birthday, obtains his majority and the Regency Council is automatically abolished. The nobody’s great surprise, however, the first act of the king is to appoint Talleyrand as Prime Minister of France. Observers comment that it will likely be some time before Louis XVII is his own man, and say that he is as ruled by Talleyrand as Louis XIII was by Cardinal Richelieu.

Still, Talleyrand recognizes that Britain has gone too far and that, unless matters are settled quickly, it could again rise to challenge French power, particularly with increasing British economic strength. He therefore decides on war, hoping for a short and comparatively cheap conflict to persuade the British to keep their place and not stand in the way of French power. Besides, with the Austrians locked in war with the Turks and France the dominant influence in both Germany and Italy, it seems unlikely that the British will be able to gain a major Continental ally.

An ultimatum is issued to the British, demanding that they nullify the Dominion regular army and cease the construction of warships in Dominion ports. If the terms are not accepted by January 1, the result will be war.

The British Cabinet, now with William Pitt the Younger as Prime Minister, refuses to accede to the French demands. Personally, Pitt wants war with France to redeem both Britain’s and his family’s honor. Instead, Britain sends a message to France that it finds the demands unreasonable and that force will be met with force.
Original TL Part 3
Anaxagoras said:
On January 1, the respective governments announce a state of war exists. The first major engagement takes place only a few weeks later, when a strong French fleet clashes with a British fleet of roughly equal size in the Channel. Neither side gains a victory, but the British are clearly determined not to lose control of the Channel and be subjected to an invasion once again.

In North America, the great distances and comparatively small numbers of troops mean that fighting is scattered and sporadic. Both sides make raids into each other territories, burning farms and threatening larger communities. Large numbers of regular French troops are dispatched from Europe, with the intention of launching a strong offensive as soon as proper strength is built up.

As soon as the news of the war reaches Australia, British ships begin using New Edinburgh as a base to raid French shipping in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

The French believe that, as before, no decisive result can be obtained without a land invasion of Britain itself. It therefore begins building up a strong army at Brest, with the intention of landing it in England as soon as a substantial reduction of British naval strength can be obtained.

Other nations watch the developing war with alarm. Austria and Russia, busy seizing territory from the Turks, curtail their operations to prepare for the possibility of being dragged into the conflict, although there is no actual peace treaty. Tiny little Holland busily improves its frontier defenses, worrying that a French army might swarm across the Duchy of Flanders.

The members of the Holy Alliance, following the lead of France, declare war on Britain. The minor German and Italian states are not particularly important, but Spain’s entry into the war puts the British base of Gibraltar in danger.

In North America, French regular troops, reinforced by militia (both colonial and Indian) launch an offensive towards Albany, planning on using it as a base from which to attack New York City and New England. Despite winning some tactical victories, the difficult terrain makes logistics difficult and the advance slows to a crawl.

British raiding of French shipping in the Indian and Pacific Oceans continues, much to the annoyance of the French.

In the Caribbean Island, a Royal Navy fleet commanded by Horatio Nelson scores a decisive victory over the French fleet at the Battle of Guadalupe. Shortly afterwards, a force of Royal Marines from Barbados lands on the island and quickly defeats the French garrison.

When news of the victory reaches London, there is riotous celebrating in the streets, as if the single victory had restored British honor after the defeat in King Louis’ War. The French are appalled and immediately dispatch naval reinforcements to the Caribbean to deal with Nelson.

British diplomats secretly meet with Austrian and Russian representatives. They bluntly state that they believe they can defeat the French and that, with Russian and Austrian support, the overweening French influence over Europe can be destroyed, or at last greatly curtailed. Subtle hints are dropped that Austria’s position in Italy might be restored and that Russia might become the major power in central Europe.

In response to a British crackdown justified by security concerns, Catholics in Ireland riot in Dublin and other large towns. The French begin to consider a landing in Ireland as a prelude to a landing in England, perhaps even liberating Ireland from English rule and bringing it into the Holy Alliance.

In the Caribbean, Nelson successfully eludes a larger French fleet sent to defeat him. A few weeks later, he is able to surprise a second French fleet, smaller than his own, and destroys it. Nelson is now considered the greatest military hero produced by Britain since the Duke of Marlborough.

A French expedition from Pondicherry in French India lands in western Australia. With little difficulty, they capture the settlement at New Edinburgh, effectively putting an end to British merchant raiding in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Fighting in North America persists. A Spanish attempt to attack Savannah from Florida ends in failure, while the French remain generally bogged down in northern New York. On the other hand, a British effort to launch an offensive against Montreal ends in failure and a French naval raid on Boston inflicts heavy damage, with much of the shipping in the port being burned.

France decides that they will attempt a landing on Ireland this year, followed by an invasion of England the following year.

The British recall Nelson from the Caribbean to take command of the Royal Navy in British waters. Newspapers makes much of this, declaring that Nelson is the only man who can now save England.

At long last, the Spanish are able to seal Gibraltar off and institute a tight blockade. Although the British garrison has stockpiled supplies to withstand a long siege, the British are reluctant to send a naval relief force, since the French are expected to attempt an invasion of Ireland and the fleet is needed for home defense.

In late summer, a coordinated Franco-Spanish operation takes place. A major assault is launched against Gibraltar, in the hopes that the British will be pressured to send reinforcements. The British do not blink, but the French move ahead with their plan. A large fleet sails from Brest, protecting a flotilla of transports bound for Ireland.

Eluding the British fleet and assisted by local Irish rebels, the French disembark about five thousand men on the southern Irish coast, although bad weather makes the operation difficult. Shortly thereafter, however, they realize that the British fleet under Nelson has located them and is moving to attack.

On September 17, the Battle of Cork takes place. Nelson, with thirty ships-of-the-line, is faced against a somewhat larger French fleet. Disdaining the poor weather and using the naval tactics he has developed over the years, Nelson scores an overwhelming victory, burning or sinking many French ships and capturing others. Eleven French ships escape.

The French troops in Ireland are isolated and without supplies. Almost immediately, they are deserted by all but a handful of the Irish rebels. A much larger British army surrounds the French and, knowing resistance would be useless, a surrender is negotiated within a few days.

When the full extent of the French disaster becomes obvious, Talleyrand immediately realizes that he must sue for peace. Peace feelers sent out to Britain are returned positively.

At the end of February, the Treaty of Portsmouth is signed. Territories captured in the war (Guadalupe by the British, New Edinburgh by the French) are to be returned. More importantly, the restrictions imposed on the British by the Treaty of London in 1775 are removed. Although many British wanted to continue the war and exploit their recently-gained naval superiority, Talleyrand’s skill as a negotiator was displayed to its full, and France got off more lightly than it might have expected.

The British celebrated the end of the Restitution War with ecstatic celebrations and Horatio Nelson was raised to the level of a demi-god. The Pitt government immediately dissolves Parliament and calls for new elections, hoping to capitalize on the victory in war and increase their majority. William Pitt the younger believes that he has finally restored the honor of his family.

In France, the ruling class looks around for a scapegoat and their gaze falls squarely on Talleyrand. Although he had little to do with military strategy, he is the most visible member of the government and made the initial decision to go to war. King Louis XVII dismisses him, and he retires to his chateau, indulging in his love for food and wine, while awaiting a recall to power. He realizes, far better than others, that the situation remains essentially unchanged and that France remains the most powerful nation in Europe.

Austria and Russia take note of the French defeat, wondering if perhaps the country was not as powerful as it had initially seemed. Many officials in the respective governments wonder if they should again turn their gaze westwards, towards Italy and Germany, rather than eastwards towards the Balkans.

In North America, the borders remain unchanged by the war. But the Dominion of America was proud of having defended itself from the French and Spanish threats and believed that it had made a significant contribution to the British victory.
Anaxagoras said:
Government of New France:

French lands in North America are administered by a Governor-General appointed by the French government in Paris. The capital of New France is Quebec. While the Governor-General has supreme political power in New France, he is bound by his instructions from Paris.

While the people of New France have no sovereign power, the Council is made up of prominent citizens (selected by the government in Paris) and serves to advise the Governor-General. In addition, the Council has the right to petition the government in Paris, even over the objections of the Governor-General. Typically, half of the Council’s membership is made up of prominent political and religious leaders who were born in New France, while the remaining members are is sent over from France itself.

New France is divided into separate provinces for administrative purposes. The St. Lawrence River Valley is governed directly from Quebec, while the Ohio River Valley is governed from the town of Montcalm, the upper Mississippi from St. Louis and the lower Mississippi from New Orleans.

The Catholic Church uses the provincial system as well, appointed a bishop for each province. Despite some suggestions that an entirely separate organizational structure be created, the Catholic Church in New France is entirely an extension of the Catholic Church in France.

The Governor-General, for all his political power, does not command the French military forces in New France, which are under the overall control of a senior general appointed by Paris. During time of war, the military commander in New France is given extraordinary power over the resources of the colony and has authority over the general war effort in North America. Like the Governor-General, however, he is bound by instructions from Paris.

Government of the Dominion of America

The Dominion of America is governed by the Dominion Parliament in Philadelphia. It has complete authority over all domestic matters, although its foreign and military policies are reserved to the Parliament of Great Britain in London. Certain economic matters, particularly concerning trade between the Dominion and other European nations, are also controlled by London, although the exercise of the latter power has become increasingly lax.

The Dominion Parliament, like the Westminster Parliament, is divided into a House of Commons and a House of Lords. The members of the House of Commons are elected by those subjects with voting rights. In general, the number of seats for each colony is determined by population, although there are numerous irregularities. The universities of Yale, Harvard and William and Mary are each entitled to an MP as well.

The House of Lords consists of hereditary nobility, some created by the King upon the passage of the Act Regulating the Government of the American Colonies, while others are transplanted nobles from England and Scotland (with a few Irish peers are well).

Each of the thirteen “states” maintains its own state legislature, which handles all local matters. In general, the relationship between the state legislatures and the Dominion Parliament is analogous to the relationship between the Dominion Parliament and the British Parliament.

The head of government in the Dominion of America is the Viceroy, who is appointed by the King on advice from the British Cabinet. The second highest office in the land is the Speakers of the House of Commons of the Dominion Parliament, an office which was de facto evolved into the representation of the Dominion to the British government. In practice, the Viceroy and the Speaker work together to run the Dominion.

The Viceroy is also the commander of the Dominion military forces and whatever British forces are in the Dominion of America.
Anaxagoras said:
The defeat in the Restitution War and the fall of Talleyrand creates political upheaval in France. As the scramble for offices takes place, the young King Louis XVII is placed under severe pressure. But the excellent education provided by Talleyrand was not wasted; while many of the offices are filled by incompetent court buffoons, the more important ones are filled by quite qualified people, including many young members of the Reform faction.

In Britain, national pride is restored, quite out of proportion to the extent of their victory. With its naval power restored, there is much discussion about expanding the settlements in Australia and using them as a base from which to launch an economic penetration of Asia (India having lost since been acknowledged as having fallen entirely under French influence). The decision is also made to focus more effort on the trading posts in Africa.

Austria, confident that France’s power has been dealt a heavy blow, begins to exert pressure on the Republic of Venice to withdraw from the Holy Alliance. The Austrians are not comfortable at having a French-allied state on their border. The French view this with alarm.

French explorers reach the Pacific Ocean by land, establishing a claim to the Oregon Country. Spain does not protest, as France and Spain are so closely aligned in the Holy Alliance, but Russia views the achievement with suspicion.

Louis XVII struggles to put into place a new French domestic policy, but being young and inexperienced and no longer having the benefit of Talleyrand’s guidance, he finds it extremely difficult. Among the members of his government are several members of the Reform faction, which hope to institute broad changes in how the French government operates. But an equal number of conservatives are working at cross-purposes, seeking to fill offices with their supporters and political allies.

In the realm of foreign policy, France continues to suffer the aftereffects of the Restitution War. At the same time, Austria is growing increasingly bold, making threatening moves towards Italy and Germany, where France has been the dominant power for nearly half a century.

In Britain, manufacturers continue to enjoy a boom, and trade with France has expanded rapidly following the conclusion of the war. Only continued political troubles in Ireland threaten the prosperity of the country.

The Netherlands finds itself eclipsed by British industrial power and struggles to maintain a strong position economically.

Austria issues an ultimatum to the Republic of Venice, demanding that it withdraw from the Holy Alliance and sign a treaty with Austria. To the surprise of the Austrians, however, the Venetians refuse and call upon the Holy Alliance for aid. By the end of February, Austria realizes how badly it has miscalculated when the nations of the Holy Alliance declare war.

France, contrary to the expectations of many, was ready for the conflict. The Restitution War had been primarily a naval and colonial conflict in which the main body of the French Army had not been involved. Still the most powerful force in Europe, France went forward to war with the determination to restore its battered reputation.

Within a few months of the outbreak of the conflict, French armies (with contingents from allied Italian and German states) marched against the Austrians both in northern Italy and southern Germany. A series of fierce battles takes place, with heavy losses on both sides. By the end of the year, however, the Austrians were in full retreat.

Russia weighs its options. An element of its foreign policy is to ensure that France and Austria remain hostile to one another, so as to reduce the ability of either to threaten Russia. To allow Austria to be disastrously defeated by the French would throw this balance-of-power strategy into disarray.

As campaigning halts for the winter, the Russian ambassador in Paris delivers a note to Louis XVII, stating that any French move on Vienna itself would be a matter of grave concern to Russia. At the same time, reports are reaching Paris that Russian armies are assembling in Poland.

Delighted with the success his armies have already achieved and wary of possible Russian intervention, King Louis XVII enters into negotiations with Austria for an end to hostilities. The terms are quite lenient, Austria is beholden not to interfere in the internal politics of Italian and German states, particularly those which are members of the Holy Alliance.

Within France, the Conservative faction is disgusted with the lenient terms of the peace treaty and feel that Louis XVII caved into Russian pressure. The Reform faction, however, is delighted, as they desire for Franc to focus on internal reform rather than expensive foreign adventures. All in all, however, the War of 1807 was a great success for France, doing much to restore the reputation of French arms.

The members of the Holy Alliance take notice of the willingness of France to defend them against other powerful nations, but many remain disappointed that the Holy Alliance is so completely dominated by France. Spain continues the pretense of being a great power on the same level as France, but this fools no one.

King Louis XVII announces his marriage to Princess Maria Joaquina, daughter of King Charles IV of Spain. This news throws Europe into political turmoil, for Charles IV has no sons and Maria is his eldest child. Therefore, a son born to the couple would be the heir to the throne not only of France but also of Spain. British politicians are especially dismayed, and references are made to the War of Spanish Succession a century before, when Britain fought for over a decade to prevent such a dynastic union between the two countries.

In North America, an increasingly large number of French traders and settlers are moving west of the Mississippi, establishing trading posts to engage in commerce with the Native Americans. Many tribes (particularly the Teton Sioux) oppose the French expansion and there are numerous armed conflicts.

The population of New France now exceeds that of the Dominion of America, but the population density of the Dominion is far higher. While the Dominion is gradually becoming a realm of towns and cities, New France remains largely rural and pastoral. New York, Boston and Philadelphia are all larger than New Orleans (the largest city in New France).

In India, the past several years have been largely quiet, as the French have long since settled into a comfortable position in the Sub-Continent. Aside from some areas of Bengal and southern India, few territories are officially French. Instead, the continent is controlled by a complicated system of alliances between the French and various native rulers. The basis of French influence remains their alliance with Mysore and their de facto control over the Mughal court. The cardinal rule for the administrators of French India is not to interfere with Indian culture in any way, specifically in matters of religion.

In yet another move which surprised all observers, Louis XVII announced that his new Prime Minister would be a young administrator named Rene Malraux, who was only thirty-seven. Malraux was a prominent Reformist who had come to the King’s attention for a series of essays he had written on economic and political organization.

Louis XVII has emerged as a monarch who maintains a rather debauched and fun-loving court, but who is also fascinated by science and Enlightenment philosophy- “France’s answer to Charles II” according to some British observers. In asking an astonished Malraux to become Prime Minister, Louis XVII essentially tells him that he will supervise the internal reform of French government and the French financial system, but shall have no voice in foreign affairs.

Although he keeps his own counsel on the subject, the King’s long-term plan is to distract the Conservative faction with spreading French power and influence, while allowing the Reformists the time and resources they need to restructure French society along rational principles.

In Canton, the French merchant community has become firmly established after years of struggle. Although they are still officially barred from exporting goods into the country, a thriving black market exists. Specifically, the Chinese have developed taste for French wine. To assist in their Asian trade, French forces seize control of several ports and harbors along the Vietnamese coast, establishing French garrisons there.

New Edinburgh has now become a hub for British merchants attempting to gain access to the Chinese trade themselves. But in Canton, the French hire thugs to attack the few Englishmen or Scotsmen who are somehow able to establish themselves as merchants.
Original TL Part 4
Anaxagoras said:
Quietly, Malraux holds a series of meetings with Talleyrand, retired for several years to a Bordeaux chateau. Talleyrand sees the promise in the young man and agrees to advise him on how to deal with difficult political matters.

Under Malraux’s leadership, a comprehensive series of reforms in enacted in the French taxation system. King Louis XVII is told that the nobility and the Church will have to be taxed, although at a much lower rate than the bourgeoisie and the peasantry. The alternative is eventual financial chaos and political turmoil.

As he is digesting this possibility, the king is delighted with the birth of a baby boy, who is given the name Henri. This news is very disturbing to the rest of Europe, since the heir to the throne of France also has a strong claim to the throne of Spain.

In the Balkans, there is considerable unrest among the Greeks and Slavic subject peoples under Ottoman rule. The recent conflicts with Austria and Russia have greatly weakened Turkish strength and many nationalists have begun agitating for autonomy, and some for complete independence.

Horatio Nelson dies as a result of fall from his horse. He is buried in St. Paul’s Cathedral.

King Louis XVII brings Talleyrand back into the fold, appointing him as Foreign Minister once again. The king’s goal remains the same: distract the conservatives and reactionaries with foreign adventures while supporting Malraux’s plan for comprehensive domestic reforms.

At the same time, King Louis XVII announces a massive plan for the reconstruction of the city of Paris. Work on a wide variety of public monuments, parks and massive fountains commences, doing much to beautify the city and providing work to the unemployed. Similar programs are launched in other French cities.

In Britain, many merchant interests are angered at the increasing competition from imported manufactured goods from the Dominion of America. For the time being, however, the issue is a minor one, since the goods are expensive to import and are generally inferior in quality to goods produced in Britain.

At the same time, French textiles are beginning to better compete with British textiles in the European market. French industrial technology is catching up with that of Britain, and the production of cotton in French India is overtaking that of the Dominion of America. Furthermore, New France is beginning to establish a cotton-growing business in the regions under their control south of the Ohio River.

Following Talleyrand’s suggestion, the French begin placing restrictions of the activities of Dutch merchants in their Asian territories. The Dutch retaliate by barring French traders from their territories. The Conservative faction of the French court is outraged and the issue is a major topic for the newspapers.

Behind the scenes, Malraux and his advisors draw up a plan for a system of local elected representatives, which would be responsible for the administration of towns and small regions. This would replace the established system of appointed such administrators directly from Paris. This is bound to outrage the conservative faction, which relies upon such appointments as part of its patronage system.

Many members of the Conservative faction confront Louis XVII, demanding that he dismiss Malraux, who they claim is trying to “destroy” France. The king stands by his man, however.

In Russia, the increasingly autocratic czarist court ponders its long-term options. With Austria weak and France the dominant power in Germany, attention again focuses on the Balkans, where nationalist agitation is increasing.

When the Netherlands refuses a French demand that its ships be allowed to victual at Cape Town, a French army enters the Duchy of Flanders, violating earlier Franco-Dutch agreements. Rather than cave in, however, the Dutch man their border fortresses and call upon Britain for aid.

Britain announces that it will come to the support of the Dutch if the French attack, although opposition politicians and newspapers call the Dutch “foolish” for creating the Cape Town controversy and playing into the hands of French reactionaries.

On August 1, the French army crosses the border into the Netherlands. Contrary to expectations, many of the Dutch fortresses fall rather quickly, or are quickly cordoned off from fast-moving French columns. Dutch efforts to break the dikes and flood the countryside, which had proven so effective a century earlier, are mostly unsuccessful.

The British declare war on France, although the opposition sarcastically wonders how long this “absurd series of wars” can continue. Although not obligated by treaty to do so, since France is the aggressor, the Holy Alliance declares war on both powers.

Talleyrand states clearly to King Louis XVII that this must be a knockout conflict; so long as both Britain and France are so powerful, the series of wars will never end. At the same time, the reforms of Malraux must be vigorously pursued.

Both the British and French fleets are evenly matched, although the quality of the French ships are somewhat better. For the first several months of the conflict, a number of large naval battles are fought in the English Channel, as the British attempt to send reinforcements and supplies to the Dutch and the French attempt to stop them. Although neither side can gain a clear advantage, the flow of British help to the Dutch is small.

Attempting to regain their losses from the last war and seeing the possibility of forming a grand coalition against the French, Austria declares war on the Holy Alliance, bringing with it a small number of allied German states who detest the French and hope to end French influence in Germany. Austrian armies mass for attacks into both Germany and Italy.

Russia mobilizes its armies but bides its time, wanting to see which side has the advantage before declaring its intentions.

In North America, the pattern of raiding on the periphery of its other’s territory resumes. The Dominion of America mobilizes its armies, which somewhat outnumber the regular French forces in New France.

As in the last war, a French expedition from India lands off western Australia an easily captures the undefended colony of New Edinburgh. Dutch-controlled Ceylon is similarly occupied, and French raids are mounted against Dutch trading posts in the East Indies.

In the Netherlands, the front stabilizes as Dutch resistance grows fierce. The French reluctantly adopt a strategy of attrition and slowly ground their way forward throughout the year, relying on artillery and sheer weight of numbers to make progress.

Malraux successfully pushes through his new taxation policy, over the opposition of the Conservative faction. Nobility and clergy are not required to pay taxes. While it is declared to be a unique wartime necessity, both Malraux and King Louis XVII intend for it to remain in place after the end of hostilities, t secure French finances and check the power of the Church and the nobility.

Although no Cork-like decisive naval battle has taken place, both sides have suffered heavy losses in a series of small engagements. Between the two, however, the British have had greater difficulty replacing their losses. The Royal Navy having been unable to repeat their dramatic successes of the previous war, the French adopt of policy of direct blockade of the British Isles. Rather than simply attempting to block British assistance to the Dutch, the French now intend to strangle the British Isles themselves into submission.

As the costs of war continue to rise, Whig politicians in Britain adopt a policy of outright opposition to the war. They continually ask why the British should be risking so much for the Dutch, a people often seen as little more than threats to British trade.

Austrian armies in Italy and Germany are blocked in their attempts to invade the territory of the Holy Alliance states, although the French do not have the resources to drive them back while engaged with the Netherlands.

In North America, a French naval expedition penetrates Chesapeake Bay and lands an army of 10,000 men in Maryland. The Dominion forces are panic-stricken and rush reinforcements to defend Philadelphia, abandoning a protected offensive against Canada while doing so. The French successfully occupy Baltimore and make raids into Virginia, while making no immediate move on Philadelphia.

In response to a request for further assistance from the Dominion Parliament, the British state that they must husband their resources to protect against a potential French attack on England itself. Despite the logic of their argument, the Americans are enraged at being left to their fate.

In October after a long siege, Amsterdam falls to the French. Rotterdam continues to hold out, but only just. The Dutch government relocates to the northern part of the country and pledges that it will continue the fight, although few are convinced that they will last very long.

The Royal Navy risks a major operation to reinforce Rotterdam and thus mount a counter offensive to recaptured Amsterdam. The French navy intercepts them at the Battle of Dover Strait. Although both sides suffer significant damage, the British fleet is compelled to abandon the operation and return home. While not the decisive engagement that the Battle of Cork was, it was a clear victory for the French and thus a political disaster for the British Tory government.

Russia, convinced by the capture of Amsterdam and Baltimore that the French have the upper hand, announces that it is joining the war on the side of the Holy Alliance. A few weeks later, the Russian army launches an offensive against Austria.

The French blockade of Britain is becoming increasingly effective and the British face economic meltdown. After a no-confidence vote results in the fall of the Tory leadership, the Whig Party takes power and enters into negotiations with the Holy Alliance. Talleyrand moves to immediately isolate Britain, the Netherlands and Austria from one another, declaring that the Holy Alliance will only sign a separate treaty with each individual nation and will not treat with them as a coalition. This time in a position of supreme strength, Talleyrand is able to do whatever he pleases.

On March 13, the Treaty of Dunkirk is signed. Its provisions include:
  • Western Australia being transferred to French authority.
  • Restrictions being placed on the military and naval forces of the Dominion of America and a regularization of its borders.
  • British and Dominion traders being barred from exporting manufactured goods to French and Spanish colonies.
  • Certain rights for Irish Catholics are to be protected.
Talleyrand is pressured by many to insist upon restrictions for British naval power, but he demurs from this approach, worried that it will keep the British from signing the treaty. In any case, he believes that with the economic disparity increasingly favoring the French, the British will no longer be able to keep up with French naval power in any event.

The Whigs sign the treaty, which in turn outrages the Tories. Political turmoil erupts in Britain and there is rioting in several cities and towns. In particular, the provisions for Irish Catholics cause immense controversy (as Talleyrand expected and wanted).

In June, after Rotterdam finally falls to the French, the Dutch are forced to sign a humiliating treaty themselves. The Treaty of Munster declares:
  • Cape Town, Ceylon, and the Dutch East Indies are transferred to France.
  • The Duchy of Flanders will again become an integral part of France and no military restriction shall be placed upon it.
  • The Dutch will enter no alliance with any power other than France.
Despite the obvious fact that this treaty will make the Netherlands little more than a puppet of France, the Dutch have little choice but to sign it. France controls their entire territory and many state that the Dutch were lucky to avoid being annexed by the France outright.

In fall, following a series of defeats at the hands of both the Russians and the French, the Austrian sign treaties with both power that provide for border readjustments in Russian favor. All Austrian influence in Italy is ended and the peninsula becomes little more than a French satellite. In Germany, Austrian influence is similarly destroyed, with the states west of the Elbe coming entirely within the French orbit and those east of the Elbe falling under Russian influence.

By the end of 1817, France now stands undisputedly as the greatest power in the world, although many are beginning to cast worrying eyes towards the Russian Empire.

France’s power has been tremendously augmented by its success in the War of 1813 (known in some quarters of “Talleyrand’s War”). It now controls a vast territorial empire, encompassing most of North America, all of southern Africa, everything that counted in India, all of Australia, as well as all the valuable trading posts in Asia. No power has ever controlled so much territory, and it was truthfully said that the sun never set on the French Empire.

In Europe also, France’s power is immense. The armies of Britain, the Netherlands and Austria have proven unable to stop the French tide. The Netherlands, indeed, has been reduced to little more than a French puppet state, and Austria meekly sits between the giants of France and Russia.

Although Italy is still divided into a number of small states, all of them are tied to France through the Holy Alliance. A French garrison sits in Rome, ostensibly to protect the Pope but in reality to protect French interests. There is much discussion over whether the peninsula might be reorganized into a “Kingdom of Italy” under French control, perhaps even with Louis XVII himself taking the crown.

Germany, similarly divided into small states, is also under de facto French control, Austrian power having been decisively eliminated. The Catholic states have been tied to France through the Holy Alliance and many cities in southern Germany boast French garrisons. The Protestant states have signed individual treaties with the Holy Alliance and are increasingly looked upon as French puppets. As with Italy, there is much discussion over how to politically simplify matters in Germany.

Spain, France’s “partner” in the Holy Alliance, is increasingly looked upon as simply a part of France, particularly as the heir to the French throne is also the heir to the Spanish throne. Observers throughout Europe openly wonder how soon it would be before the two nations are joined into a single kingdom, as England and Scotland had been in 1707.

Only Russia appears entirely free from French domination, although many say that this is only because Russia has been lucky enough to avoid conflict with France. Their power in Europe, their increasingly aggressive colonization efforts on the West Coast of North America and desire for influence over China seem to portend a future conflict with the French.

Talleyrand is astute enough to know that overweening French domination cannot be enforced by strength of arms alone but has to be tied together through political means that are palatable to the people of Europe. He also knows that he is now an old man and perhaps not long for the world, and that a general European arrangement will have to be found that would not be dependent upon him for its longevity.

Within France itself, Malraux and the Reformists have taken advantage of the war to push through reforms they saw as essential. The cost of the war had required the taxation of the nobility and the clergy (had the Pope wanted to object to the latter, he would have been dissuaded by the French garrison in his city). Although these taxes were considerably lower than the taxes on the middle class and the peasantry, an important psychological barrier had been broken.

Similarly, the internal administration of the country had been largely streamlined and made more efficient. Corruption and nepotism had been curtailed, although certainly not rooted out altogether. The beginnings of an effective civil service, with promotion based on merit, had been introduced. As time passes, these reforms would spread beyond France into the colonial administration as well.

In Britain, the results of the war have created a general feeling of resentment and disappointment, particularly as they seem to have lost the war even though they had not suffered any severe defeat (the Battle of Dover Strait having been a tactical draw). At the same time, the expansion of French power makes the prospect of another war seemingly nonsensical. In general, the mood among the British is one of isolationism and wishing to devote their energies towards economic and social progress rather than overt involvement in foreign affairs. A similar mood prevails in the Dominion of America.
Anaxagoras said:
Talleyrand announces his retirement from politics, pleading old age. He moves permanently to his château in Bordeaux, where he can enjoy his wine and revel in his art collection. Historians would eventually credit him with playing the most important role in raising France to its preeminent position.

In the Dominion of America, two major political factions have gradually evolved into organized political parties. The Whig Party believes that the Dominion should become completely independent of the British Parliament, even in matters of foreign policy and defense, while the Tory Party wishes to maintain the status quo. Both have ties to their respectively named parties in Britain. Only a few despised radicals wish to break the ties with the British monarchy. The Whigs rather wish for a system to emerge similar to that which existed between Scotland and England between 1603 and 1707- two countries sharing the same monarch.

In New France, the government dispatches a large force of French regular troops on a punitive expedition against the Teton Sioux tribe, which has been raiding French settlements west of the Mississippi River and attacked boats moving up and down the Missouri. Due to the nomadic nature of the tribe, however, the expedition accomplishes little.

Wishing to increase its power and territory but wary of causing a conflict with France, the Russian Empire launches the first in a series of campaigns designed to bring the Islamic regions of Central Asia under its control.

With the war now behind him, King Louis XVII is increasingly open in his preference for the Reform faction over the Conservatives. As a sign of this, he orders the body of Voltaire transferred to the Pantheon in Paris, where it is taken in a celebratory procession of citizens (much to the dismay of the Conservatives and the Church).

The program of domestic reforms (which Louis terms the “rebuilding of France”) continues. Press censorship is relaxed, though not done away with completely. Administrative reforms continue and corruption is punished more effectively. Louis also forms a committee of Reformist civil servants to publish a systematic review of the French legal system and recommendations for its improvement.

In Spain, however, the royal court is completely dominated by Conservatives, who look upon the liberalization of their ally France with dismay. When riots and other disturbances break out in Spanish colonies in the New World, they are put down with military force, despite French pressure to exercise restraint and moderation.

As it is devoting fewer resources to military spending, Britain is able to substantially lower taxes across the board. As a result, the economy enjoys a substantial upswing. Exports of manufactured goods to Europe and the Dominion of America increase.

Pondicherry, the capital of French India, has emerged as the world’s most busy seaport. Virtually all the products of the Subcontinent are exported to Europe and America through the city. Furthermore, the former Dutch colonies which are now under French control transfer their exports to Europe-bound ships in Pondicherry rather than export them directly, as do the French vessels involved in the China trade.

French control of India is increasingly strong, and many an increasing number of rajas are coming to the throne after having been educated in French schools. However, in northern India, the powerful state of the Sikh looks upon French domination of the Subcontinent with unease and has begun to import European rifles and artillery on a wide scale, as well as hiring European mercenaries to train its army.

Authorities in New France begin establishing a series of permanent trading posts along the length of the Missouri River. In order to avoid offending Indian sensibilities, these are purposefully kept quite small, although they are all protected by small detachments of French soldiers. Conflict with the Teton Sioux continues.

Continuing the policy of distracting the attention of the Conservative Faction by foreign adventures so as to continue his radical program of reforms, King Louis XVII hits upon the idea of a campaign against Algeria. There was little need for pretext, as pirates had often used Algeria as a base to attack European ships. Preparations for a campaign the following year are undertaken.

Low-level guerrilla resistance to Ottoman rule in the Balkans continues, especially in Greece.

The great French scientist Antoine Lavosier dies at the age of seventy-eight. During the last few decades of his life, he had made fundamental discoveries in chemistry. In tribute to his achievement, the French Academy of Sciences launches a well-funded program to “use his discoveries for the practical benefit of the French nation.” The program is specifically designed to raise French industrial techniques to the same level as those in Britain.

French troops land in Algeria and began the long, laborious process of reducing the country to French control.. It would take a number of years, as Muslim resistance is fierce. King Louis XVII achieved his aim, however, as the attention of the Conservative faction was focused on the Algerian conquest and many leading Conservatives join the army to fight.

Although their rule over Algeria has long been a barely legal fiction, the Ottoman Empire protests to France about the technical violation of their sovereignty. In response to the possibility that the Turks will dispatch arms and possibly men to Algeria, the French began providing financial and logistical support to the disorganized Christian rebels in the Balkans and in Greece.

The Russian Empire takes note of the French preoccupation in Algeria and wonders if this will reduce its overall military strength. The Russians begin to press Sweden for an “adjustment” of their border, a move the French view with alarm.

In the Dominion of America, the Whig Party gains seats in parliamentary elections but control of parliament remains in the hands of the Tories. Out of 176 seats, the Tories control 97 and the Whigs 79.

In London, the Whig orator and political philosopher David Campbell makes a tremendous speech in Parliament, later reprinted as a pamphlet entitled “Britain is Not Part of Europe.” The speech argued that, in view of the losses in the recent conflicts and due to Britain’s geographic isolation, the country should adopt an isolationist foreign policy and concern itself mainly with trade and industry. Numerous references to the Scottish Enlightenment philosophers are scattered throughout the speech.

French forces continue their campaign in Algeria. Russian forces continue their campaign in Central Asia.

In India, a military mission from the Russian Empire arrives to train the Sikh army in European tactics. At the same time, large shipments of European weapons, especially artillery, are delivered by the Russians to the Sikhs.

France pressures Austria to accede to the Holy Alliance. Austria resists, knowing that such a course of action would cause them to fall completely under French control.

An agreement is reached between French authorities and the Afrikaners of Cape Town, allowing the Afrikaners to maintain their African servants in de facto slavery conditions so long as they support the French.

In Asia, French wine is becoming an increasingly valuable commodity in the China trade, doing much to reverse the trade imbalance between China and France. With several ports in Indochina under their control, the French are considering seizing direct control over Formosa or some other strategic location to allow them better access to the China market.

The French are encountering much stronger resistance in Algeria than they had expected. This is dramatically demonstrated when a French regiment is cut off by Muslim irregulars and, following a courageous defense, wiped out to the last man. The newspapers talk of little else for weeks, but public opinion presses for a further prosecution of the war and few voices are raised in opposition.

In New France, continuing Teton Sioux attacks on French traders result in increased French punitive measures. The Teton Sioux work to gain allies among other Indian tribes, believing that they can drive the French back across the Mississippi River. They are largely unsuccessful in this, since other native tribes have suffered more from the Teton Sioux than from the French.

In the east of New France, relations between the French and the Indians have been generally good but are gradually becoming more strained. The population of New France continues to boom (it is now over ten million, compared with six million in the Dominion of America), and this worries the natives. But French policy towards the Natives remains strict, and no Indian land is seized outright. The tribes are looked upon as French subjects and have recourse to the French legal system. While many Frenchmen are purchasing Indian land and establishing farms across the territory, it is done in a much more fair manner than was the case in the Dominion of America, where there are essentially no Indians any longer.

King Charles IV of Spain dies, throwing Europe into political turmoil. Immediately, King Louis XVII puts into motion a long-expected plan, backed up by strong legal arguments. There was no male heir to the Spanish throne, Louis France immediately declares his teenage son Henri V, who is also the grandson of Charles IV, as the rightful King of Spain. He is escorted to Madrid, while French forces are visibly massed along the border with Spain to intervene if necessary.

At the same time, Louis promises several of the wealthiest and most influential members of the Spanish aristocracy and clergy membership in the forthcoming Regency Council that shall rule Spain until Henri comes of age. Because of this, and because of the simply fact that Henry indeed has the strongest legal claim on the throne, there is little opposition. In late summer, Henri is crowned as King Henri I of Spain, knowing that when his father dies he will also succeed to the French throne.

The governments of Europe are appalled, but in the face of French power there is little than can be done. No power is willing to fight a Second War of Spanish Succession which would likely bring them disastrous defeat. Hurriedly, Russia makes inquires to Austria and Britain on the possibility of forming a coalition against the succession, but is rebuffed. The Russian ambassador to Britain writes to St. Petersburg that the British “are wallowing so deeply in defeatism that I doubt they will ever fight a war again.”

King Louis XVII has pulled off a spectacular fait accompli. France does not yet have complete control of Spain, as the Regency Council makes it clear that Spain will go its own way when it wishes. But many now regard the political division between France and Spain to be a mere technicality and there are repeated references to the “Franco-Spanish kingdom.”

Unrest in Greece erupts into a full-blown rebellion against Turkish rule. France sees the opportunity to rebuild relations with Austria and suggests a joint diplomatic approach to Turkey. The Turks scornfully reject any outside intervention and bring their army to bear in an effort to crush the Greeks.

Russia, angered by Swedish refusal to cede any of its territory, declares war on Sweden and launches an attack into Finland. Sweden immediately appeals for aid. The British, always admiring spunky underdogs, provide a financial loan and some arms and supplies but otherwise no help is forthcoming. The French, with few interests in the Baltic and not wishing to anger the Russians, decline to get involved.

King Henri of Spain, still under age and playing no role in Spanish politics as yet, is sent on a wide-ranging tour of Spanish colonies in the New World. No Spanish monarch has ever visited the colonies and the tour is a great success with the people, doing much to upset radical reformers and campaigners for independence.

In France, Minister Malraux narrowly survives an assassination attempt. The would-be assassin is discovered to be a radical Catholic who was angered by a newspaper column in which Malraux had suggested that the French education system was overly-dominated by the Church.

Robert Patterson, a key figure in New York politics and a member of the Tory Party, is chosen as the new Viceroy of the Dominion of America. He is the first American-born subject to be chosen as Viceroy. Although he is a Tory, there is speculation that he was chosen largely due to Whig protests that all previous Viceroys had been from Britain rather than America.

King Henri, having completed his successful tour of New Spain, arrives in New Orleans and travels up the Mississippi, Ohio and St. Lawrence Rivers to arrive in Quebec. His tour is a great success and he returns to Madrid quite pleased with himself.

Algeria is now largely under French control, with the coastal strip now being developed an colonists arriving from France. The Muslim resistance retreats to the deserts and mountains of the south, where they continue to fight on.

A slave uprising in Haiti is brutally put down. Slaves are continuing to be purchased in West Africa and shipped to the French sugar plantations in the West Indies and the cotton plantations of New France. Powerful economic interests depend on slave labor, but King Louis XVII finds that it greatly disturbs his conscience.

All remaining trade barriers between France and Spain are abolished and there is talk of creating a common currency.

Sweden, although it has fought bravely and achieved some tactical successes against the Russians, is forced to due for peace in the face of massive Russian numbers. The peace terms are hard: all of Finland is forcibly annexed to the Russian Empire.

In India, Sikh military power continues to grow, worrying French administrators. In addition, Russian agents are gaining influence in the Persian court.

The Spanish Regency Council presides over the continuing education of King Henri I. Pressure from King Louis XVII ensures a cosmopolitan and well-rounded series of tutors are provided, but the reactionary members of the Council also appoint several ultra-conservative aristocrats to keep an eye on him. These men begin exerting a strong influence on the young man.

A Hindu kingdom which borders the Sikh state signs a treaty of mutual assistance with France, by which France pledges to come to its support if it is attacked by the Sikhs. Many in France feel that this is unwise, for they do not wish to provoke the Sikhs. The French government, however, is so concerned with European issues that the administrators of French India largely have a free hand in their dealings.

The American Whig Party takes control of the Dominion Parliament. This results in little change, but with the Whigs also in power in Britain, there are discussions over whether to alter the constitutional relationship between Britain and America, and if so, how to do so.

French colonization continues in Australia and New Zealand, and increasingly large numbers of settlers are moving into the Trans-Mississippi West. In South Africa, French settlers and the Afrikaners essentially hare governmental power, which suit the Afrikaners just fine so long as the French don’t attempt to interfere with the way the Afrikaners treat the natives (a system of de facto slavery).

The Ottoman Empire uses harsh and repressive tactics to deal with the Greek rebellion against Turkish rule. The military stalemate persists, with Greek rebels holding a few towns and isolated mountain strongholds.

Concerned at the increasingly reactionary tone of his son’s letters, King Louis XVII recalls Henri from Madrid and asks him to remain in Paris under he turns eighteen and thus can assume the powers of kingship. To his surprise and dismay, however, his son refuses to come and remains in Madrid.

Russia announces the signing of a treaty of alliance with Prussia, each pledging to come to the assistance of the other in the event of an attack by a third party. It is obviously directed against the French. Although Prussia has long since been reduced to the ranks of a secondary power, the French grow concerned at the idea of a Russian-lead anti-French coalition. Louis resolves to improve his relations with Britain and Austria so as to prevent them from being drawn into the Russian orbit.

As par of the effort to woo Austria, Louis begins a coordinated effort with the Austrians to funnel money and equipment to the Greek rebels. The Turks are fully aware of this but, wary of French power, decide not to protest. Stiffened by the aid, the Greek rebels begin making progress.

In Madrid, King Henri hosts a lavish dinner for a visiting French dignitary, Andre de Rohan. As Rohan is a strong political opponent of Malraux, this is seen as a snub to the French Reformist faction. King Louis XVII is appalled and sends a strongly-worded rebuke to his son.

Malraux himself gives the incident little thought. Increasingly ill with a lung disease, he tries to put the final touches on the program of reforms which have been his life’s work. In the nearly twenty years he has been in office, he has practically remade the French state:
  • The French nobility and clergy now pay taxes along with the rest of the population (though not nearly as the same rate).
  • Press censorship is virtually ended, with personal attacks on the King being the only prohibited expression. French journalism is vibrant and widespread, with 57 newspapers being published in Paris alone.
  • The governmental administration has been radically overhauled and made more efficient. Sales of office have been prohibited and a professional class of civil servants created. Civil servants receive sufficient pay so as to discourage bribery. Corruption, while hardly rooted out, has been greatly reduced.
  • Under a series of technocratic finance ministers, the French economy has boomed. The rapid development of industry within France (particularly in Flanders) has become the engine of Europe, and the flow of raw materials from the colonies, such as cotton from Louisiana and India and iron ore from New France, ensures steady production.
  • Through its control of the China trade, France also dominates the import of expensive luxuries from the Far East and their re-export to other European nations.
Malraux achieved this program only by overcoming fierce opposition from reactionaries and conservatives, largely through having Louis distract them with foreign adventures in Algeria and elsewhere. The fear which both Malraux and Louis share is that these reforms will be undone when Henri takes the throne as King of France.

A complete translation of the Hindu holy books is published in Paris for the first time, and for weeks the intellectual salons can talk of little else.
Original TL Part 5
Anaxagoras said:
In April, Malraux dies in his Paris home. King Louis XVII remains at his bedside throughout the weeklong ordeal, repeatedly promising his friend that he will not allow the reforms Malraux had brought to France to perish.

The Ottoman Empire, facing military defeat at the hands of the French-supported Greeks, finally recognizes the independence of the Greek kingdom in a peace deal brokered by the French. In exchange, the Turks gain a commitment from the French never to station troops in Greece and to diplomatically support them in any future conflicts with the Russians (the latter measure being kept secret).

King Henri I celebrates his eighteenth birthday and happily takes over direct control of the Kingdom of Spain. His father makes an extended trip to Madrid to join in the celebrations, while attempting to talk his son out of the more conservative measures he wishes to implement. To give his admonishments teeth, Louis mention to his son that the Treaty of Utrecht would prohibit him from inheriting the French throne upon his (Louis’) death. French power being what it is, Louis is obviously in a position to ignore it if he so wishes, but he does not have to.

After much soul-searching, King Louis chooses a replacement for Malraux as Prime Minister. Eugene Marceau, a conscientious civil servant who had worked his way up through the ranks and had recently served as finance minister. He is regarded as a man unlikely to make waves and so a good choice to help consolidate the Malraux reforms. In this, Louis maintains his meritocratic policy, promoting men based on their talent rather than their family connections.

The remaining Muslim tribes in Algeria surrender to the French army, thus securing French control over Algeria.

Construction begins on the Paris-to-Brussels Railway. With French engineers currently leading the world in rail technology, it is planned as the first step in building a railroad system that will link the entire nation. Specifically, this railroad is hoped to reduce travel time between Paris and the other main centers of Europe. Plans are also being laid for a more ambitious Paris-to-Marseilles Railroad.

An uprising by Italian nationalists takes place in Rome. They protest both against the control over secular affairs held by the Pope and the dominance of France over Italian affairs. The French garrison of Rome, technically fulfilling its mission of protecting the Pope, puts down the revolt, but there are heavy civilian casualties and much bad feeling is generated.

Greece signs a defensive alliance with France, with the understanding that the French will not station troops in Greece except in the event of war, as had been previously promised to the Turks.

A certain moderation in the behavior of King Henri of Spain is noticed this year.

With the Algerian conflict over, larger numbers of French troops are sent to Vietnam, where local kingdoms have begun pressuring the French to abandon their trading posts (which serve mainly to protest their trade route to China).

There has been a decided shift in relations between the French and the Indians in North America. East of the Mississippi, relations remain good. The less-nomadic nature of these tribes, the legal definition of the Indians as French subjects and the gradual acceptance of the idea of property ownership among the Indians keeps tensions low. A large number of people with mixed Indian and French ancestry are being born.

West of the Mississippi, however, relations have worsened as increasingly large numbers of French settlers are moving into the territory. Conflicts are fierce and increasingly common. The Teton Sioux, having suffered at the hands of several French punitive expeditions, become unlikely allies to the French, who begin recruiting them as scouts and shock troops in return for allowing them to take the land and possessions of many of their traditional enemies.

The Tory party retakes control of the British Parliament, thus squelching any discussion of changes in the constitutional relationship between Britain and the Dominion of America, at least for the time being. Many have pointed out that, as the trade links between the two sides are so closely intertwined, it might make more sense simply to combine the two Parliaments and make them into a single nation, similar to what happened between Scotland and England in 1707.

Political observers in Britain give the matter little thought, as an upsurge in violence in Ireland gains the most attention from the press. A new faction of Irish nationalists, called the Sons of Saint Patrick, seek complete Irish independence. Somewhat more worrisome is their insistence that they would have French support in any uprising and that Ireland would join the Holy Alliance once it gains independence. This raises tensions somewhat between France and Britain, although the French truthfully tell the British that they have nothing to do with the organization and think they are a bunch of troublemakers.

The financing of railroad lines has become a major issue in France. There are technicians and raw materials aplenty, but raising sufficient funds has become a matter of grave concern. In response, Prime Minister Marceau creates the Banque de France (Bank of France), a central bank to help finance such projects and regulate the French currency. Railroad construction immediately pick up, and numerous other benefits follow. Because the bank quickly establishes a reputation as the most stable financial institution in the world, numerous wealthy foreigners and foreign governments (including even the Pope) despot their wealth and open lines of credit through the bank.

French troops are involved in several punitive expeditions in Vietnam, punishing the small kingdoms there who have attempted to interfere with French trading interests. Consequently, larger areas of Vietnam come under French control.

A French regiment patrolling the border with the Sikhs becomes involved in a large-scale skirmish with a similar-sized Sikh unit. In a day-long battle, the French regiment is roughly handled and forced to retreat. A Muslim unit of the French Indian army arrives to reinforce the French but is also forced to retreat. On-the-spot negotiations quickly restore calm, as neither side wants hostilities to break out, but many observers note the surprising Sikh fighting ability. The flow of Russian weapons and military advisors to the Sikhs continues.

Construction is completed on the Paris-to-Brussels Railroad, and construction begins on a branching line to Calais and the other Channel ports. Work on the Paris-to-Marseilles Railroad gets under way. The press describes the construction as the “Railroad Craze.” Similar programs are getting under way in other countries, although Spain lags behind the rest due to the lack of training technicians.

It is noted that a large number of French artists and writers have begun traveling to India, many of them remaining for years. Much of the art produced in France has decidedly Indian themes and incorporate the stories of Hinduism. The Catholic Church disapproves of this, but few see it as a matter of concern. Even the artists themselves see it as nothing more than mythological source material, similar to that which had been provided by ancient Greece and Rome.

King Louis XVII holds a meeting with the Pope in the city of Genoa. With Italian nationalism on the rise, the idea is floated of uniting the entire Peninsula (with the exception of the Papal States, of course) into a single Kingdom of Italy, which will be tied to France by the Holy Alliance. The Pope stresses that the Church must remain in complete control of all religious and educational affairs in such a kingdom and must have influence in secular matters as well. The Pope also admonishes Louis for considering the idea of a state-supported public education system in France.

At the same time, King Louis sends letters to several heads-of-state in Germany, suggesting that they more closely align their policies and trading relationships as the first step in the creation of a German Confederation. Most reply politely but noncommittally.

Construction of the first railroad in India, from the French capital of Pondicherry to the Mysorean capital at Srirangapatna, is begun. In New France, a similar project seeks to link Quebec and Montreal. Throughout the French Empire, there are discussions of building large steamships to link the various ports of call.

When protests erupt in Mexico City calling for freer trade between New Spain and Europe, the Spanish Viceroy uses brutal force to break up the demonstration. Surprising many observers, King Henri responds by summoning the Viceroy home and stripping him of his noble rank, an act which gains him many supporters among the middle-class in New Spain. Working behind the scenes, King Louis had again threatened to cut him out of the inheritance of the French throne unless Henri acted with moderation in the matter.

More discussions are held regarding German unification. Within France, government and military officials regard the creation of some sort of German confederation as a potential buffer state between France and Russia. To a lesser degree, the same is true of the potential Kingdom of Italy vis-à-vis Austria. However, some in the French government fear the potential power of such united nations and insist that measures be enacted to ensure that they will remain under de facto French control.

King Louis XVII is seriously wounded in an assassination attempt, when a bomb goes off next to his carriage while he is on the way to a theatrical performance. Within hours, several suspects are captured, quickly identified as a group of radical Italian nationalists. Hey admit their responsibility, saying that the attack was retaliation for the French response to the 1830 Rome Uprising.

For several days, it is feared that Louis will die of his injuries, and King Henri is summoned from Madrid. The French public is dismayed, not only at the popular king’s life-or-death struggle, but at the thought that the unpopular king of Spain will soon be their monarch. More disturbingly, Russian diplomats state unequivocally that they cannot allow the thrones of France and Spain to be united.

However, to the surprise and relief of everyone (except Henri), Louis rallies and begins to recover. Much to his delight, the administration of France and its colonial empire had continuing to function perfectly even while he was incapacitated, reflecting the benefit of the Malraux Reforms. One of his first acts after he resumes his duties is to dispatch a stern note to St. Petersburg, warning the Russians against any interference in Franco-Spanish affairs.

In India, tensions between the French and the Sikhs continue to rise, partially because Russian advisors are influencing the Sikh royal house and attempting to persuade them that the Sikh army is strong enough to defeat the French and, indeed, to conquer all of India.

On the other hand, the French use the tensions with the Sikhs to consolidate their control over India even further. As the Sikhs have traditionally been the enemies of the both the Sikhs and the Muslims, the French use the xenophobia of the Indian princes vis-à-vis the Sikhs to appear as the defender of Indian liberty.

The revelation that the men who carried out the assassination attempt on the king came from the Republic of Genoa causes an outrage among the French population. The government of the republic declares truthfully that they had nothing to do with the plot, but it is soon discovered that the prefect of the Genoese police who details of the plot and did nothing to interfere. In response, French troops occupy the city, the republican government putting up no resistance. Ostensibly, they are there to sweep the city for other radical elements, but few expect the French troops to leave.

At the same time, the French garrison in Rome takes over internal security duties from the Papal police, sweeping the city and arresting many suspected radicals.

As months passes following the assassination attempt, it is clear that the wounds sustained by Louis will never fully heal and that his health is going downhill. King Henri pays him a visit in Paris and the younger man insists that, when he assumes the throne of France, he will act “as his conscience dictates.” This is not good enough for Louis, who wishes Henri to make a pledge not to interfere with the Malraux reforms or the “basic rights of the people.” Henri refuses to do this.

Disappointed and fearful, Louis studies the Treaty of Utrecht and considers declaring someone else his heir. The nearest relative aside from Henri was the king’s fourteen-year-old nephew, the Duke of Orleans. The young Duke, however, was mentally retarded and would be unacceptable.

Realizing that it was inevitable that Henri would inherit the kingdom, Louis instead becomes determined to push through new reforms to limit the power of the king. He summons his ministers to Versailles and asks them to outline a plan to institute a limited monarch, similar to the system prevailing in Great Britain. In the meantime, Louis begins reading up on Locke and Hume.

Russian armies continue their campaign to subdue Central Asia and fight a intermittent war against the Persians along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

An ambitious plan for a “Dominion Railway” which will link the entire Dominion of America from Boston to Savannah is put forward in the Dominion Parliament, with the Whigs backing the plan. It is approved pending the raising of funds.

In April, government ministers present a plan to King Louis XVII, whose health is now rapidly declining. It is proposed to call the States General, an obscure assembly which had not been used since the early 17th Century. The group would be reformed, made permanent, and gradually assume many legislative functions similar to those held by the British Parliament. At the same time, echoing many ideas of the Enlightenment philosophes, a specific declarations of rights held by the people would be published and given legal authority.

Louis, knowing he has only a few months to live, gives his approval for the plan. He summons Henri from Madrid to tell him about it, which turns out to be a grave mistake. The young King of Spain flies into a rage. From the next room, ministers and various officials can hear the two kings loudly and bitterly arguing with each other. Accounts differ: the Reformist French ministers of Louis say that Henri was cruel and vindictive, whereas the reaction Spanish and French allies of Henri declare that Louis was unfair and obtuse, mocking his son. After a time, however, there was only silence, and afterwards the sound of Henri crying.

The next morning, Henri emerges to tell the frightened assemblage of officials that Louis was dead. According to the reactionaries, he had simply found the strain of the family quarrel too much for him and suffered a heart attack. The Reformists, however, would always maintain that Henri himself killed Louis.

Henri’s Spanish bodyguard and French soldiers following orders of reactionary nobles arrest the Reformist minister who are present, so as to squelch any rumors of how Louis died. Gendarmes are immediately dispatched to the offices of the major Paris newspapers and urgent messages are sent to the provinces and other towns and cities for similar messages.

The next day, Henri addresses an assembly of nobles, expressing great grief at the death of his father while being proclaimed as King Henri V of France. He pledges to maintain the policies of his “illustrious father,” including the upholding of press freedoms. Even as he is speaking, newspapers are being given long lists of topics they are forbidden to discuss.

Europe watches nervously, and diplomatic notes are dispatched by Britain and Austria expressing “concern” over Henri’s succession and recalling that the Treaty of Utrecht expresses forbids the throne of France and Spain being united. Russia, however, is the only nation which uses the word “violation” when it discusses the Treaty. France and Spain issue a joint communiqué, stating that the French and Spanish thrones are not technically united, and that Henri is simply the simultaneous king of both France and Spain.

A week after the coronation, a small French newspaper prints an eye-witness account of one of the Reformist ministers who was present at Versailles when Louis died and had somehow gotten away without being arrested. The minister stated his "undoubted belief" that Henri purposefully killed his father. Quickly reprinted in pamphlet form, the news sweeps through Paris. Riots break out within hours, “Down with the Usurper!” becoming the rallying cry. The French Army is called out as rioters begin setting up barricades. The narrow streets of Paris make it almost impossible for the troops to regain control of certain neighborhoods, and they become no-go zones.

As word spreads throughout France, riots break out in other towns and cities as well. Reformist politicians are simultaneously eager to prevent Henri from taking the throne and terrified at the possibility of the country sinking into anarchy. France seems to be on the verge of complete revolution.

Throughout the spring and into the summer, Henri regains control of Paris and some measure of control over the rest of France. He issues a proclamation, declaring that he will uphold the policies of his “illustrious father” and specifically that he will not interfere with the freedom of the press. However, he has already begun to prevent newspapers from printing material considered to be subversive, and the Reformist ministers in the French government are steadily being dismissed and replaced with reactionaries. In a few cases, Frenchmen are even being replaced by Spaniards.

Riots continue to flair up and many outlying cities (particularly the Channel ports) seem to be under limited government control, if any. Reformist politicians and civil servants, fearful of being arrested, gradually filter out of Paris or hide themselves away in anti-Henri neighborhoods.

The colonies of the French Empire remain stable. The administrators simply keep doing their jobs and watch events unfold in France.

The rest of Europe watches uneasily. Britain worries that political disruption will harm its exports into Europe, on which its economy depends. However, other countries see an opportunity to throw off the French yoke. Russia immediately orders its ambassadors to make inquires regarding the possibility of an alliance against the French. With the French distracted by internal disorder, the Holy Alliance itself might be completely dismantled.

Austria responds favorably, seeing an opportunity to restore the Hapsburg position in Italy. Prussia, Saxony and some other German states which have long desired to see French power in Germany overthrown also show interest. The British, however, are noncommittal, being of the opinion that the disorder in France is temporary and, at any rate, concerned over the possibility of the Dominion of America being overwhelmed by French forces in New France, which remains stable.

The disorder in France and the diplomatic maneuvering persists throughout the year.

Disturbances continue across France. In Paris, many neighborhoods remain no-go zones for the gendarmes, their narrow streets being easily blocked by barricades. Attempted sweeps by the police through the so-called “Free Areas” are a daily occurrence, but their effectiveness is negligible. In small print shops, radical pamphlets are produced and distributed, calling King Henri a fraud and usurper.

The city of La Rochelle, a Reformist stronghold, closes its gates and refuses to recognize the authority of King Henri. Shortly thereafter, the city of Brest follows suit. In response, Henri declares La Rochelle and Brest to be cities in rebellion. The French Navy blockades the ports and French Army units move in to place the cities under siege.

The Channel ports of Calais and Dunkirk are the scene of fierce riots against Louis, but the presence of strong French army units maintain order and prevent the cities from going over to the Reformist faction. Lyon, the key industrial city in France other than Paris itself, is paralyzed by a strike of the workers.

In the provinces, King Henri has stronger support, particularly in the towns where the clergy maintain a strong influence. His stated desire to strongly uphold Catholicism as the state religion strikes a chord with many, particularly as his father’s Catholicism was only nominal and his free-thinking attitudes widely known. For the same reason, the largely conservative French army also remains loyal.

Russia, under the rule of Czar Paul II, watches these events and hardly believe its good fortune. It lays its plans and prepares, with its allies, to launch an offensive against France the following year.

Almost unnoticed amid the chaos sweeping France was a series of posters put up by persons unknown in Warsaw. They called for “solidarity” with their “French brothers” as both the French and Polish people were (or, at least, should be) throwing off an oppressive monarch.

In future generations, it will be noticed in retrospect that the art, poetry and music emerging from the Free Areas of Paris was some of the most innovative and original in modern European history. Indeed, it would eventually become the foundation for the so-called Obscurest Movement in the arts, where subtlety and radical messages were embedded one within the other.

Russia, along with Austria, Prussia, Saxony and a few other minor German states, issues a communiqué saying that order must be restored in France and that the thrones of France and Spain cannot be united. Mobilization of armies begins. By March, a large Russian army with allied German contingents is assembling east of the Elbe, while a similarly-sized Austrian force is preparing to move into northern Italy.

Many Reformists, alarmed at the specter of a Russian invasion, pledge their support to Henri in the name of national unity, though they also call on the king to respect the rights of the people and, in due time, institute the so-called “1836 Reforms” that King Louis called for before he died (or was killed, depending on who you believe).

For the time being, Henri makes a show of forgiving the rebels, aside from those who hold out in La Rochelle and Brest. The streets of the cities become much quieter, even in the Free Areas of Paris, as everyone focuses on the Russian threat. Far from further disuniting the French, the action of the Russians has largely united them.

French armies are assembled and Spanish forces are brought into France to reinforce them (rather to the displeasure of many French civilians, who have to feed and shelter them during their transit). Soon, a Holy Alliance army of 125,000 has moved into central Germany just west of the Elbe, facing a Russo-German army of 150,000.

The initial battle takes place on August 3, near Leipzig as the Russian forces cross to the western bank of the Elbe. Uncertain of the loyalty of their men and with French and Spanish soldiers distrusting one another, the Holy Alliance army is uncoordinated and the result is a resounding Russian victory; both sides lost about 20,000 men. Russian armies are now firmly on the western side of the Elbe River and prepare to drive westwards. The Holy Alliance army, meanwhile, retreats to the west bank of the Saale River and attempts to recover from their defeat.

In northern Italy, a Holy Alliance army of 75,000 (mostly French but containing many Papal and Neapolitan troops) engages an Austrian of roughly equal size near Milan. The French win, driving the Austrians into retreat. However, a massive citizen uprising in Genoa, the main supply center for the Holy Alliance, causes huge logistical problems and delays pursuit. 10,000 men are required to put the rebellion down and many Genoese are massacred.

In India, prompted by Russian demands and promises of support, the power Sikh army, numbering 50,000 men, invades French-allied Hindu and Muslim states which border their realm. A French army of 25,000 men, reinforced by Indian allies, moves up to engage them. In an encounter which shocks the French even more than the defeat at Leipzig, the Sikhs are victories at the Battle of Aliwal, killing 1,500 French troops and about the same number of Indian allies, although the Sikhs suffered 5,000 losses themselves. In particular, the effective Sikh artillery proves deadly to the French.

The French navy provides some comfort to King Henri, as its squadrons move into the Baltic Sea and raid Russian towns along the Baltic coast (although the immensely strong defenses of St. Petersburg prevent any raid on the Russian capital). Similarly, in the Adriatic Sea, raids are launched against Austrian targets.

Diplomatic activity is fervent as each side tries to gain allies or keep potentially hostile nations neutral. The Netherlands, no longer an effective military power and entirely under the thumb of the French, was ignored. The French attempted to convince the Turks to join in the war, promising them territorial gains at the expense of Russia and Austria when the war was finished. But the Turks were fearful of Russian and Austrian power, uncertain of their own military potential and far from convinced that the Holy Alliance would win the war.

The British, of course, were the main prize. Russia and Austria tried hard to convince the British to join in the war, while the French were just as determined to keep them neutral. Having no concern with colonial matters, the Russian and Austrians promised the British, in effect, the entire French colonial empire at the conclusion of the war. The British rightfully saw the possibility that they could be given control of millions of French subjects as utter nonsense. Hey also saw that any war between them and the Holy Alliance would be fought primarily at sea, where the French had a much larger fleet and Russia and Austria would be unable to provide assistance.

The French were more realistic, promising critical trade concessions and some minor border adjustments in favor of the Dominion of America (which would have effected Indian tribes but few French colonists). Furthermore, the French promised not to interfere in the Irish question. The British decided to bide their time and await events.

In October, the German campaign saw another fierce battle at Weimer. This time, the Holy Alliance fought the Russian army to a stalemate and inflicted heavier losses than they received. While only a nominal victory, the battle prevented the Russians from advancing further westward. The Russians retired to the east bank of the Saale and campaigning halted for the winter.

The anti-Henri Reformists in La Rochelle and Brest, promised amnesty by the King, surrender. They had lost the support of the citizenry once the war began, as most found it absurd that Frenchmen should be fighting Frenchmen when the French army was fighting for its life in Germany. Shortly afterwards, Henri goes back on his word and has the ringleaders arrested and guillotined. The military units which had defended the two cities are sent to fight in Germany, where Henri orders them place in the most exposed positions and to be used as spearheads for suicidal attacks.

Throughout France and Spain, Henri orders a full-scale mobilization, unpredicted in European history. The industrial power of France is geared to the production of war materials and the numbers of troops which are called to the colors is staggering. Through the press, now firmly under his control, anti-Russian and anti-Hapsburg propaganda is spread continually, distracting the people from the constitutional questions regarding his rule.

At Russian instigation, Prussia and Saxony sign a treaty creating the German Confederation, with a common military structure. Several smaller German states allied with the Russians are also made a part of this confederation. Czar Paul II takes the title “Protector of the German Confederation.”

In Italy, the difficult terrain results in few decisive battles, although losses are heavy. The French navy has imposed a tight blockade on its enemies, cutting them off from their main sources of imports (particularly British) and severely hampering their economies.

In India, French forces win a decisive battle against the Sikhs, thus restoring their reputation. But the Sikhs continue to fight hard against the French, tying up large numbers of troops which are badly needed in Europe. In addition, detachments of Russian artillery have begun arriving and are serving with the Sikhs.

Unexpectedly, Russian armies moving to the German front found themselves under attack from guerrillas in Poland. With French support, a group of Paris-based Polish nationalists had armed and trained themselves before making their way back to their homeland to begin an uprising against Russian rule. The Polish Front for National Liberation called for an independent Poland to be allied to the Holy Alliance.

The main theater continues to be Germany, where the fighting is heavy and the losses high. From March to July, there were several fierce engagements, but neither side was able to gain a decisive advantage. Finally, on August 7, the Russians defeated the French at Halberstadt, forcing the Holy Alliance army to retreat once again. During the retreat, the commanding French general was killed by Cossack raiders.

At this point, a French corps commander took command named Andre Epstein took command of the French army. Wanting to maintain the army on the east bank of the Rhine and so protect French soil from invasion, he halts the retreat at Frankfurt and prepares for another battle. At the same time, reinforcements from France and Spain are arriving in large numbers, although they are rather disorganized.

Using the newly-arrived levees as a defensive line, Epstein forms the bulk of his veteran units into a strike force and moves them to a position southeast of the French defensive position. As the Russian army reaches the main line and deploys for battle, he intends to attack their left flank.

On October 1, the Battle of Frankfurt takes place. It goes precisely as Epstein intended and the left flank of the Russo-German army is shattered. Within hours, the entire enemy army is retreating eastwards in disarray. King Henri immediately makes General Epstein a Marshal of France.

Throughout the fall, under winter conditions bring campaigning to a halt, Epstein advances eastward, driving the defeated and confused Russo-German forces before him. Many of the civilians, having been badly treated by the Russians during the occupation of the countryside, greet the Franco-Spanish troops as liberators.

As the war continues, King Henri continues to consolidate power in France. Reformist politicians who had opposed his coronation are rounded up quietly and either exiled or executed. With public opinion focused entirely on the war and the press completely under his control, few people notice what is happening. Gradually, every government position is filled with his supporters. He makes an effort to appoint only qualified people, but the first an foremost requirement is absolute loyalty to him.

Marshal Epstein, wit his forces now outnumbering the Russo-German army, launches a springtime offensive. The fighting is fierce and the losses heavy, but gradually the Franco-Spanish troops push their enemies back across the Elbe. Epstein now hopes to launch a campaign to capture Berlin in the fall.

On the Italian front, an Austrian attempt to capture Venice fails. Heavy fighting across the northern Italian plain slowly drives the Austrians back, with both sides suffering heavy losses. The Franco-Italian army plans a renewed drive for the coming spring into Austria towards Vienna itself, hoping to join forces with the right flank of Holy Alliance armies coming down the Danube from Germany.

In Poland, guerrilla fighting continues, as well as urban terrorism in Warsaw, Krakow and other cities. Russian soldiers badly needed at the front are tied down attempting to suppress the rebellion.

In the summer, Sweden declares war on Russia, hoping to regain its territory in Finland.

In India, the Sikhs sue for peace after suffering another tactical defeat at the hands of the French. The treaty is merely a status quo ante bellum, as the French do not have the resources to launch an offensive into Sikh territory itself. Both sides see this as a mere truce.

A French frigate hunting Russian commerce in the Sea of Japan is damaged in a storm and shipwrecked on Japan. The xenophobic Japanese massacre the entire crew, side from a few who manage to escape in a lifeboat and, in an epic crossing, reach th Korean peninsula. The French ignore the Japanese for the time being, but plan on dealing with them when the time is right.

The British and the Dominion of America watch from the sidelines, satisfied that their decision to remain neutral was correct.

The situation of the Russo-Austrian alliance is becoming desperate. Because of the levee en masse King Henri has called for in France and Spain, the armies of the Holy Alliance now outnumbered them strongly. In Germany, the Franco-Spanish force numbered roughly 250,000, while the Russians and their German allies had barely 175,000 men to oppose them. On the Italian front, the Franco-Italian army numbered 125,000, with only 75,000 Austrians opposing them.

To make matters worse, the French blockade was strangling the economies of Russia and Austria. Denied access to imported goods or access to markets for their exports, their currency reserves were nearly exhausted and their ability to finance the war almost gone.

Czar Paul II hoped that one decisive battle might turn his luck around and intended to keep the field for at least one more campaign season.

King Henri, his position in France now secure, ordered his generals to use their massive forces in simultaneous offensives in both theaters. Despite heavy losses, the Holy Alliance troops ground forward, with the Russian and Austrian troops unable to stop them. On July 17, French and Italian troops entered Vienna and the Austrian Empire sued for peace.

In Germany, Berlin fell to the French in early August, knocking Prussia out of the war. A final battle with the outnumbered Russians took place at Posen. Aided by Polish guerrillas, the Franco-Spanish army under Epstein decisively defeated the Russian forces, whose morale was now at the breaking point.

In St. Petersburg, court intrigue now took hold. A conspiracy of nobles assassinated Czar Paul II and replaced him with his pliable young brother Constantine. Immediately, a cease-fire took effect.

King Henri had emerged victorious both domestically and abroad. The day the cease-fire went into effect, by royal decree, he announced the fusion of France and Spain into a single kingdom, Franco-Iberia, with himself as its king. He also called for representatives from all European nations to come to Munich, in southern Germany, for a conference “to settle the affairs of the Continent.”

At the Council of Munich, King Henri dominated the proceedings. Little was negotiated but much was dictated.

To the surprise of many, King Henri decreed that the so-called German Confederation be maintained, with the King of Franco-Iberia replacing the Russian Czar as “Protector.” Franco-Iberia would have control over the Confederation’s foreign policy and would be allowed to call upon the Confederation for troops when needed. The Holy Roman Empire, long simply a legal fiction, is officially abolished.

Poland became an independent state under its own king. King Albert IV, from the House of Saxe-Coburg (the nearest relation to the House of Wettin) is proclaimed king. The kingdom’s independence shall be guaranteed by Franco-Iberia.

Russia is forced to cede Finland back to Sweden.

The Kingdom of Italy is formed out of the northern Italian states and the Kingdom of Naples. King Ferdinand III, the Bourbon King of Naples, is proclaimed King of Italy, with his capital still in Naples. The Papal States remain the Pope’s territory, with the French garrison in Rome to ensure his safety and the security of his realm. Much Austrian territory in the Alps is turned over to the Kingdom of Italy as well.

The Republic of Venice remains independent, still a member of the Holy Alliance. Most Austrian islands in the Adriatic are turned over to Venice.

Franco-Iberia provides for generous trade concessions to Great Britain but reneges on its promise of border adjustments for the Dominion of America.

The delegates are stunned at the complete overturn of the European system, but all sign the agreement. Russia is particularly bitter over the lose of Finland and Poland. The Austrians are in despair at ever being even a second-rate power again. The Germans and Italians are happy at achieving the dream of unification, but uncertain at the overweening power of their French master.

The Reformists in France are either dead, exiled, imprisoned or in hiding. While French patriots, they cannot but look on the victory of Henri over Russia and Austria with gloom. Their reactionary king having achieved such great power, their dreams for French society seem to have been utterly destroyed.
Anaxagoras said:
The British have actually done quite well out of the war. With the French and Spanish economies geared entirely towards war production, the importation of consumer manufactured goods from Britain into France and Spain greatly increased, substantially altering the trade balance. Although Franco-Iberia reduces military spending as peace comes, the effects substantially remain.

In Russia, the conservative nobility are consumed with Francophobia. There is resistance to the implementation of the Munich Accords, particularly regarding the cessation of Poland, but the circle of nobles around Czar Constantine, who run the country, know that must accede for the time being. In the meantime, however, there is the firm conviction that the Russian Empire shall one day have its revenge.

In Franco-Iberia, King Henri is now looked upon with reverence by the people of the countryside, delight by the nobility and respect and admiration by the army. The intelligentsia of the cities, however, continues to regard him as an usurper and a devil. Active resistance to his rule, however, has ended.

In the Pacific, a powerful squadron of French warships arrives in Tokyo Bay, demanding an apology for the massacre of French sailors in 1839 and the surrender of those responsible. They also insist that Japan open its market up to French trade goods. The representatives of the Emperor refuse these demands, whereupon the French vessels open fire. Within a matter of hours, the city of Edo is in flames, leaving thousands dead.

Observers notice King Henri’s pattern seems to be to reside in Paris from March until November, then spend the winter in Madrid. Although the official name of his kingdom is “Franco-Iberia” it is soon referred to simply as “France” (rather in the same manner that Great Britain is often simply referred to as “England”). However, many of Henri’s closest advisors are Spanish rather than French.

The advisors to Czar Constantine determine to restore and maintain the reputation and morale of the Russian army by a series of operations which can be undertaken without overly provoking the French. The first such campaign shall be against Persia. Claiming border provocations by the Persians, the Russian Empire declares war on Persia and launches a new campaign along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.

Considering Russian friendship with the Sikhs, the French view Russian moves into Persia with some trepidation. It is feared that the long-term plan may be for Russians to directly challenge French control of India.

During the War of French Succession (as the 1838-1840 conflict becomes known), the withdrawal of many French troops from Vietnam to fight in India had allowed many Vietnamese rulers to take back territory they had earlier lost to the French. Reinforced again, however, the French launch a series of punitive expeditions to regain the territory once again. The French commander writes to Paris, requesting a force large enough to “reduce the entire region to obedience.”

Administrative reforms are put into effect in an effort to fuse the Spanish and French colonial empires. The end of petty border disputes is a great boon to the opening up of the American west, where settlements are growing rapidly.

The British Royal Navy begins to focus on developing a smaller but much more effective navy rather than maintaining a large navy. It is obvious that they could not match the size of the French fleet, and it is thought that maintaining a smaller fleet might be more effective in any event.

In London, a group calling itself the French Reformist Union begins publishing a newspaper and raising money to assist French subjects who have fled the country since the rise of King Henri. They are united in a belief that Henri’s rule is illegitimate due to the Treaty of Utrecht, but cannot agree on who the legitimate king of France is.

Henri demands that the British expel the members of the subversive group, but the British decline. They point out that Britain has long been a haven for political refugees. Henri is not about to go to war over a few dissident newspaper issues, but he is quite angry.

The discovery of gold in the colony of California results in thousands of French and Spanish men flocking to the area. It also provides a boon to the economy of New Spain.

In the German Confederation, it becomes clear that King Henri of France has little interest in what they do aside from following his foreign policy directives. As a result, a generation of idealistic technocrats use the streamlined and unified condition of Germany to implement a series of policies designed to improve the economy and infrastructure. Railroad construction increases dramatically, new coal mines are opened up and industrialization quickly gathers pace.

The electric telegraph is becoming widespread, vastly improving communication across Europe and North America, though not yet between them. At the same time, improvements in steam technology are being applied to sea vessels.

Despite continued support from the nobility and with a substantial following in the countryside, and notwithstanding his great success in the War of French Succession, the popularity of King Henri begins to wither. The intelligentsia has never accepted him and cannot forgive the fate of the Reformists (a time has passed, it has become clear what happened to them). And most Frenchmen simply consider him as being un-French. He ha little interest in food, wine or the arts, which the people of France so loved, and he surrounded himself with a tight-knit circle of reactionary advisors, many of them Spanish.

In the spring, Henri and his Spanish wife Andrea celebrate the birth of a baby boy, immediately christened Louis. Although there are superficial celebrations in Paris, the people do not look upon the event as being of any particular interest.

Henri realizes that it is important for him to maintain the support of the military to secure his throne. As such, he launches a number of campaigns in Asia, belatedly agreeing to dispatch reinforcements to Vietnam. Under the command of General Epstein (whom he wishes to remove from France anyway, due to his enormous popularity), this army is ordered not merely to defend French trading posts, but to bring about the surrender of the local rulers and annex the region to France.

Russian armies continue to gain success against the Persians, and expand their campaign to bring the entire Caucasus Mountain region under their sway. Their troops gain valuable combat experience and become hardened, the idea being drilled into them that they will one day seek revenge on the French.

As part of this, Czar Paul II and his circle of advisors decree that the oldest son of the noble families (excepting those closest to the Czar, of course) must serve as officers in the military. Strengthening the Baltic Fleet is also given priority.

A “Bill Establishing Irish Home Rule” is introduced in Parliament by the Whig Party (now increasingly referred to as the “Liberals”). The Conservative Party easily blocks the motion, but this leads to substantially disturbances throughout Ireland.

The rule of Henri becomes increasingly autocratic. There had been dozens of Parisian newspapers in 1836; ten years later only six were still publishing, and all of those were under strict government control. People suspected of Reformist sympathies, particularly anyone thought to have ties to the French Reformist Union, are routinely arrested of often simply “disappeared” altogether.

At the same time, corruption in the government has begun to become a matter of serious concern. The Malraux Reforms have been virtually forgotten, and Henri positions his cronies in all key administrative posts. They proceed to loot the treasury and set themselves up in regal style, while urgent needs of the population go unattended.

In Asia, the French campaign in Vietnam proceeds successfully. Under the leadership of General Epstein, the Vietnamese rulers are defeated in several battles. Despite disease (which kills far more French troops than enemy action), by the end of the year the French are well on their well to complete control over Indochina.

China is alarmed by this development and lodges numerous protests with the French court. Henri dismisses the ambassadors with contempt, saying that he has no need to listen to “heathens.” Unknown to him, the Chinese emperor on the same day expresses frustration that his empire is being troubled by the actions of “barbarians.”

In South Africa, expanding Afrikaner settlements come into increasing conflict with indigenous African tribes. The skirmishes often result in regular French troops becoming involved. Similar encounters take place in the Great Plains of North America, as expanding French settlements bring on increasing conflict with Native Americans.

In Ireland, the disturbances of the previous year result in a serious British crackdown. Having earlier refrained by harsh measures out of concern for the French response, the British feel no such compunction now, due to the agreement by which they had remained neutral in the War of French Succession. However, the crackdown has little impact and only serves to increase Irish animosity.

Despite the decreasing popular appeal of Henri’s rule, France remains peaceful within Europe. Domestic strife and dissention remain low, as the secret police do their work efficiently. Good economic times also help keep unrest to a minimum. Overseas, however, the French military is engaged in combat almost every day.

Chinese support to anti-French Vietnamese forces enrages King Henri, who orders the French merchant community out of Canton. Protests by some that this would hurt the French more than the Chinese fall on deaf ears.

When the economic boycott has no effect, Henri orders the French fleet to bombard Canton. Much of the city (the largest in the world at the time) burns and there are heavy civilian casualties. The Sino-French War has begun.

Chinese armies cross into Vietnam to attack the French. Although they greatly outnumber the Europeans, the Chinese are unable to gain any significant successes when faced with European weapons and tactics. At the same time, the French launch a series of naval bombardments and raids up and down the Chinese coast.

Russia, disturbed at the increasing French expansion across Western North America, decides to make a stronger effort to colonize and develop its colonial presence in Alaska.

The Sino-French War continues to rage, wit the Chinese doing very poorly.

Throughout France, underground newspapers printed independently or with the support of the French Reformist Union begin to circulate more extensively. Furthermore, a particularly bad harvest leads to much hardship in the French countryside and leads to a spike in food prices in the cities.

Henri again demands that the British expel the French Reformist Union. The Conservative Party seems willing to entertain the idea. However, they lose control of Parliament to the Whigs in a campaign whose main issue is Irish Home Rule. They refuse to expel to FRU, particularly as many of its leaders are on excellent personal terms with high-ranking members of the Whig Party.

Russian armies have taken control of nearly all the Caucasus region, although large garrisons are necessary in order to suppress tribal uprisings. The Persians have also been battered down and are forced to sign a humiliating peace treaty.

In a little-noted move, the French establish a naval base on the northern coast of Madagascar, to improve communication between Europe and India.

A major Chinese offensive against Hanoi and Haiphong fails due to superior French weapons and tactics. At the same time, the French navy is wrecking havoc up and down the Chinese coast. Since it is beyond the ability to the French to actually invade China, their strategy is simply to inflict so much pain on the Chinese that they will see the conflict as not being worth the cost.

Jean-Paul Cagniart, a young man involved in underground radical activities, is arrested in Lyon for distributed banned pamphlets. While under interrogation, he dies. Police claim he had a hard attack, while the townspeople believe he was tortured to death. He news spreads rapidly throughout Lyon. By the afternoon, a large crowd had gathered in central Lyon, angrily calling for the men responsible to be punished. Police ordered them to disperse, bricks were thrown and shots fired, and within hours rioting was raging throughout the city.

Although the incident seemed trivial in the grand scheme of things, no one could see at the time that the French Revolution had begun.

Word of the disturbances in Lyon spread rapidly throughout France. As it did so, latent opposition to King Henri among the peasantry and bourgeoisie blew up. Crowds demonstrated against censorship and other repressive laws in Paris, Marseilles and other major cities, and police were unable to deal with the demonstrations. Vive Malraux becomes a rallying cry.

When the news reached London, leaders of the FRU declare that the people have risen up against their king. Many FRU supporters begin the laborious task of infiltrating their way back into France, hoping to take control of the protests and channel the energy into a genuine political opposition.

King Henri reacts predictably, ordering all rioters to be shot on sight. Speaking the name of Malraux is made illegal. Preparations are made to employ the army to restore order if the police are unsuccessful.

The rest of the world is stunned. France was unquestionably the most powerful nation on the face of the Earth, yet it was being torn apart by internal revolt. Many leaders in other nations raise the possibility of taking advantage of the situation, much as they tried to do in the previous war when disturbances swept through France. However, it is pointed out that the disturbances have, as yet, not spread to the French military.

Rioting continues to spread throughout France, and King Henri begins ordering French garrisons in Germany to return to the home country in order to maintain civil order. Spain continues to be stable and staunch in support of Henri.

Those neighborhoods of Paris which had been known as the “Free Areas” during the disturbances of the 1830s have remained hotbeds of anti-Henri activity. Citizens there set up barricades and refuse entry to regular troops. In a similar manner, various cities throughout France declare themselves outside of Henri’s authority.

The city of Dunkirk in the hands of former exiles of the FRU), issues a proclamation stating that Henri is not the King of France but only the King of Spain. Basing their logic on the Treaty of Utrecht, they declare that Henri has, in fact, never legally ruled France. Furthermore, they declare Henri a murderer, implicating him in the death of his father in 1836.

This begs the question: if Henri is not the King of France, who is? The FRU has an answer to this. In 1836, aside from Henri, the nearest blood relative to King Louis had been the mentally-retarded Duke of Orleans. Technically speaking, the FRU claims that the Duke of Orleans has been the King of France since 1836. In the interim, however, the Duke had died (murdered by the FRU, some said), and his title passed to his cousin, Charles, the new Duke of Orleans. Therefore, say the FRU, Charles, Duke of Orleans, is the King of France.

This came as quite a shock to the quiet and unassuming Duke, who had been living peacefully on a Bordeaux chateau, indulging in his love of wine. Henri immediately dispatched troops to Bordeaux to take Charles into custody, but the FRU was faster and spirited him out of the country. Whether through coercion or persuasion, the FRU convinced Charles to issue a communiqué from London, declaring himself King of France and calling on the people to resist Henri. He also calls for an implementation of the 1836 reforms which Louis had been planning when he died.

It is all convoluted and confused, but it has the thin veneer of legality. Russia immediately recognizes Andre as King of France, while other European nations hesitate. With French troops withdrawn from Germany into France, Russia mobilizes its forces and prepares to invade Poland.

Loyalist French and Spanish troops storm Dunkirk, which had become a center of the Revolutionary forces. In a bloody battle, the city is taken, but not before thousands of Loyalist troops are slaughtered in front of the city’s defenses. All over France, troops returning from Germany and Italy are busy suppressing the rebellion, while an increasing number of Spanish troops are becoming involved as well.

However, on the march from Germany and Italy, many regiments mutiny and refuse to continue. They are quickly surrounded and disarmed, but not before a few shooting incidents take place, involving many deaths. Henri begins to wonder about the loyalty of his army.

After Dunkirk, the next Loyalist target is Brest, which had raised the standard of King Charles. Before the storming of the city can commence, however, shocking news reaches the Loyalist camp. Marshal Epstein has arrived in Brest, along with a crack force of 3,000 French Colonial troops, declaring his support for King Charles and pledging his support for the Revolutionary cause. Shortly thereafter, the Revolutionary garrison of Brest emerges and inflicts a heavy defeat on the Loyalist force facing them, many of whose soldiers desert. Within weeks, most of Brittany is in Revolutionary hands.

The news that France’s greatest war hero has become a Revolutionary sends a shockwave throughout Europe. But almost as significant is the news that Russia has invaded Poland, determined to restore it to the Russian Empire. Henri seethes with rage and swears revenge, but is wise enough to know that he cannot tangle with Russia while he is fighting for his life in France.

With Epstein having gone over to the Revolutionary cause, the equation begins to change. In New France, the commander of colonial forces declares his allegiance to King Charles and orders his men to arrest the Loyalist Governor-General. Within weeks, Quebec is in Revolutionary hands, while the troops in New Orleans and St. Louis remain loyal to Henri. In New Spain, too, support for Henri remains strong. There is, however, no actual fighting between the factions in North America. At least, not yet.

Despite the increasing pressure, Henri remains determined to salvage the situation. Regiments of lukewarm loyalty are stripped of many of their weapons and assigned to garrison duty in quiet areas, whereas openly mutinous units are disarmed and disbanded, the ringleaders arrested. New regiments are formed out of men of proven loyalty, being christened the “Immortals” in emulation of ancient Persia. It is with these units, French and Spanish, that Henri will wage the battle.

With Brittany in Revolutionary hands, the FRU organizes a basic government to oversee civil affairs. King Charles is installed in Brest and Marshal Epstein is confirmed as the commander of Revolutionary military forces.

In March, Henri launches a general offensive against Brittany with Immortal regiments and Spanish troops. The Revolutionary forces are outnumbered and suffer some tactical defeats, but maintain their general hold on the region.

In a major coup for the Revolutionaries, the senior Admiral of the French Navy declares for King Charles and sails with a large flotilla to Brest. This breaks the Loyalist blockade of Revolutionary controlled ports, and ensures communication and supplies between Brittany and Quebec.

The Free Areas of Paris remain clear of Loyalist forces. So long as they do not openly declare for the Revolution, Henri is content to leave them be. However, this allows a steady stream of anti-Henri propaganda to emerge from the area, filtering throughout Paris and gradually seeping throughout the rest of France.

In a wide-ranging pamphlet entitled “The Saint-Nazaire Manifesto” (issued from the city, which was in Revolutionary hands), the Revolutionaries declare their stated goal of removing Henri from the throne of France, replacing him with Charles, instituting the 1836 reforms and thus bringing parliamentary government to France.

In Poland, the Russian army sweeps all before it and soon are in control of the country once again. Warsaw capitulates on April 17, but scattered guerrilla opposition continues. Austria views Russian moves into Poland with concern, especially considered the power of the Russian army vis-à-vis the Austrian army.

In Vietnam, China takes advantage of the departure of large number of French troops (who had gone with Epstein to fight for the Revolutionaries) to retake much of the northern part of the country.
Aaaand that's when it died.
I remember this thread from way back and loved it too. :D

Good touches for French North America. The colony divisions make sense and I am glad you remember Acadia went back to France even if it had to be handwaved, I suppose Britain had to pay for the Acadians to move *back*, at least some of them. :D Very good on giving Acadia a maximum claimed border and Maine a minimum one in response.

I wonder when Terre-Neuve went back to France though, and do you think they would keep Ile-Royal a separate colony even when the French Plaisance colonists regain their old home? Atlantic Canada would resemble New England then as a bunch of small political divisions then...

I also would have figured Florida go to France too to really hem in the Americans but alas. AMAZING WORK man!
Good touches for French North America. The colony divisions make sense and I am glad you remember Acadia went back to France even if it had to be handwaved, I suppose Britain had to pay for the Acadians to move *back*, at least some of them. :D Very good on giving Acadia a maximum claimed border and Maine a minimum one in response.
Thanks! Over time I figured that the French would continue to use the rivers as boundaries, rather than be as abstract with borders as the OTL British/Americans were, at least until getting farther west.

Regarding Nova Scotia, due to the French & Indian War getting cut short, the British are never able to finish the expulsion in the first place, but you're pretty on the mark with my thinking.

Here's what I've got so far on Nova Scotia/Acadia:

The Six Years War saw one of the most pilloried decisions by the British in the 18th Century: the expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia. When the French negotiated the Treaty of Paris with a commanding position in 1761, one of the terms was that the British provide an accounting of deported Acadians to the French and repatriate them to French territory. The British did not make much progress towards this provision in the years after the war and the French viewed the lack of progress as a bad faith effort.​
In the meantime, both French Acadia and British Nova Scotia experienced population growth. Nova Scotia in particular saw a large influx of New Englanders, approximately 15,000 over the 1760s. The impregnable French fortress at Louisbourg stood watch as a city grew around it and mainland Acadia grew around settlements at Menagoueche and Point-Sainte-Anne.​
At the start of King Louis' War, the Marquis de La Fayette was dispatched with an army to Louisbourg with the goal of reclaiming Nova Scotia for France [N.B. I finagled another small POD in which La Fayette Sr. survives the Battle of Minden and goes on to command the reconquista of Nova Scotia with his son in tow].​
A two week siege of Halifax resulted in the fall of the city in August 1772. As French soldiers marched north, capturing Fort Edwards, thousands of New Englander settlers fled the peninsula for locations on the mainland. Annapolis Royal fell in late September, and Fort Amherst fell in Mid-October.​
The French offered British settlers the same offer that had been made to the Acadians nearly twenty years earlier: declare an oath of loyalty to the French crown, or leave the colony. French commanders pointedly treated British settlers better than their countrymen had been treated. The whole operation was painstakingly documented and published.​
Following the Treaty of London, Nova Scotia was reintegrated into French Acadia, along with a substantial portion of the disputed territory on the mainland. Repatriation of original Acadians was a priority as was new settlement in the region. Halifax was rechristened as LaFayette in honor of the Marquis who was viewed as both libérateur and sauveur of Acadia.​
By 1779 Acadia's total population was nearly 40,000. It was recognized by the government in Quebec to have a "distinctive culture" and was granted its own governor who reported to the Governor-General. The provincial governor was based in Louisbourg, but the city's distance from the rest of the colony led to calls for his offices to be in a more central location.​

I wonder when Terre-Neuve went back to France though, and do you think they would keep Ile-Royal a separate colony even when the French Plaisance colonists regain their old home? Atlantic Canada would resemble New England then as a bunch of small political divisions then...
I have Terre-Neuve going back to the French after King Louis' War. It truly was a disastrous war for the British and the French ran the treaty negotiations. New Englanders were allowed to maintain access to the fisheries but the French got the territory.

Eventually I have Terre-Neuve and a quasi-Labrador region becoming their own province. Île Royale, the Acadian Peninsula (Nova Scotia), mainland Acadia, and Île Saint-Jean remain as Acadia proper for some time. Maybe it makes sense to break them up at some point.

I also would have figured Florida go to France too to really hem in the Americans but alas. AMAZING WORK man!
Spain gets it back at the treaty table and it is eventually split by the British and French in the late mid-1800s when Spain loses their overseas empire in the French Revolutionary Wars. Can give more info on that later.
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Aaaah! My kind of responses! So much to take in, but:

1) Acadia and the Acadians makes plenty of sense both from TTL and OTL perspectives. Seeing the British colonists not get expelled from Acadia is quite a twist since I would have tossed them myself, but that is a good way to come out looking morally superior. Granted, it is convenient many Yankees fled and surely many Acadians moved back to truly re-Acadian-ize the colony for good, but hey! I suppose King Louis’s War is seen as the true end of war and conflict that plagued the colony since its founding.

2) Ile-Royal and Louisbourg was officially a Terre-Neuve spin-off and settled by exiled Plaisance colonists, even if the territory itself did actually came from Acadia, granted. I suppose since Ile-Royal is indeed reintegrated into Acadia what with the colonial capital in Louisbourg, it’s a French equivalent of Yankee-settled (eastern) Long Island becoming part of Mid-Atlantic New York, though said capital status will probably Acadian-ize it very fast. It’s just one of those fun little colonial quirks for me like the said Yankee-settled Long Island thing. They can do worse than put the capital back in its original spot in Port-Royal/Annapolis Royal, though, so Lafayette/Halifax and Louisbourg are not favored over one another.

3) Please do talk on Florida and more of New France and Canada taking over the west coast in general. Is Canada one nation a la the OTL USA? They really must have a ton of people in the St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, and Ohio River valleys to keep those areas solidly Gallic and not a hint of any real Anglicization around...

4) Incidentally, Britain holding a colonial empire in general is still good than keeping it to just itself and the eastern seaboard. Speaking of - how British is America? I still feel America will still tilt to its own unique culture and style the way all jokes aside no one will mix up an Englishman, Australian, or Anglo-Canadian.
Aaaah! My kind of responses! So much to take in, but:

1) Acadia and the Acadians makes plenty of sense both from TTL and OTL perspectives. Seeing the British colonists not get expelled from Acadia is quite a twist since I would have tossed them myself, but that is a good way to come out looking morally superior. Granted, it is convenient many Yankees fled and surely many Acadians moved back to truly re-Acadian-ize the colony for good, but hey! I suppose King Louis’s War is seen as the true end of war and conflict that plagued the colony since its founding.
There will be skirmishes during the War of 1800 and Talleyrand's War, but indeed King Louis' War decisively settled the "who will control North America?" question.

2) Ile-Royal and Louisbourg was officially a Terre-Neuve spin-off and settled by exiled Plaisance colonists, even if the territory itself did actually came from Acadia, granted. I suppose since Ile-Royal is indeed reintegrated into Acadia what with the colonial capital in Louisbourg, it’s a French equivalent of Yankee-settled (eastern) Long Island becoming part of Mid-Atlantic New York, though said capital status will probably Acadian-ize it very fast. It’s just one of those fun little colonial quirks for me like the said Yankee-settled Long Island thing. They can do worse than put the capital back in its original spot in Port-Royal/Annapolis Royal, though, so Lafayette/Halifax and Louisbourg are not favored over one another.
Yes, I think the capital would settle back in Port-Royal eventually (1780s sometime). My detailed notes only go up to 1789, with everything past that being just broad strokes.

3) Please do talk on Florida and more of New France and Canada taking over the west coast in general. Is Canada one nation a la the OTL USA? They really must have a ton of people in the St. Lawrence, Great Lakes, and Ohio River valleys to keep those areas solidly Gallic and not a hint of any real Anglicization around...

4) Incidentally, Britain holding a colonial empire in general is still good than keeping it to just itself and the eastern seaboard. Speaking of - how British is America? I still feel America will still tilt to its own unique culture and style the way all jokes aside no one will mix up an Englishman, Australian, or Anglo-Canadian.
Again, my notes are broad after the 1770s, but here are a few points to chew on:

1. Spain loses all of its colonial possessions between 1862 and 1875. Long story short France and Spain decouple from one another during the French Revolutionary Wars; Spanish possessions in the New World rise up for independence and succeed by 1862. Smarting from the losses, Spain then gets involved on the wrong side of a trans-continental war from 1869-1873 (The Great War), and its fall from grace is solidified. Spain itself collapses into civil war during that conflict in 1871 and by the late 1870s is a very different country from the one under the Franco-Iberian Union.

2. For detailed notes, this is all I have on Florida currently:
At the end of the Six Years War, Spain's strong position allowed them to renegotiate the boundary between Georgia and Florida created in the 1740s. The border moved north in Spain's favor from the St. Mary's River to the Satilla River and in a western line to French Louisiana. Spain encouraged settlement in Florida to discourage future adventurism by British-Americans, and by 1779 the colony's population had risen to nearly 18,000, mostly centered around St. Augustine and Pensacola. The interior increasingly was populated by Muscogee-speaking natives from Georgia's backcountry, and the Spanish established a trade relationship with them. By the end of the 1770s, the peninsula continued to be mostly devoid of human population.​

3. As far as Canada, if you examine the full map (the regions are all clickable, though there's really just names currently), you'll see that by the turn of the century French America is largely self-governing under the French crown. Imperial France has several categories of colonies: Royal Provinces are the most closely integrated with France itself; Dominions, which, contrary to the British iteration, are directly governed without much control by indigenous locals; and Autonomies, which have functional independence in all but foreign policy and currency. After a low-temperature civil war during the French Revolutionary Wars between the Governors-General in Quebec City and New Orleans, post-revolutionary France (a constitutional monarchy) organized French America into two distinct Autonomies: Greater Quebec, and Greater Louisiana. Following the formal annexation of the west coast in 1862, the region from OTL British Columbia and Washington State (Ouregan) to Baja California was organized as the Dominion of Californe, until it was granted Autonomy status in the late-19th Century. Upper Canada remained a Dominion into the 20th Century as did Alaska after it was won from the Russians in the aftermath of the Great War.

4. As far as Anglo-American settlement in New France, it does occur in dribs and drabs in the late-18th and early-19th centuries, but very limited. The French deliberately create a buffer zone dominated by native interests that doesn't begin to populated heavily until the mid-19th Century. As relations between France and Britain thaw after the French Revolution, New France allows, if not quite encourages, Anglo-American settlement.

This excerpt from my notes touches on French settlement policies in the late-18th Century, based on the original TL:

1763 French inheritance reform incentivises nobility to send subsequent sons to establish family branches in America.​
  • Priests recalled from New France to educate late-born sons of the nobility (so-called Première noblesse Américaine). Raised with the expectation that they would go to America and establish estates in their family names.
  • Seen as a long-term reform that will not bear fruit for at least a generation.
1764 French reforms:​
  • Offer a labor sentence in New France as punishment for certain crimes followed by freedom and a small land grant.
  • Offer family land grants in New France to the urban poor.
  • Encourage Huguenots to emigrate to New France
1768 New France guarantees the land claims of Appalachian and Trans-Appalachian native peoples.​
  • Lenape, Mingo-Seneca, Shawnee, Cherokee
  • After Iroquois Raids, France reinforces forts in the disputed area around Iroquois country. New France ramps up diplomacy with Onondaga to draw the Six Nations out of the British orbit. Smarting from defeat, the Iroquois are open to the discussion.
  • Any settlers from British America are technically illegal and have no expectation of safety from natives. Any violence against the natives can be considered casus belli for the French.
I have more on the evolution in the relationship between the French and the Iroquois and how Iroquoia become integrated into New France after King Louis' War.

Next, this excerpt from my notes hints at how the drive to settle the trans-Appalachian West in the 1770s and beyond fizzled out for British-Americans:

Fort Augusta [modern OTL Sunbury, PA] was built after the Treaty of London restricted the western boundary of Pennsylvania. Commonwealth militia garrisoned the fort, which surreptitiously served as a layover site for settlers illegally entering French territory.​
After word arrived in 1778 that a party of Presbyterian settlers was massacred by a band of Cayuga warriors, the militiamen in the fort had a great debate about how to respond. Some argued to incur into French territory to exact revenge against the Iroquois, others rightly worried that such an action would be cause for the French to threaten retaliation and seek further concessions from Pennsylvania. Ultimately the militia voted to turn away settlers seeking to move westward and warn any who insisted on pressing onward that the neither protection nor supplies would be provided by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. This action was quickly backed up by the Provincial Assembly in Philadelphia.​
By 1779, about 250 settlers crossed the boundary, mostly by following the West Branch of the Susquehanna. These settlers mainly set down roots in the mountain passes to the north and west of Fort Augusta. They lived under threat of French expulsion and attack by natives.​
Note that the Treaty of London really clobbered the colonies, especially PA and NY, with all of the Iroquois lands being ceded to the French, who in turn left it under native control for some time, and the French population largely being garrisoned soldiers and trappers. Fears of another war that British America was not prepared to win ingrained itself into society and discouraged large amounts of settlers from risking incursions into French lands. Not to say that this was a process without some internal turmoil. But I can touch on that later.

4. As for "how British is British America?" It's more British than OTL Canada. In 1777 I have George III investing in an American Peerage of landed gentry (not without some controversy). Overall Anglo-Americans are proportionately much more mercantile and maritime than how the OTL USA or Canada develop, with British America developing more like the Netherlands or Britain itself, which has its own twists and turns compared to OTL. I can try to expand on this later.

5. The British muddle through the mid-19th Century without significant colonial possessions other than British America, the British West Indies, and some West African lands. The possessions gained by the 1860s-1870s are due to the collapse of Imperial Spain and their role in supporting the winning Orleanist faction in the French Revolutionary Wars. Britain claims the Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico and gains a protectorate in Nicaragua. The carving up of Africa isn't as fraught ITTL compared to OTL, and Britain manages to solidify their presence in West Africa and make inroads in the continent's southeast. North Australia is de jure recognized as a British territory after decades of de facto control by British settlers who relocated from West Australia after Talleyrand's War, largely out of the French eye. By the turn of the century, Britain is a solid presence on the global scene, though France dominates.
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Imperial Federation of Austria - 2005
Quarantine has me revisiting this project... here are the federal states of Austria in 2005:

Unfortunately Google My Maps has no background option that gets rid of all background labeling. But this is the least cluttered option with only some OTL major cities and nation-states labeled.
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North America - 2005
Here is North America in 2005:

Map Key of countries and provinces/states
Federation of America
  1. Maine
  2. New Hampshire
  3. Massachusetts
  4. Rhode Island & Providence
  5. Connecticut
  6. New York
  7. Pennsylvania
  8. New Jersey
  9. Delaware
  10. Maryland
  11. Virginia
  12. City of Franklin
  13. North Carolina
  14. West Carolina
  15. South Carolina
  16. Georgia
  17. Florida

Independency of Greater Louisiana (Grande Louisiane)

18. Muscogie
19. Tanasqui
20. Nouvelle-Orleáns
21. Basse-Louisiane
22. Ouichita
23. Haute-Louisiane
24. Lakoté
25. Dakoté
26. Missourie
27. Ville du Vainqueur
28. Osage

Independency of Greater Quebec (Grande Quebec)

29. Conti
30. Chaulakié
31. Illinois
32. Ouisconsin
33. Michigan
34. Ouabbache
35. Ohaio
36. Shauwanaké
37. Susquéhanna
38. Iroquois
39. Odawa
40. Champlain
41. Saint-Laurent
42. Cadillac
43. Acadie
44. Île-Saint-Jean
45. Terre-Neuve
46. Labradore
47. Iniut
48. Québec
49. Ville de Vaudreuil
50. Rochambeau
51. Salteaux
52. Antoine
53. Haute-Canada
Independency of Greater California (Grande Californie)

54. Haute Arctique
55. Alasque
56. Ouregane
57. Île-Valcour
58. Yakima
59. Shoshoné
60. Ouilamette
61. Champs d'Or
62. Ouintah
63. Ville de San Francisco
64. Alta Californie
65. Baja Californie

Federal Republic of Mexico (only El Norte)

66. Colorado
67. Comancheria
68. Texas
69. San António
70. Coahuila
71. Chihuahua
70. Sonora

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Federal Kingdom of Germany - 2005
Here are the länder of the Federal Kingdom of Germany in 2005.

A few notes on German history ITTL:
  • Holy Roman Empire:
    • HRE as a Habsburg dominion largely defunct after King Louis' War. Electorate of Saxony, Electorate of Hanover, and the Duchy of Bavaria are elevated to Kingdoms with the blessing of the French King, the Habsburg Emperor, and the Pope in the late 1700s.
    • Power in the HRE becomes more diffuse, with power blocs forming around the new kings in Germany, the Austrians, and the Prussians, with the French continuing to be a commanding presence, especially in the West.
    • Habsburgs under Josef II, Leopold VII, and Franz II hold the title of Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, but the office is increasingly ceremonial and lacks sway over the German states.
    • Habsburgs lose the Imperial seat in 1816 after Talleyrand's War, with Friedrich August I of Saxony elected Holy Roman Emperor for over a decade before the Habsburgs regain the title.
    • Following the War of French Succession, the Council of Munich formally abolishes the Holy Roman Empire.
  • German Confederation:
    • Deutscher Bund forms in 1839 between the kingdoms of Prussia and Saxony, sponsored by Russia.
    • Hohenzollern Prussia ruled at the time by Friedrich Wilhelm III, Wettin Saxony ruled by Maximilian I.
    • After the defeat of the Russo-Austrian alliance in the War of French Succession, France gains hegemony over the Bund. A number of west-German French satellite states join the Bund in the 1840s. Prussia fears reprisals from the French if they leave the Bund. Saxony reorients their policy aims to align with France.
    • The Bund is allowed by France to develop more-or-less independently, with Saxony taking a leading role in coordinating development with the southwestern states, and Prussia with developing the northeast.
    • With France in chaos during the French Revolutionary Wars, Prussian King Georg Wilhelm II exits the Bund in 1857, leaving Saxony the dominant state.
    • Post-French Revolution, Saxony and the west-German states liberalize to be more in line with the new French Constitution.
    • Prussia also liberalizes to a lesser extent, but aligns its foreign policy more with Russia in the 1860s.
    • Prussia sides with Russia and Spain in the Great War in 1869, while the Bund supports the Franco-Austrian alliance.
    • In 1871, the Iron Cross Mutiny gives Georg Wilhelm justification to switch to the Franco-Austrian side of the war.
    • Prussia rejoins the Bund in 1874.
    • By 1881 all of the non-Austrian German states are members of the Bund.
  • Kingdom of Hanover:
    • Hanover doesn't end its personal union with Britain until 1869 and the death of George V.
    • The British throne passes to Charlotte I, while Hanover passes to her cousin Wilhelm I.
    • Hanover officially stays neutral in the French Revolutionary Wars and the most of the Great War, not siding with France and the Bund until 1872.
    • Due to a desire to maintain independence from France, Hanover resists joining the Bund until 1881. Joining the Bund leads to some Francophobic urest and the assassination of King Georg VI. The horror of the monarch's murder largely discredits the anti-Bund faction.
  • Kingdom of Bavaria:
    • Why is Bavaria a part of Austria rather than Germany????
    • The Wittelsbachs lose control of the Duchy of Bavaria in 1779 with power passing to a branch of the Wettin family.
    • The Duchy is elevated to a Kingdom by Pope Pius VII and the support of Habsburg Emperor Franz II in 1803.
    • Bavaria joins the anti-French Bund during the War of French Succession, but leaves it after France gains hegemony over it in the aftermath.
    • Through the 19th Century, Francophobia keeps Bavaria in Austria's orbit, while proximity to France keeps Baden and Württemberg in the French-aligned Bund.
    • Bavaria and the Habsburg Empire joined under a personal union in 1887 under Maximilian II/I. Succession rules are changed in Bavaria to allow this.
      • Augsburg Revolt led by Maximilian's 2nd cousin Ludwig is swiftly put down after he calls for French aid, is publicly spurned by Louis-Antoine I, and loses public goodwill.
    • Bavaria joins the Imperial Federation of Austria in 1897 as two states: Franconia and Bavaria.
  • The Federal Kingdom of Germany:
    • While some nationalism for a formally united Germany exists in the 19th Century, it is more out of a desire for independence from French intervention and power than born of the ethno-nationalism of OTL.
    • Push to unite gradually driven by royal marriages and succession manipulation.
    • Saxony and Prussia unite in a royal union in 1928 under Saxon King Friedrich August II (Friedrich August I of Prussia).
    • Hanover unites in royal union with Saxony & Prussia in 1949 upon the abdication of Ernst August II in favor if his nephew King August I of Saxony & Prussia
    • The Bund is fully united into the Bundesreich in November 1949, after remaining duchies, counties, and margraviates in the Bund pledge loyalty to the King of Saxony, Prussia, & Hanover.
    • The Bund is transformed into a federal system by the Verfassung des Bundesreiches Deutschlands und die Rechte der Bürger (Constitution of the Federal Kingdom of Germany and the Rights of the Citizens) in July, 1950.
    • German unification, therefore, occurs in a managed way by both German states and the blessings of both France and Austria.
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